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⚾ | [MLB] 200 wins in total Left arm Lester retired Decided at 38 years old "I'm getting physically tired"


Photo Jon Lester who won a total of 200 wins in the Red Sox etc. [Photo: Getty Images]

[MLB] 200 wins in total Left arm Lester retired Decided at 38 years old "I'm getting physically tired"

 
If you write the contents roughly
In that match, a paper plane was blown just behind the mound.
 

In 2007, with Daisuke Matsuzaka, he won a total of 200 wins with the Red Sox, which led the Red Sox to the top in the world ... → Continue reading

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paper airplane

paper airplane(Kami Hikoki,English: paper airplane, paper plane, etc.) IspaperairplaneThe one that makes a shape that imitates the above and skips it to play.Fold a piece of paper to makeorigamiairplaneOften refers to, but parts are cut out from paper and pasted together.Assembled paper planeThere is also."Airplane" ispowerWithFixed wing aircraftStrictly speaking, a paper airplane that does not have power is "paper" because it is a word that refers toaircraft"Or" Paper glider (グ ラ イ ダ ー) ”, Which is also called paper glider or paper dirt in English, but it is customary to use paper airplane, paper airplane, or paper plane. And.

Paper craftIt is a kind of paper craft, but it is characterized by focusing on the engineering function of flying (gliding), while many other paper crafts emphasize shape.

Model aviationIn the classification in competitions etc.Free flightBecomes

History

On papertoyIt was the beginning of makingAbout 2000 years ago when he inventedChugokuIs thought to be[1], The birthplace of paper planes cannot be explained accurately.1859/ OfUnited KingdomIn the book about children's play published in, there is an article "PAPER DART (a toy made by folding a piece of paper, aiming at the target, and boys throwing at war)"[2], Shows that the origami plane was a universal toy.

Assembled paper airplanes are made of wood, bamboo, etc. (paper such as wings may be attached)Model airplaneWas made before a manned powered airplane, and has been used as a reference or a prototype of an actual airplane, but the paper airplane is not well understood.

The earliest known production of paper planes is said to be 1909.[Source required]But the most widely acceptedNorthropCompanyJack NorthropWas made in 1930[Source required]..Northrop used paper planes as a test to get ideas for real planes (Northrop challenged development)Tailless aircraftAnd Jack Northrop poured extraordinary enthusiasmAll-wing aircraftIs very difficult to design).

In Germany, the blank period after World War I (Treaty of VersaillesMilitary aircraftBeyond the ban on motors), laterHe111,Ju 88A paper model was used to confirm the basic performance and configuration in important plans such as the prototype (designed as a civilian aircraft).[Source required].

Paper plane designs have continued to improve over the years in terms of speed, lift, and shape.

Origami airplane

SquareNorectangle(usuallySilver ratioOrGolden ratioI often use paper.Other shapes may be used or supplementary cuts or cuts may be made.It is made by folding these papers.origamiIt is also a kind of.normallyHandThrow and fly.JapanIn the old daysBlack kiteThe one called, or the well-known one, has a long flight time.Navel planeFly straight awaySpear planeAndCanard wingsWith wind wingsSquid plane, Good at somersaultSwallow airplaneand so on.

Both types have accurate and strong centerlinesaboutIt leads to the balance of the above and the improvement of straightness (the subsequent folding method is done symmetrically).On many planes, then the nose sidetriangleAnd fold it in.is thisCenter of gravityThis is to move forward.Generally if the nose goes upLiftIs large, and decreases as it decreases, so if the center of gravity is slightly forward of the aerodynamic center,Angle of attackThe effect of automatically adjusting (Kazami stable) Can be expected.If you can make a wing with a sufficient area and no distortion and adjust it to an angle that spreads horizontally in the air, you can expect to fly somehow in the end no matter how you fold it on the way.

HiroshimaFukuyama CityThere is a "Paper Hikoki Museum" where colorful paper planes made of about 800 kinds of paper are exhibited.The museum is open only every Saturday, but there are specialists, so you can learn how to fly origami.In addition, the prefectureKamiishi Kogen TownThere is a "Toyomatsu Paper Hikoki Tower" in Yonemiyama Summit Park, where you can fly your own folded paper plane from the observation room 15m above the ground.

World record

Indoor flight distance record (Guinness World Records
The registered event name is "Farthest flight by a paper aircraft"[3].2012/March 2, YuanAmerican FootballAthlete'sAmerican(English editionIt is,The United States of AmericaCaliforniaIt is in(English editionUsing a paper airplane (origami airplane, designed by John M. Collins) made without cutting A4 size paper in the indoor environment (no wind environment) of 226ft 10in (69.1388m) Striking the flight distance,Guinness World RecordsUpdated[4][3]..Stephen Krieger set the world record before the update2003/It was 207ft 4in (63.1952m) recorded in[4].
Record of indoor flight (gliding) time (Guinness World Records)
2009/(HeiseiOn April 21, 4), Takuo Toda, Chairman of the Japan Origami Hikoki Association (currently the Origami Hikoki Association),HiroshimaFukuyama CityIt is inHiroshima Prefectural Fukuyama Industry Exchange CenterIn the indoor environment (no wind environment) of (Big Rose), A5 sizesugar caneUsing a paper airplane (origami airplane) made without cutting processed paper, the flight flight time was 27 seconds and 9 seconds, breaking the Guinness World Records.[5]..The world record before the update was 27 seconds 6 held by Ken Blackburn of the United States.[6].

