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⚾ | Pitcher can't control "Blatantly bent" The "super magic ball" created by the strong wind is "Batter's hand up"


Photo A changing ball thrown by Orix Taisuke Yamaoka [Image: PERSOL Pacific League TV]

The pitcher is out of control, too. "It's blatantly bent."

 
If you write the contents roughly
Introducing the video with the title "Maximum wind speed 16m" The magic ball created by the marine wind "", from the fans, "I'm sorry for the batter" "ZOZO Marine that turns a hard ball into a ping-pong ball" Comments were lined up.
 

ZOZO Marine Stadium has a maximum wind speed of 16m ... "It was too harsh if the wind was on my side" ■ Orix 5-0 Lotte ... → Continue reading

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Table tennis

Table tennis(Table tennis) isBall skillsIt is a kind of.Athletes face each other and play a plastic ballracketCompete for points.

History

Table tennis isJu de PoumeAncient such asTennisBased on the game, in the second half of the 19th centuryUnited KingdomDevised in[1].. Not sure about the inventor, but found that James Devonshire applied for a patent in 1885[1].. 1887 is a well-known game and sports equipment manufacturerJack of LondonReleased this under the name Goshima[1]..The first product did not reach commercial success, but around 1900, the ball was upgraded from cork to celluloid.After that, when it was improved to plastic, it became possible to obtain appropriate elasticity, but the amount of rotation decreased, so Cutman (a battle type that mainly defends) became disadvantageous.When the Jaques of London named it Ping Pong based on the sound of hitting a celluloid ball, it quickly became popular.[1].

In 1902, a professor at Tokyo Higher Normal SchoolGenso TsuboiSpread when he brought a set of equipment from France to Japan and began to spread it.[2].Yamada KosakuAccording to the book, there is a record that Takumi, born in 1886, played table tennis in Okayama when he was 15 years old (1901).[3].. The Japan Table Tennis Association was founded on July 1929, 7.[4].

International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)1926Was born in. same year,UKThe first world championship was held in.

Rules

Equipment regulations

Table tennis tableThe upper surface of the is a rectangle 2.74 m long and 1.525 m wide and is located horizontally at a height of 76 cm above the ground.The pedestal is divided equally into two courts by a net stretched vertically on the long side of the pedestal.The net is suspended at a height of 2 cm from the pedestal and is supported by supports attached to both ends of the pedestal. ballIs made of plastic with a diameter of 40 mm (large ball 44 mm), white and matte[5]. racket,uniformRegarding the provisions ofToolSee section.

Match progress

先に2点差を付けた方が1ゲーム先取となる(又は、11対11でも2点差を付けた方が勝ちとなる)。

Before the match starts
In a general local game, first practice the rally for XNUMX minutes, then exchange the racket (check the opponent's racket) and flip the coin toss (rock-paper-scissors in Japan).In tournaments where official referees enter, such as large tournaments, greetings, racket exchanges, and coin toss (rock-paper-scissors) are performed, and the winning player can choose either "service" or "court."
Services
Two services are replaced. However, after 2-10, it will be replaced by one.
The server is stationary and throws at least 16 cm vertically from the palm of the hand (freehand) that does not have a racket, hits the falling part from the back of the table with a racket, first bounces on its own court, and then You have to go over the net and bounce to the opponent's court.If the service hits the net and falls on the opponent's court, it becomes a "let" and the service is redone.In other cases, it will be a service mistake and the opponent will score.
Also, when serving, the ball must not be hidden from the opponent by the player's body or uniform.If the referee has a low toss (less than 16 cm toss) or doubts that the service is illegal when servicing, he will be warned and will try the service again, but again with the same suspicion. The service becomes a fault and the opponent scores.Obviously violating services are faulted (without caution).
receive
The service of the opponent who made one bounce on the opponent's court and one bounce on his own court is made to make one bounce or more on the opponent's court and returned.
The returned ball must be returned so that it falls on the opponent's court either directly or after contact with the net. If this is not possible, the opponent will score.
Bounce the ball two times on your court, hit the ball against your body, hit the racket twice intentionally, or hit the ball directly on the racket or body before the ball returned by the opponent bounces on your table. must not. If any of these apply, the opponent will score. However, double-hit in a series of unintentional ball hitting is effective. Even if the ball hits the wrist (finger, etc.) of the hand holding the racket, or if it enters the opponent's court without hitting the rubber, it is effective as a return ball and does not become the opponent's score.
Volleying on the bench is prohibited. If you volley, you will score the opponent. If the freehand touches the table during play, it will be a goal.
Change coat
When one game is over, change the court and enter the next game.In the next game, the service will start with the player who received first in the previous game.
How to count
The referee who scores the scoreboard utters the score on the server side and the score on the receiver side in English each time the score is entered.In China, the score on the server side, the score on the receiver side, and the score on the receiver side are spoken in Chinese in that order.
Other
If the ball is broken during the rally, the score for that rally is invalid, and if the ball is picked up after the rally and the ball is cracked, the score for that rally is valid. After the ball was exchanged by the referee and a practice hit (rally) was made, the service was restarted and the game restarted.
If the ball flies from another court and interferes with the rally, the points scored by the rally will be invalidated and the game will be restarted by restarting the service.
The game can be timed out only once per game, but the game can be interrupted. However, the time limit is 1 seconds or less.
If the total score of both players is less than 1, it will not end even if 10 minutes have passed from the start in one gamePromotion rulesIs applied. Or, if both parties agree, the promotion rules will be applied from the beginning.
A yellow card will be shown as a warning for bat etiquette (throwing racket on table, profanity in dirty words, kicking fence, kicking table with racket, etc.). A yellow or red card is presented for the second similar action, and the opponent is awarded 2 point. The other person is given 1 points for the same action for the third time. The fourth time is reported to the referee (chief referee), and the referee chief takes action.

Doubles

Basically the same rules as for singles, but with some additional requirements.

  • Services must bounce across the right side of the server side court to the right side of the receiver side court. If you make a mistake in the bounding surface, it will be the opponent's point.
  • In the after-service rally, the pairs must be struck alternately. If the same player hits twice in a row, it becomes the opponent's point.
  • When the service right is transferred to the opponent, the player who was not in service becomes the receiver, and the player who was the receiver until then becomes the next server.
  • When one game is over and the next game is started, the service is started from the pair that first received in the previous game. In that case, either player of the pair may be the first server. The receiver should be a different combination than the previous game.
  • If either player gets XNUMX points in the full game, a change end (changes the court) is made.However, the server does not change, but the receiver changes.

World table tennis championship,All Japan Table Tennis ChampionshipFor example, in addition to the usual doubles performed by a pair of two boys or two girls, mixed doubles performed by a pair of one boy and one girl.

Team battle system

Various methods are used for team battles.World table tennis championshipFor example, both teams have a maximum of five single-player matches with three players, and the system that wins the first three wins is adopted.Beijing OlympicsIn the team competition, three players played 3 singles and 4 doubles.

In Japan, there are many 4 single, 6 doubles systems by 4 players (1 players in junior high school students) including the Japan Table Tennis League. In this case, the same athlete may appear in both singles and doubles. Depending on the competition, there are also methods such as 6 singles 1 doubles (Kanto Student Federation) and 3 singles 2 doubles (New Japan Sports Federation). Furthermore, when it comes to local tournaments, there are 2 singles, 1 doubles, group competitions with only doubles, and mixed team competitions.

Transition of rules

the 1900sBy the timeEuroperubberMade ofrubber(Rubber equivalent to the present) was developed and became mainstream[6], Because I could not hit such a strong ball and the height of the net was high[7], The 1936th time in 10, when it was advantageous to stay protectedWorld table tennis championshipThen there is a record of the game that took more than 1 hours to get one point[7].1937, Japan's first international match, played against a former Hungarian world champion, at which time Japanese players touched the rubber for the first time[6].. At that time, the Japanese player's racket had nothing on it (also known as Ki Bella), but achieved good results.[6].. Around that time, boysAmericaThe team developed the "finger spin service," a service that uses fingers to generate various rotations, and brought in a play with strong rotation for the first time at the 1937th World Table Tennis Championships held in 11.[7].. The U.S. team that made full use of this achieved good results, but on the other hand, opponents who were not accustomed to the strong rotation had a series of receive misses and the rally did not continue.[7].. The rally was too long, but on the other hand it was too short, and the two extreme developments made the crowd feel boring.International Table Tennis FederationHas revised the rules to lower the height of the net, limit the game time, and ban the service that gives the ball various rotations using fingers (finger spin service)[7].. Under that influence, the defensive type became advantageous again, and from the 1940s to the early 1950sEuropeThe main type of cut by the players was[6][7][8].

The turning point in which this situation changed was after World War II.the 1950sJapan has developed new tools one after another and used them in actual battles to produce results.[6][7][8].. First of all, "back rubber", which is a conventional rubber that is turned over and pasted, has come to be used. This is because the contact area with the ball is wider than the conventional rubber (current rubber is considered to be front rubber against back rubber)frictionIs large, and it is easy to make a strong rotation, and it is possible to make an attack that makes full use of it. further,Pacific WarSometimesaircraftFuel tankBulletproofThe closed-cell sponge, which was used for military purposes, will now be used as table tennis equipment. This has a strong repulsive force, and the striking power has improved dramatically compared to conventional rubber[6][7][8].. "Sponge rubber" that is pasted on the ball striking surface[8], "Back soft rubber" with back rubber and sponge attached, and "Front soft rubber" with single rubber (front rubber) and sponge developed. In addition, "tsubu high rubber", which is an extension of the table software, was also developed. Armed with a smash attack that makes full use of those characteristics,1952Japan participated in the 19th World Table Tennis Championships for the first time, while winning the championship in the 4th category of women's group, men's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles and breaking the golden age, Japanese players in the 1950s world championship Produced many winners at[6][7][8].

However1959The International Table Tennis Federation has embarked on equipment restrictions.The use of sponge alone was banned and the sponge rubber disappeared.The thickness of other rubbers was also limited to 4 mm.

2000Therefore, the diameter of the ball changed from 38 mm to 40 mm.by thisballThe air resistance of the car has increased, and the rally continues more than before. However, on the other hand, it became difficult to rotate, and the rubber became less susceptible to rotation, so battle types such as cut type and front attack type were struggling.[Source required].

2001Has been changed from the conventional 21-point system to the 11-point system, and the service has also been changed from five-by-two to two-by-two.

2002The act of hiding the ball at the time of service (handhide service, bodyhide service) was completely prohibited.

2007Since September, the use of organic solvent adhesives has been banned at major competitions in Japan.2008From September, the use of organic solvent-based adhesives was totally banned, and one month later, post-processing with auxiliary agents was banned.Also, the use of anti-processed grain height rubber was prohibited.

2014The diameter of the ball remains 40 mm, and the plastic ball appeared from the celluloid ball.2015It was also used in major international competitions.

Tool

racket

Rackets used for table tennis are mainly made of wood and contain special materials.Rubber is composed of rubber and sponge.There are products with various types and characteristics for both rackets and rubber, and athletes can select the equipment that suits them.

There are various names in the world, Japan and the International Table Tennis Federation are "rackets", in the United Statespaddle, Called a bat in Europe.In addition, the racket philosophy is different between Europe, the United States and Asia, and in Europe it is often used by sticking a soft rubber on a hard racket, so it is necessary to require the blade to have momentum and shot feeling, and to require the rubber to be easy to rotate and control. many.On the contrary, in Asia, it is often used by sticking a hard rubber on a racket with a slightly hard or medium hardness, so we wanted a blade that is easy to rotate and has a large change after bouncing, and the rubber has momentum and acceleration. Often seeks power.

Rackets that can be used for official games include rackets with rubber that are sold at low prices for leisure (some packages include balls and a second racket), and commercial rackets used at the competition level (rubber is (Not included), there is a custom racket that you can customize to your liking.Leisure rackets that cannot be used in official games are also on sale.In addition, it is necessary to pay close attention to the storage of rackets, and racket cases are sold by each manufacturer.

The racket used for official games in Japan must have the manufacturer's name and the official recognition of the Japan Table Tennis Association (JTTAA) in a visible place (For the use of the racket without the JTTAA mark, the organizer side Notification of use permission is required).

According to the regulations of the International Table Tennis Federation, 85% (%) or more of the material other than the grip is made of natural wood, which is flat and hard. The size is not fixed, but the larger the size, the larger the area that can catch the ball. Advantages, but more disadvantages due to weight and air resistance[9].

Types

The difference between table tennis and other racket ball games is how to hold itShake hand-Pen holderBroadly speaking, there are two types.

TraditionallyEuropePlayers from the region mainly used the shakehand, while penholders were the mainstream in Asia,the 1990sOr laterAsiaIn each country, the proportion of athletes using shakehand is increasing, and it is becoming a situation that exceeds the pen holder.

Even so, pen holders with rubber on only one side are lighter in total weight than shake hands, so there were many cases where female athletes and athletes with confidence in footwork chose them, but now it is possible to attack and defend with both forehand and backhand. is required, so many players are now choosing shakehand.

However, there are some players who are good at two-handed attacks using Chinese-style pen holders and are ranked high in the world rankings, so it is not possible to conclude who is technically superior.

Shake hand
A type of racket that you can hold like a handshake. Use by sticking rubber on both sides.
Grips come in various shapes such as straight (ST), flared (FL), and anatomic (AN), and the former two grips are especially popular.
Pen holder
ペ ンA type of racket (common name) that you hold to hold.Pen holders can be roughly divided into Japanese style pen holders and Chinese style pen holders.
Normally, rubber is attached only on one side and the ball is hit only with that side, but there are cases where rubber is attached on both sides for the purpose of widening the width of the ball, which can be reversed during a match or rally, or used as a backhand. to complement the technologyBack strikeThe number of athletes who play is increasing.
As for the color of the rubber, it is necessary to stick different colors of rubber on the front and back sides, as with the shake hand. Also, if you stick the rubber on only one side, you must put or paint a sheet of a different color from the surface. Many Japanese-style pens are already painted when you purchase them.
Japanese style pen holder
It is divided into square type, rounded corner type, round type, etc. according to the shape of the blade, mainly in the grip part.corkis used.There are many players in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, etc., and they often stick rubber on only one side.
Reversible pen holder
Of the Japanese-style pen holders, it often refers to a racket that is designed to be easy to hold even when inverted and has rubber on both sides.
Chinese pen holder
It has a shape like a shortened Shakehand handle, and many blades have almost the same shape and thickness as Shakehand.
Hand saw
A type of racket that holds like a pistol[10].. It is sometimes called "pistol type" or "pistol type" because of how it is gripped. It is said that a bendable drive is easy to hit, but very few players use it. Due to the characteristics of the grip, it is difficult to change the service. Fewer players have different fore or back sides.

blade

Only the plate portion of the racket is called a blade.

In general, table tennis rackets tend to emphasize rubber and ignore blades, but in reality, the opposite is true, and blades are more important than rubber.This is because the ball touch and ball control that do not go astray at the competition level of top players are required, so the hygroscopicity and characteristics of the blade have a considerable effect on the shot feeling and elasticity.

The characteristics of the blade are that the repulsive force expresses the speed when hitting the ball, and the rigidity expresses the feeling when hitting.Generally, high rigidity = hard racket has high repulsive force, quick release of bullets, and enables speedy hitting.[11]..On the contrary, a racket with low rigidity = soft racket is easy to control because it easily absorbs the impact of the hit ball and suppresses the repulsive force.Further, if the blade thickness is thick, the rigidity of the plate becomes high and it becomes easy to bounce, but the ball separation tends to be quick, and if the blade is thin, the plate becomes flexible and it becomes difficult to bounce, but it becomes easy to rotate.The hitting sound depends more on the material and weight used than on the performance of the racket.

Notation varies, but each manufacturer describes the racket characteristics in order. Overseas, it is mainly written as OFF, ALL, and DEF, and each item is often marked as +, and those that do not are marked as-. In Japan, according to the notation used overseas, it is indicated as first, mid-first, mid, mid-slow, or slow. The hardest is OFF+ or fast, the softest is DEF or slow.

Veneer and plywood

The racket is mainly made of wood, and when it is made of one plate, it can be divided into a single plate and a plywood made by bonding a plurality of plates. Veneer rackets are mainly made from a single cypress, whereas plywood rackets are made by combining plates with different characteristics.

The use of the blade wood depends on the material, but the characteristics of the racket also depend on the wood used, the manufacturing process, and the storage method. Regarding the wood used, in veneerJapanese cypress,KatsuraIs mainly used.There are various types of plywood such as Japanese and Western materials, but the core isPaulownia-BalsaMaterialwillow・ Lightweight wood such as rosewood, abashi, ayouth, and samba is used, pine, anegre, spruce, and dyeing materials are used for the core, and limba, koto, walnut, cypress, and ayouth are used for the upper plate. -Dyeing materials are mainly used, but in recent years hardwoods such as ebony, rosewood, wenge wood, bloodwood, and white ash have been used for the upper plate.

The paulownia and balsa wood used for the core of plywood are lightweight materials, so they had the fatal drawback of being lighter in the celluloid ball era. In particular, paulownia wood has been used for chests of drawers, etc., so it absorbs moisture, so it has a characteristic that the feel at impact and elasticity are likely to change. However, the situation has changed with the advent of plastic balls. The change in the material of the ball changed the feel at impact. Since paulownia has high elasticity as well as the sensation of gripping a ball peculiar to the material and high elasticity, even if the plate thickness is a little thick, a plastic ball can exert a ball power, so there is almost a drawback except the problem of moisture. It has been eliminated, and the lightness of the ball power of the balsa material is almost eliminated by the material of the ball, and in the plastic ball era it is used as an option to leave the amount of rotation.

Veneer
As its name suggests, the veneer is made from a single cypress or katsura board, giving it a distinctive shot-like feel. It has the drawback that it is more fragile than plywood, which can be made more durable by combining wood grain vertically and horizontally. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the durability by arranging the wood grain in the vertical direction to increase the plate thickness, and it will not be made much because it will be heavy with a shake hand with rubber attached on both sides. In addition, since the characteristics are affected by the quality of the plate material, there is a large variation in quality even for the same type of racket, but a single-plate racket using a high-quality cypress has a unique shot feeling, as well as resilience and rigidity. Because of its good balance, it is particularly popular with the main drive type players with square pen holders. Therefore, some players who want high-quality cypress veneer can buy a custom-made veneer racket.
Plywood
Balancing repulsion and rigidity is achieved by combining wood materials of different characteristics vertically and horizontally. As a result, a racket with a variety of characteristics is created compared to a single-plate racket, and the quality variation is small. It is most often used in shake hands and Chinese pen holders, and is basically divided into 3 plywood, 5 plywood, 6 plywood, and 7 plywood. It is also characterized by being able to be used in combination with special materials. There are various types of shot feeling and momentum, depending on the combination of wood and special materials used. Therefore, from 3 plywood, there are rackets called 17 plywood in many cases.
In the case of plywood, for example, five plywood is used, in which the core material is sandwiched between two additive materials and further sandwiched between two upper plates. The core material is wood, which is the origin of the racket, and because of the high proportion of the racket, lightweight materials are mainly used. The degree of momentum varies depending on the wood used and the thickness. On the other hand, the additive and the upper plate are used to balance the repulsive force and the rigidity. For the upper plate, too soft wood is not used to prevent the wood from cracking and peeling when the rubber is replaced.
3 plywood
It is composed of a core material and two upper plates. Since the number of plywood is small and it is inferior in strength, rackets with high momentum have been introduced by ensuring the thickness of the core material and inserting special materials. However, because the number of plywood is small, it is difficult to make the blade thin and the grain of the core material is sideways, so the softness of the shot feeling and the sidewaysness of the core material are used, Or a racket for the cut main battle type has appeared.
5 plywood
It is composed of a core material, two additive materials, and two upper plates. Since the grain of the middle core material is vertical, the balance of repulsive force and rigidity is good and the blade can be made thinner. Since each product has different characteristics and there are many products, it is widely used by beginners to advanced players regardless of the battle type. In addition, even if a special material is put in, the core material becomes a vertical grain, so it is the most mainstream of plywood blades regardless of whether it is solid wood or containing special material.
7 plywood
It is composed of a core material, four additional materials, and two upper plates. The characteristics differ depending on the individual product, but since the blade tends to be thicker, the ball rebounds quickly because of its high repulsion and rigidity, but since the grain of the core material is sideways, it has more momentum in the middle and apse compared to 4 plywood. Since it has a fatal drawback that it will not rise, it is a specification dedicated to the front team. Therefore, it has been traditionally considered as a racket for advanced players or people who do not like special material rackets, but with the advent of plastic balls, the tendency for exclusive players to become stronger is stronger than it was in the celluloid ball era.

