Photo Fireworks erupted into the stands at a game under the Angels (From Alabama State Broadcasting Station "ABC 33/40" reporter Stephen Quinn's Twitter)
A disaster under the Angels umbrella Fireworks are fired into the audience, US reports ``There was an incident that was too flashy''
If you write the contents roughly
"The Angels-owned team said there were no injuries.
A tragedy in which fireworks are set off into the audience at a US minor league Fireworks are set off at the spectators' seats at a game under the umbrella of the US Major League Angels... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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- A state in which the physiological continuity of the tissues that make up the body is broken.Details will be given in this section.
- machineExternal force (MechanicsDamage caused by external force).Common name for visible damage, relatively minor damage, etc.
Normal,injuryCalled (injury) and injuredInjury(Fusho), the person who was injuredWounded personIt's called (Fushosha).note that,DeathAnd trauma togetherDeath and injury(Let's do it)DeathTogether with those who have been injured and those who have been injuredcasualtiesIt's called (Shosha).
PsychiatryIn, psychological trauma may be simply referred to as trauma.
In the case of physical trauma, in a broad sense,physicalTarget orChemicalRefers to all damage caused by external factors, but usuallymachineExternal force (MechanicsRefers to damage caused by external force).
Definition of terms
Medical scienceIndamageIs a state in which the physiological continuity of the tissues that make up the body is broken.In this definition, dysfunction, for exampleConcussionEtc. are also interpreted as being included in the damage.AlsoStomach ulcerIntrinsic things such as are also included in the damage.
TraumaRefers to damage caused by an extrinsic cause.Because the type of extrinsic factor does not matterhydrochloric acidWearing a garment is also a trauma.woundThere is a word, but this is a form of mechanical energy in the damage, and the meaning of the word is narrower than that of trauma.Basically, a wound is an open injury, and a wound is often a non-open injury.
Basically, look for so-called scratches and check the internal bones, especiallyfractureCheck if there is anyjointThe method of diagnosing a trauma patient is to check for damage to the patient and for other organ damage.fractureIs a bone injury,jointFor damagesprain,dislocationThere is a word.Dislocation is a breakdown of the interrelationship between the joint head and the glenoid fossa on the joint surface.If part of the joint surface is in contactSubluxationThat is.External force is applied to the joints,ligament, If the joint support structure is damaged but the interaction of the joint surfaces is maintainedsprainThat.
Types of trauma
The types of trauma include:
Due to physical factors
Due to mechanical factors
wound(Skin Lesion) refers to an injury (scratch) on the surface of the skin.
- Damage caused by sharp objects (cutlery, etc.).
- Damage that tears when the skin is pulled in two directions.
- A wound that tears all skin tissue and exposes internal organs and bones.
- Friction damage that has only reached the level of the epidermis.
- Damage caused by friction, such as dermis, subcutaneous tissue, or lower.Or similar damage due to sudden pressure. (Due to non-rapid pressurePressure ulcerSay)
- Damage caused by ammunition.
- Damage caused by an explosion.However, blast injuries are accompanied by internal damage due to burns and impacts (both below).For killingExplosiveInjuries caused by multiple gunshot wounds are also present.
- (Well done)
- A wound in which a blunt object penetrates the human body.
Due to thermal factors
ElectricalDue to factors
- In particular, lightning and air discharge are called lightning strikes.
radiationDue to factors
Due to chemical factors
Severity assessment method
The values for quantifying the severity are as follows.
How to diagnose a patient with severe trauma
The following methods are premised on fatal and severe trauma and do not cover general sprains and cuts.
- Than limb traumaLife supportPriority is given.Exercise machineTrauma is rarely lethal.Consider vital stabilization rather than locomotor treatment.
- If you see a trauma, treat it as if you had a fracture.especiallyclavicleIf you have more trauma orMultiple traumaIf there is, treat it as having a cervical spine injury.
- For serious fractures, fix it by applying it to the splint as it is.Nerves, blood vessels, etc.Soft tissueMay hurt and turn a closed fracture into an open fracture.Reduction should be done in hospital practice.
- Fixed splint (cine): There are soflat cine, alphonse cine, magic cast and so on.
Initial medical care at the hospital
- Check for PMS peripheral to the trauma.This is to make sure that the pulse (whether the pulse touches or the skin color is okay), the motor and sensory nerves are preserved.In case of finger injury, check the pulse by pressing the nail.
- Always check for other injuries other than obvious fractures.It's especially easy to miss a broken limb.
- If there is a large fracture of the lower limbs, there is a possibility of pelvic trauma.If you have a calcaneal fractureVertebral compression fractureThere is a possibility of.Also, when hit by a car, the three signs of Waddle are known.First of allbumperCauses lower limb traumabonnetChest injury, finally fell on the roadHead injuryI often follow the process.This part needs to be examined carefully.
