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🥋 | Founded 238 years ago, in a prestigious family with a deviation value of over 70, Rinko, who became a queen in middle and high school, reveals the secret of coexistence [In ...

Photo: Rinko Shuyukan, who participated in the first inter-school athletic meet [Photo: Hiroya Miyauchi]

Founded 238 years ago, a prestigious family with a deviation value of over 70, Rinko, who became a queen in middle and high school, reveals the secret of coexistence [In…

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Of the 30 or more members this year, about 7% joined the judo club as beginners.

Inter-High Judo, Uba Rinko's 3-year Judo National High School Championship (Inter-High), which participated from Shuyukan, started on the 6th. → Continue reading


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    Nihon Denkodokan Judo(Nihondenkoudoukanjudo), or simplyjudo(Judo) isJigoro KanoJapanese martial arts that started.Kano, who has devoted himself to Jiu-Jitsu training, studied various schools and incorporated the good parts of each.1882(MeijiIt is the way of Bunbu that was founded from that consideration in 15 years).[1]. "flexible and toughofThe Principle of SoftnessFurthermore, we will complete the principle of ``seiryoku zenyo'' and ``mutual prosperity,'' which makes the most effective use of the physical and mental strength of a technical system that incorporates our own originality and ingenuity.Randori matches spread worldwide,OlympicFormal competitionIt is also.International Federation TheInternational Judo Federation (IJF).


    Ancient martial arts OfJiu JitsuDeveloped frommartial artsso,Throwing,Grappling hold,Atemi techniqueHas a technique based on.MeijiIn the agePolicemen,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularPopularized inWorld War IILater of the International FederationInternational Judo FederationEstablishment and randori matchOlympicIt has been widely spread worldwide, such as being adopted in competitions.

    SportsCompetition-Fighting sportsButKodokanIn judo"Good energy" "Co-prosperity with others"Is not just a victorious supremacy in competition, but the acquisition and training of martial arts and the training of body and spirit.EducationWhen,Application to social life・ Application to daily life[2]It is an object[Annotation 1].

    The IJF states in the preamble of the Covenant adopted at the Astana General Assembly in August 2015 that "Judo was founded by Jigoro Kano in 8."[3].


    From jujutsu to the establishment of judo

    History of judo

    From ancient times12st centuryLaterSamurai societyamongMartial arts XNUMX generalWas toldsamurai OfbattleThe art of timemartial artsHolds,Sengoku periodIs overEdo PeriodFrom among themMartial artsAs one ofJiu JitsuHas developed. 1877In (Meiji 10), Jigoro KanoTenjin Shinyo-ryuIntroduced to Fukuda Hachinosuke,Atemi techniqueAroundJoint technique,Chokehold, Including throwingCapture surgeryHas a system of witnessing and occupancy derived fromRandom captureAs a techniqueThrowing technique,Grappling holdAlso haveTenjin Shinyo-ryuI practiced.again,Group discussionBased onSutemi-wazaWas conveying a system centered onUps and downsI practiced Jiu-jitsu. Tenjin Shinyo-ryuとKito-ryu judoBased on the technique of scrambling and shaping, from the practice experience of KitoryuKuzushiThis is a more in-depth study of the principle of ""Morals,Kneading method,Game methodNamed Judo as a means of human education in addition to the training aspect of the Meiji era1882),TokyoShimotaniIt is inEishoji TempleUsing the 12 tatami mats of the temple's Shoin as a dojo,KodokanWas founded.However, examples of Kitoryu and Naotoshinryu of Mitsuhide Terada,Takino YukenAn example of Kito-ryu Judo, the fifth generation of Kito-ryu, who was a disciple of Kito-ryu, and adopted the word "Judo", which is said to be transmitted to the Suzuki family in Kitoryu.[4]And so on, the word "judo" itself is alreadyEdo PeriodIt was not Kano's invention because it was there.Kano called himself "Judo", but the original Kodokan was a minority of emerging Jiu-Jitsu, and at that time it was also called "Kano-ryu Jiu-Jitsu".The revision of the name using the word "judo" in the instruction at the Kodokan includes Kano's own view of education, life, society, world, etc., and can be said to be the beginning of martial arts education in modern Japan.[5]..The numerous concepts and systems adopted by Judo will have a great impact on the various modern martial arts that will be established thereafter.Kodokan Judo, which Kano started, will play a pioneering and extremely important role in the modernization of martial arts.[6]..Judo is based on its historical influence and size of role.martial arts(Japanese martial arts, Japan Nine Great Martial Arts <Japan Martial Arts CouncilIt is listed as the first of the nine member organizations>).

