Two games postponed, including Sunday premiere, Liverpool vs. Leeds
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The Premier League has added new restrictions to spectators from this week, requiring supporters to be vaccinated or to have a negative PCR test.
The English Premier League has announced that it will postpone two games this weekend on Sunday.The match ... → Continue reading
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vaccination(Vaccination,British: vaccination) IssickAgainstImmunologyTo attachantigenmaterial(vaccine) Administered (Vaccination) What to do.VaccinationBy pathogeninfectionbyIllness,Obstacle,DeathCan be prevented or tempered.. furtherEpidemicThe simplest and most effective way to preventCost performanceHighPreventive medicine.
JapanInVaccination methodDefines as "injecting or inoculating a human body with a vaccine that has been confirmed to be effective in preventing the disease in order to obtain an immune effect against the disease" (the vaccination method) Article 2 paragraph 1).
WHOAccording to the current world, vaccination avoids the death of 200 to 300 million people... However, if the vaccination rate is further improved, the death of 150 million people can be avoided..
Human beings willing to get another kind of infectionsickThe first example trying to mitigatesmallpox.B.C.Around 1000,IndiaでVaccination method(Variolation method) is practiced, Of smallpox patientspusTo a healthy person to cause mild onsetImmunologyWas being done. This smallpox method18st centuryIn the first halfUnited Kingdom, ThenAmericaWas also brought to.
1718 years,Mary Wortley MontagueWrote about the Turkish custom of vaccination with liquids from small-pox smallpox and gave similar vaccinations to their children..United KingdomThe doctorEdward JennerIt is,VacciniaAs to whether the vaccine can be used to generate immunity against human smallpox,1796/Have tested at least 6 people in the last few years. The six are unidentified English (around 6), Mrs Zebel (German, around 1771), Mr. Jensen (German, around 1772), and Benjamin Jestie (English, 1770). Mrs. Rendall (English, c. 1774) and Peter Prett (German, 1782)..
The word vaccination was first used1796/,Edward JennerBy. After thisLouis PasteurAdvanced the concept of vaccination with advanced research in microbiology. The vaccination (from the Latin vacca meaning Vaccination "cattle") derives its name from the first vaccine (vaccine) that infects cattle.Cowpox virusso,smallpoxIs less symptomatic, harder to cure and deadlysmallpoxBecause it gave a certain amount of immunity to.
For vaccination attempts, there are ethics, politics, safety, religion, etc.en: Vaccine controversy) Has been around since the early days. With early successMandatoryVaccination has been widely accepted by the government and a large-scale vaccination campaign has been carried out, which has significantly reduced the incidence of many diseases across many regions.
To make antibodies against pathogens and boost immune function
in Japan1948/of"Vaccination methodSince then, compulsory vaccination and mass vaccination have expanded, but they have not been carried out in a safe manner.To give an example1964/ToIbarakiInsufficient interviews, inoculation of multiple people without changing needles,MASKSInoculation, infusion of inaccurate amount, etc. were performed without..In Japan, the act of inoculating multiple people without changing needles was widespread.Type B,Hepatitis CIs a frequent cause,It is believed that( Iatrogenic diseaseSee also).
Lived with sufficiently reduced toxicityウ イ ル スInoculate.ウ イ ル スBreed, but their speed is slow. Boosting is not necessary so much because it propagates after inoculation and continues to exist as an antigen. This vaccine is produced by leaving a less virulent type of virus in tissue culture, inducing gene mutation, or removing a specific gene that exerts virulence. This major vaccine has a risk of recurrent toxicity, but removal of specific genes is relatively less risky.
As an antigen shown to the immune systemウ イ ル スDo not inoculate sex substances.ウ イ ル スSpecific inproteinThere is a method such as separating and inoculating. The weakness of this method is that the separated proteins may be altered, in which case antibodies different from those corresponding to the virus will be produced.
Other subunit vaccines include recombinant vaccines. This is a method of injecting a protein gene of a target virus into another virus. This second virus expresses protein information but is not at risk of disease. This kind of vaccine is nowViral hepatitisIs used forEbola virus,HIVIt is being actively researched to make a vaccine against a virus that is difficult to vaccinate..
Vaccination against humans
The vaccination situation in the world is as follows.