Mr. Toda broke his own record in 2010.The record is 29.20 seconds, and as of 2021, it has not been updated yet.

Assembled paper plane

Mainly cut out the following ruled paper on Kent paper and stick it together to assemble.A well-made aircraft will glide for tens of seconds. There are also books bound from pre-printed Kent paper as "Kirinuku books".

To a prominent Japanese designerYasuaki NinomiyaThere is.

How to assemble

Airframe with a three-dimensional structure

This structure is often used in hand launch machines, but it is also used in some profile machines.The fuselage is shaped by assembling the development view in three dimensions.The main wing of a hand-launch machine often contains a girder (spar), and the girder is mainly made by stacking about five sheets of paper cut into strips.

Laminated airframe

Both the fuselage and main wings of the fuselage are made by laminating paper.

Ruled example

  1. Fuselage assembly
    1. Paste parts 1 and 2 on both sides of part 3
    2. Paste parts 1 and 4 on both sides of (5)
    3. Paste parts 2 and 6 on both sides of (7)
  2. Assembling the main wing
    1. Paste part 8 on the back side of part 9
    2. Bend the main wing so that it has a slightly semi-cylindrical shape (Camber) Is inserted.Rather than improving lift, it is more meaningful in increasing bending strength and improving stall characteristics (#Aeronautical aspects-Low Reynolds number flight reference).However, unlike a rubber-powered model airplane that flies at an almost constant speed, in the case of a paper airplane with a large change in speed, it is important to secure the climbing performance immediately after launch and extend the flight time, so resistance increases. Overall, a moderate camber results in a shorter flight time.
  3. Whole assembly
    1. Attach part 10 (horizontal stabilizer) to the fuselage
    2. Attach the main wings (parts 8 + 9) to the fuselage

Aircraft adjustment

  • Perform in a large area (such as a park square) where the wind is weak.
  • See the overall balance of the aircraft.The view is to hold the aircraft in the dominant hand and look from the nose side with one eye.First, look at the bend in the torso, and if it is bent, straighten it.Next, correct the bending of the horizontal stabilizer so that it is horizontal, and correct the vertical stabilizer so that it is also straight.It is also necessary to look at the left-right balance of the main wing.If it is twisted or the camber size is different on the left and right wings, the aircraft will rotate when climbing or when gliding.spiralIt doesn't fly well when it goes down, so I have to fix it.Especially on the left and right of the main wingLiftBe aware that the difference is hard to notice and is a common mistake.
  • Head upwind, hold the aircraft at eye level, and throw it forward.
  • If it turns to the right or left when gliding, check the twist of the main wing, vertical stabilizer, and horizontal stabilizer again.When descending with the nose lowered, check that the horizontal stabilizer is not warped downward.If that doesn't help, try reducing the amount of weights (lead plates, clips, etc.).If these two operations do not work, raise the rear edge of the horizontal stabilizer (especially the end part) according to the degree of lowering of the nose.On the other hand, if the nose goes up, check that the horizontal stabilizer is not warped upward.If that doesn't help, add a weight to the nose.If these two operations do not work, lower the rear edge of the horizontal stabilizer (especially the end) according to how the nose rises.
  • If the aircraft glides like a straight ball by performing these operations, the gliding adjustment is completed.
  • Finally, tilt the horizontal stabilizer.This is called stub tilt and is an operation required to turn the aircraft.If you want to turn left, tilt it downward to the right (the larger the tilt, the smaller the turning radius).When turning to the right, perform the reverse operation.For turningAileron,ladder,ElevatorIt is better to refrain from using.This is because there is a possibility that the balance of the aircraft will be greatly disturbed.
  • Next, the rise is adjusted.First, in the case of a catapult, the aircraft is ejected horizontally with a force of about 6%.In the case of hand throwing, throw it slightly above the horizontal with 6% force (to prevent hitting the ground).If there is a slight somersault or somersault when the aircraft is ascending, lower the rear edge of the horizontal stabilizer (especially the central part) according to the degree of elevation of the nose.The adjustment is complete if the aircraft slowly rises and moves into gliding.After that, strengthen the power to 7, 8, 9%, etc., and correct somersaults each time.If you want to raise the aircraft vertically with a catapult aircraft, finally eject the aircraft at 90 degrees to the ground with 10% force and adjust so that it rises straight up.If the aircraft suddenly descends after ascending, raise the rear edge of the horizontal stabilizer (especially the end part) according to the degree of descent of the nose.After the aircraft has risen straight, the adjustment is complete if it smoothly shifts to the gliding attitude.