    By 1933 before the war, prior to the lifting of the martial arts ban in Japan after World War IIGermanyWas formed inEuropean Judo Federation [7][8][9]In 1948, it was rebuilt in London, England, and there were efforts both inside and outside Japan. In Japan, judo training and games were gradually resumed, and in 1950, judo resumed school education.

    Police and judo

    Jigoro Kano's "My Life as a Judoka" (Showa 3 (Showa XNUMX)1928) According to (serialized in "Sakuko"), the 21st year of the Meiji era (1888),Metropolitan Police Department Martial Arts TournamentMainly inYoshin-ryu Totsuka schoolMatch with 2-3drawIt is said that the ability of the Kodokan was shown by winning other than.In addition, those who participated in this tournament as the Kodokan side were originallyTenjin Shinyo-ryuHe was a talented person from other styles of jujutsu.After this matchMishima MichiruPolice commanderMakes Kodokan Judo a compulsory subject of the Metropolitan Police DepartmentJiu-jitsu caretakerIt is said that it spread all over the country because it adopted[Annotation 2]..Police officers' tournaments are held according to the "Police Judo Match and Referee Rules"[10].

    After the end of the war in Japan, the GHQ ban on martial arts closed the dojo for police judo, forcing the official suspension of the game for a period of time.The devastated world of the defeat has increased crime, and the corresponding police officers have been re-examined for the need for surgical training to improve their physical strength, skills and mental strength.As a law enforcement officer, it is the responsibility of police officers to suppress and arrest criminals, and police who lack this ability cannot fulfill the heavy responsibility of maintaining public order.With this in mind, the National Rural Police Headquarters at that time applied to GHQ again for the revival of judo, saying that judo was indispensable for basic training in arrest techniques.After this process, the postwar police judo was quickly recognized for its resurrection.After the war, the reconstruction of police judo has boosted the morale of police officers and has greatly contributed to the restoration of order in Japan, where the security situation has deteriorated.In order to train bright and strong police officers by training their minds and bodies, the duties of the police, which made judo training indispensable, became a clue, and Japan Judo, which had declined after the war, was quickly put on track.[11].

    Japanese police officerIs judo orkendo(Women only orAikido) Is a compulsory subject.Police schoolIf you are a stepless person at the time of admission, you must take the first step while you are still in school.Police stationThen.teensFor the sound development ofElementary and junior high school studentsIn many cases, we have a Jukukendo class for children.

    Judo at Dai Nippon Butoku Kai

    In 1895 (Meiji 28), as a public organization in Kyoto for the purpose of encouraging martial arts, fostering martial arts, education, commendation, and improving national morale.Dainippon BoutokukaiWas established.The Dai Nippon Butoku Kai is composed of various departments such as swordsmanship, jujutsu, and archery, and various schools and people will participate in each department beyond their respective schools.

    Kodokan Judo isJigoro KanoHas been in charge of the Jiu-Jitsu department since the establishment of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai The members of the school were put together and had a great influence.At the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, Kodokan Judo was officially adopted as a school for the role of unifying the Jiu-Jitsu department, and professors were dispatched.Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Martial Arts CollegeIt was practiced at. Hajime Isogai,Shuichi Nagaoka,Shotaro Tabata,Tamio KuriharaIs in charge of the chief professor at Dai Nippon Butoku Kai.At the Butoku Kai, judo developed by absorbing the human resources and techniques of various Jiu-jitsu schools.Also, in the Judo section of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kaikarate,CaptivityWas also under the judo umbrella.

