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The video shows Sharapova doing light strength training and stretching in an indoor gym.
Maria Sharapova (Russia), who was called "Russian fairy" for her model-like looks, was a Grand Prix during her career. → Continue reading
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STRENGTH & CONDITIONING What is (kinryoku training)?Skeletal muscleOutput, maintenance and improvement of endurance and "muscle hypertrophy" (Muscle hypertrophy) Is a general term for exercises aimed at.Resistance to the target skeletal muscle (ResistanceWhat is done by multiplying) is also called "resistance training".There are various ways to apply resistance,重力,inertiaBy rubberElasticityAre generally used, and those using resistance due to hydraulic pressure or air pressure are generally used. Especially when using the resistance due to gravity,Weight trainingAlso called.
Output of muscle strength
Muscle contraction is determined by the cross-sectional area of the muscle and the development of the nervous system.Strength training is done for the purpose of developing either or both of these.
Classification of training methods
Classification by skeletal muscle activity pattern
The activity pattern of skeletal muscle is "isotonic muscle activity" in which skeletal muscle exerts power while changing its length (Isotonic muscle action)[Note 1]And "constant velocity muscle activity" (Isokinetic muscle action) And "isometric muscle activity (isometric muscle activity) that exerts power without changing the lengthIsometric muscle action)[Note 1]Broadly divided into[Note 2].. The motion caused by isotonic muscle activity is called isotonic motion, and the motion caused by isometric muscle activity is called isometric motion, or simply isometrics.
In considering isotonic, isometric and isotropic muscle activities, not only "movement" but also "load" must be taken into consideration. Isotonic muscle activity is “exercise for a certain load”, so the speed and force exerted by the muscle are adjusted according to the load. On the other hand, isometric muscle activity is basically “exercise for an immovable object” and does not move, and the load corresponds to “force exerted by muscle”. Isokinetic muscle activity is "exercise in which a load is applied corresponding to the force exerted by the muscle in the exercise area". Training is a typical example of training by a machine that controls "exercise speed" and "load" with a computer so as to achieve uniform motion. Although it is not always uniform in all exercise areas, "exercise in which a load corresponding to the force exerted by the muscle in the exercise area is applied" by the air cylinder or hydraulic cylinder is also defined as uniform muscle activity. In other words, from the viewpoint of load, isotonic muscle activity “adjusts the force exerted by the muscle for a certain load”, whereas isometric muscle activity/constant muscle activity “load”. Is more suited to the power exerted by the muscles."
As an example, push-ups andBench pressIs classified as isotonic exercise because the load is constant and the arms and chest muscles expand and contract. It is sometimes called an isometric exercise because a motion that is static in a push-up posture (called a plank or stick pose) does not move, but it is adjusted (the force and movement exerted by the muscles according to the load are adjusted). Since the load does not match the force exerted by the muscle, it is hard to say isometric exercise from the viewpoint of load. The movement to move an immovable object, the movement to stretch a rope that does not extend, and the movement to press both hands holding the palms together are "isometric exercises". Has become. Also,SpringThe movement that holds the rubber tube in the stretched state to the maximum is "isometric movement". When the spring or rubber tube is stretched by the muscle force, the tension increases, and when the tension is the same as the muscle force, it cannot be stretched any further. Holding in this state results in "isometric motion", and similarly, holding the compression spring in the maximum compressed state also becomes "isometric motion". The advantage of this method is that the strength of the muscle can be determined by the degree of expansion/compression of the spring/rubber.
Exercise intensity and effects
The effects of resistance training areExercise intensityMore different. Generally, it is said that muscle strength develops when exercise intensity is high and the number of repetitions is small, and muscle endurance develops when exercise intensity is low and the number of repetitions is large..
- ^ a b The names "isometric muscle contraction" and "isometric muscle contraction" are widely used, but since the length may not be shortened, the name "muscle activity" is beginning to be used instead of muscle contraction.
- ^ In addition to these, isokinetic muscle activity (Isokinetic muscle action), But it is a computer-controlled device that keeps the speed constant.