Special material

It is permitted to use materials other than wood for the racket within 15% of the material,Carbon fiber(Carbon fiber) ・ Acrylate (Vectran fiber)・Kevlar-Glass fiber(Glass fiber) ・Titanium-ZylonRackets using special materials such as are also used.In addition to the above materials, allylate carbon, which is a combination of carbon fiber and allylate, Zylon and carbon, which is called ZLC, Kevlar carbon, which uses Kevlar and carbon, and texarium, silver carbon, basalt fiber, and textile. There are a wide variety of special materials such as streams.

By arranging the special material, not only the momentum is higher than that of the solid wood racket, but also the sweet spot of the racket is widened to achieve a uniform momentum. However, the use of a special material has a shot feeling different from the original shot feeling of wood, and has a drawback that it is difficult to make the momentum of the momentum. The arrangement pattern includes an outer arranged between the upper plate and the core, and an inner arranged between the middle core and the core. The outer has a high bounce and a high ball separation, and the inner has a shot feeling closer to wood.

Wood heat treatment

In modern table tennis, where both hand styles have been established, a lighter racket is required as the weight of rubber becomes heavier, and after non-glue, not only rubber but also racket repulsion has been required. Moreover, since it is made of wood, the racket is weak against moisture. In addition, the manufacturer was looking for paulownia wood that was not suitable for table tennis rackets, both for effective use and cost reduction. In order to solve such problems, a manufacturing method for easily drying wood has been established.

This is to remove the moisture contained in the wood by heat treatment at a temperature lower than the boiling point of the wood, thereby reducing the weight and reducing the hygroscopicity. The racket manufactured by this method, in addition to the uniform bounce, is able to obtain higher rigidity and repulsive force than before even without using a special material even though it is made of five plywood. This is a new type of racket that appeared around 5.

However, this method has the drawbacks that it loses the feeling of grasping the original sphere of wood because it is physically processed, and that it loses its ball power with light materials such as paulownia wood. It is possible to supplement the power of the ball.

rubber

The rubber of table tennis is made by sticking a rubber (rubber in English) sheet and sponge with an adhesive (however, one rubber is only a sheet).Hit the ball at the seat.

The provisions of the following explanation are described in accordance with the rules of the International Table Tennis Federation.

The use of rubber of the same color on both sides is prohibited by the rule revision in 1983.The opposite side of the rubberized surface must be rubberized in a different color or colored in a different color.This is because the opponent player cannot be distinguished when the same color rubber having different properties is attached to each surface.

Since the rule amendment in 1983, only red and black have been consistently allowed for rubber and painted surface colors, but since October 2021, the use of blue, pink, violet, and green color rubber has been lifted. ..The use of black and red, and black and color rubber is now permitted.

Regarding the thickness, the thickness of the rubber sheet is up to 2 mm, and the total thickness of the rubber sheet and sponge is up to 4 mm (including the adhesive layer).In addition, regulations are stipulated in detail regarding the shape and aspect ratio of grains.

There are many types of rubber, such as rubber with an adhesive surface. Many of the new rubber products released after 2008 have the official display (ITTFA) of the International Table Tennis Federation, and the manufacturer number and registration number (manufacturer number-registration number) surrounded by a rim.

At official competitions such as international competitions, only the rubbers listed on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation are allowed to be used (the official rubber list is updated every April and October). At official competitions in Japan, even rubber that does not have the official recognition (JTTAA) of the Japan Table Tennis Association from April 4 can be used as long as it is on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation. Became. Prior to that, at official tournaments in Japan, the manufacturer name, ITTFA mark, and JTTAA mark were obligatory to be visible.

In addition, as a measure against the rule of prohibiting post-processing of rubber, a Chinese manufacturer has released an "Imitsu bottom" rubber in which a sponge surface of rubber is coated with an auxiliary glue at the manufacturing stage. It is distinguished as "bottom". Regarding "un-bottomed bottom", we do not touch the violation of the officially-registered adhesives described below, and also for "already-bottomed bottom", any rubber listed on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation can be used at official competitions. Is.

Sheet
The main raw material is natural rubber or synthetic rubber, and the color of the sheet is determined by changing the ratio of red, green, and blue when mixing the pigment.When only red pigment is used, it becomes red, and when all pigments are used, it becomes black.
Generally, the performance, life, and transparency of the sheet change depending on the ratio of natural rubber and synthetic rubber.The higher the ratio of natural rubber, the larger the amount of rotation, the longer the life, and the lower the transparency of the sheet. Conversely, the higher the ratio of synthetic rubber, the higher the momentum, the shorter the life, and the higher the transparency of the sheet.In addition, black, which uses a large amount of pigment, tends to be soft and stays away from the ball for a long time, so that the amount of rotation tends to increase.On the other hand, red tends to harden, so the ball separates quickly, and the sheet is harder than black, so it is easier to spin.Other colors vary greatly depending on the ratio of pigments.
The shape of the sheet takes into consideration the biting into the sponge, and one side is flat and the other side has grains or columnar protrusions called warts, and the grains are densely arranged in a vertical or horizontal arrangement. ..The characteristics, weight, etc. of the rubber largely depend on the characteristics of the seat.
The harder the weight, the heavier the weight, and the softer the weight, the lighter the weight. However, the thicker the flat part, the heavier the weight tends to be.
sponge
It is greatly involved in the biting of the ball and the restoring force after biting.The faster and stronger the restoring force, the higher the elasticity, and the larger the amount of rotation due to the pulling effect of the sheet.Although the weight is lighter than the sheet, there is a large variation even with sponges of the same hardness due to the manufacturing process. There is also a hard one called "with skin".
Regarding the thickness of the sponge, if the sponge is thick, the ball easily bites, the direction is easy to set, the resilience is high, so the elasticity is high, and at the same time the contact time with the ball is long, so the seat is pulled in and strong rotation is applied. Therefore, a powerful hitting ball is possible, but the elasticity at the time of repulsion becomes high and it becomes difficult to control the distance. On the other hand, the thin sponge does not bite the ball, so it is difficult to set the direction, the momentum decreases, and the contact time with the ball shortens, so the effect of pulling the seat weakens and the amount of rotation decreases, but the smash It is easier to apply rotation by rubbing or rubbing, so depending on the characteristics of the sheet, thinning the sponge may give the characteristics of rubber.
The sponge thickness is different for each manufacturer, but 2.2 mm is MAX, 2.3 mm is ULTRA MAX or MAX +, and less than MAX is the sponge thickness. , Thin, ultra-thin, etc. are written.Basically, the back software has a lot of MAX and special thickness, the front software is selected according to the play style, so there are a lot of variations in sponge thickness, the grain height rubber is thin or ultra thin, there are many OX without sponge, etc. There is a bias in sponge thickness depending on the type of rubber.
Rubber hardness
The hardness of the rubber is expressed numerically.The higher the number, the harder it becomes.The rotary tension rubber is said to be several degrees softer than the indicated value due to the mounting of the bubble sponge.
fundamentallyISOHardness (Japanese hardness, Chinese ball hardness, etc.), Chinese needle hardness, manufacturer's original hardness (German hardness, etc.)Tamas(Butterfly) hardness) is mainly used for hardness measurement.
Since the rubber hardness value differs depending on the country of manufacture, it is necessary to convert the hardness when selecting rubber.When choosing a rubber with the same hardness as a rubber with a hardness of 40 degrees in Japan, a butterfly hardness of around -5 degrees, a German hardness of around +5 degrees, and a Chinese needle hardness of around -10 degrees (German hardness ratio- Rubber should be selected based on the hardness value (around 15 degrees).
When choosing a rubber, the standard rubber hardness is 40 degrees for Japanese hardness and 47.5 degrees for German hardness.
In China, either needle hardness or spherical hardness is used, so the rubber hardness notation may cause confusion at the time of purchase, so depending on the manufacturer, it is written in an easy-to-understand manner such as soft, medium, and hard. There is.
Rubber characteristics
The properties of the rubber largely depend on the properties of the sheet, and are comprehensively determined by the combination with the properties of the sponge combined with the sheet. Therefore, a product lineup in which the same sheet is combined with sponges having different characteristics, or a lineup in which the same sponge is combined with different sheets may be prepared. The characteristics of the racket also affect this, so trial and error is required to find a combination that suits you.
A hard sheet/sponge makes it easier to cut the opponent's lower rotation and enables powerful hitting, but it is difficult to control because the ball does not bite easily and it is susceptible to rotation. On the other hand, a soft sheet/sponge is easy to control because the ball bites, and it is easy to offset the influence of rotation by biting, but since the restoring force when the ball bites is slow, energy loss when hitting is severe.
Rubber is not very durable.Even if left unattended, the rubber deteriorates due to drying and oxidation, and the rubber is rubbed to bite into the ball or rotate, so the frictional force and elasticity of the rubber decrease.The guideline for replacement according to life is 1 month for general athletes and 2-3 months for athletes with less practice.[12].. Also, while hitting the ball, dust such as dust adheres to the rubber, and the frictional force decreases. Dedicated to wipe thisRubber cleanerThere is.

Back soft rubber

A rubber that is attached to a sponge with the flat side of the sheet facing outward.Since the contact area with the ball is large, it is easy to rotate the ball and it can be used for all types of hitting, so it is still the most popular type of rubber.

High elasticity/high friction system
Since the sheet is thin and the grains are slightly thin and high design, the grains easily bite into the sponge, and the repulsive force of the sponge causes the ball to fly, and at the same time, the frictional force on the surface of the sheet is used to create a dragging effect and rotate the ball. By hanging, high elasticity and frictional force are realized.It has good trajectory stability and is suitable for hitting a stretchy drive. Since it has a long history of more than 40 years, there are many long-selling rubbers.In the past, rubber with improved momentum by increasing the synthetic rubber ratio of the sheet and 2.6 mm ultra-thick sponge with high elasticity comparable to tension rubber by taking advantage of the characteristics of high elasticity and high friction system were adopted. Unique rubber such as rubber has also been developed.It used to be the rubber with the highest market share, but the number of users is decreasing due to the spread of tension rubber along with non-glue.Rubber, which has appeared in recent years, has achieved higher elasticity and frictional force than conventional rubber by improving production technology.Specialty field of Japanese manufacturers.
Tension system
It creates a state in which a load (tension) is applied to the rubber molecules that make up the sheet and sponge, and compared to the conventional high elasticity and high friction system due to the quick restoring force after the ball bites and the strong pulling effect of the sheet. It achieves high elasticity, frictional force, and high hitting sound.Therefore, the rubber life tends to be shortened.The shape of the sheet is similar to that of high elasticity and high friction rubber, but with some rubbers, the sheet is thick and the grains are low and thick, and the grain thickness is also set to the limit that is permitted by the rules. Tension rubber suitable for table tennis has also appeared.The trajectory is straight and suitable for hitting sharply curved curve drives and shoot drives, but when hitting a ball, the number of balls tends to increase, and if it is a soft rubber, the amount of rotation tends to be insufficient due to the slow restoring force. It also has the aspect that it becomes difficult to control the momentum.Depending on the manufacturer, there are various names such as high tension type and built-in energy type.Although it has a short history since its appearance, there are many users among top players, and since 2008 when the use of glue was banned, "rotary tension rubber" has appeared, and it is now the most mainstream. It is a rubber that is.However, in recent years, the price has risen as the performance and durability of rubber have improved.Specialty fields of German and Japanese manufacturers.
Speed ​​system tension
It has the longest history in the tension system.Since the seat is generally soft, the seat is easily deformed, and the response after the ball bites is very sharp, so it has high momentum even when hitting lightly, but energy is easily lost when hitting hard.The elasticity is high due to the sharp response in general, but if the technique of applying rotation is poor, the ball tends to come out when hitting.However, depending on the striking method, it is possible to apply a strong rotation due to the effect of pulling the seat.Suitable for sticking on the back side of a shake or the back side of a Chinese pen.
Rotation system tension
It is a type of rubber that combines a sheet with a high natural rubber ratio and a tension sponge with large air bubbles. Since the sponge is slightly softer than the rubber hardness, the ball easily bites into it, and the sheet is slightly thicker than the normal tension system and the particles are slightly thick and low, and the sheet surface has frictional force, so it is easy to rotate. Due to the exquisite rubber design of the hardness of the seat and the softness of the sponge, it is easy to add momentum and rotation at light hits, medium hits, and strong hits, but generally the response that the ball bites is excellent while Since the response after biting is very slow, it is very difficult to hit mainly by the wrist, and the softer the sponge is, the slower the response after biting is, so the ball floats easily when hit. It is the most popular rubber since non-glue.
Of the rotating system tensions, the so-called "fogging system" and "matt system" often refer to a hard sheet made of natural rubber with strong tension. It is easier to rotate than it is, but it is heavy because the sheet is hard, and when the sponge is hard, the hardness is comparable to adhesive rubber. Since the sheet is very hard, it is very difficult to handle on the back side of the shake, but it can be said that it is a long-awaited rubber for the main battle type and the Japanese style pen.
Adhesive system
Since the surface of the sheet is sticky, the sheet is thick and the grains are low and thick, and the grain arrangement is not only vertical rubber but also horizontal rubber, so it is heavier than other types of rubber of the same thickness. Is heavy and often has low elasticity. Some sticky ones won't fall off even if you attach a ball. Since the particles are low and the sponge is often hard, and the ball does not easily bite, it is suitable for applying a strong rotation to the ball by rubbing it with the surface of the racket, and it takes longer for the ball to touch the rubber. Therefore, while it is easy to get a habit ball and change the amount of rotation easily, it is easily affected by the rotation of the opponent. In addition, it is extremely delicate compared to other rubbers, and there is a demerit that commercial rubber cleaners cannot be used because the surface of the sheet is sticky. On the other hand, it is possible to strengthen the adhesive force of the sheet by storing the rubber using the adhesive sheet for rubber storage released by each manufacturer. It is mainly used by Chinese players, and even in Japan, the main battle typeCut main battle typeThere are many users such as athletes. Areas of expertise of Chinese manufacturers.
Strong adhesion type, slight adhesion type, ultra slight adhesion type
It may be classified according to the adhesive strength of the sheet surface. The stronger the stickiness, the more the amount of rotation tends to increase, but the hitting speed tends to decrease.
Adhesive tension
It is a type of rubber that combines the performance of adhesive rubber and tension rubber and has higher elasticity than conventional adhesive rubber. In addition, an adhesive rotary tension rubber that uses a tension sponge with large bubbles as described above has also appeared, and the bite of the ball, which was a drawback of the adhesive system, has been improved, and the drive striking method of rubbing is very easy to do. ..
Ultra-thin system
Adhesive rubber that achieves the performance of "grain-height rubber-like" by combining with an ultra-thin sponge by taking advantage of the characteristics of the adhesive sheet and sheet with low particles. In addition to the amount of rotation and habit balls that are the characteristics of adhesive rubber, it is possible to make changes like grain height rubber, but since the momentum is very weak and the influence of rotation is large, it is a specification that is suitable for pen grains only Is.
Control system
A rubber that uses a soft sponge and seat and is designed for easy ball control. It is easy to handle, cheap, and often has a long life, so it is sometimes used when learning techniques, including beginners. On the other hand, since the repulsive force and the frictional force are low, there is a feeling that the power is insufficient at the competition stage and few people are using it.

Table soft rubber

Rubber that is attached to a sponge with the grain side of the sheet facing outward.Due to its structure, it is difficult to bite into the sponge, so a sponge that is softer than the back soft is used.In addition, tension-based front soft rubber that has been sold as having higher elasticity than conventional rubber has appeared, and in recent years, rotating tension-based front soft rubber that uses a sponge with large bubbles like the back soft rubber has appeared. It has appeared.

Because the contact area with the ball is small, the ball is released quickly, and it is less likely to be affected by the rotation of the ball hit by the opponent than the back soft, but it is difficult to apply the rotation and it is difficult to do the small skill of the rotation system.

Depending on the grain shape and characteristics of the sheet, it is classified into rotation type, speed type and change type, and the grain arrangement has a pattern of vertical and horizontal lines.

Basically, it is often used by front-end haste type players and cut main battle type players, but in recent years, the drive main battle type with back soft rubber on both sides of the racket has become popular, and rubber development has been developed. The current situation is that there are overwhelmingly fewer types than the back soft rubber.

In the large ball described later, only rubber of this shape is permitted by the rules.Many of the large balls are softer than those for hard balls, and the balls are less likely to deform.

Rotation system table software
The shape of the grains is trapezoidal and large. It is easy to rotate even in the table software, but it does not release the ball quickly like the speed system, and it is also difficult to produce changing balls such as knuckles. Mainly used by smash-type battle players, who often intertwine with drives.
Speed ​​system software
The shape of the particles is trapezoidal + columnar, and most of the particles are smaller than the rotating system. Among the table software, the ball is the fastest to separate from, and it is easy to get a knuckle type ball, but it is difficult to apply strong rotation like a rotating system. Mainly, the drive is used as a tie, and many players of the type whose main battle is smash are used.
Change system software
The grains are cylindrical.The grain is a little high, and it is designed so that changes such as knuckles are likely to occur.In the past, there were fewer users among the table soft rubbers than the former two,Ai FukuharaHowever, in addition to sticking this type of rubber and leaving a track record, the power of cutting with the grain height rubber described later has decreased due to the transition of plastic balls, so in recent years the number of users has increased, mainly for Cutman. ing.

Grain height rubber

Generic term for grain height rubber with sponge and single grain height rubber (OX) without sponge. It is also called wart height, but it is often called grain height rubber to avoid the word wart feeling. Tension-based high-rubber rubber, which is said to have higher elasticity than conventional rubber, has also been introduced.

The shape of the sheet is higher than the soft rubber and has a thinner horizontal surface. The grain arrangement is overwhelmingly large in the sideways, and the softer the grain, the easier it is to change. The amount of change also depends on the presence or absence of the texture. Even with a sponge, the sponge is very thin and has a weak momentum, resulting in a trajectory different from that of the front soft rubber.

It is more difficult to give rotation than the table software, but it is less affected by the opponent's rotation. Therefore, there is a characteristic that it is possible to use the rotation of the opponent or leave the ball as it is to return the ball. When the ball is struck, the grain repels the ball, so it does not rotate much when hit normally, or the hit ball often remains weakly rotated. However, in reality it depends on the batting method and the quality of the opponent's ball, so there may be rotations and changes that the handling side did not anticipate. It is also possible to return in reverse rotation. Driving is also possible.

In the past, there was an anti-processed "anti-grain height rubber" on the surface of the seat, but since the use was banned after 2008, the performance of the grain height rubber is relatively lower than before. After the transition of plastic balls, the performance deterioration is even more pronounced.Many rubbers released after 2008 have the ITTF registration number written on them, and these grain height rubbers with the ITTF registration number can also be used as proof that they are not anti-grain height rubbers.