    About judo during the war

    January 1946, 21 (Showa 11),Dainippon Boutokukai TheAllied Supreme Commander General CommandJudo will be greatly affected by the martial arts ban after being forcibly dissolved by the order of (GHQ).

    However, it was formed in Germany by 1933 before the war, prior to the lifting of the martial arts ban in Japan.European Judo FederationHowever, due to domestic and international efforts such as rebuilding in London, England in 1948, judo training and games were gradually resumed in Japan, and in 1950, judo resumed its activities in Japan.

    Judo in school education

    Japaneseschool educationIn1898(Meiji 31)Old junior high schoolWhen Jiu-jitsu was introduced into extracurricular lessons, Judo became a compulsory regular lesson.

    About the background

    Pacific Warrear,Occupation Army Martial arts have been banned once since (GHQ) banned judo professors at school,1950(Showa 25)Ministry of Education OfNew system junior high schoolJudo was adopted as an elective course.Then1953(Showa 28)Course of StudySo, judo,kendo,SumoIs a regular lesson with the name "Kakugi"LessonWas taken[Source required].1989(HeiseiThe name was changed from martial arts to martial arts in the new course of study (first year).2012(24) Junior high school from Aprilphysical educationMartial arts (choose from judo, kendo, and sumo) became compulsory for both men and women (junior high school martial arts compulsory)[12][13].

    School physical education and judo

    in JapanExtracurricular activitiesAs mostJunior high school,high school,manyUniversityThere is a "judo club" inJunior high school,high schoolIn the course of study, club activities are carried out as part of extracurricular activities by students' voluntary and voluntary participation in accordance with the course of study.Japanese judo has come mainly to the police and social physical education, but by the end of the 20th century, the main players of men's judo were mainly the students of this school physical education university judo and their OB judoka, and activities to spread it outside Japan, They were proud that the modernization of judo competition was also led by the judoka of university judo.Teachers often supervise the athletic clubs of junior high schools and high schools, and most of the teachers have graduated from university, so the judo world of junior high schools and high schools also contributes a lot to the university judo world.They became dissatisfied with the All Japan Judo Federation's method of social and physical education. Kodokan / All Japan Judo Federation that happened at the end of the 20th centuryAll Japan Student Judo FederationThe internal conflict of (Gakujuren) was also due to the dissatisfaction accumulated in the Japanese university judo world.[14].

    Judo as social physical education

    In Japan, most sports are centered on school physical education, but most of the martial arts, martial arts, and martial arts are centered on social physical education at town dojos and gyms.Judo also started as a social physical education called Kodokan.After that, private sector etc.dojoIn addition to the activities at the police station, classrooms for the general public began to be held at the dojo of the police station, and judo in social physical education expanded. Even in the 1980s, many of the main members of All Japan Judo Federation are engaged in the business of the town dojo, which is a bone-joining and social physical education, said Tetsuya Ono, who runs a town dojo in the metropolitan area and is familiar with the inside of the Japanese judo world. In 1986, from a member of the Diet, All Japan Judo FederationAll Japan Student Judo FederationOno also states that unlike the university graduate members of (Gakujuren), it has been said that only those who have no intelligence or education.[14].Shinobu KamitoriStates that town dojos are not subject to more severe corporal punishment than school physical education judo.[15]..Unlike Japan, France and Scandinavia have almost no club activities under the control of schools, and there is almost no club activity under the guidance of teacher advisors. Is.

