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The PGA Tour is developing more and more! In 2022, it will also be aired on ESPN, a sports agency.
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With ESPN + joining the broadcast, the number of TV cameras on the course will increase.
Details of the PGA Tour Live on ESPN + (plus), which will start in 2022, have been announced. January Sen ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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The image through the lens is oldImaging tube,CurrentlyCCD imaging boardAn image is formed on a solid-state image sensor such as an electric signal.Video signalOutput as. The signal is a signal that divides the screen into small pieces and arranges them in chronological order from the end. The screen division method follows the video signal standard.
The first video camera developed was a combination of an image pickup tube and a mechanical shutter (which mechanically shoots a part of the screen using a rotating disk). The next-generation video camera was equipped with a function to cut out a part of the screen on the image pickup tube, and the mechanical shutter was banished. Furthermore, the next generation has abolished the image pickup tube and adopted a semiconductor image pickup plate.
Video cameras can be categorized by various factors. Record audio for many products, although not requiredMicrophoneIt is equipped with a function to add audio input and audio signals to the audio area of the captured video signal.
There are various types of video cameras depending on the application. It can be roughly classified into the following categories.
- Video camera for broadcasting. (British: Professional video camera,television camera）
- Professional video camera.
- A consumer video camera.
- Fixed video camera.
Broadcast video camera
Broadcast video cameras are at the top of the list of video cameras that pursue absolute reliability, high image quality, and mobility, and are uncompromising products..
stabilizerRelated items such as tripods and tripods have been systematized, and basically a set will be introduced.
Professional video camera
Professional video cameras are video packages (karaokeImage shootingweddingA camera whose main purpose is to shoot high-quality images that are difficult to control costs, such as shooting videos for explanations, etc.). High image quality next to that for broadcasting and robustness that can withstand hard use are required, and it is necessary to have a certain level of knowledge and mastery of operation before using it.
There are cases where electronics manufacturers and specialized manufacturers have lined up as lower-end models for broadcasting. Small in recent yearsCamcorderHowever, it has the performance to withstand broadcasting and is being introduced to production companies..
After 2009,Canon EOS 5D Mark IIFunctions such as are adopted as standardDigital single-lens reflex cameraWith the advent of (a single-lens reflex camera for still image shooting), a digital single-lens reflex camera is being used instead of a commercial video camera. Stabilizer for digital SLR cameras,Headphones,Microphone,External monitor/LCD finderEquipment for video recording has also appeared.
The recording medium used for professional video cameras has a high transfer rate and large capacity.CF cardIs used.
Consumer video camera
For consumerA video camera is a camera whose main purpose is for the general public, who is not engaged in video shooting and video production, to easily shoot video for private purposes. Image quality and robustness are not as high as those for business use, but on the other hand, easy-to-understand operability is required so that even an amateur can shoot a decent video. Compared to those that are used for business purposes, for example, lighting brightness may be used in more severe situations, so there are parts that have better performance than those for business use, such as the minimum shooting illuminance. Also, because many of them are small in sizeCamera shakeIn anticipation of easy occurrence, each company has introduced technologies such as "image stabilization".
In recent years, even for consumer use, a video package can obtain sufficient images, and if it does not give priority to image quality, it is at a level that can be broadcast, so manufacturers are also assuming professional use such as adding XLR terminals to high-end models. Is designed.
Fixed video camera
Fixed video cameras are mainlySurveillance cameraHigh image quality is not required, but robustness to withstand wind and rain and long-term stable operation performance are required.
In terms of image quality, broadcast and commercial cameras have high performance, and consumer cameras are inferior. However, this difference is gradually disappearing. Surveillance cameras do not require much image quality in the first place.
There are various types of video cameras depending on the application. It can be roughly classified into the following types.
- The shooting part is independent.
- The shooting part and the recording part are integrated and cannot be divided.
- Assembled type, assembled and used as a unit.
Those with independent shooting parts are also called "camera heads". The camera head has a line for outputting the video signal, and this line is used by connecting it to the necessary equipment via the camera control unit (CCU). Most professional video cameras (studio cameras) and surveillance video cameras are of this type.ENGIn the field of cameras, the type was the mainstream before the generalization of integrated products, and two people, a cameraman and a video engineer, ran around the camera head and the recording unit (VCR), respectively.
The one that the shooting part and the recording part are integrated is "integrated"CamcorderAlso called, etc., used alone. A shooting unit consisting of a lens, a camera tube, and a CCD and a recording unit such as a video tape recorder, a hard disk recorder, and a DVD recorder that record signals are integrated. Some commercial video cameras (ENG cameras) and most consumer cameras are of this type. At the time of its introduction, commercial machines were unpopular because the integrated type was larger and heavier than a single camera head, but it was unpopular that the cameraman's burden would increase, but it became the mainstream due to the convenience of being able to act independently by the cameraman. It was Originally, for consumer use, the camera and recording unit (video deck) were often held by themselves, so the integrated type was welcomed and quickly became the mainstream.