It is mainly used to make changes by the players who are the cut type or the front side defense type, but it may be used by sticking it on the inverted racket. The application differs depending on the battle type, and in general, the cut type that determines the amount of rotation and change of the cut has high and thin particles, but the defensive type such as the pen type that requests the change amount in the block and the spin reversal ability The low and slender ones tend to be in the middle of those in the front-shake attack type, where the weakness is weak and the attack power is required for grain height.

One piece rubber

Soft rubber excluding sponge.Second World WarPreviously there was only this rubber. It's a rubber that doesn't bounce too much and is hard to spin, but it has the advantage of being able to hit a stable ball. Currently, very few players use this rubber. In the past, there was also a rubber that reversed this form (corresponding to the back soft rubber without sponge), but it is currently prohibited by the rule.

Anti rubber

It looks like a normal soft back, but it has very little friction and is hard to rotate. It was mainly used in a style that combined with the back soft of the same color and utilizing the similarity and the difference in appearance of the rubber to reverse it and make it difficult for the opponent to understand the change of the hit ball. Since the use of the same color rubber on both sides was prohibited by the rule revision in 1983, the number of users has decreased dramatically. A soft sponge is often used to increase controllability, but some manufacturers are composed of a sponge and sheet that are hard enough to break.

ball

A general table tennis (rigid table tennis) has a diameter of 40 mm and a mass of 2.7 g, and a large ball table tennis has a diameter of 44 mm and a mass of 2.2-2.4 g.There are white and orange colors.Either can be used for hard table tennis, but only orange for large balls.In some competitions, you can choose either color if it is difficult to see due to the surrounding environment (lighting, floor, background), uniform color, and table tennis table color.Since it is technically difficult to make a perfect sphere in large quantities with high accuracy, it is graded according to how close it is to a sphere made in the same manufacturing process.The highest one is called 3 star, and it is divided into 4 stages up to the lowest rank MUJI.Grade classification is determined by the amount of deviation when the ball is rolled on a slope.If it is a perfect ball, it goes straight down the slope, and the greater the distortion, the greater the deviation.Usually, 3 stars (three stars) are used in the tournament.Unlike other ball games, there were cases where multiple manufacturers were selected for the official ball of one tournament.[13].

Traditionally, balls with a diameter of 38 mm were used in hard table tennis games, but due to a rule change, the diameter has increased to 40 mm.The changes due to the change in diameter include the fact that it became difficult to fly due to the increased air resistance, the change in knuckle became smaller, the rally became easier to continue, and it became difficult to rotate. Be done.

The material used to becelluloidWas the mainstream, but in the 2010s it was replaced by non-celluloid materials (at the Olympic Games in 2012London OlympicsChanged by)[14].. It is said that the IOC asked the ITTF to change the material because the celluloid ball had a high risk of fire and there were cases where it was refused to be brought into the aircraft (in front of the Athens Olympics).[15].. The reason for the change by the ITTF is that celluloid is easily burned and deteriorates due to sunlight etc. and has poor durability, it is difficult to obtain good quality celluloid, and plastic material has less rotation and can suppress momentum and rally battle. It is said that there was a reason such as[14].

From 2014, as a rule of the Japanese Table Tennis Church, it is obligatory to manufacture with non-celluloid material, and plastic balls with a diameter of 40 mm (with and without seamless) have appeared.Changes such as a change in the shot feeling due to the change in the material to plastic, a relative decrease in the amount of rotation due to the inability to attach grain, and an increase in the initial velocity at the time of hitting.In addition to that, the seamless ball has a feature that the hitting ball is easy to stabilize because the variation in the momentum is reduced.On the other hand, it has been pointed out that plastic balls vary greatly in performance depending on the manufacturer and are fragile.[16].

The official celluloid sphere takes half a year to manufacture, three months to knead the celluloid into a plate, half a month to round and soak in alcohol, half a month to air dry, half a month to make a hemisphere, one sphere. It is completed through the process of half a month → drying → mark stamping → packaging to polish the surface.[17].

Side tape

Attach it so that the racket will not be damaged when it hits the table tennis table.Some people stick it so that it covers only the racket, and some people stick it so that it covers the sponge part of the rubber used.Generally, the width is 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, and 12 mm.There is also a metal side tape, which allows you to adjust the weight and center of gravity of the racket.

adhesive

Used to bond the rubber and racket. Currently approved for use are water-soluble adhesives, adhesive sheets, and solid adhesives. In the past, adhesives made by dissolving rubber in organic solvents were widely used.However, because organic solvents are harmful to the human body, the use of adhesives containing organic solvents was not accepted in 2007 at elementary school students in Japan. Starting with the ban on use from April 4, it was banned at competitions in Japan after September 1, 2007. It was banned at international competitions from September 9, 1.

Currently, the use of adhesives approved by the Japan Table Tennis Association is permitted in Japan. However, as of 2009, no adhesive has been certified by the International Federation of Table Tennis. This is because the applied adhesive may react with the residual solvent slightly contained in the rubber, and even if an adhesive that is approved for use is used, it remains in the racket inspection after the match. Disqualification will occur if solvent is detected. Therefore, to prevent this, it is recommended to open the rubber package, leave it for 72 hours, and then attach it to the racket using a certified adhesive.

Speed ​​glue

One of the organic solvent-based adhesives for bonding rubber and rackets. It contains more organic solvent than ordinary adhesives, and when applied to rubber, it volatilizes in the sponge and the sponge expands. When rubber is attached to the racket in this state, the sheet surface is pulled laterally by the amount of expansion of the sponge, so the rubber is always under load. The repulsive force and the frictional force are increased, resulting in a high hitting sound called a metallic sound. Since the sponge becomes soft, even if the sheet becomes a little hard, it becomes soft as a whole. However, since the rubber is always loaded, the rubber deteriorates faster than when using a general adhesive.

The first discovery of the glue effect was in Hungary.Tibor clamperIs said to be.In Japan, it was the first time in the first half of 1980 that former Japanese champion Takehiro Watanabe brought back a Belgian glue and used it.After that, after the development of speed glue, glue became widespread worldwide, and it became widespread mainly for offensive players.

It was the chairman of the International Federation of Table Tennis at that time that made it a problemIchiro OgimuraMet. Ogimura says that slowing down the ball speed from the viewpoint of popularizing table tennis, doping of equipment from the viewpoint of sports spirit is not preferable, many speed glues contain toluene, which is harmful to the human body and is similar to thinner play. Although there was a history of being used as a social problem by being used for inappropriate purposes other than table tennis, we proposed a ban on speed glue, but once Ogimura died, it was left blank.

Due to these problems, we have started to regulate the speed glue's toluene, and instead of toluene, heptane becomes the main component, which reduces elasticity and rotation. In order to compensate for the elasticity and the decrease in the amount of rotation, a method such as overcoating and steaming of speed glue was established, and the state of weasel play continued for a long time.

However, speed glue had accidents due to anaphylactic shock even when used for table tennis applications, and these health problems were discussed, and because it was highly volatile and dangerous in terms of transportation, speed glue was used. Has been prohibited. The ban on speed glue was originally planned to be enforced on September 2007, 9, but the following yearBeijing OlympicsIn the end, it will come into effect on September 2008, 9 after the Beijing Olympics.

Auxiliary agent

As mentioned above, non-toxic water-soluble adhesives (mainly composed of water, natural rubber, and acrylics) have become popular because the use of adhesives containing organic solvents has been banned. A non-adhesive auxiliary agent called water-soluble glue or water-soluble glue has been announced by the table tennis equipment manufacturer.

Similar to Speed ​​Glue, the state of using the auxiliary agent is superior in elasticity and rotation amount to the state of not using it, and since it contains mineral oil as the main component and does not contain organic solvent, it is relatively easy to handle and the effect lasts. It has the advantage of being easy. On the other hand, its low volatility has the disadvantages that it is not possible to reapply it by peeling off the rubber, the sharp response like speed glue cannot be compensated for, and the weight becomes heavy when applied.

However, the International Table Tennis Federation has revised the rules since October 2008, 10, saying that the act of applying an auxiliary agent is the act of processing and remodeling rubber (before sticking) and it corresponds to doping of equipment. Added the rule "Prohibition of post-processing".This effectively banned the use of auxiliaries.In response to this, the Japan Table Tennis Association (JTTA) will also provide boosters and other adhesive aids and speed aids at all competitions held after October 1, 2008, based on the notification of the revision of the rules of the International Table Tennis Federation. Announced that it will be banned[18][19].. In response to this, the table tennis product manufacturer that sells the targeted adhesive aid and speed aid announced that it will stop selling at the end of September 2008.

In this way, supplementary agents were banned just one month after the speed glue was banned, so manufacturers that have released glue and supplementary agents have a large inventory, which puts pressure on business. Right after thatEuropean Table Tennis ChampionshipHowever, because the racket inspection could not comply with the new rules, some players were still using supplements.

Table tennis table

The ping-pong table has a three-layer structure to prevent it from warping due to aging, and in the middle layer, elongated boards are arranged with horizontal seams offset like flooring floors.

Table tennis table until the 1980s绿Color (dark green close to black[20]), but at the timeInternational Table Tennis FederationWas the chairmanIchiro OgimuraTo change the image of table tennis[21], CurrenttagProduced a colored table tennis table.1991ToChibaHeld at41st World Table Tennis ChampionshipsAnd the next1992 OfBarcelona OlympicSince this blue table tennis table was used, it has spread all over the world and continues to the present day.Also on the showTamori Tetsuro OdaIt is said that the number of junior high school students in the table tennis club decreased sharply the following year by saying, "That (table tennis) is dark, isn't it?"[22].

Uniform shoes

Table tennisuniformIs abovecollarWithPolo shirtWith a shape similar toT-shirtShaped, belowHalf pants・Skirts are the basics. Only official products of the Japan Table Tennis Association are allowed to be used in official matches in Japan, and their labeling is mandatory. It will interfere with the game, such as unapproved items and hit balls will be difficult to seeDesignThose marked with are not usable.

Prior confirmation is required, but personally designed uniforms can be used as long as they meet the above requirements.20071In the All Japan Table Tennis Championship held inNamoto YumiThe player entered the game in a unique uniform consisting of a one-shoulder and a mini skirt, which drew attention.

Most of the uniforms used to be mono-colored polo shirts, but in recent years many of them are made of a material and design similar to that of tennis and badminton, and have improved water repellency. Shorts were often unpopular with women, with short inseam being short, but in recent years, more and more men's thighs have been worn. You can also wear undershirts and spats.

There are no regulations regarding shoes, and any gym shoes can be worn.

Play

It is mainly classified into forehand and backhand, but one of the characteristics of table tennis is that there is table technology that processes balls on the table in addition to this.

Until now, the forehand was the heyday, but the hitting speed has decreased due to repeated rule changes due to the toluene regulation of speed glue, the appearance of 40 mm balls, the prohibition of speed glue, etc. By compensating for the speed of the rally, the speed of the rally has increased overall, and the usage ratio of the backhand has also increased accordingly.

Forehand and backhand

The forehand is a method of hitting from the dominant hand side, and since the swing is large, it is possible to hit a powerful ball, but it is difficult to catch the ball at a fast hitting point, and there is a large risk when receiving a counter.

On the other hand, the backhand is a method of hitting from the opposite side of the dominant hand, and since the swing is small, it is difficult to get the power of the hit ball compared to the forehand, but since it can hit the ball at a faster hit point than the forehand, the opponent hits the ball and then returns. It takes less time to reach the opponent than the forehand, so it is effective when bringing it to a fast rally development.In addition, the backhand is roughly classified into three types, the type that hits with the same arm movement as the forehand, the type that hits with the elbow on the dominant hand side forward, and the type that hits from the opposite side of the dominant hand. Yes, it is necessary to use it properly according to the receiving time and the striking method.

In the heyday of the pen holder, it was basic to hit with the reverse foot of the dominant hand in front, but when the shake hand became widespread and the two-handed striking method was required, the reverse foot of the dominant hand was hit in front. Although the strike zone is wide in the striking method, the hitting point is slow, the backhand is difficult to swing, it is difficult to switch, and it is difficult to distinguish between the cross and the straight of the forehand.

Nowadays, when hitting the forehand and backhand with both feet almost parallel, when hitting straight with the forehand or hitting the cross with the backhand, the reverse foot of the dominant hand is pushed forward as in the past, or the backhand is used. The de facto standard is to put the foot on the dominant hand side forward each time to make it easier to swing.

drive
A batting method that gives the ball a strong forward rotation (top spin).EuropeLet’s talk about the drivetopspin". It is a technique that is acquired after learning basic batting techniques to some extent, and is basically divided into two methods: rubbing and biting. Various batting methods represented by the following have been established, and even batting methods that are considered to be weak points, such batting methods have been popular, centering on top players. Also, with the evolution of equipment, rackets, and rubber, and changes in the practice environment, the number of players who have difficulty in power in the past has become more and more familiar with a single drive batting method, and is widely used by many battle-type players. Came to be.
The drive is basically more stable than the smash because it draws the trajectory of the arc line, and as will be described later, it is possible to hit various balls by applying speed and spin, so the range of tactics is widened. It is used.
Speed ​​drive
A drive with an orbit that is close to horizontal with an emphasis on speed.When you become a top player, you can hit a ball as fast as a smash.Since the performance of the rubber is high, it is relatively easy to control, it is easy to catch at a fast hitting point and it is easy to hit repeatedly, so it is the most used in the receive bang of the upward rotation system.
The difficulty is that it is difficult to receive the downward rotation system, and if you do not have the skill to apply rotation, it is easy to become a ball and smash.The big difference from the smash is the hitting sound, and while the smash makes a hitting sound, the speed drive has a smaller hitting sound than the smash.Further, regarding the amount of rotation, it is possible to secure the stability of the trajectory by multiplying the rotation by utilizing the effect of pulling the seat.
Loop drive
It is a drive on a track that is close to a mountain with an emphasis on rotation.While a normal drive draws a trajectory that extends after bouncing, a loop drive sinks.Basically, it is often used for the receive of the downward rotation system, but since the trajectory stability is higher than that of the speed drive, it is also used for the receive bang of the upward rotation system.However, if the orbit of the loop drive is high and it lands far from the net, it will be a slow drive, so it will be counterattacked.
The difficulty is that if it is a weak hitting method, it is easy to make a mistake even in the receiving of the downward rotation system, and the hitting speed tends to slow down, but depending on how the racket is swung, it is possible to hit a drive with a hitting speed that draws an arc line. ..
As research on loop drive progresses, a loop drive with a sinking trajectory that bounces on the opponent's court with a trajectory that draws a mountain arc near the opponent's net and then bounces on the opponent's court with a lower trajectory is used in the game. I came to be.Control is required to kill speed and drop it near the net while applying strong rotation.
Curve drive, shoot drive
A drive that gives the ball lateral rotation. When a right-handed player hits in the forehand, a left-handed drive is called a curve drive and a right-handed drive is called a shoot drive. The curve drive turns to the side opposite to the dexterity (as seen from the hitter), and the shot drive turns to the dexterity side. Like a changing ball in baseball, it changes in various ways depending on the direction of the rotation axis, the amount of rotation, and the speed. The angle of bending changes depending on the axis of rotation, and the direction of flight of the ball also changes when bouncing. Further, when returning a ball, the hit ball changes to the left and right due to the influence of lateral rotation. There may be some lateral rotation due to the habit of swinging the drive, but advanced players can consciously control the rotation.
Power drive
A drive that has a spin on a speed drive. In addition to the speed of smash and the intense rotation, it requires a proper amount of practice and strength to learn.
Counter drive
A drive that uses the repulsive force and the amount of rotation of the hit ball against the opponent's drive.Since there are scenes where a speedy drive is returned, not only the amount of practice but also the ability to discriminate the hit ball and the timing of returning the ball are required.Often used by advanced players.
smash
A method of hitting the ball flat like playing a ball.Many players hit as a decisive hit.You can hit a fast ball with a swing smaller than the drive, but since the trajectory is straight, there is a high possibility that it will not enter if the angle shifts.Some of the world's top players hit smashes with an initial velocity of 280 km / h or more.It is difficult to hit the racket because of the speed, but it is possible to return the ball if you hit it by adjusting the angle of the racket.It is often used for soft rubber users who release the ball quickly, for receiving floating balls, and for receiving lobing, which will be described later.
Backhand smash (pen holder)
With a pen holder type back, pull a freehand with your right foot in front (if you are right-handed), put your weight on the opponent's court while moving your arm with your shoulder as a fulcrum, and hit the opponent's court.It is difficult to read the course because it swings compactly with a small amount of preliminary movement.

Bench technology

The table tennis technology is a technology peculiar to table tennis, and is basically a technology used when receiving the service of the other party that fits on the table or when the receiving side returns the ball for a short time.

What is common to the tabletop technology is that the foot on the dominant hand side is moved under the table according to the receive position before hitting the ball.The method of moving the foot and hitting the ball at the same time is basic except when hitting the ball in a rally because the extra force due to the weight shift before is applied at the time of hitting and it is easy to cause net mistakes and over mistakes. Not recommended for.

In addition, it is necessary to consider tactical bargaining as a set, such as using Tsuttsuki to induce a sweet loop drive on the other side, or bringing it to a rally of inquiries in the middle or apse with a bang on the table such as Chiquita.

Tsutsuki
A batting method in which a short ball on a table is hit with a more compact swing than a cut. It is often the case that a slightly long ball that does not come out of the table is turned down and returned. The risk of making a mistake is low, but the probability of being attacked by the opponent's third ball is high. However, depending on the technique, it is possible to induce mistakes by making a strong downward rotation or horizontal rotation, or by making a long or short change. In addition, a non-rotating type Tsutsuki that does not rotate may be called a knuckle.
stop
A method of hitting a ball that is mainly in the lower rotation system of the opponent and catches the hit ball immediately after the bounce and returns it to the opponent's court in a small size so that it makes two or more bounces.It is mainly used for receiving short serve on the table.It is effective as a defense technology because the drive cannot be physically hit against a low stop.However, if it floats, it becomes a chance ball for the opponent.When it comes to receiving advanced players, it is possible to return a short upper-rotating ball with a stop or apply a strong downward rotation.Returning a stop as a stop is called a double stop.In addition, it is sometimes called a drop shot to make a stop that makes a small drop on the net against a lowered opponent.
Flick
A batting method in which the opponent's short service or the ball on the table is returned by giving forward rotation on the table and paying. The risk is high when countered, so it is a very compact batting without takeback. If technology improves, it is possible to hit a ball with a speed that can be said to be a strong hit on the table, and it is also possible to aim for a score directly from the receive.
push
It is a batting method that hits like pushing out, mainlyPen holderUsed to attack the back side of.Shake handCompared to the backhand of, it is harder to exert power, but depending on the method, it can strike equal or better.
Tabletop drive (tabletop forehand drive)
A method of hitting a ball that does not come out of the table by rubbing it against the ball. The big difference from the forehand flick is that it requires a take-back when hitting the ball, resulting in a large swing. Originally, it was a table-top technology developed in China to take advantage of the characteristics of adhesive rubber, and it has the disadvantage of being restricted by the tools used.
Chiquita
In some cases, it may be called Chiquita Receive.Peter Colbell(Czech Republic) is a batting method, which is a backhand horizontal rotation type flick. There is also a drive striking method that applies this striking method. Basically used by shake hand players, but even with a penBack strikeIs possible with. It came to be called this way because it drew a curve like Chiquita Banana (one of the brand names of banana). Also, the reverse lateral rotation type Chiquita that hits from the swing of the Chiquita is called "inverse Chiquita", and there are various hitting methods,Kato MiyuThe reverse chiquita that is often used bySimon GojiThe reverse chiquita that is often used by is called "Gogeta".
Back hand drive on bench (BD on bench)
Backhand version of the bench drive. It is easier to catch the ball at a hitting point as fast as the Chiquita compared to the bench drive, and the BD on the bench captures the top of the ball against the Chiquita that captures the side of the ball, so it is possible to get out with one shot with speed Is. Also, since the swing is compact, it has the merit that it does not bounce too much on the table and is less subject to the constraints of the equipment. However, catching the ball above is easily affected by the rotation (especially downward rotation) of the opponent's service, and in addition to the swing speed to some extent, the freehand, the movement of the body, and the weight at the time of hitting the ball. It needs to be moved. Since it has been used for a long time in the world championship due to the heavy use of Chinese Zhang Jie, it has become widespread not only in top players in the world but also in junior and elementary and junior high school classes.