    Judo as a corporate physical education

    in JapanCompany OfBusinessmanThe activity is taking place.Since judo became an Olympic sport, companies have been focusing on training athletes by business groups, and later have become a force that surpasses police judo. In the 1980s, the members of the university judo school judo were mainly OBs of the university judo club and had an influence on the business group judo.In the internal conflict between Kodokan and All Japan Judo Federation, in 1983, the chairman of the All Japan Judo Federation (Judo Federation)Shigeo NaganoResonated with the All Japan Judo Federation and was not realized because Vice Chairman Naoyuki Aoki pardoned it, but ordered Aoki to withdraw from the All Japan Judo Federation, Tetsuya Ono said.[16].

    Judo as a state amateur

    in JapanMetropolitan Police Department, In addition to the prefectural policeImperial police,SDF,University of Tsukuba,Japan Racing AssociationEtc. belong toState amateurThere are also many judoka.

    Popularization as an international competition

    Judo competition is at the Olympics1964 OfTokyo OlympicsIt will be a formal competition.At the Tokyo Olympics, open weight Netherlands OfAnton GeesinkIs JapaneseAkio KaminagaIt was an event that promoted the international spread of judo by defeating and winning a gold medal.Women's events1988 OfSeoul OlympicsDemonstration sports,1992 OfBarcelona OlympicThen it was adopted as an official event.The first World Championships were held in 1956, and the women's tournament was first held in 1.Japanese girls have been banned from playing games for many years since 1980, and their promotion was centered on "shape." In the summer of 26, with the first class of Japanese girlsWest GermanyJunior players played at the Kodokan, but Japan was injured with one win and three losses, and the difference in strength with the German player shocked Japanese judo officials.[17]..Later spread all over the worldInternational Judo FederationHas reached 201 member countries / regions (as of April 2012).JapanOther than South Korea,Europe,Russia,Cuba,BrazilPopular in Japan, especiallyFranceThe registered competition population isFrench Judo Judo Kendo and related Budo FederationDue to the organizational structure of (French Judo Federation)International Jiu-Jitsu Federation OfJiu JitsuAlthough it includes the competition population of, it has exceeded 50 people,All Japan Judo FederationThe number of registered athletes in (All Japan Judo Federation) is much higher than 20 (however, this number cannot be simply compared because the ages for registration in both countries are different, such as the number of childhoods).Also, the registered population itself is different from the so-called judo population that is generally recalled.This is a system used to participate in public activities as a judo officer, referee, leader, and athlete, and is also the financial foundation of All Japan Judo Federation.In Japan, people who have experienced as a school physical education class, even athletes when they were students, but later who are just watching games rather than wearing judo, are sweating at the dojo with their children, but I want a step There are a lot of unorganized people, such as those who don't play games.KodokanHowever, it is customary for local residents to get started at the first stage, and although they are students and stepped people, they are not always registered every year.Therefore, the judo population, registered population, competition population, and number of Kodokan beginners have different meanings.

    Technical system

    Kodokan Judo techniqueThrowing,Grappling hold,Atemi techniqueIt is classified into three types.ThrowingTenjin Shinyo-ryu,Ups and downsIt is based on the Randori technique of.Grappling holdChokeholdIs derived from Tenjin Shinyo-ryu's technique, and it is said that this technique is a self-defense technique suitable for inflicting pain on the vital points of the recipient by attacking.[18]..The process of throwingKuzushiIt is characterized by being conceptualized in three stages: making, making, and hanging.In parallel with this, colloquially,Ground fightingHowever, ground fighting is not synonymous with grappling hold because it refers to offense and defense in the sleeping posture used in the referee's regulations.ChokeholdとJoint techniqueThis is because it can be applied even in a standing posture.The practice form isShapeとRandomThe shape and the randomness were established to be practiced as two wheels, but Kodokan Judo emphasizes the practice by the randomness.According to Kano Shihan, the atemi technique is considered dangerous, and only "throwing technique" and "grafpling hold" are used in the game.AndSportsJudo has gained safety and has become widespread.You can use throwing and grappling hold in the game,KodokanThen it is 100[19]..However, 92 techniques can be used in the match. (Atemi techniques are practiced as a form.) As a competition, there is a strong tendency to emphasize throwing techniques, and there is a tendency for ground fighting to be neglected.However, efforts for ground fighting have been strengthened by top players and leaders who emphasized ground fighting.In addition, the revision of the International Judo Federation regulations (international regulations) has shortened the score acquisition time for ground fighting and hastened the settlement, slowed down the "wait" in the offense and defense of ground fighting, and was mainly sutemi-waza by foreign players. With the spread of ground fighting techniques that are integrated with techniques and return techniques, the importance of ground fighting is increasing.