In the assembled type, the "camera head" and the "recording unit" are separate components, but it is assumed that they will be combined and used as an integrated type. This is the case for some commercial video cameras. Previously, most commercial ENG cameras were of this type, and since the camera head and recording unit could be selected as needed, there was the advantage that the required system could be easily assembled. In addition, this style was generally used when using a camera head made by a camera head manufacturer. However, the merit of being an assembly type diminished due to the oligopoly of the recording unit format, and the trend shifted to an integrated type.
大 き さ
It can be classified according to the size of the camera.
- Studio camera.
- Shoulder camera.
- Handheld camera.
- Stationary camera.
A studio camera is a heavy-duty camera that weighs from tens of kilograms to hundreds of kilograms (including the lens), and is mounted on a camera pedestal with a built-in gas spring that can be fixed to a tripod or moved up and down freely. To use. It is of a type used in TV studios and sports broadcasts, etc., and is mainly for business use. When there were neither shoulder-mounted cameras nor handheld cameras (1976 Previously, studio cameras were used even for outside broadcasts. When transporting, the camera head and lens are disassembled and packed in their respective special cases. There is also an example of using it in combination with a lens for a studio camera by using a finder + shoulder camera + an adapter for mounting the studio camera lens instead of the studio camera head.
The shoulder-mounted camera is a relatively large portable camera that weighs about XNUMX kilos and is used on the shoulder. It may be used on a tripod or mobile platform. Since it is heavy to some extent, it is difficult for the camera to shake and it is possible to shoot stable images, but since it is not light, it is not suitable for applications such as casual shooting by the general public. For commercial use onlyHigh endFor amateurs. This type of video camera appeared only in the shooting section (camera head)1976 (For business). The shooting unit and recording unit are integratedCamcorder The1980 This was a prototype of a civilian machine at the beginning (the commercial type of the integrated type appeared1982 ).
A handheld camera is a relatively small portable camera that weighs up to several kilograms and is used with one or both hands. Mostly the shooting section and the recording section are integratedCamcorderIt's a style. Of course, it can also be used by mounting it on a tripod or mobile stand. Some of them are very small, so you can use them easily, but due to their light weight and the style of holding them in your hand, they are prone to camera shake, and it takes a lot of training to shoot easy-to-see images. Previously, it was made exclusively for consumer use and the image quality was clearly inferior, but with the advent of digital video cameras, those with image quality similar to that of commercial machines have appeared, and they have also penetrated into the commercial range. ing.
Stationary cameras are used for surveillance cameras, etc., and are used by fixing them to a wall or ceiling with small metal fittings. It may be used in combination with a stand whose angle can be adjusted by remote control. When used outdoors, store it in a camera housing with excellent weather resistance. Some are very small (minimum size of the first thumb joint).
When using the camera in a studio camera, shoulder camera, or handheld camera where water splashes, it is common to cover the entire surface with a transparent or yellow protective sheet except for the lens part to protect the equipment (mainly The former two types can be seen in variety shows and outdoor sports broadcasts).
Classification is also possible by mechanism.
- 3-tube/3-plate camera.
- Single tube / single plate camera.
- Others / 2-plate camera / 4-plate camera.
The 3-tube/3-plate camera isDichroic mirrorBy (a special mirror that reflects only a specific color)three primary colorsIncident light for each red, blue, and greenRGBIt is a mechanism that divides into three and uses an image pickup tube and an image pickup plate corresponding to each color. A CCD or CMOS semiconductor image sensor is used as the image sensor. Also called 3CCD/3CMOS.
Single-tube / single-plate cameras are placed in front of the tube or image board.Buyer arrayWith a color filter such as the one, and a mechanism for shooting a color image with one image pickup tube or one image pickup plate.
The single-tube type/single-plate type is advantageous in terms of weight, size, and cost, but the three-tube type/three-plate type is advantageous in terms of image quality. Commercial / broadcast video cameras are 3-tube / 3-plate type except for very special ones. In the past, consumer machines that adopted the 3-tube type / 3-plate type were limited to some high-end models.1990 eraSince then, many 3-plate types have begun to appear in consumer products, and after thatHigh endIt has reached a certain level of power in civilian aircraft.
In addition, the first 3CCD camera (Sony CCD-VX1) for consumer use1992 9月に販売される以前に、輝度信号と色信号に分解した2CCD方式カメラ（ソニーEDC-50/EDW-75、松下NV-M10000）と、RGB信号をG/RB原色色分解した2CCD方式カメラ（ミノルタEX-1/日立VM-H1000）がリリースされ、現在も一部機種で採用されている。 また、放送用として4CCD方式カメラというのが一時期存在していた（池上HK-477、HK477P）。RGB信号のうちGチャンネルのCCDを2枚用意して、空間画素ずらしを行い、高画質、高解像度を狙ったDual greenThe camera was designed as a method, but the image quality effect was not obtained for the cost, and it disappeared soon due to the increase in Gch shade noise.
- ^ Special feature at that time, behind the scenes... Changes in camera equipment and changes in shooting and expression methods NHK Archives
- ^ case study - Sony
- ^ AX700 Project Member's Voice - Sony