Applied technology

block
A defensive technique that returns the ball to the opponent's smash or drive so that it hits the opponent's smash or drive at the rising period or the top of the bounce in the front-middle team.When blocking with the back software, it is necessary to adjust the racket angle accurately.Since the purpose of the block is to return the opponent's bang, the swing is not so big.There are also techniques to change the return ball, such as "kill and return", "return as it is", and "add your own power and return" the power of the opponent's ball.Depending on the skill level, depending on the player, it is possible to make a block that kills the power enough to make two bounces on the table against the opponent's bang.There are also players who take the tactic of inviting mistakes by rotating and changing with a side spin block, etc., or blocking all the balls hit by the opponent and aiming at the connecting ball.If you become a grain height rubber user, you may use block technology that utilizes the spin reversal ability peculiar to grain height rubber such as cutability blocks and side spin blocks.
counter
It refers to all the techniques to return the opponent's bang with a bang. There is no fixed way to hit because the purpose is to punch out an opponent who is not in a proper position and to use the opponent's ball power, and it has a defensive side like a counter block from a hard hit like a counter drive Technology is also included. This is a high-risk, high-return tactic that has a high degree of difficulty but a high score because it strikes at the opponent's swipe.
Mima punch / beam punch
Mito Ito,Tomokazu HarimotoA general term for the counter technology used by.It is one of the most difficult methods of hitting table tennis.What is common is the striking method by swinging the 2nd position of the internal rotation of the shoulder joint, which is distinguished as a completely different technique from the general counter striking method which is the swing of the 1st position of the internal rotation of the shoulder joint. ..Compared to a general counter, the range of motion of the arm is large, so it is easy to put out power, and because it is easy to put out a knuckle, it becomes a heavy ball.
cut
It is a method used by cut type players with a large swing in the middle and apse, and is distinguished from Tsuttsuki. There are fore and back striking methods, but since grain height or table soft is pasted on the back side, it is often the case that the back is cut frequently. At the advanced level, in addition to the downward rotation (backspin), there are also players who mix diagonal downward rotation and lateral rotation.
Meat strike
It is an attack method mainly used by front soft rubber players. It is a hitting method that repels a spinning ball strongly and receives it like a smash. The striking method that finely adjusts the angle of the racket according to the rotation of the opponent is sometimes called angle striking. Whether or not to distinguish them strictly is a matter of judgment. Since the racket is shaken off compactly and the ball is not rubbed, it does not rotate much and the power itself is not so great, but it may be a decisive hit because the opponent's defense can not be made in time because it hits with a high hit point quickly.
Cut
It is a technique to return the ball by using the lower rotation of Tsuttsuki and the cut.Since the opponent's lower rotation is used, RBI and timing are required.There is also a method of returning the ball by applying drive rotation while using this.The difficulty is that the hitting speed is slow, and if it floats, it is easy for the opponent to hit the receive, but laterNorio TakashimaByEight-figure method[23]By devising "", the drawbacks of conventional cut hitting have been almost eliminated, and it has also been applied to the drive hitting method.
Robbing
A batting method in which the ball is launched high to gain time and return. It invites the opponent's mistakes, but is easily hit by the opponent. However, since the hit ball is high, it is easily affected by the rotation at the time of bouncing, so it is possible to return the ball as a ball that is difficult for the opponent to hit by striking it with intense rotation.
フ ィ ッ シ ュ
The technique of returning the opponent's ball with a trajectory lower than lobing in the middle and apse. It is said that the fish hitting point is later than the block hitting point and the fish hitting point is past the apex. It is a tethering ball that surpasses the so-called opponent's attack, but it is harder to hit than robing. A tactic is also used in which the opponent's attack is overwhelmed by fish, and a counterattack is made at a stretch when the opponent attacks.

Service (serve)

At table tennis, the rally starts from the service. Since the game is assembled as the starting point of the attack, if you become a top player, you can use the service replay by Let to escape the service that missed the ball with let and prevent unnecessary goals, miss the opponent's receive timing, Many players adopt advanced service tactics for purposes such as disturbing the pace.

Services are broadly divided into fore services and back services, and there are short services and long services, respectively.In a broad sense, short service refers to a service that makes two or more bounces on the opponent's court, and long service refers to a service that makes one bounce on the opponent's court and goes out of the table tennis table.In table tennis, rotation (spin) is very important in service, and it is roughly divided into vertical rotation (upward rotation / downward rotation), horizontal rotation (forward / horizontal rotation / reverse horizontal rotation), and no rotation. There are variations such as diagonal rotation (forward horizontal up rotation / forward horizontal down rotation / reverse horizontal up rotation / reverse horizontal down rotation) and gyro rotation.However, since it is possible to change the aspect ratio of the diagonal rotation depending on the angle and orientation of the racket, the service motion, etc., the amount of change differs depending on the aspect ratio, the amount of rotation, the speed, etc. even if the rotation is the same.

Since 2002, when handhide and bodyhide services were completely banned, it became easier for the other party to see the service, and advanced service technology developed. Typical ones are fake motion, hiding the racket before and after hitting, follow through, vertical service, etc.

Type of service (serve)

Fore service
A service that uses the fore side of the racket on the dominant arm side of your body. Depending on the player, the grip varies depending on the purpose, such as easy control, widening the range of movement of the wrist to apply strong rotation, and quick return after servicing. In some cases, the grip will be similar. In singles games, there are many cases where services are basically issued from the position on the back side of the team, and there are cases where services are provided near the center depending on the game development and tactics.
Up-down service
A type of fore service, which is a service that swings the racket up or down from the same swing path and uses up and down rotation separately. If the technology improves, it is possible to mix a horizontal rotation system, to make it a vertical service described later, or to add fake motion.
YG (Young Generation) Service
A type of fore service, which swings from the inside of the body to the outside to apply rotation, so it is mainly used for reverse lateral rotation services. Before the rule was revised, it was often used together with normal foreservice because it was possible to hide the impact of a hit ball. Even after the ban on bodyhide/handhide services, it has been used to increase variations in rotation, change service tactics and rally development. Commonly known as YG and Yangene.
Involvement service
A type of fore service, in which the racket head is raised slightly upwards. As with the YG service, the amount of rotation is inferior due to the reverse lateral rotation system service, but since there is no need to change the grip of the racket, there are many users mainly for female players who need a quick return.
Vertical service
Although it is a type of horizontal rotation service, it can provide forward horizontal and reverse horizontal services. The forehand service was developed with the prohibition of bodyhide and handhide services, and is mainly used by top athletes. Since the racket is erected at the time of impact and the surface of the racket is shown to the opponent, it is difficult for the opponent to know in which direction the rotation is applied. Due to the characteristics, horizontal rotation is always applied, so there is a disadvantage that pure lower rotation service and upper rotation service cannot be performed. It is technically possible to use it as a back service.
Back service
A service that uses the back side of the racket. The position at which the service is provided for one's body depends on the athlete. You can quickly get back in position.
Crouching service
When you serve, you should bend your knees and crouch while you serve. It is possible to apply a strong rotation, but there is also the drawback that the reaction to the returning ball will be delayed if it returns slowly to its original position.
Prince serve
It is a kind of crouching service. It is a serve that bends down and extends the racket vertically and cuts the ball on the back of the racket to rotate.
Speed ​​long service
A type of long service that accelerates the second bounce near the end line of the opponent's court. It is easy to aim at the service ace and is also used for the purpose of not letting the opponent hit with a sufficient posture, but there is also a disadvantage that the server can not return to the posture quickly and receive a goal when receiving the counter.
Throw-up service (Hightos service)
Serve by throwing the ball high when making a serve toss. If you don't get used to it, the trajectory of the falling ball will shift from the hitting point and you will make mistakes, but the rotation and speed will increase. In addition, it is necessary to check before the service because the light of the illumination is exposed. Some players in the world raise 7-8 meters toss.

Fake motion follow-through

It is a type of service technology that can make the opponent dazzle before and after the ball is hit in the service.

In normal services, the rotation pattern of the service is easy to spot, so fake motion is used to put a fake at the service at the competition level. Also, in the follow-through immediately after hitting the service, by raising the elbow, making a movement different from the swing trajectory of the racket, raising the elbow to change the direction of the racket, hiding the racket, etc. , Used as a means to deceive the other party. There are many users, mainly top players.

Battle type

Shake hand
Drive main battle type
The battle type that is currently the mainstream among many battle types. Keeping a little distance from the table tennis table, making full use of the front, back, left, and right footwork, a strong drive is always applied to the ball, always looking aggressively and aggressively. The rally battle between drive main battle types is well-known for its powerfulness and power.
Front team haste type
As its name suggests, it is a battle type that always plays close to the table tennis table. A play style in which you can instantly see the type and course of the opponent's ball and start an attack at an early timing. It can be said that the battle type requires the quickest judgment and dynamic visual acuity, but even small players can exert their strength, so many Japanese top players take this battle type.
Cut main battle type
A dynamic battle type that responds to the opponent's bang with a ball that has a strong downward rotation at a position away from the table tennis table, and when it sees a chance, it goes forward at once and fights back.It is often thought of as a defensive battle type, but since the shake hand itself is weak against the middle and a defensive style is impossible, it is actually an aggressive battle type that also uses cuts.In addition to the drive main battle type and front team haste type technology, footwork with a wide range of motion, tenacious cutting technology, and power and speed when turning to offense are required, so it is exclusively for advanced players. (The above is from page 5 of "Mirumiru Improvement Sports Practice Menu 106 Table Tennis".)
Alien defense
A battle type that scores points due to the opponent's mistake against the short without leaving the table.Generally, a grain height rubber is pasted on the back side of the racket, and the change ball and the slowness of the course due to it invite the opponent's mistake.Usually, the back soft rubber or front soft rubber is stuck on the fore side, and the ball that comes to the fore attacks with a smash or drive.In addition, when hitting a ball slowly or quickly, the racket may be reversed during the rally to attack.
In contrast to the foreign short type called pen grain, the foreign offensive and defensive type is called shake grain.Unlike the heterogeneous short type, it is vulnerable to the middle, so it is not possible to take a defensive style that changes with blocks, so aggressive grain height rubber is often attached.JapaneseFukuoka HarunaIs famous.
All round type
A battle type in which back soft rubber is attached to both sides and points are scored by making full use of many techniques such as drive lobing. It requires tactical flexibility, high physical ability, and technical ability to fight in the front, middle, and rear teams. SwedishWaldnerAnd JapanJun MizutaniIs famous.
Pen holder
Drive main battle type
Popular namePendora.. Attack mainly by forehand drive. Many players make dynamic moves that take advantage of their footwork, such as turning around and jumping. It is said that it is difficult to hit a backhand drive that is stronger than the shake handdrive type due to its structure, but some players are good at quick push and backhand smash that have enough points to make up for it. However, the weak point of the pen holder is basically the back. Therefore, it is often the case that they run into the opposite course and defensively. However, recently, mainly in China,Back strikeThere are also players who hit a powerful backhand drive (so-called backside drive). KoreanLiu Chengmin-Gold,ChineseWang Hao-Ma Lin・ Xu Xin, JapanKai YoshidaIs famous.
Table software haste type
A battle type that uses a table soft rubber to connect to an attack with the shortest amount of effort possible and to aggressively attack. Mainly used smash as the final hit. There are also players who hit the backhand drive by the back-side hitting method like the drive main battle type. JapaneseToshio Tasaki,ChineseLiu Guo Liang(Former China National Team Coach, now Chairman of the China Table Tennis Association) is famous.
Heterogeneous short type
This refers to a type in which rubber is pasted on both sides using a reversing type or Chinese style pen holder racket, and grain height rubber is pasted on one side.Commonly known as pen grain.The combination of back soft + grain height and front soft + grain height is common.During the game, play near the table, break the opponent's timing by changing the block due to the grain height rubber, attack when the opponent has a gap, flip the racket and hit the opponent with a different ball quality It is a defensive battle type, such as inviting mistakes.Due to changes in rubber standards and changes in rules, the power of grain-height rubber has decreased from the past, and very few top players have adopted this type of battle.For girls, he is a former Chinese national teamLuxembourg OfYuka RenIs famous.

Table tennis terms

Tawelling
During the competitionTowelSweatWipe.Short-term taoring is permitted in the following cases.
Every 6 points from the start of each game (that is, when the total number of points for both players is a multiple of 6)[24]
When you make a change end (change of court) in the final game
When the racket surface gets wet with sweat or the glasses get sweaty and the referee has given permission.
Cross and straight
The cross points diagonally to the opponent's court side, and the straight points to the opponent's court side directly in front of where you are.
Edge (edge ​​ball)
A ball that has fallen by touching the edge of a table tennis table[25][26].
Let
To play again. This applies when the ball of the serve touches the net and enters the opponent's court, or when the opponent hits the serve without being ready.[27].
Love games
Take a set without the opponent getting any points.
In international competitions, it is "manner" that the winning side intentionally makes a mistake and gives 10 point to the opponent when it becomes 0-1, and the losing side does not try to win and makes the next mistake. ing.This is not a rule, and some players do not follow "manner" and shut out.[28][29].

Countries with thriving table tennis

Japan
the 1950s - the 1970sJapan was one of the best in the world.Armed with the dynamic forehand of a Japanese-style pen, he has produced a total of 13 men and women who have been world champions of singles in the past.However, after the 80s, the spread of shake hands forced the change of play style, and the stagnation continued for a long time due to the failure of generation change.
the 2000sSince then, the strengthening policy led by the Japan Table Tennis Association has come to fruition, and women have won five consecutive bronze medals in the world championships, silver medals in 5 and 2014, silver medals in 2016 at the Olympics, and silver medals in 2012. He won a bronze medal in a group and a silver medal in a group in 2016.Even for boys2005Won the World Junior Championships team competition,2008Since then, he has won four consecutive bronze medals in the World Table Tennis Championships, a silver medal in 4 at the Olympics, and a bronze medal in 2016. He won the first gold medal in history in the mixed doubles, which became a new event at the 2021 Tokyo Olympics.
Also, as an individualRio de Janeiro OlympicsThen, in the men's team, silver medal, in the men's singlesJun MizutaniWon the bronze medal,2017 Asian ChampionshipHirano MiuDefeated three Chinese players to win the championship,2017 World ChampionshipHirano MiuBronze medal in women's singles for the first time in 48 years, at the 2021 Tokyo OlympicsMito ItoWon a bronze medal in women's singles.
In addition, Ito won the bronze medal in the women's singles and the silver medal in the women's group, starting with the first gold medal in the history of Japanese table tennis in the mixed doubles that participated in the pair with Mizutani. Achieved 3 medals complete and became the first achiever in the history of table tennis at the Olympic Games.The ninth Japanese athlete to complete the gold, silver and bronze medals at the Olympic Games in one tournament (Takashi Ono, Akinori Nakayama, Eizo Kasamatsu, Shigeru Kasamatsu, Mitsuo Tsukahara, Koji Gushiken, Shinji Morisue, Kosuke Hagino in swimming) As far as the Summer Olympics are concerned, it is the first Japanese girl to achieve it (the second after Miho Takagi including the Winter Olympics).
People's Republic of China
The world's largest table tennis powerhouse.Historically, there were many players who were good at table tennis on the table with a focus on front-end haste, and in the past many players used table software, but in recent years there are overwhelmingly many players who use adhesive rubber.Both boys and girls have a large player base, and many strong players who have nowhere to go have flowed overseas, and as a result, naturalized players are being sent all over the world.2008 OfBeijing OlympicsSo, men and women monopolize the podium, and men and women win gold medals in groups. According to a report by Larry's in 2019, a system in which players go to school all year long from the time of elementary school and aim for a national team by striving for table tennis is producing strong table tennis players.[30].
Hong Kong
Although it is a part of China as a country, it participates in international table tennis games as a region.Naturally, there are many players with a play style similar to that of China.Most of the representative players are naturalized players from China.
South Korea
Many players play dynamically by making the most of their footwork.Seoul Olympics-Athens OlympicsThen won the men's single gold medal.
DPR Korea
Boys are better at playing stoic than Korean players, and many girls are foreign players who use grain height and table software.In addition, I sometimes practice with Chinese players 2002Defeating China in the Asian Games final, Kim Hyangmi defeated a Chinese player to win a silver medal at the Athens Olympics, and a woman won a bronze medal at the 2016 World Table Tennis Championships group. I sometimes show it. Kim Sung Yi won the bronze medal in the singles at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics.
There are many players with play styles similar to Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea.It's not as strong as China, but it can appear in the top ranks.
Singapore
Many of the representative players are naturalized players from China, and their playing style is similar to that of China.Girls2008World Championship and 2008Beijing OlympicsHave won silver medals, and defeated China in the 2010 World Championships (groups) to win gold medals.
Germany
Table tennis professional league (Bundesliga), the leading men from all over the world are gathering. In Europe, boys won silver medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics group, silver medal at the 2012 London Olympics group, bronze medal at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics group, and women's group silver medal at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics. It is a powerful country.
Sweden
the 1980sFrom the second halfthe 1990sOverSwedenOccupies the top of men's table tennis. Recently, it has revived again and has won the bronze medal in the 2018 World Championship team competition and the silver medal in the singles in the 2019 World Championship individual competition.
France
There is a professional league of table tennis, and in Europe it was once a powerful country along with Germany and Sweden.However, due to the failure of the alternation of generationsthe 2000sUntil then, it was sluggish.
England
Although it is part of England, it participates in international table tennis games as a region.Due to the historical background of being an island country and having ruled Hong Kong in the past, there are many players with different play styles from other European countries.After a long period of stagnation, the boys won the bronze medal at the 2016 World Table Tennis Championships.
Russia
There is a professional table tennis league (premier league), and influential players from all over the world are gathering for boys.Also, young people are growing up there and I am looking forward to the future.
Austria
In recent years, he has advanced to the final tournament in the world championship team competition, and boasts a stable strength. Werner Schlager won the gold medal in singles in the 2003 World Championship individual competition.
EuropeCountries
Table tennis is also popular in various European countries other than Sweden, Germany and France.Since there are relatively many small countries, the ups and downs due to generational changes are intense, but in countries with influential players, good results may be left in international competitions.
North America
Although not as prosperous as the countries mentioned above, the level has been raised by Chinese naturalized players as representatives.
Brazil
Since the Rio de Janeiro Olympics, table tennis has become popular, and it was the first in the 2018 World Championship team competition to be in the top eight.

TypicallyAsiaIt was popular in Europe, but as mentioned above, naturalized players from China are scattered all over the world, so there are many countries with representative Chinese players.

Large ball table tennis

Large ball table tennis (which was called new table tennis before April 2012, 24) was devised by the Japan Table Tennis Association for the purpose of popularizing table tennis, and rules and equipment standards were established.1988Enacted in.