- If you move your limbs and make a noise in the fracture, you will not try to reproduce that noise.X-ray photographShould be confirmed at.
- Symptoms of fractures are deformity, shortening, and swelling, characterized by the patient's reluctance to use the affected limb.Palpation always coincides with the fracture and causes tenderness.The way to find deformations and shortenings is to compare left and right.Even if there is a fracture, its periphery often functions.Dysfunction is not inevitable.That is why it must be fixed.
- X-ray photographDoes not evaluate the trauma unless it is taken in at least two directions.
Subsequent medical treatment at the hospital
Medical treatment for spinal cord injury
In the treatment of spinal cord and spinal cord injuriesvital signsCheck for spinal cord injury, check for combined injury, and so on.The presence or absence of spinal cord injury can be determined by assessing the level and degree of paralysis.This is revealed by a sensory test and a muscle strength test of the upper and lower limbs. C5 can be evaluated by shoulder abduction and elbow flexion by C6 and C7 by wrist movement, and C7, C8 and T1 by finger movement.Specifically, C6 can be evaluated by dorsiflexion of the wrist joint, C7 by palmar flexion of the wrist joint and extension of the fingers, C8 by flexion of the fingers, and T1 by adduction and abduction of the fingers. L3 is evaluated by knee extension, L4 is evaluated by ankle dorsiflexion, L5 is evaluated by toe extension, and S1 is evaluated by foot valgus.In the deep tendon reflex, the biceps brachii reflex is C5, the brachioradialis reflex is C6, and the triceps brachii reflex is C7.The patellar tendon reflex is L4 and the Achilles tendon reflex is S1.In terms of sensation, C5 is the outside of the upper arm, C6 is the outside of the lordosis, the thumb and index finger, C7 is the middle finger, and C8 is the ring finger, little finger, and inside of the forearm. T4 is the nipple, T7 is the xiphoid process, T10 is the umbilical region, and T12 is the inguinal region. L4 is the medial edge of the foot, L5 is the center of the dorsal foot, and S1 is the lateral edge of the foot.Head trauma, thoracoabdominal trauma, and pelvic trauma are important for comorbid injuries.
Prognosis of severe trauma
The most life-threatening is the obstruction of ABC (airway, respiration, circulation).Detail isJATECSee section.The cause of death early in terms of time isBleedingBut this is justBlood lossAs well,Heart tamponadeSome are due to tamponade due to various internal bleeding, includingliver-spleen-大動脈If it is damaged, a large amount of bleeding will occur in the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity, leading to death.The severity of the injury cannot be determined by the presence or absence of visible external bleeding.
In addition, Spinal cord injuryIs often asymptomatic immediately after injury.Spinal cord injury develops into spinal cord injury due to careless movement by the victim himself or others around him after the injury.In this case, not only is there a risk of cardiac arrest due to respiratory paralysis or spinal cordogenic shock, but even if the patient survives, the functional prognosis is greatly reduced.Detail isJPTECchecking ...
InfectionOnset 2-3 days after injury.Pneumonia (pneumonia) as well as infection from the wound surfaceArtificial respiratorsCaused by), dermatitis, and even restPressure ulcerInfection from can not be ignored.
Compartment syndrome,Crush syndrome(Crush syndrome) can be saved to some extent by paying attention to its signs, but there are many cases where even if "it is predictable and measures are taken", it cannot be saved.Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,JR Fukuchiyama Line derailment accidentIn the typical case, the patient died of crush syndrome after the rescue, even though he was finally rescued after 24 hours or more.
How to diagnose patients with mild to moderate trauma
The following methods are premised on non-fatal trauma and do not cover severe trauma.
In front of the hospital
If there is bleeding, wash with tap water and squeeze directly with a clean cloth.If the method of tying the bases of the limbs and fingers is not done properly, the arteries will not be bleeding, but only the veins will be bleeding, resulting in congestion and bleeding.
Medical treatment at the hospital
If there is an open wound, clean it or sew it according to the degree and depth of contamination.If there is damage to ligaments, bones, tendons, muscles, nerves, or blood vessels, treat it according to the damage.
- ^ Death due to injury "Many O-type" bleeding risk is highNihon Keizai Shimbun 2018/5/2
- ^ Takayama W, Endo A, Koguchi H, Sugimoto M, Murata K, Otomo Y (May 2018). “The impact of blood type O on mortality of severe trauma patients: a retrospective observational study”. Crit care 22 (1): 100. two:10.1186 / s13054-018-2022-0. PMC 5930809. PMID 29716619.
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