Catapult type and hand throw type

Catapult type (PLG: Pachinko, Ranch, Glider)
The catapult type is a method in which the rubber tied to the tip of the support rod is hung on the hook of the machine body, and the machine body is ejected with the energy that the stretched rubber contracts.
Depending on the ascending orbit, it can be divided into "spiral ascent" and "vertical ascent".
Spiral rise
The aircraft, which has been adjusted to turn to the left in advance, is tilted to the right by 45 to 60 degrees and ejected at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees with respect to the ground. Then descend while turning to the left (if right-handed).For heavy aircraft (profile aircraft), it is better to turn right when climbing and turn right when gliding.
Vertical rise
Launch the aircraft at an angle of 80 to 90 degrees to the ground.In order to raise the aircraft without somersault, unique aircraft design and advanced aircraft adjustment technology are required.
Aircraft size
"All Japan Paper Airplane Championship”, There was a competition regulation that the total width was 2009 mm or more in the event that was held until 185.
Hand throw type (HLG: hand lunch glider)
There are two methods of hand-throwing, "baseball throwing" and "sidearm lunch = SAL".Hand-throwing paper airplanes have evolved from a "bonded structure" to a "hollow structure" in the fuselage and main wings, and large aircraft with higher gliding performance (wingspan of about 2 mm or more) are the mainstream.Unlike catapults, hand lunches tend to differ in how they are thrown depending on how they move and how they think, so please read this section as a reference only.
Baseball throw
To hold the aircraft, extend your index and middle fingers and hang it behind the main wing, and hold the fuselage with your thumb and ring finger.The throwing method varies depending on the person and the aircraft, but the main throwing method is to tilt the aircraft from 45 degrees to 60 degrees and throw it diagonally upward to the right.When throwing with the left hand, the operation is reversed.
Sidearm lunch
This method is mainly used for aircraft with wingspans exceeding 300 mm.Right-handed people have a "peg" protrusion on the left wing tip or wing tip,baseball OfSide throwThrow the aircraft with a movement like.Make sure that the angles of the roll axis and pitch axis of the aircraft are horizontal the moment the aircraft is released from your hand.The tail design is also important, and it has excellent stability.Y-tailIs often used.Unlike the baseball throwing aircraft, the SAL aircraft puts a heavy load on the rear fuselage when throwing.Therefore, the fuselage is morerigidityNeeds to be high.

Aeronautical Aspects-Low Reynolds Number Flight

For model aeronautical engineeringAcademic research such as model aviation #model aircraft engineering theorySee also.

The airfoil shape (airfoil) of a normal airplane is convex upward, whereas the paper airplane is usually a thin plate.It is said that the airfoil of a paper airplane does not improve its performance even if it imitates an airplane and has a camber (bulge) or a rounded front edge.SimilarlyDragonflyThe airfoil of the wing also has a sharp leading edge and is jagged, but this has better performance.this isReynolds numberIt is said that the difference is the cause.Reynolds number is proportional to speed and length of interest, so for paper planes and dragonflies空 気 OfItineraryIs a Reynolds number that is about three digits smaller than that of an airplane, and the smaller and slower it flies, the more strongly it is affected by the stickiness of the air.In the case of a paper airplane launched at a high speed of over 3 km / h with a rubber catapult, the Reynolds number is completely different between immediately after launch and when gliding slowly over several kilometers per hour.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ "Lesson: Take Off with Paper Airplanes”. Teach Engineering (July 2019, 7). 2019/7/25Browse.
  2. ^ Games and sports for young boys. ROUTLEDGE, WARNE, AND ROUTLEDGE(1859). p. 92. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=IkECAAAAQAAJ .. Note that Cassell's book of in-door amusements, card games and fireside fun. Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Company. (1882). P. 72. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=FDgCAAAAQAAJ The development map can be seen in, and it can be seen that it is the same as a general modern paper airplane.
  3. ^ a b "This week's Guinness World Records [August 8-August 27]". (Official website)Guinness World Records Regional Revitalization Committee (August 2012, 8). 2012/9/13Browse.
  4. ^ a b Thomas Neumann (February 2012, 2). “Joe Ayoob sets paper airplane record" (English). ESPN.com. ESPN. 2012/9/14Browse.■ There is a video.
  5. ^ "Breaking news!Guinness record update!". (Official website). Japan Origami Hikoki Association (April 2009). 2012/9/14Browse.■ There is a video.
  6. ^ "Ken Blackburn's Paper Airplanes" (English). (official website). Ken Blackburn (2008). 2012/9/13Browse.

References

origami
  • Seibundo Shinkosha "Origami Magic" -Contains some unusual origami airplanes.Some works are included in the hardcover version but omitted in the paperback version.
Assembling
  • More than Seibundo Shinkosha's "Flying Paper Planes" series and other companies-Many books can be cut out directly
  • Seibundo Shinkosha "Children's science-Until 2016Yasuaki NinomiyaEach issue contained one binding appendix that could be cut out and made by.

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