- diphtheria,tetanus,Social Services LizardMix of three-86% worldwide
- measles -85% worldwide
- Polio -86% worldwide
- Rotavirus -23% worldwide
- rubella -46% worldwide
Type of vaccine
- Live vaccine
- A weakened virulence of a living pathogen. ,tuberculosis,Measles(Measles),Rubella,Mumps,Varieg(Mizubouso),yellow fever Such.Due to the inclusion of live pathogens, inoculated pathogens may cause mild symptoms (side reactions).
- After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks (medium 27 days) or more.
- Inactivated vaccine
- Only the components of the pathogen that died and lost its toxicity.Hepatitis B,, pediatric,Pertussis,Polio,Japanese encephalitis,influenza,Hepatitis A,Rabiesetc.vaccineThe effect of is weak, so multiple doses are often required.
- After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
- The toxin produced by the fungus is taken out and detoxified.diphtheria,tetanus(Hashoufu) etc. As with inactivated vaccines, the vaccines are less effective and often require multiple doses. There is also the idea that it is not strictly included in the vaccine because it does not make antibodies that attack the pathogen itself.
- After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
The practice of vaccination is believed to have its origins in ancient India, around 1000 BC.Ayurvedic textbook Sact'eya Grantham was described about vaccination, according to French scholar Henri Marie Husson in Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. It has been reported. Around 200 BC, vaccinations were carried out even in ancient China.. Scholar Ole Lund writes: "The oldest documented example of vaccination is from 17th-century India and China, where powdered scabs of people with smallpox were used to prevent the disease. In the olden days, smallpox was a universal disease that killed 20% to 30% of infected people, smallpox accounting for 18% to 8% of deaths in several 20th-century European countries. Professor of Pathology, (en: Almroth Wright) Conducted an experiment led by a professional at Netley Hospital and shaped the form of vaccination for posterity. The results of his experiment led to the development of further vaccinations in Europe.
In order to avoid the spread of illness, at different times, states and institutions have created laws that mandate vaccination for all. For example, the 1853 law mandated smallpox vaccinations throughout England and Wales, and fined those who did not comply. Currently, the US state-wide vaccination law requires public vaccination before school. Most other countries have similar vaccinations.
Since the earliest vaccinations beginning in the 19th century, the legalization of vaccination has caused backlash from various groups. These groups are collectively known as anti-vaccinationists, who oppose vaccination from an ethical, political, hygienic, religious, and other perspectives. Common opinions are that “compulsory vaccination is excessive interference with individual problems” and “recommended vaccination is not sufficiently safe”... Modern vaccination laws provide exceptions to people with immunodeficiencies, people who are allergic to the vaccine, and those who strongly oppose it... In addition,Yogyakarta PrinciplesIn the 18th principle of "Protection against medical abuse" ofHIV infectionUnethical or unintentional vaccines forAntibacterial agentGuaranteeing protection from the administration of "(18th principle, item (d))".
Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. For the vaccination costs for the target age, public funds are provided by the local government, and regarding A-type diseases,Local governmentMost of them are free of charge (administrative measures vaccinations, and there are also local governments that pay a fee). In case of health damage due to vaccination approved in Japan, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law..
 Name of vaccine
- Type A disease --For the purpose of preventing the outbreak of the disease and the spread of the disease in the population, the vaccination target or its guardian is obliged to make efforts for vaccination.
- diphtheria-Social Services Lizard-tetanus-Polio(Acute poliomyelitis)[Four kinds of mixed vaccine, DPT-IPV],measles(Measles)rubella(Three days measles)MR vaccine],Japanese encephalitis,tuberculosis(BCG),Varieg,Hib, PediatricPneumococcusInfection【Pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13】,Cervical cancer【HPV vaccine],Hepatitis B, Rotavirus
- Type B disease -Mainly focused on individual prevention. No effort required.
- People over the age of 65, or between the ages of 60 and under 65, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory problems,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeIf you are suffering frominfluenza.. In the case of people aged 65 or over, under 60 years of age and under 65 years of age, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory disorders, or those with AIDS and weakened immunity, pneumococcal infection [23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23】.
Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. When the prefectural governor finds that there is an urgent need to prevent the spread, the prefectural governor may instruct the mayor to do so. Municipalities will subsidize the vaccination costs for the target ages, and in principle, the A-type diseases will be free. If health damage occurs due to vaccination, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law..
- Type A disease -The vaccination target person or their guardian is required to make vaccination efforts.
- smallpoxIn addition, type A diseases are targeted.