It is a table tennis competition that is held using a ball larger than the ball (diameter 40 mm) used in general table tennis (rigid table tennis).Since the ball is large and the influence of air resistance increases, the speed and amount of rotation of the ball are reduced as compared with the conventional table tennis, and the rally is easy to continue.

In Japan, it is popular mainly among middle-aged and elderly people as a lifelong sport that even elderly people can easily do, and many competitions are held.

The main difference from hard table tennis

  • The ball used is large (44 mm in diameter) and light
  • Only the front soft rubber can be used as the rubber, but the grain height rubber cannot be used.
  • The height of the net is 2 cm higher
  • Promotion rule is 8 minutes

And so on.

From April 2012, 4, the name was changed to the current name, and basic rules and competition rules were established.

2018年3月31日までは、3セット11点制で12:12以降は13ポイント先取で1セット先取、サービスのトスの高さ(硬式では16 cm)の規定がなかった。

From April 2018, 4, the competition rules have been changed to "competition rules", which is in line with the basic rules of hard table tennis, with a difference of 1 points after deuce, the service rule is stationary for 2 to 2 seconds, and the toss is high. A rule has been added, such as raising the height by 3 cm or more.In addition, the basic rule has been renamed to "Recreation Rule".

From January 2019, 1, in the competition rules, the rules regarding competition clothing and advice are the same as those for hard table tennis.The color of the competition clothes was changed from "any color regardless of the color of the ball" to "a color clearly different from the color of the ball used", and the advice was changed to "anytime except during the rally".

From April 2022, 4, the rubber rule, which was only black and red in both the competition rule and the recreation rule, has been changed to "one is black and the other is a bright color that can be clearly distinguished from the color of the ball", just like the rigid type. Color rubber can now be used.

Soft (Japanese style) table tennis

The first table tennis to be introduced in Japan is1902ToTokyo Higher Normal School OfGenso Tsuboi United KingdomIs supposed to be the first to bring back table tennis equipment from[6]. For a while, there was development of Japanese unique tools and rules[6], Japan's first table tennis governing body was founded1921Around 10th year of Taisho, competitions were held on soft (Japanese) table tennis. The main difference from hard table tennis

  • The diameter of the ball used is 36.9 mm or more and 38.9 mm or less.
  • The weight of the ball is 2 g or more and 2.13 g or less
  • Net height is 2 cm higher 17.25 cm

And so on.

With the popularization of large ball table tennis and the change of the rules for hard table tennis,2001(13) The curtain came to an end at the end.

Table tennis as entertainment and culture

Compared to other sports, table tennis is easier to meet the conditions for playing the game (understanding the rules / skills / places / tools / securing players), so it is easy for men and women of all ages to become familiar, practical, and a lifelong sport. Widely loved by Japanese people.However, the table tennis members are so-calledJock(Yang Cat)notNard(Shadow) Is treated asprejudiceAndTamori OfDarknessRemarkCauseThere is an opinion that such a situation has been created), but there is no such prejudice in North America and Europe.However, as mentioned above, there is an image that it is a popular sport for the yellow race including Chinese in Europe and the United States.

Manga in 1993Go! Inaka table tennis clubIs a bestseller, and Ai Fukuhara was spotlighted as a "genius table tennis girl" at about the same time, and the movie "2002" was released in XNUMX.Ping-pong』(Yosuke KubotsukaSince the (starring) was screened, the boom has spread among young people. It is one of the sports that you can play casually, because it can be done by ladies and children, regardless of clothes, and there is little concern about injury.

Tactics

Table tennis organization

Country representatives

Major international competitions

Main table tennis league

Table Tennis Tournament

Major domestic tournaments

Other tournaments

Table tennis supplies manufacturer

Table tennis media

注 釈

  1. ^ Since October 2020, "TSP" and "VICTAS" have been integrated into the brand, and only the "VICTAS" brand is available.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d "History of Table Tennis”. International Table Tennis Federation. 2020/3/30Browse.
  2. ^ Table Tennis Knowledge Fountain Motoo Fujii 2003 Table Tennis Kingdom P23
  3. ^ Kosaku Yamada Complete Works 3 Iwanami Shoten Co., Ltd. 2001 P667
  4. ^ Japan Sports Association XNUMX Years History
  5. ^ SO Summer Sports Rules June 2016 (PDF) ス ペ シ ャ ル オ リ ン ピ ッ ク ス 日本
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i History of Japanese table tennis glory(As of January 2009, 1Archive) 2009World table tennis championshipYokohama convention officialサイト
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i World Table Tennis Championship History(As of January 2009, 1Archive) 2009World table tennis championshipOfficial website of the Yokohama Games
  8. ^ a b c d e Takayuki Shirahige・SPORTS 21,Ichiro Ogimura, the famous player who supported the XNUMXth table tennis Nippon(Internet archive) Japan Senior Online
  9. ^ Fuji TV Trivia Promotion Committee "Trivia Fountain ~ Hee no Hon ~ 6" Kodansha, 2004. 
  10. ^ An example of a hand saw racket Yasakaformulaサイト
  11. ^ Frequently Asked Questions/Q. What do you mean by the hard and soft feeling of hitting on the racket?(As of January 2008, 8Archive) Butterfly table tennis equipment /TamasOfficial Website
  12. ^ Frequently Asked Questions/Q. Do rackets have the same life as rubber?(As of January 2008, 8Archive) Butterfly table tennis equipment /TamasOfficial Website
  13. ^ [Sports news] "Illumination is too dark" "Unification of the balls used in the tournament" Ping-pong "Something king, Jun Mizutani" raised the problem -Sankei News February 2015, 2
  14. ^ a b "Plastic material analysis example-Ping-pong ball material”. Plastics Japan.com. 2020/1/15Browse.
  15. ^ Table tennis balls change... Is the "plastic ball" a poison or a drug for players? -Toa Nippo
  16. ^ [Table tennis] Only 6 unexpected "baptism" game balls! Makoto "I have to be careful" -Sports report, August 2016, 8
  17. ^ Fuji TV Trivia Promotion Committee "Trivia Fountain ~ Hee no Hon ~ 2" Kodansha, 2003. 
  18. ^ About future use of adhesive and racket inspection (Japan Table Tennis Association June 19, 6) (PDF) Tokushima Prefecture Table Tennis Association
  19. ^ About rule changes (PDF) (As of January 2008, 9ArchiveJapan Table Tennis Association 2008 (Heisei 20)/9/13
  20. ^ "Philosophy and Management" August 2016 Issue
  21. ^ [Supporting athletes] Blue table tennis table Hope for reconstruction -Asahi Shimbun April 2016, 4
  22. ^ Narinari.com September 2015, 9 Retrieved February 2017, 2
  23. ^ It is a development of the "scapula striking method" and "elliptical striking method" advocated by Takashima himself, and is named after the orbit of the elbow on the dominant hand side draws a "figure 8".The swing trajectory of the racket does not draw a figure of eight.
  24. ^ TV Asahi"Only 3% of Japanese know that it's Hanashika from Creamy Chu!』From the broadcast on August 2016, 8
  25. ^ What is an edge ball?
  26. ^ "A must-see/sports dictionary to understand immediately" published on January 1998, 1, publisher Shunsuke Nakayama, page 20.
  27. ^ What is let -Kotobank, viewed June 2016, 6
  28. ^ https://number.bunshun.jp/articles/-/832627
  29. ^ https://www.tv-tokyo.co.jp/tabletennis/news/2020/03/010022.html
  30. ^ Why is table tennis so strong in China? <Vol.1 Jun Mizutani> Larry's 2019.08.02 (viewed on August 2020, 8)

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Chiba Marine Stadium

Makuhari New City > Makuhari Seaside Park > Chiba Marine Stadium

Chiba Marine Stadium(Chiba Marine Stadium)Japan OfChibaChibaMihama OfMakuhari Seaside ParkMultipurpose withinBaseball field[3].Professional baseball-Pacific League(Pa League)Chiba Lotte Marines Private stadiumWe use as (base)[2].. Common names and abbreviations areChiba Marine,Marista[Annotation 1].ZOZOIs a facilityNaming rightsHas acquired the nameZOZO Marine Stadium(Zozo Marine Stadium, abbreviation:Zozomarine)[Annotation 2][4][5].

Overview

Home of Chiba Lotte Marines

1992(4)3/3In "Chiba Lotte Marines", the first practice at the stadium[2], First open game on 7th of the same month[6],same year4/4Held the first official game and started activities as a base[7].

Lotte in the first year of the move was sluggish at the bottom with 6th place in the team wins and losses[8]The number of spectators mobilized reached a new record of about 28 million people, an increase of about 130 in the relocation economy,[9], Greatly depressed in the second year[10].

After that, team performance was good1995Although audience mobilization increased in (7)[11][12], Team performance and audience mobilization were both sluggish.

1996(8) A question and answer about "Chiba Marine Dome" was held at the Chiba City Assembly in March.[13], Some prefecture and city government officials have called for "Chiba Marine to become a dome" as a breakthrough to improve the environment, which is easily affected by weather conditions such as slow mobilization of Lotte spectators and strong winds.

1999When Lotte was doing well in the beginning of the season (11),Asahi MatsuiThe mayor expressed that he would consider a dome if he wins[14].. At this time, the construction cost was about 80 billion yen, and it was planned to use private capital.[15]..However, the result ended up in 4th place.

2004In June 16, the Chiba Prefectural Assembly revised the management criteria to enable integrated use of the Chiba Prefectural Seaside Park adjacent to the baseball stadium in order to realize the "ball park concept".[16].. In the same month, the Lotte baseball team decided to cooperate with Chiba City as part of the proposal, proposing the establishment of a sales facility around the stadium.[17].

2006(18) First base side in AprilCocktailsA "bar" where you can watch while watching[18],same year8/1On the premises of the stadiumMarines MuseumIt was decided that "ball park" will be promoted.[19].

With these efforts, Chiba Lotte MarinesDesignated administratorIt became.

At the home of the NPB12 baseball stadium, the only home team to win the league, CS, or Japan Series has never been raised.In the visitor team, Seibu in 1993/2019, Daiei in 2003, and Nippon-Ham in 2007 are applicable.

Amateur sports hall of fame

Adult baseballOf the official gameJABA Chiba Mayor Cup Competition Baseball Tournament1st tournament[Annotation 3]Starting withhigh school baseballAnd adult baseball, etc.Amateur baseballAlso began to take place.Chiba Prefectural University BaseballHowever, since 2000, the first section of the first league match may be held. in 1Toto University BaseballThe first division league match was held for the first time.

In high school baseball, summerNational High School Baseball Championship Chiba TournamentSince the opening ceremony and the quarter-final match (may be used in the game of the fifth round or less in the balance of Lotte's schedule) are used in such.

As with other stadiums, it is also available for general use as a grass baseball field. However, there are usage conditions, "one team member must be 1 or less, and two-thirds or more must be "citizens in Chiba prefecture or those who are working or studying in Chiba city" (the same applies to the competition team)". ing[PR 1].

Venue for international competitions

2010(22)9/25ToNational Athletic Meet(Yume Peninsula Chiba National Athletic Meet) Was the opening ceremony venue. It was the first time that the opening ceremony of the national polity was held at a baseball field. Lotte in 2010Climax seriesWhen you advance to the first stage and final stage all gamesPublic viewingOf the former LotteTakashi TachikawaDone to guests[PR 2]In the final round, it attracted about 1 spectators, which was the same as the official round[20].

2018Held in Chiba Prefecture16th World Women's Softball ChampionshipThe venue for the final round[21].

2019,2019 WBSC Premier 12The venue for the second round (super round) of11/1111/12Held a total of 3 games[22].

About management company

When the stadium was opened, the third sector "Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd." was established by the city of Chiba as its operation management company. Before 2005, we managed and operated the Chiba Marine Stadium as a basic operation.Since Chiba Lotte Marines became a designated administrator in 2006, we have been entrusted with the management of user management and facility management from Marines. It is carried out[24].

In addition to this, as a designated manager of Chiba City, it represents the four community centers (Takasu, Masago, Kamatori, Tsuga) in Chiba City, and the consortium SSP UNITED.Chiba City Soga Sports ParkIs managed and operated[24].. in the pastKeiyo Bank Culture PlazaManagement and operation, under contract fromAobanomori Sports PlazaWas managing and operating[25].

History

Construction/opening

One of the best in Japan[26]MultipurposeBaseball fieldAiming for[3]As "Chiba Stadium (tentative name)"1988(63)1/30Groundbreaking ceremony was held[27].

A nickname is recruited[28],same year4/15Has been selected as "Chiba Marine Stadium"[29].

The stadium facility is owned by Chiba City, and the land portion such as the parking lot is owned by Chiba Prefecture.Third sectorIs aimed at[30], 49 public and private companies jointly invested[31],1989(HeiseiFirst year)5/19"Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd." was established in[31].

1990(2)3/24Opened at Opening game巨人Against Lotte[32][33][34]To invite 1 citizens for free[33][34][35].. The host of the match was not a Lotte but a giant.

The first professional baseball official game was on May 1991, 3, the following day.YakultversusChunichiBattle (sponsored by Yakult). In addition, the first hit of this stadiumAtsushi Furuta(double),First issueHome run TheYukio Arai(Running home run)[PR 3](# Official game hosted by YakultSee also section).

Inviting a professional baseball team

Was studying at the end of the Showa eraDaieiImmediately stop selling to people, and are aging and narrowKawasaki StadiumLotte Orion's, which had been stalled in crowds due to crowd mobilization, is said to be considering relocation of its base to other stadiums in the Kanto area, and there was a whispering plan to move to the stadium before and after the start of construction.[36][37].. In addition, immediately after "Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd."1989(HeiseiFirst year)6/25"Citizens' Council for Attracting Professional Baseball to Chiba" was formed by citizens of the prefecture and people involved in the political and business circles of the prefecture, and a signature campaign for attracting professional baseball was started.[38][39].. Therefore, "Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd." invited the Lotte team to hold an "official match".1989(HeiseiFirst year) with the reply that it will be held in November[36],same year11/24Has made progress toward the relocation of its headquarters, with President Matsui of the team eager to move from next season.[40].. However, due to the return of subsidies to the baseball team baseball of professional baseball, it could reach about 5 million yen.[41], The Chiba side showed a cautious attitude to bid for "public importance"1991Even the relocation of (3) came to be seen as difficult[42].. Given this situation, ChibaJunior ChamberAsked Chiba Prefecture and Chiba City to make an effort to attract professional baseball[43], The situation did not progress[44].. However, after the opening1990Even in July, the Chiba prefectural authorities did not change their cautious attitude to attract professional baseball teams in the prefectural assembly.[45].. Chiba in September of the same yearJunior ChamberSubmitted the petition again to the Chiba Prefectural Assembly[46], Finally in October of the same yearGovernor of Chiba PrefectureWill cooperate in the invitation[47].. Following the change in attitude of Chiba prefecture, Chiba City and Chiba Prefecture formally agreed to attract professionals on the 25th of the same month, and Chiba Prefecture issued a written approval to Chiba City.[48].. However, on the 30th of the same month, Lotte President Shizuro Matsui team1991(3) expressed abandonment of relocation[49], 1991(3)2/5"Chiba Marine Stadium"Pacific LeagueRequested to cooperate with[50]After3/31Made inChiba mayorAt the meeting with the Lotte baseball team, they announced that they were in a "blank paper" state.[51]This time, the Lotte team side showed a cautious attitude[Annotation 4].. Then the same year7/31ToJapanese professional baseballAt the owner meetingAkio ShigemitsuThe owner's representative officially announced the move and the first Chiba Marine sponsored by Lotte held on the same dayPacific LeagueOfficial match (vs.SeibuWar) with flowers[52].. And the same year9/4At the executive committee of LotteProtected areaIs approved for relocation to Chiba Prefecture[53],same year10/31After approval at the owner's meeting of1992So Lotte decided to move its headquarters to Chiba Marine.

At the time of the relocation, there were some fans who asked for the continuation of "Orions" as the name of the team.[54]I decided to change it as I wanted to renew the image to escape the downturn[55].. same year11/19The new nickname was decided to be "Chiba Lotte Marines"[56][Annotation 5].

Introducing naming rights

2010(22)11/4 -Chiba CityFacility naming rightsAs a general rule, the applicant's application guidelines were announced that the contract period was 3 years or more and the annual amount was 2 million yen or more.[57].. same year12/7ToFacility naming rightsTo the buyer of the saleQVC JapanWas selected as the negotiation partner[58].. The company's contract was a 2-year contract with an annual amount of 7500 million yen, for a total of 10 million yen.[59].. same year12/27, Chiba City and Lotte Team announced that QVC Japan has reached a basic agreement and selected the name,2011(23) From MarchQVC Marine FieldWas to be[60].

Since then, the details of the transition of the stadium name# Facility naming rightsSee also section.

Large-scale renovation / new stadium rebuilding concept

In March 2020 (Reiwa 2), 3 years have passed since the opening, and in light of the aging situation, Chiba City is considering a large-scale renovation or rebuilding to a new stadium (including another location). Is underway[61].

In Chiba City, we estimated the cost of a large-scale renovation and found that it would cost 50 to 70 billion yen, which greatly exceeds the originally planned 80 billion yen.Considering long-term costs such as maintenance costs, rebuilding is one of the options.[61][62].

In addition, as a planned new stadium site when rebuilt, in 2021 (Reiwa 3)Chiba governor electionThe governor of Chiba, who was elected by (March 3 vote counting)Toshito KumagaiIs scheduled to open in 2023 (Reiwa 5) at a policy announcement press conference held at the time of running (then Mayor of Chiba).JR Keiyo LineMakuhari Toyosuna StationClose toMakuhari MesseParking lot site is listed as a candidate[63][64][65]..In addition, Kumagaya is a local that was held in 2018 (Heisei 30) when he was the mayor of Chiba.Business worldAt the same time as rebuilding in the Lotte baseball team support event forDome StadiumI'm denying that[66].

In ChibaHiroshima City StadiumからHiroshima Toyo CarpTakes over the base ofMAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium HiroshimaIn addition to studying the cases of, we would like to call on Chiba Prefecture, Lotte baseball team, local business community, etc. to start studying concrete plans.[61].