- Inoculation was started in 2021.New coronavirus OfvaccineIs carried out in the form of imposing an obligation to make efforts for inoculation.
- Type B disease -No vaccination effort is imposed.
- HXNUMXNXNUMX influenza(As a single vaccineNew influenza measures special measures law2011 years from 23 (5).. A(H2011N12)pdm1 has been included in seasonal influenza vaccine since FY1/09. )
Vaccination is voluntary by the vaccinated person (or their parental authority, etc.), which is not stipulated in the Vaccination Law.
All vaccination costs will be borne by the owner. If health damage occurs due to vaccination,Relief system for adverse drug reactionsIs applied.
Mumps(Mumps),Hepatitis A, For adultsPneumococcus,Rabies,Weil's disease Autumn darknessIn addition to the above, other vaccinations other than the age groups subject to regular vaccination are also optional vaccinations.
Precautions for vaccination
According to the Vaccination Regulations, those who have a clear fever, those who have a serious acute illness, and allergies or anaphylaxis due to the components of the vaccination solution for vaccination related to the disease are revealed by the test. Those who have become ineligible are considered unsuitable and cannot be vaccinated. Pregnant persons will not be vaccinated for acute poliomyelitis, measles and rubella.
In addition, those who are known to have basic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, blood diseases and developmental disorders, those who have fever within 2 days after the previous vaccination, or systemic rashes, etc. Of allergic allergies, having a history of convulsions in the past, having been previously diagnosed with immunodeficiency, or being allergic to the components of the inoculum to be vaccinated Some people are obliged to take vaccinations carefully based on the judgment of the doctor.
Vaccination health damage relief system
Occurrence of health damage due to side effects of vaccination is seen, although it is extremely rare. A system for prompt relief when a causal relationship between vaccination and health damage is recognized, regardless of whether or not there is negligence in the vaccination..
- Vaccination based on the Vaccination Law (=RegularInoculation,ExtraordinaryIf the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that the health damage has been caused by the
- Benefits are provided by the municipality.
- Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the certification of, the causal relationship is examined by a disease/disability certification examination committee composed of a third party.
- If you receive medical treatment at a medical institution, you will be required to pay the medical expenses and your expenses.
- When disability remains, child disability pension or disability pension is paid.
- In case of death, funeral fees and lump-sum death allowance of approximately 4,300 million yen (in case of influenza vaccine, lump-sum payment of surviving family of approximately 700 million yen, survivor pension of approximately 240 million yen (up to 10 years)) will be provided.
- The cost of relief payment is 1/2 for the country, 1/4 for the prefecture, and 1/4 for the municipality.
Incidentally,anyAs for other health hazards due to vaccination, the drug side effect damage relief system is applied. It is based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, an incorporated administrative agency, rather than the Vaccinations Act.
- Established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and decided after discussions at the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, which is composed of external experts.
- Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) Is provided.
- If you receive medical treatment in hospital, you will be provided with medical expenses and medical allowance. Payment will be provided in case of disability and death.
- Benefits are set for each type, and there is also a deadline for billing.
- Contribution from the licensed drug manufacturing and marketing companies, etc. shall be paid for the relief payment. Half of PMDA's administrative expenses are subsidies from the national government.
Vaccinations and laws (valley problems)
There is a legal structure to remedy victims whose lives and bodies have been seriously damaged by vaccination.ConstitutionIt is a problem above.17 articleTheory,29 articleParagraph 3 Interpretation theory, Article 29 Paragraph 3 Of course, interpretation theory,25 articleTheory,13 articleTheories are claimed.
Recommended vaccination sequence
National Institute of Infectious DiseasesKnow VPD,NPOVaccination schedules have been announced by the Society for the Protection of Children, the Japan Association for Primary Care, and the Japan Society for Pediatrics.
- Vaccination schedule in Japanese children National Institute of Infectious DiseasesInfectious disease information center
- Vaccination schedule NPOMeeting to learn about corporate VPD and protect children
- Vaccine site for children and adults Japan Primary Care Association
- Vaccination schedule recommended by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics Public interest group corporation corporationJapanese Pediatric Society
``Simultaneous vaccination'' in which two or more types of vaccinations are given to one and the same person at the same time in one visit is once recognized as ``not good'' in Japan, and MHLW is "What doctors can do if they find it necessary"However, in 2011, the Japanese Academy of Pediatrics proposed that "simultaneous vaccination is considered a necessary medical practice to protect Japanese children from diseases that can be prevented by vaccines"., In recent years, the number of doctors giving simultaneous vaccination has increased.