History

  • 1988(Showa63 years)
    • 1/30 -Tentative name "Chiba Stadium" groundbreaking ceremony[27].
    • 4/15 -The nickname is decided to be "Chiba Marine Stadium"[29].
    • 11/18 -"Chiba Marine Stadium establishment preparatory committee" established[67]
  • 1989(HeiseiFirst year)
    • 5/19 -"Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd." established[31].
  • 1990(2)
    • 2/22 -Completion. The total construction cost is 133 billion yen.
    • 3/24 -Open[1].
  • 1991(3)
    • 5/25 -First official baseball game (Yakult-Chunichi) held.
    • 7/31 -First Lotte Orions (then) official match (Lotte-Seibu) held.
  • 1992(4)
    • 3/3 -First practice of "Chiba Lotte Marines"[2].
    • 3/7 -The first open game of "Chiba Lotte Marines"[6].
    • 4/4 -First official match of "Chiba Lotte Marines"[7].
  • 2006(18)
    • With the introduction of the designated manager system in Chiba City, Chiba Lotte Marines will be designated as the designated manager of the stadium. Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd. has been entrusted with user management work and facility management work from Marines, and moved to work as a designated manager of the community center in the city.[68].
    • April-on first baseCocktailsOpening a "bar" where you can enjoy watching[18].
    • 8/1 -On the premisesMarines MuseumEstablished[19].
  • 2010(22)
    • 11/4 -Chiba CityFacility naming rightsIn principle, the applicant's recruitment guidelines announce that the contract period is 3 years or more and the annual amount is 2 million yen or more.[57].
    • 12/7 --Chiba City becomes a negotiating partner for the sale of facility naming rightsQVC JapanAnnounced that it has selected[58].. The contract price is 2 million yen annually, totaling 7500 billion yen for a 10-year contract[59].
    • 12/27 -QVC Japan and Lotte Team have reached a basic agreement by QVC JapanQVC Marine FieldAnnounced that it was selected[60].
  • 2011(23)
    • 3/1 -"QVC Marine FieldChanged name to[60].
    • 3/11 - Great East Japan EarthquakeThere was no major damage to the stadium itself, but in the parking lot and around Kaihin Makuhari StationLiquefactionOccurs. Considering the safety of the audience, the open race on the 15th and 16th of the same month was canceled.[69][70].
  • 2016(28)
    • 3/1 -The scoreboard has been completely remodeled into a large-scale image device[71].Details later
    • 7/26 -QVC Japan expressed its intention to return and cancel the naming rights for the remaining 5 years to Chiba City.
    • 9/27 -As a result of discussions between QVC and Chiba City regarding cancellation, Chiba City acknowledges this. Announced that the name of "QVC Marine Field" will end on November 11 of the same year.
    • 10/28 -To the preferential negotiation right holder of the new name,Start Today[Annotation 6]Is selected.
    • 12/1 -From QVC Marine FieldZOZO Marine StadiumThe name was changed to.
  • 2019(31/ReiwaFirst year)
    • Open battleThe terrace seat "Home Run Lagoon" has been added. As a result, a maximum of 2018 meters outfield stand began to protrude in front of 4.[72].. It also announced that it will increase the number of marine seats.
  • 2021(3nd year of Reiwa)
    • 8/31 --Achieved a total of 18 wins at the main stadium in Lotte's official game (1000th round against Seibu) held on the same day.[73].
  • 2022(4nd year of Reiwa)

Equipment outline

Stadium data

  • Construction[74]
  • Building area[74]
    • Body: 14,938.38m2
    • Concourse: 4,288.08m2
  • Outer wall height: 33.9m on the back net side, 27.6m on the back screen side[75]
  • Ground area: 12,773.00m2[74]
    • From the beginning2005Up to 14,674m2, Maximum ground area: 15,018m2(When the movable seat is removed)
  • Ground: For baseball onlyArtificial grass(MizunoMade by "MS Craft Baseball Turf", MizunoSekisui ResinJoint development)[PR 4][76]
  • Ground scale: Both wings 99.5m, left and right middle 112.3m, midsize 122m[77]
  • Outfield fence height: 3.3m[77]
  • Lighting equipment: Large eaves tip top floodlight lighting system (commonly known as "circle line system",Koito Electric WorksHigh color renderingLEDFloodlight "OPTIS BEAM PRO")[PR 5][78]
  • Electric bulletin board: 6 places (main screen, 2 sub screens, 2 net back screens, band-shaped video equipment)[PR 6][79][80]
    • Main screen: High brightness full color LED type (Mitsubishi ElectricMadeAurora vision, Length 10.08m x Width 28.8m, equivalent to 1,201 type)
    • Sub-screen: High-brightness full-color LED type (Aurora Vision, length 5.76m x width 20.16m, equivalent to 825 type)
    • Net back screen
      • Score part: High-brightness full-color LED type (Aurora Vision, length 2.4m x width 11.2m, equivalent to 451 type)
      • Count: High-brightness full-color LED type (Aurora Vision, length 2.4m x width 2.88m, equivalent to 148 type)
    • Band-shaped image device: High-brightness full-color LED type (Mitsubishi Electric aurora ribbon, length 1.28 m x width 295.68 m)
  • Stand: Infield 2-layer type, Outfield 1-layer type
  • Capacity: 30,118 (including 8 wheelchair seats, as of February 2020)[PR 3]
    • Since 2006, small-scale renovations have been repeated every year and the number of seats has increased or decreased, but the increase or decrease in response to the change has not been announced in detail.
    • The maximum number of spectators was 2006 in the 8th round of Chiba Lotte Marines vs. Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters on August 19, 14.[81].
    • In the case of the official professional baseball game, a "full thanks" will be given when the number of visitors exceeds 30,000.

stand

The infield has two layers and the outfield has one layer. The overall shape is circular, but the outer shape has a large proportion of infield seats. In the past, removable movable seats for storing soccer courts on the fieldDugoutAlthough it was next to it, it was abolished when the field seats were added and the movable seats became field seats. Since 2006 when the control of the stadium has been transferred to the baseball team, small renovations have been repeated, and some seats have been replaced with box seats. In addition to the indoor bleachers installed at the top of the infield lower stand, the "Marines Press Sheet" is located near the first floor of the backseat (under the back net) on the first floor.

The infield stand and the outfield stand have a separate structure and are connected by a passage in the hall. In the Lotte sponsored game, the outfield seat entrants can enter the infield part, but conversely the infield seat entrants cannot enter the outfield part from 2006. Until 2005, the strategy was adopted only in games where the outfield seats were full, and games where congestion was expected, such as games for determining championships.

2005 Playoffs Stage 1 Round 1So, the right side (Lotte side) outfield seats were full and the left side (Seibu side) area was opened for Lotte fans, but the Seibu cheering team took up the seat beside the left side back screen to prevent Lotte fans from entering. Therefore, there was a confusion that some Lotte fans could not enter even though they had tickets. Currently, the center side of the left side outfield seats is set in advance as the Marines side (excluding some competition), and the ratio of visitors and home seats is 3:7.

Paper tapes and confetti are only allowed with permission. When players enter the dugout, cushions made of Tempur are placed on the bench.

Unlike other stadiums, there are no restrictions on noises because there is no residential area nearby, even if the game time is late.

field

The size of the soccer court was small, but the sliding movable seats were not used, so the foul ground is considerably larger than a baseball field with a fair ground of the same class. From Lotte's headquarters to the addition of field wing seats,NPBHas the largest ground area among the baseball stadiums where the baseball team is based inHanshin Koshien StadiumWas wider, but has been corrected).The ground area after installing the field wing seat, submarine seat, and home run lagoon is 12,773.00m.2(As of August 2020, 8)[74]It has become.

The ground is all artificial turf, in early 2003ア ス ト ロIt was replaced with a short pile artificial turf "Next turf" (pile length 30 mm). At the time of replacement, it was a high-performance type called "high-tech artificial turf". Deterioration such as pile hardening was pointed out around 2009, and Lotte submitted a request form for refitting artificial turf to Chiba City off the same year. Due to chronic financial difficulties in Chiba City, it was difficult to generate replacement costs.Therefore, the construction cost of about 5 million yen was rebuilt by the Lotte team and the city repayed over 2011 years from 6. It was decided to work.

Re-covering started in 2010 off, construction started at the end of the same year, and completed in late February 2011.Astro's short pile type "Astro Stage Mj Marine Version" (pile length 2mm) was adopted.BasicallySeibu DomeIt is the same kind as the one laid in, but at the marine stadium, cushioning material is laid under the underpad laid under the turf to reduce the impact on the legs and waist, based on the requests of the Lotte Association. ing. Each pile has a core, making it closer to the feel of natural grass. A person involved with the Astro said, "The real pleasure is how we can meet the demands of the players. We are most happy that the players play the best and win."

In response to this artificial turf replacement problem, the city systematically proceeded with facility repairs for the entire stadium, which has been aging for more than 20 years and has been donated by fans from all over the country, including citizens. Donations andFurusato tax paymentThe “Chiba Marine Stadium Fund” has been created, which seeks widespread cooperation using the “system” and has started accepting applications from September 2010, 9. The facility naming right was introduced at the stadium from March 1, 2011, and part of the profit from the sale will be used for the refurbishment expense. (The name of the fund will be changed to the "Marine Fund" from the same day with the introduction of the naming right. About the introduction process ofLater).

In 2018MizunoSekisui ResinAdopted "MS Craft Baseball Turf", an artificial turf for baseball jointly developed by[PR 4][76]..The total construction cost is 3 million yen.The re-covering work started off 2000, completed on February 2017, 2018, and started to be used for the open game in March of the same year.[82].

Long time agoAmerican FootballIt is a member of society leagueX LeagueBelongingObic seagullsWas playing an official game.The outfield was used, with goal posts on the right and left sides. Since the field was replaced with artificial turf for baseball in 2018, no official game has been held.Also, when installing the home run lagoon and submarine seats, it is unclear whether the game can be held now because it is not supposed to hold an American football game.

score board

At the beginning of the opening, the score display was a white lightning type, and in 1992, when Lotte became the base, a large image device with a high-intensity discharge tube was added (Matsushita Electric IndustrialMadeAstro Vision, Length 7.844m x Width 9.911m).When it was completely renovated in 2002 due to aging, LEDs were used for the score display.Furthermore, in the renovation in 2008, the video equipment was updated to the LED type Aurora Vision made by Mitsubishi Electric, which is slightly larger than before.

The video equipment has been equipped with "Marine visionIs nicknamed.There is a wind speed display on the right side, and a 45-minute counter for soccer and an elapsed time counter for American football on the left side.Just above the wind speed displayWindmill-type anemometerIs provided.

From 2011, the display method of the ball count has been changed from the conventional "SBO (strike ball out from top)" order to "BSO" according to international rules. With the establishment of the stadium naming rights, the electronic display above the Marine Vision was changed to "QVC Marine Field" instead of "LOTTERIA" up to the previous year, and changed to the "JR Tokai" billboard below. Hung up the "CHIBA LOTTE MARINES" sign (2013:Suntory"Soul Makgeolli", posted by Sumitomo Mitsui Banking since 2014). The number of pitches has been displayed on the referee since 2012.

The school name part displayed in the inning score when high school baseball is held can only display two characters (Spring,Toki,TakoIs as it is.Sendai Matsudo= Senmatsu,Funabashi City= City ship,Narashino(= Nara)[Annotation 7].. Although there is a dedicated column for displaying the ball speed, the ball speed is displayed in the central aurora vision (along with the advertisement) during the match, probably because the characters are small.

The scoreboard broke down during the Lotte-Oryx game on August 2014, 8. The names of all ORIX players have disappeared, and there are only four Lotte players: Kato, Kakuchu, Okada, and Masuda.

2016年に約5億円をかけてスコアボード部分を改修、メインスクリーン(縦10.08m×横28.8m(1,201型))1面、外野スタンドサブスクリーン(縦5.76m×横20.16m(825型))2面およびバックネット裏サブスクリーン(スコアなどを表示する縦2.4m×横11.2m(451型)と、打率、投球スピード等を表示する縦2.4m×横2.88m(148型))2面の合わせて5面の三菱電機製オーロラビジョンが設置された[PR 6][79]..This is because the team requested the scoreboard owner Chiba City to improve it, and the mayor wrote a letter to the editor saying that the video was difficult to see, and as mentioned above, there was a breakdown due to aging. rice field.The maintenance project cost is about 7 million yen, and Chiba City and Lotte baseball team will bear the cost at a ratio of 2: 1.[83]..In addition to the conventional scoreboard, subvisions will be installed at the rotating billboards near the poles on the left and right sides.[PR 7].. For the big clock, the 45-minute timer for soccer has been removed, and the stadium mark will appear instead.

Main board (back screen) is in the centerMeiji Jingu StadiumYou can now display the number of hits for each innings in the same way as. In addition, the basic inning display is only 9 innings. Professionals have extended 12 times (2016/2017 seasonJapan seriesexcept for[Annotation 8]), so add 9 innings next to 3 times. Amateur andsoft ballIs written up to 10 times, and from 11 times onward, it will be re-filled from 1.In the Lotte-Orix match on September 2016, 9, and the Lotte-Nippon-Ham fight on July 24, 2021, it was displayed as an amateur type probably because of a malfunction of the equipment.

Ribbon vision

It was refurbished in 2008 and was added to the eaves directly above the infield seats on the first floor. It uses the "Aurora Ribbon" made by Mitsubishi Electric. It is nicknamed "marines wing vision" by a public invitation from fans. During home games, a message celebrating the good play of Marines (hit, home run, successful steal, etc.)ReliefThe words "It's your time" and "We believe" will be displayed on the pitch, a message corresponding to the CM in Marine Vision, and other notices from the stadium side will be displayed.

In the renovation in 2019, it was updated to a total length of 295.68 m and a height of 1.28 m, making it the longest and largest ribbon vision in a domestic baseball stadium.[80].

This ribbon vision was a Lotte player at the timeTomoya SatozakiWas done in 2006World Baseball ClassicMajor League Baseball to participate in the gameLos Angeles AngelsIs the home ofAngel Stadium of AnaheimWhen I visited, I was impressed by the ribbon vision installed at the stadium, and after returning to Japan, I made a proposal to the Lotte baseball team and introduced it.[84][85].

照明

A searchlight is installed on the eaves at the top of the stand. Since no lighting tower is used, the appearance can be kept smart and there are advantages such as high lighting effects. Only Chiba Marine is fully adopting this method in outdoor baseball fields in Japan because it is necessary to build a high wall on the entire outer circumference of the stadium, but the method of distributing the searchlight to the eaves of the infield stand is laterOkayama Prefecture Kurashiki Sports Park Baseball Field(Muscat Stadium)Matsuyama Central Park Baseball Field(Botchan Stadium),Akita Prefectural Baseball Stadium(Komachi Stadium),Niigata Prefectural Baseball Stadium(HARD OFF ECO stadium Niigata), refurbished Hanshin Koshien Stadium (installed intensively before renovation), etc.

In 2018, the total construction cost will be 8 million yen, and all lighting in the ground will beLEDConversion. By replacing the current metal halide lamps and high-pressure sodium lamps with high color rendering LED lighting, it is possible to reduce total power consumption by about 50% while maintaining illuminance (brightness of the ground). In addition, by linking with the integrated control system, it will be possible to realize lively production linked with vision and sound, and new full-color LED lighting will be used to light up the outer wall of the stadium.[86].

bull-pen

bull-penIs on the first floor of the infield stand near the outfield, and in professional baseball the relief pitcher is between the infield stand and the outfield stand (before the L gate and R gate. It is also the entrance from the outside)Relief carAppear on.This stadium is the only one to use a relief car in the Pacific League.

FormerRelief carIs a car body that looks like the ball is split in halfGolf OfCartRemodeledElectric car(Before Lotte relocationマ ツ ダ-Eunos RoadsterSo the pitcher was opening the passenger seat door).

From the middle of the 2006 seasonVolvo C70Has been updated to the same model in 2007 and 2010[PR 8].

In 2015,Audi a5 cabrioletUpdated to[87]The following year, 2016,Audi TT RoadsterUpdated to[88].

From the 2020 to 2022 seasonMercedes-Benz S560 Cabrioletuse[PR 9].

The 2006 Volvo C70 and later relief cars are custom models without a passenger seat door and passenger seat so that the pitcher can get off immediately.

Ads

There are a total of eight rotating advertising signs on the outer wall of the outfield seats, four on the left side and four on the right side.Originally,1992After moving to Lotte Chiba, 7 cards were installed, 14 on each of the left and right sides, but 2016 were removed for the 2 sub-screen installation.2005IsTakefujiWith the expiration of the contract period withconsumer loanRemoved ads[89].

Lotte baseball team became the designated manager of the stadium2006From now on, advertisements will be installed on the fences of the infield and outfield (outfield is all white, infield is color advertisement),2008ToBack screenBlue Engineering's Trivision (three-sided rotating display advertising signboard) was installed in[90].

Impact of sea breeze

From the stadium(Tokyo Bay) Is extremely close to about 150m, so it is not uncommon to exceed 10m/s.Sea breeze(Commonly known as "Marine style))[91][92].. It is a daily occurrence that hit balls that would otherwise fly to the outfield are pushed back to the infield, and the pitches thrown by the pitcher change unexpectedly.It has been 25 years since the Lotte team relocated to Chiba. It also contributes to the lack of 30 homers among the Japanese players who belong to the team.[92].. An anemometer and anemometer are installed on the stadium, and it is a rare stadium where the wind direction and speed can be displayed on the electronic bulletin board.[93].. If the wind speed exceeds 18 m/s, it may interfere with the play progress, so the game may be canceled even if it is not raining.[Annotation 9].. Some games were actually canceled.

Also, during the summer night game, from the coast side behind the scoreboard at the end of 5 timesfireworksHowever, this is also because there is a risk of sparks falling into the ground when there is a strong wind (10 m / s or more) or when the wind is blowing toward the home (especially 4 to 6 m / s is the most dangerous). It may be canceled.

Marines Museum

2006(18)8/1Various materials related to Marines were exhibited at the "Marines Museum", which opened in Tokyo.[19].

With the 2017 renewal, the museum was reduced in size, and the Marines store (goods shop) that was attached was expanded. The 2nd floor was closed. Currently, it retains its name as the Marines Store and Museum Store, and some exhibits have been relocated. Also, some exhibits were relocated to the concourse in the stadium.[PR 10].

  • Registration under controlA list of players, a winning parade as seen on the photo panel, and a replica of the four trophies that were awarded to the winners in 2005 when they won six crowns including Japan
  • Was actually usedMinicarRelief car using
  • Dugouts, turf and lighting that are actually used in the stadium, full-scale outfield fence around the foul pole, can be actually operatedBall countdisplay. From September 2010 to July 9, the strike count worked, but the ball broke and did not respond. In the cut out formmoundAnd home base area reproduction
  • Reproduction of the locker room. Used spikes, gloves, bats, etc. that have been donated by athletes are placed,Tomoya Satozaki World Baseball ClassicThe uniform from Japan that I wore when I participated inYoshihisa Naruse Beijing Olympic Baseball Japan National TeamThe baseball cap and ground coat worn when the player participated are also displayed.
  • History of Chiba Lotte Marines since its predecessor "Mainichi Orion"
  • The first artificial turf mat that was laid out at the time of the completion of the marine stadium outside of the entrance

Indoor practice area

The indoor practice field has not been built since the stadium was built, and is located a little far away.Inage Seaside ParkThe practice field was used. At the request of athletes, it was built outside the stadium with the aim of using it from 2012, and was completed on February 2012, 2.[PR 11].

The artificial turf in the practice field uses the artificial turf (Astro Stage Mj Marine version) that was used in the stadium from 2011 to 2017, and the cinder track uses the same one as the stadium.[PR 12].

Expansion of equipment for spectators

The facility expansions aimed at improving fan service, which were implemented after 2000, are listed below.

  • 2001 -Established "Emado" donated by a facility for people with intellectual disabilities near the stadium.
  • 2003 -A children's play facility, day care center, nursing room, and crib are installed. About the nursing room and cribKaoHas acquired the naming right as a "Mary's Baby Room" (currently the naming rights have been canceled to become "Kids House").IKEAAcquired the naming right, and the "IKEA Kids Square" (currentlyRecruit HoldingsWon the naming rightSumo It is operated as "Kids Square").
  • 2006 -Management rights transferred from the city to the Lotte team. Massage seats that responded to fans saying "I want to watch the game while receiving a massage" including the ban on fence advertisementsField sheetA major renewal will be carried out, including the addition of a new name (field wing seat).Labrador RetrieverIntroducing the "elf" ball dog. same year8/1, On the premises of the stadiumMarines Museum'Is open.
  • 2007 -From the same season, the use of the banner is permitted only for the first base free seats. The season opening game became more like a football stadium, and the home color became stronger.3/30From near the light gateBatting centerInstalled. The centerpiece isShunsuke Watanabe OfUnderslowA batting machine with a video that shoots a ball from 5 cm above the ground. In addition, hard balls are struck, wooden bats are also prepared, and a tosbatting machine where you can experience actual toss batting is also prepared.
  • 2008 -At the eaves of the 1st and 2nd floor seats, Mitsubishi Electric banded image device "Aurora Ribbon" was installed from the right wing pole to the left wing pole via the back net, and the back screen image device was enlarged, MadeAurora visionUpdated to. The TV camera in the stadium is also compatible with high definition. Changed the left stand upper center toward the stand deck. As a result, the maximum number of passengers on the passenger side has been reduced.
  • 20098 month - 6/11 OfHiroshimaAchieved in battleJapan professional baseball recordBecomes “1inningA monument of 15 points was set up (a digital photo frame recording the images at that time, bats used by the players standing at bat, and a photograph of the score sheet are embedded).
  • 2014 -Renovation of 7748 infield seats.
  • 2015March-Infield and outfield in the stadium All toilets in each concourse have been renovated.Approximately 3 large LCD TV monitors are installed in concourses and entrance gates.Update of audio equipment in the stadium.Repaired the fence on the dugout.Renovated the ball park stage in front of the stadium.

Facility naming rights

Name by facility naming right
  • QVC Marine Field(December 2011, 3-February 1, 2016)
  • ZOZO Marine Stadium(December 2016, 12-scheduled for November 1, 2026)
* Even after the introduction of the naming rights, the facility name under the ordinance of Chiba City is "Chiba Marine Stadium".

Until the introduction of naming rights

The city that owns and manages Chiba Marine Stadium, Marine Stadium Company and Lotte Team2005From the Marine StadiumFacility naming rightsBegan studying the sale of (Naming Rights)[95].

The city's financial difficulties continued to deteriorate during this period, and in the fall of 20092010As a budget shortfall of about 270 billion yen was expected in the budget compilation ofToshito KumagaiThe mayor10/21With the addition of a "Declaration of "Financial Crisis"", policy changes will be made to stabilize the balance of payments.[96].. As part of the plan, the city continued to strongly request Lotte to sell the naming rights for the entire stadium facility to the Chiba Marine Stadium, which had long been shelved for the purpose of introducing the facility naming right.2011Agreed to introduce naming rights from the season[97]In response to this, the city announced the application guidelines for the seller.11/4Announced to[57].11/5から11/25In the beginning of December, after conducting a public offering of sale destinations, in principle the sale conditions are set for a contract period of 3 years or more, an annual amount of 2 million yen or more, and prioritized negotiation rights are decided in consideration of proposals for regional contribution etc. With the aim of selecting a sale destination, the new name was announced in January 12, and it was announced that it will be adopted from the beginning of the season of the same year.[57].

After all, four companies applied for the public offering of the sale destination by the deadline. The city did not disclose the name of the applicant company, but Mihama-ku near the stadiumMakuhari New CityHeadquartered in Tokyo to operate the fashion mail order site "ZOZOTOWN"Start Today The11/17Publicly announced that they had applied for public offering[98]From the same day11/23In addition to collecting signatures for 15,977 people on the company's website for acquisition, ZOZO Marine Stadium was the most popular naming proposal at the time of signing, at 664.

QVC Marine Field

As a result of the screening of the four companies that the city applied for, the TV mail order business "QVCIs a Japanese corporation with headquarters in Makuhari New CityQVC JapanIs selected as the negotiation partner12/7Announced to[58][PR 13].. In addition to proposing a new term with "Marine" as part of its new contract term of 10 years, the company also presented local contribution measures such as support for employees living around Makuhari and holding events.

Regarding the reason for selection, Mayor Kumagai wrote on his blog "Comprehensive evaluation of stability, corporate contribution to the region, name proposal, etc. in addition to amount and period" "Good suggestions from each company (both named "Marin" by fans I was given a name proposal in consideration of the voice of "Leave me"."[99].. Chris Holobin, CEO of QVC Japan, commented that the naming rights will trigger QVC's long-term commitment to Japan and Chiba, in response to the priority negotiation rights.[100].. Start Today, which was omitted from the selection, announced that it contributed to the above-mentioned "Chiba Marine Stadium Fund" using the hometown tax payment system.[101].

As a result of the negotiations between the city and Lotte baseball team with QVC Japan,12/24Has reached a basic agreement by12/27We had a joint press conference at Marine Stadium. The contract amount is 2 million yen annually for a total of 7500 million yen for a 10-year contract, which is the longest contract term ever for the name of the facility of the professional baseball headquarters in Japan.[59].. The name is "QVC Marine FieldIt was also decided to[60][PR 14].. QVC Japan's President Xin Sasaki said about the contract period, "Let's walk together with the Kaihin Makuhari district and show that we are determined to continue rooting for a long time" and with respect to the name, Lotte who won the Japanese series with "wa" as the slogan in the same year. ,movies"Field of Dreams"The first stadium with a "field" in Japan's professional base, I decided to use it in the sense of a place for fighting and a place for nurturing dreams," he explained. Mayor Kumagai said to the title, "9% of the citizens of the prefecture wanted me to leave "Marine". I am happy as a fan."

After that, the three parties proceeded with further negotiations, and after adjusting the details of the contract, in 32/28Signed a formal contract with the new name adopted from March 3st[60].. QVC Japan plans to pay 10 million yen per year, which is half the contract amount, to the city and Lotte team for the next 1 years, and a part of the proceeds will be used for facility repair such as artificial turf replacement mentioned above ..

6th year of contract20167/24, Chiba City announced in June that it has applied for cancellation of the contract from the QVC side, saying "We have achieved certain results such as an increase in name recognition."[102].. After the three-way talks with the city/baseball team, QVC pays 3 million yen, which is 4% of the contract fee for the remaining four years, as a penalty (the penalty is split between the city and the baseball team).9/27Agreed to[103].

ZOZO Marine Stadium

Chiba City is looking for a new sponsor to replace QVC. "Contract period 5 years or more, annual amount of 2 million yen (excluding tax), hope to put "Marine" in the new name" condition10/6から10/20Recruited until[PR 15]As a result, there are applications from 4 companies by the deadline[104],10/28, Chiba City started as a priority negotiating right holder of the new naming rights.[Annotation 6]Announced that was selected[5].. On November 11, the new name "ZOZO Marine StadiumWas announced and was renamed on December 12. Shinya Yamamuro, President of the team, is very pleased to have signed a naming rights contract with Start Today Co., Ltd., which is headquartered in Makuhari, Chiba, near the stadium, and promotes community-based activities. Has been announced. The contract period is 1 years and the annual amount is 10 million yen (excluding tax, split between city and baseball team)[105].

Professional baseball team on September 2019, 9Fukuoka Softbank HawksOwnSoftbank Group OfYahoo(Current:Z Holdings) Announced to ZOZO that it will enter into a tender offer and a capital and business alliance[106].. At the time of announcement, Yahoo has been the home of the SoftBank team since 2005.Fukuoka DomeIn addition to having acquired the naming rights of[107],In the pastOrix Blue Wave (then)Was the home ofKobe Sports Park Baseball FieldWas contracted for the naming rights, but when the parent company SoftBank entered the professional baseball world, it had a history of ending the naming rights contract with the ORIX team.[108], Some baseball fans were worried about the future of the naming rights contract, but Yahoo'sKentaro KawabeThe president showed the attitude of "within the scope of promotion", and ZOZOKotaro Sawada"There is still a contract period left, and there is no reason to quit," said the president, emphasizing the idea that both Yahoo and ZOZO will maintain the stadium naming rights contract with Chiba City and Lotte baseball team.[106].. In addition, Yahoo will later change the naming rights of the Fukuoka DomePayPayHave been transferred to[109].

Naming rights other than facility name

Apart from the facility itself, the stand also has naming rights[PR 16].

  • E + Visitor support picnic box (on the left pole)
  • CNHome plate sheet (home front row behind back net)
  • MINI STOPSeat (part of the second floor seat on the 3rd base side artificial grass seat)
  • Seven-Eleven Stand deck (top left)

From the 2019 season, the parent company of the designated manager (Chiba Lotte Marines Co., Ltd.)LotteThe name of each product is adopted as the seat name and gate name[110].

Official games other than Chiba Lotte Marines

Tokyo Yakult Swallows

1991XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Yakult SwallowsThe sponsored Japan-China match was held, and this was the first official baseball game on the stadium. The following year, even after Lotte set up its headquarters,2005Mainly until the end of May or early June on weekends 5 card (6-1 games) was played annually. Yakult is based at this timeMeiji Jingu StadiumTokyo Roku University BaseballThis is the final section of the spring leagueEarly raceHowever, if many visitors were expected and shared on the same day, congestion in the surrounding area and confusion at the time of spectator replacement could be expected, so it was done in the sense of avoiding them.

At that time, Yakult had many athletes from Chiba prefecture and high school from that prefecture (Tetsuya Iida(Takudai Red MausoleumFrom),Kazuhisa Ishii(From Chiba City,Tokyo Gakukan UrayasuFrom),Katsuyuki Dobashi(From Funabashi City,Inba HighFrom),Hiroshi Shiro(From Narashino city,Narashino High(Origin) et al), these athletes were used in the poster of the official game.

At that time, Yakult was the only official day game held in the Tokyo metropolitan area.[Annotation 10]However, in 2005, from early May to mid-JuneSep-pa Exchange BattleSince it became less necessary to consider the Waseda-Keio battle, the official competition hosted by Chiba Marine was staggered in July.

Since 2006, as a result of coordination with the university baseball side, it became possible to hold a day game at Jingu, and Yakult sponsored Chiba Marine has not held an official match. Since then, he has only played in the visitor game of the Sep-Pa Exchange Battle.

Yokohama DeNA Baystars

Yokohama DeNA BaystarsIs basedYokohama Stadium 2020 Tokyo Olympics OfBaseball eventSince it is a venue of Yokohama Stadium, and Yokohama Stadium cannot be used during and before the holding period,20207/1718 daysPair of巨人The battle was scheduled to be held at Chiba Marine Stadium for the first time, including the days of the predecessor team.[111].. However, due to the postponement of the holding of the Tokyo Olympic Games, the stadium for the corresponding game was changed to Yokohama Stadium, so the holding of DeNA sponsored games at this stadium has disappeared.[112].

Special event

Not only for sports, but also for entertainment purposes.Baseball field[3]As soon as completed, 19904/13 Ofマ ド ン ナStarting with the concert[113], Has been used in many concerts, and in recent years, it hasSummer sonicAlso became the venue. However, on the other hand, about 60 complaints as noise were received from neighboring residents for the Madonna concert.[114], Some were from 3km away. Since it is an outdoor facility in an urban area that also has housing, noise problems have existed since the opening.[115].

Major event achievements

  • National High School Quiz Championship - 10th(1990) Used in the first round of the national tournament and quarterfinals.
  • Namie Amuro with SUPER MONKEY'S -SUMMER PRESENTS '96 AMURO NAMIE with SUPER MONKEY'S (last live as Namie Amuro with SUPER MONKEY'S held from August 1996st to September 8st, 31) was held.
  • B'z --The live was held on August 2000, 8.During the live, near the stageThunderThe concert was shortened in a hurry because the staff was injured.
  • Hikaru Utada -BOHEMIAN SUMMER ~ Hikaru Utada Circuit Live 2000 was held.
  • Summer sonic -It has been a regular venue since 2001Rock festival.
  • Mizuki Nana -NANA MIZUKI LIVE UNION 2012 and NANA MIZUKI LIVE EXPRESS 2019 (both tour Chiaki performances) were held.
  • BUMP OF CHICKEN --The best album release commemorative live was held on August 2013, 8.Chiba Prefecture, where the venue is located, is also the hometown of the members.
  • BEST COLLEGES Hardball Baseball Championship - School corporation RishishaUsed as a final tournament venue from the 18th (2007) tournament to the 27th (2016) tournament at a baseball tournament for students of each group vocational school.
  • AVICII JAPAN TOUR 2016 TOKYO --On June 2016, 6AviciiUsed as one of the live venues for the first and last Japan tour.Another performance was held on June 6th, the day before, at the Maishima BEACH SIDE special venue in Osaka Prefecture.
  • ONE OK ROCK --ONE OK ROCK 2020 Field Of Wonder At Stadium Live Streaming Supported by au (my first online live) was held.
  • X GAMES CHIBA 2022 - To be held in April 2022. This will be the first time the X Games will be held in Japan.[116][117].
  • BANDAI NAMCO Entertainment Festival2nd - Held in May 2022.Initially in February 5Tokyo DomeHowever, due to the influence of the new coronavirus, the date and venue were changed.[118].

Media

Location shootingIt is also used in recordings.

Access

Train

bus

  • From the Plena Makuhari stop (in front of the Marines Store Kaihin Makuhari store) on the west side of Plena Makuhari at the south exit of Kaihin Makuhari Station, a temporary shuttle bus will be operated by the Keisei Group bus only during games hosted by Chiba Lotte Marines (payment in the car). Then, in-car broadcasts such as arousing manners by Chiba Lotte will be broadcast).
  • Regular fixed-route buses departing from the station north exit terminal will also operate as usual.
  • Route buses from other stations are mainly from Makuhari-Hongo Station on the JR Sobu Line and Keisei Chiba Line, but buses from JR Makuhari Station and JR Inage Station also run every 30-60 minutes. Has been done.
  • At the end of the match, Kaihin Makuhari Station, Makuhari Hongo Station, JR Inage Station (Keiyo Line Kemigawahama Station,Inagekaigan StationA temporary bus to (via) is operated.Of these, there are also non-stop flights to and from Kaihin Makuhari Station and Makuhari Hongo Station (Flights to and from Makuhari Hongo Station do not pass through the Makuhari New City area, but go out from the license center intersection to the Messe Ohashi intersection.Chiba Prefectural Road No. 15 Chiba Funabashi Kaihin LineRoute to the Makuhari Kaihin Park intersection via.

Express Bus

Automobile

There are many parking lots in and around the stadium.

Parking Lot *Because there are many, only the main one when professional baseball is held

*See the link below to check the availability of parking lots

  • Makuhari Seaside Park Parking F Block(1-1 Mihama, Mihama-ku, Chiba) *1-2 minutes walk to the stadium
    • Capacity: 577 regular cars
    • Business Hours: 8:30-21:00 (However, up to 23:00 at night)
  • Makuhari Seaside Park Parking D Block(1-1 Mihama, Mihama-ku, Chiba) *7-8 minutes walk to the stadium
    • Capacity: 833 regular cars
    • 営業時間: ※プロ野球開催時に限り試合終了後1時間まで営業。通常時8:30-17:30 但し、4月~6月は8:30~18:30 、7月~9月は8:30~19:30
  • Makuhari Messe parking lot(3-1 Toyosa, Mihama-ku, Chiba) *10 minutes walk to the stadium
    • Capacity: 5,500 regular cars, 120 large cars, 50 motorcycles
    • Business hours: 8:00-23:00 (Last entry is 21:00)
If the above Kaihin Koen parking lot is full, you will mainly use this parking lot.
  • Other parking lots are omitted in this section because there are major restrictions on business hours, distance to the stadium, and the number of cars that can be accommodated when professional baseball is held.
  • It is not necessary to reserve parking lots or purchase advance tickets at events.

Neighboring facilities

Kaihama Makuhari Station(JR East) Is within walking distance and adjacent toMICEFacility (Makuhari Messe), hotel (APA Hotel & Resort Tokyo Bay Makuhari,Hotel New Otani Makuhari,Hotel the Manhattan,Hotel Francs,Hotel Green Tower Makuhari),Commercial facility(Planner Makuhari,Mitsui Outlet Park Makuhari,CostcoMakuhari Wholesale MakuhariAEON MALL Makuhari New City,Ito-YokadoMakuhari store), office (QVC Japanhead office,World business garden),Makuhari BaytownThere are large-scale apartments, etc.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ There is also a marine stadium and marine.
  2. ^ 201612/1More detailsLater
  3. ^ The tournament was held at the completion of the marine stadium,Hitachi, Ltd.Became the first winning team.
  4. ^ Immediately after that, Kawasaki City spent 14 billion yen to repair the equipment at the Kawasaki Stadium.
  5. ^ The nickname for the 1st place of application is "DolphinsIt was,Chunichi DragonsIt was not adopted because it suffered. Other"PiratesWas the top
  6. ^ a b Company name changed to ZOZO in October 2018.
  7. ^ Currently, it has been refurbished with 5 characters (eg:Nichidai Narashino) Up to ()Even allocation, 6 characters (eg:Abiko NikaidoNames exceeding) have become narrower in the character width and can be assigned closely).[Source required].
  8. ^ Since Chiba Lotte has not advanced to the Japanese series since the scoreboard renewal, it is unknown what kind of style it was after 13 times
  9. ^ The open game between Lotte and Rakuten held on March 2014, 3 started with a wind speed of 18m, but due to strong winds, it became a no-game in the middle of the back once.[94].
  10. ^ The Jingu Stadium, where Yakult is based, was used in combination with student baseball, and professional baseball was held in principle throughout the year, even outside of summer. For this reason, the Yakult-sponsored day game was generally conducted as a local expedition to Hokkaido, the Tohoku region, Niigata prefecture, etc. before the opening of the main stadium.