There is no limit to the number of combinations and
- Regular vaccination and voluntary vaccination
- Inactivated and live vaccines
- Live vaccines and live vaccines
- Injection and drink type vaccine
Can be safely inoculated simultaneously with all combinations of.. Some local governments and doctors have different vaccination methodsBCGOnly in the case of single vaccination without simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines.
Since a mixed vaccine contains several types of vaccine in one injection solution from the beginning, it can be said that it is a simultaneous vaccination in a broad sense..
In Italy2017/Than,Compulsory educationBefore receiving (up to 6 years old)Polio,diphtheria,tetanus,Hepatitis B,influenza,,,measles,rubella,Mumps,XNUMX days,chicken poxVaccinations have become mandatory.
Vaccination of animals
AnimalからPeopleTo be contagiousInfectious disease of animal origin(Zoonosis:Zoonosis(Also included in) and transmitted from humans to animalsZoonosisThere is vaccination for the purpose of preventing. Useful for wildlife conservation and industry家畜,Pet OfEpidemicThere are also vaccinations to prevent the spread of the disease.
Ministry of AgricultureVeterinary drug laboratory・Veterinary drug databaseIf you search for “vaccine” in, 2014 cases were registered as of December 12. But,Domestic animal infectious disease prevention methodIs a "law that stipulates the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases (infectious diseases) in livestock and the prevention of spread of livestock."And killDisposaldisinfectionHowever, there is no regulation regarding vaccination. "The prefectural governor, when necessary to prevent the spread of livestock infectious diseases, can have livestock quarantine officers inspect, inject, bathe or administer livestock by the methods specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( Based on the Livestock Infectious Diseases Prevention Law Article 31)", the measures such as vaccination are different for each prefecture..
- ^ a b c d e f g h Immunization coverage (Report). WHO. (2007-03) .
- ^ Smallpox prevention
- ^ Behbehani AM (1983). “The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease”. Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455-509. PMID 6319980.
- ^ a b Plett PC (2006). “[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner”] (German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219-32. PMID 17338405 2008/3/12Browse..
- ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination”. Rev Sci Tech. 26 (1): 29-48. PMID 17633292.
- ^ Kenji Yoshihara "From Private Rage to Public Rage-Vaccine Evil as a Social Problem" p.112-114
- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun February 2000, 2 Article "Expanding hepatitis C, in areas where 9% are "positive""
- ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Archived August 2003, 6, at the Wayback Machine. Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
- ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics.MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
- ^ Chaumeton, FP; FV Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.Paris: CLF Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
- ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
- ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). “Anti-vaccinationists past and present”. BMJ 325 (7361): 430-2. two:10.1136 / bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361.
- ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al.(2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
- ^ a b Medical expenses public expenditure system for vaccination accidents(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Health and Welfare Bureau)
- ^ "From Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to Rota vaccine regular vaccination from October, 20”. Mix online (October 2019, 10). 2020/8/14Browse.
- ^ "What is the vaccination method? Corona vaccine "special case of temporary vaccination"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 4). 2021/6/8Browse.
- ^ Tuberculosis Infectious Disease Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareOutline of Vaccination Law revision (establishment of new temporary vaccination, etc.)IASR, Vol. 32, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Information Center, November 2011, pp. 11-331.
- ^ Influenza vaccine strain -National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- ^ Vaccination health damage relief systemMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ Periodic vaccination procedure -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ a b Japanese Pediatrics Association's approach to simultaneous vaccination
- ^ Vaccination> Simultaneous vaccination -Ariake Children's Clinic
- ^ a b Necessity and safety of simultaneous vaccination -Know VPD!
- ^ Vaccination of children -Koto Ward
- ^ vaccination -Hara Pediatric Clinic
- ^ Italy vaccinated to attend school AFP (December 2017, 5) Read December 20, 2017
- ^ Veterinary drug database -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Veterinary Drug Laboratory
- ^ About livestock vaccines -Miyagi Prefectural Livestock Association
- Mikio Watanabe, "A Historical Consideration on Japan's Vaccination System," National Hygiene, Vol. 73, No. 6, Japan Society for National Hygiene, June 2010, pp. 6-243, two:10.3861 / jshhe.73.243.
- Vaccination method
- public health
- Infectious disease
- Vaccine evasion
- Antigen-antibody reaction