Source

  1. ^ a b "Chiba Marine Stadium Grand Opening" Ribbon-cutting ceremony by Director Fujita and others. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 9, 12, 17. (March 1990, 3) 
  2. ^ a b c d “First practice at Chiba Lotte Marines Marine Stadium The head office of the baseball team also opens at WBG”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 18. (April 1992, 3) 
  3. ^ a b c “Sports, Lek's New Hall of Fame, Chiba Marine Stadium for Multipurpose Enjoyment”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 6-7. (February 1989, 4) 
  4. ^ "To the name of the stadium of QVC Marine, "ZOZO Marine"". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2016, 11). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDZ17HL9_X11C16A1TI5000/ 2016/11/17Browse. 
  5. ^ a b "Chiba Marine's naming right, "ZOZOTOWN" Start Today has priority". ITmedia(July 2016, 10). http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/1610/28/news104.html 2016/11/14Browse. 
  6. ^ a b "Chiba Lotte Marines home base marine first open game". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 12. (April 1992, 3) 
  7. ^ a b "Gorgeous opening game, the power of the prefectural fan students at the hometown Marine". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 10-12, 19. (April 1992, 4) 
  8. ^ "Chiba Lotte Marines, the first year of the relocation of Purizumi, 1th place, not as good as the whirlwind." Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 25. (October 1992, 10) 
  9. ^ “If Chiba Lotte moves, 130 million people will increase by 28 in spectator-sponsored games. Next year will be a crucial moment.” Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun): p. 25. (February 1992, 10) 
  10. ^ "PR Marines tomorrow local first appearance to stop the audience reduction". Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun): p. 27. (February 1994, 4) 
  11. ^ “Lotte marine march fans flooded in” Marine Stadium Hokuhoku Audience mobilization soared. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 19. (November 1995, 8) 
  12. ^ "Marine Stadium Chiba". Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun): p. 19. (February 1995, 8) 
  13. ^ "Marine stadium dome" "I do not promise but consider" City council question battle ". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 1996, 3) 
  14. ^ “To consider marine dome,“ Lotte wins ”mayor conceives construction cost survey instructions”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 1999, 6) 
  15. ^ “Dome construction cost is 80 billion yen Chiba Marine Stadium to utilize private capital”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 1999, 6) 
  16. ^ "Marine Stadium and Seaside Park June Prefectural Assembly Relaxation of management standards for prefectural parks Chiba Daily". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1-2. (February 2004, 6) 
  17. ^ “Product sales facility around the stadium Chiba Marine Proposed by Lotte to increase sales City also cooperates”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 2004, 6) 
  18. ^ a b “Couple and others are thriving every day !!“ Bar ”on the first base side of Chiba Marine Stadium. Cocktail taste and fashionable baseball games.” Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2006, 4) 
  19. ^ a b c d “M Hall of Fame opened today Lotte's history introduction, interaction with players”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2006, 8) 
  20. ^ "Chiba National Athletic Meet Prefectural march to the pride of the hometown to a heated battle" Yume Peninsula Chiba National Athletic Meet "opening ceremony at Chiba Marine". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 14-15, 18-20. (September 2010, 9) 
  21. ^ "Final tournament”. The official website of the 16th WBSC World Women's Softball Championship. 2018/7/31Browse.
  22. ^ "WBSC awards Premier12 2019/Olympic Qualifier hosting rights to Japan's NPB for 2nd Round and Finals”. WBSC (August 2017, 8). 1-2017-09 Retrieved.
  23. ^ a b Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd. Announcement of 33st period financial results
  24. ^ a b Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd.: Company Profile: List of Offices
  25. ^ Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd.: Contract business
  26. ^ “Groundbreaking ceremony for“ Chiba Stadium ”on the 30th One of the best facilities in Japan, aiming for completion in November next year”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 1) 
  27. ^ a b "Chiba stadium, mulberry insertion construction aiming for completion next fall Expected to be used for purposes other than baseball". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 1) 
  28. ^ "Call for nicknames for Chiba Stadium". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 1) 
  29. ^ a b “The name of the new stadium at Chiba Marine Stadium is decided by Mr. Matsumura of Yokodo Ko”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 4) 
  30. ^ “Various event management regular city council in the 65rd sector of Chiba Marine Stadium opened in the spring of 3”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 6) 
  31. ^ a b c “Established Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd. in April. Utilization of private know-how 49 public and private companies jointly invested”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 1. (November 1989, 2) 
  32. ^ "Kokeraotoshi is a giant-Lotte game Chiba Marine Stadium to open next spring". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 1989, 12) 
  33. ^ a b "Chiba Marine Stadium Kokera Otoshi Giants-Free invitation to 1 people against Lotte". Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun): p. 26. (February 1990, 1) 
  34. ^ a b “The opening is gorgeous. Chiba Marine Stadium Adults' Tournament also invites 1 citizens on the first day”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 27. (October 1990, 1) 
  35. ^ "Free invitation for 10000 professional baseball players Chiba Marine Stadium March 3 Kokeraotoshi". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 12. (November 1990, 2) 
  36. ^ a b “The story of Kuroshio Lotte advancement”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 26. (October 1988, 11) 
  37. ^ Shinchosha Co., Ltd."Pag League of 1988" Chapter 1-Chapter 4. Released on July 2019, 7.ISBN 9784103527312
  38. ^ “Professional baseball invitation prefectural conference launched Signing campaign started Chiba Marine Stadium relies on”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 29. (October 1989, 6) 
  39. ^ "Ora ga baseball team" signing campaign to attract professional baseball to local love Prefectural Council ". Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Newspaper): p. 24. (July 1989, 6) 
  40. ^ "Lotte, President of Matsui baseball team due to motivation transfer problem to Chiba next season". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 1. (November 1989, 11) 
  41. ^ “Prefecture agrees with Chiba City tomorrow Lotte baseball team invitation problem negotiation subsidy return 5 million”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 24. (October 1990, 10) 
  42. ^ "Is it impossible to relocate next year? Lotte base problem difficult" Chiba side of "publicity-oriented" ". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 8. (November 1989, 11) 
  43. ^ “Prefecture and Chiba City Chiba JC request efforts to attract professional baseball”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 19. (November 1989, 12) 
  44. ^ “Professional baseball is almost hopelessly held in Chiba City stadium problem”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 17. (November 1989, 12) 
  45. ^ “Careful attitude to attract professional teams at Chiba Marine Stadium Prefectural assembly, prefecture responds”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 1. (November 1990, 7) 
  46. ^ "Petition to attract professionals JC to Chiba Marine Stadium Prefectural Assembly". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 12. (April 1990, 9) 
  47. ^ "Prefecture cooperates in attracting professional teams Chiba Marine Stadium Governor announces at prefectural assembly". Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Newspaper): p. 24. (July 1990, 10) 
  48. ^ "Petition to attract professionals JC to Chiba Marine Stadium Prefectural Assembly". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 1. (November 1990, 10) 
  49. ^ “Abandoned next year, President of Matsui baseball team at Lotte relocation”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 17. (November 1990, 11) 
  50. ^ "Chiba Marine Requests Cooperation from Pa". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 17. (November 1991, 2) 
  51. ^ "Lotte is just a" blank sheet "and talks with the mayor at the move to Chiba." Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 19. (November 1991, 4) 
  52. ^ "Acting Shigemitsu officially announces the birth of" Chiba Lotte "". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 19. (April 1991, 8) 
  53. ^ "Lotte decides to move to Shintenchi / Chiba by executive committee next year at Marine". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 12. (April 1991, 9) 
  54. ^ “Change the nickname of the team ignoring airflow fans”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 12. (October 1991, 11) 
  55. ^ “Renewal of the image of escape from the slump Lotte, acting president Shigemitsu announced a new nickname at a press conference on the 19th”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 17. (November 1991, 11) 
  56. ^ “The name of the new team is“ Marines ”, and the image of the sun and the sea is named by Mr. Matsuura of Kashiwa City.” Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 19. (November 1991, 11) 
  57. ^ a b c d "Conditions" 2 million yen, 3 years or more "Naming rights open call for participants today Marine Stadium". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 13. (November 2010, 11) 
  58. ^ a b c “Marine naming rights will be announced later this year with a new name for QVC December Congress representative Q & A”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2010, 12) 
  59. ^ a b c “10 billion yen QVC in 27 years, an exceptional presentation Chiba Marine naming rights”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 1. (November 2010, 12) 
  60. ^ a b c d e "QVC Marine Field Chiba Lotte base new name will start to be used from March next year". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2010, 12) 
  61. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation (February 2019, 1). “Marine Stadium Aging Chiba City to consider including construction of new stadium". NHK News.As of August 2019, 1originalMore archives.2021/3/22Browse.
  62. ^ "Mayor of Chiba, Lotte new stadium concept "I have not considered it because of rebuilding" Explained again on Twitter". Daily Sports (September 2018, 11). 2021/3/22Browse.
  63. ^ "Build an ideal relationship between the prefecture and the ordinance-designated city and increase the total power of Chiba prefecture". Toshihito Kumagai Official Website (September 2021, 2). 2021/3/22Browse.
  64. ^ "Chiba Governor Election, Mayor Kumagai announces policy "Consideration of rebuilding marine stadium" "Joint headquarters with XNUMX cities for corona measures"". Sankei Shimbun (September 2021, 2). 2021/3/22Browse.
  65. ^ "Mr. Kumagai was elected Governor of Chiba for the first time.". Newsletter (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/22Browse.
  66. ^ "ZOZO Marine aging, Mayor of Chiba shows possibility of new stadium". Nikkan Sports (September 2018, 11). 2021/10/30Browse.
  67. ^ “Mr. Katsumata appointed as chairman, Chiba Marine Stadium Co., Ltd. establishment preparation committee will start in April next year to establish a company”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 10. (November 1988, 11) 
  68. ^ Large dissection! Sports industry | Sports facilities industry | Sports industry employment and education information site "Sobizu.net"
  69. ^ “Makuhari is liquefied! Game stop on 15th and 16th... Lotte”. Sports report (Hochi Shimbun). (March 2011, 3). originalArchived as of October 2011, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110314022053/http://hochi.yomiuri.co.jp/baseball/npb/news/20110312-OHT1T00226.htm 2011/3/13Browse. 
  70. ^ “Liquefaction phenomenon around the marine...XNUMX, XNUMX days open battle canceled”. Sponichi Annex (Sports Nippon Shimbun). (February 2011, 3). http://www.sponichi.co.jp/baseball/news/2011/03/13/kiji/K20110313000415820.html 2011/4/9Browse. 
  71. ^ “New screen unveiled on all 5 sides, main is the largest QVC Marine in Japan”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 9. (November 2016, 3) 
  72. ^ "Lotte baseball stadium renovation work completed Outfield fence XNUMXM forward, home run lagoon seat installed". 2019/3/4Browse.
  73. ^ "Lotte achieves 1000 wins in total at home ZOZO Manabu Mima, the 10th win, is the winning pitcher". Nikkan Sports (September 2021, 8). 2021/8/31Browse.
  74. ^ a b c d Chiba City Bureau Park Green Area Park Management Division (2020-08-31) (PDF). Chiba Marine Stadium Designated Manager Management and Operation Standards (Report). Chiba City. P. 5. https://www.city.chiba.jp/toshi/koenryokuchi/kanri/documents/documents/02kanrikijun.pdf 2021/8/9Browse.. 
  75. ^ Noriaki Kajiwara (January 2020, 7). “The wind at Lotte's home ZOZO Marine Stadium is capricious!Analyze complex and bizarre winds". sportsnavi. Yahoo! JAPAN. 2021/8/9Browse.
  76. ^ a b "[Artificial turf construction] ZOZO Marine Stadium". Mizuno. 2021/8/9Browse.
  77. ^ a b Hiroo Akira (October 2020, 3). “Does Jingu get 3 times more HR than Nagoya Dome?No spectators who know the human odor of the stadium.". Sports Graphic Number. 文藝 春秋. 2021/8/9Browse.
  78. ^ "Fukui Electric and Koito Electric Industries have converted" ZOZO Marine Stadium "to full LED, and delivered" OPTIS BEAM PRO "to Chiba Lotte Marines home baseball stadium." (PDF) (Press Release), Koito Electric Industries, Fukui Electric, (December 2017, 12), http://www.koito-ind.co.jp/pdf/171226.pdf 2021/8/8Browse. 
  79. ^ a b "Notice of delivery of Marine Vision for" QVC Marine Field "" (PDF) (Press Release), Mitsubishi Electric, (March 2016, 3), http://www.mitsubishielectric.co.jp/news/2016/pdf/0301-b.pdf 2021/8/8Browse. 
  80. ^ a b "Ordered" Aurora Ribbon "for ZOZO Marine Stadium / New Wing Vision" (PDF) (Press Release), Mitsubishi Electric, (March 2020, 1), https://www.mitsubishielectric.co.jp/news/2019/pdf/0117-b.pdf 2021/8/8Browse. 
  81. ^ "August 2006, 8 [Official Match] Match Results (Chiba Lotte vs Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters)”. Nippon Professional Baseball. 2021/8/9Browse.
  82. ^ Full-Count editorial department (December 2017, 12). “ZOZO Marine introduces state-of-the-art artificial turf friendly to athletes and spectators Total construction cost 3 million yen”. Full-Count. 2021/8/9Browse.
  83. ^ “The largest screen in Japan will be significantly renewed at the outdoor stadium. Watching games on all 5 sides will be lively. QVC Marine Field will be available next spring”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 9. (November 2015, 11) 
  84. ^ [I'm negotiating something more important than my annual salary!?] Tomoya Satozaki will reveal the details of the contract renewal! Satozaki Channel 2020/02/14 (YouTube, viewed on August 2020, 8)
  85. ^ "The charm of Marines and Tomoya Satozaki's ambitions". 303books.jp (September 2020, 9). 2021/8/30Browse.
  86. ^ Full-Count editorial department (December 2017, 12). “Eco-contribution by introducing LED lighting at Lotte baseball stadium Total power consumption reduced by about 50%”. Full-Count. 2021/8/8Browse.
  87. ^ "Audi on Lotte relief car"Nikkan Sports" Nikkan Sports, March 2015, 3.2021/8/9Browse.
  88. ^ Yumi Yoshida (October 2017, 6). “"Relief TT" at Chiba Lotte Marines". 8speed.netKizasu. 2021/8/9Browse.
  89. ^ "Sarakin Advertising Chiba Marine / "Exit" / Fans welcome "Good choice for citizens' baseball team" / Requests from party members". www.jcp.or.jp. 2022/3/13Browse.
  90. ^ "QVC Marine Field (Chiba Marine Stadium) Back Screen Trivision”. Blue Engineering. 2021/8/9Browse.
  91. ^ "Holiday outing information Seeking new discoveries! Stroll around Makuhari New City". Nikkei BP Second StageNikkei BP (March 2007, 10). As of January 3, 2016originalMore archives.2019/6/23Browse.
  92. ^ a b "30HR Japanese, quarter century zero is only Lotte's wind of trouble". Asahi Shimbun (September 2020, 6). 2020/6/7Browse.
  93. ^ Takashi Kanda, Takako Sugimoto, Kenichi Ueno, Shigenori Haginoya, Akihiro Hori, Yoshihide Kawashima "Factors of Wind System and Strong Winds in Chiba Marine Stadium", Weather, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2008, pp. 241-250 .. See p.241
  94. ^ "Shun Wakui's first blown away snow mound strong wind no game". Sponichi Annex (Sports Nippon Shimbun). (February 2014, 3). http://www.sponichi.co.jp/baseball/news/2014/03/18/kiji/K20140318007799420.html 2016/9/17Browse. 
  95. ^ "Chiba Marine Naming Rights Sale" Mayor Tsuruoka "I want to ride if I have a consultation". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2005, 2) 
  96. ^ "Chiba City Declares" De-Financial Crisis "Insufficient Balance of 270 Billion, Review of All Businesses". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): pp. 1, 14. (April 2009, 10) 
  97. ^ “Chiba Marine sells naming rights since 11”. SANSPO.COM (Sankei Shimbun). (November 2010, 10). originalArchived as of October 2010, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20101027083348/http://www.sanspo.com/baseball/news/101021/gsi1010211848002-n1.htm 
  98. ^ "Start Today in Makuhari with the naming rights of Marine". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2010, 11) 
  99. ^ QVC Japan Names Marine Stadium as Priority Negotiator 2010/12/7
  100. ^ "Obtained preferential negotiation rights for the naming rights of QVC Japan Chiba Marine Stadium from Chiba City”. QVC Japan (December 2010, 12). 2016/11/18Browse.
  101. ^ “Mr. Maezawa of Start Today donated 1 million yen to the Marine Fund and donated artificial turf to more than XNUMX yen”. Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 14. (November 2011, 1) 
  102. ^ “[Professional baseball] QVC, Chiba Lotte's hometown of the earth seeking cancellation of naming rights”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2016, 7). http://www.sankei.com/sports/news/160724/spo1607240026-n1.html 2016/11/14Browse. 
  103. ^ "Cancellation of Marine Stadium naming contract QVC agrees on a penalty of 3.3 million yen". Tokyo Newspaper(July 2016, 9). http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/chiba/list/201609/CK2016092802000176.html 2016/11/14Browse. 
  104. ^ “4 companies applying for naming rights Chiba Marine New Sponsor”. Chiba Daily(July 2016, 10). http://www.chibanippo.co.jp/news/local/358836 2016/11/14Browse. 
  105. ^ "The new name of Lotte headquarters is "ZOZO Marine Stadium"". Nikkan Sports(July 2016, 11). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/1739780.html 2016/11/18Browse. 
  106. ^ a b ""ZOZO Marine Stadium" Maintained after being affiliated with Yahoo”. Nikkan Sports (created on January 2019, 9). 2019/9/12Browse.
  107. ^ "Changed the name of Fukuoka Yahoo! JAPAN Dome to “Fukuoka Yahoo! Auction Dome (abbreviation: Yahoo Auction Dome)””. Yahoo Japan Corporation / Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks Marketing Co., Ltd. (created on January 2013, 1). 2019/9/12Browse.
  108. ^ ""Yahoo! BB Stadium" contract end”. ITmedia (created on December 2004, 12). 2019/9/12Browse.
  109. ^ "About "Fukuoka PayPay Dome"”. PayPay Co., Ltd. (created on November 2019, 11). 2019/11/12Browse.
  110. ^ "ZOZO Marine Stadium 2019 Renewal Notice”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2019, 3). 2020/8/18Browse.
  111. ^ "2020 Central League Championship Match Schedule (PDF)". Japan Baseball Organization (September 2019, 7). 2019/7/23Browse.
  112. ^ "DeNA and Yakult change the hosting stadium due to the postponement of the Tokyo Olympic Games...Hamas and Jingu hold XNUMX games each". Sports report (September 2020, 4). 2020/4/15Browse.
  113. ^ "Singing and dancing Madonna 20 songs including new songs attracted fans at Chiba Marine Stadium". Chiba Daily (Chiba Daily): p. 17. (November 1990, 4) 
  114. ^ “Madonna performance noisy Chiba Marine Stadium 60 complaints”. Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Newspaper): p. 27. (July 1990, 4) 
  115. ^ “Madonna Concert Noisy 3km away noise complaint”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 27. (October 1990, 4) 
  116. ^ Shinsosha Co., Ltd. (December 2021, 12). “April 2022nd (Fri) 4rd (Sat) 22th (Sun) 23 ZOZO Marine Stadium (Chiba City) The action sports festival "X Games" will land for the first time in Japan!". PR TIMES. 2021/12/10Browse.
  117. ^ Nippon Television (October 2021, 12). “"X Games" will be held for the first time in Japan in April next year". Nippon Television News 24. 2021/12/10Browse.
  118. ^ ""Bandai Namco Entertainment Festival 2nd" will be held after postponement. The venue will be ZOZO Marine Stadium.". GAME Watch (September 2021, 12). 2022/1/8Browse.

Primary materials such as public relations materials

  1. ^ "Reception method/application qualification”. Chiba Lotte Marines. 2016/9/17Browse.http://www.marines.co.jp/stadium/application/baseball/howto.php
  2. ^ "Public viewing held!!”. Chiba Lotte Marines. As of September 2011, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2016/9/17Browse.
  3. ^ a b "Stadium facility overview”. Chiba Lotte Marines. 2021/8/9Browse.
  4. ^ a b "ZOZO Marine Stadium Artificial turf replacement" (PDF) (Press Release), Chiba Lotte Marines, (December 2017, 12), https://www.marines.co.jp/cmn/images/news/2017/12/26/shiba.pdf 2021/8/9Browse. 
  5. ^ "ZOZO Marine Stadium Lighting Equipment LED Renewal" (PDF) (Press Release), Chiba Lotte Marines, (December 2017, 12), https://www.marines.co.jp/cmn/images/news/2017/12/26/LED.pdf 2021/8/9Browse. 
  6. ^ a b "QVC Marine Field 2016 Renewal Notice”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2016, 2). 2021/8/9Browse.
  7. ^ "QVC Marine Field Scoreboard Refurbishment”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2015, 7). 2021/8/9Browse.
  8. ^ "5/4 (Tuesday / holiday) Toho Auto Co., Ltd. will hold a new relief car presentation ceremony !!”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2010, 4). 2021/8/9Browse.
  9. ^ "About adoption of Mercedes-Benz relief car”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2020, 6). 2021/8/9Browse.
  10. ^ "ZOZO Marine Stadium 2017 Renewal Notice”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2017, 3). 2021/8/9Browse.
  11. ^ "Chiba Lotte Marines indoor practice field completion ceremony held”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2012, 2). 2021/8/9Browse.
  12. ^ "Indoor practice area Facility overview”. Chiba Lotte Marines. 2021/8/9Browse.
  13. ^ "Chiba Marine Stadium Naming Rights Sponsor Selection Results (PDF)”. Chiba City City Bureau Park Green Area Park Management Division (December 2010, 12). As of December 7, 2010original[Broken link]More archives.2016/9/17Browse.
  14. ^ "The new name of the stadium is decided to be "QVC Marine Field"”. Chiba Lotte Marines (December 2010, 12). 2016/9/17Browse.
  15. ^ "Chiba Marine Stadium Naming Rights Sponsor Application Guidelines (PDF)”. Chiba City (July 2016, 10). As of October 6, 2010originalMore archives.2016/11/14Browse.
  16. ^ "Seat information”. Chiba Lotte Marines. 2016/9/17Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク


Former base:
Kawasaki Stadium
1978 - 1991
Chiba Lotte MarinesHome of
1992-Present
Next base:
n / A
-

 

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