    Throwing is a technique of throwing an opponent on his back according to "reason".It can be divided into a standing technique of standing and throwing and a sutemi-waza technique of throwing away the body.Standing techniques are divided into techniques, hips, and foot techniques, depending on the part used.Sutemi-waza is divided into true sutemi-waza and sutemi-waza depending on how you fall.In addition, there are three types of judo throwing techniques: (1) throwing techniques used in games and free practice (randoming), (2) throwing techniques using joint techniques, and (3) throwing techniques while performing atemi techniques. However, (3) is used in games and practice, and methods (1) and (2) are "ShapeIs supposed to learn by[20]..In a randori match, throwing with extreme joints is not considered a throw.

    Grappling hold

    For grappling holdSuppression technique,Chokehold,Joint techniqueThere is.At Kodokan JudoGrappling holdThere are 32 in total,Suppression technique(Osamu Komiwaza) 10 pieces,Chokehold(Shimewaza) 12 books,Joint technique(Joints) There are 10 joints. Some of the IJF-established ones are different.mainlyGround fightingIt is often used in standing postures and kneeling postures, and not all grappling hold is in the category of ground fighting. (It can be said that there is a large overlap between sleeping and grappling hold.) In addition, international regulations prohibited chokehold and joint locks in both standing postures in 2018.However, it is still subject to use under the Kodokan regulations such as domestic high-ranking competitions.Also, as a technical systemShapeIn, the chokehold technique and the standing joint technique are still the subjects of learning.In the current randori game, only the elbow joint technique is prohibited, but in the form, the wrist joint technique and the ankle joint technique other than the elbow joint technique are also used.Wrist, finger, ankle, and neck locks other than elbow locks can also be used in randori matches, depending on the time, background, and regulations of the former judo match. , The technology system that can be used is constantly changing depending on the background of each era.

    Transition of throwing and grappling hold

    Atemi technique

    Atemi technique isTenjin Shinyo-ryuIt follows the technology of.What is Atemi or Atemi?Key pointIt is a technique such as piercing, hitting, and kicking the opponent's physiological weaknesses, which is said to be prohibited in games and randori.ShapeUsed in.Therefore, it is believed that atemi techniques were excluded as forbidden / foul techniques in judo.At the Kodokan, regarding the polar and judo shapes, and the judo skills included in Kodokan self-defense, "as with the excellent techniques of the atemi, we recognize that these are vulnerable to attack (editor: key points). IsTenjin Shinyo-ryuIt has been handed down from[26]..The shape of the pole and the shape of the soft are the basis of the form and relative movement of the national physical education for good energy.The shape of the pole was originally based on the shape inherited from Tenjin Shinyo-ryu, and was called the "serious game shape".BoutokukaiDuring the era, the Japan Budokai Jiu-Jitsu Form Enactment Committee, chaired by Jigoro Kano and chaired by representatives from all schools participating in the Budokai, held a long and heated discussion based on the form of the serious game of the Kodokan. With the addition of school techniques, it has become the current form as a unified form of Jiu-jitsu.In addition, it is said that Jigoro Kano's envisioned judo atemi techniques included the concepts of weapons and anti-weapons.On the other hand, from the karate world side, among the atemi techniques of judo, the form of national physical education for good energy and the atemi technique of independent movementKarateThe theory that it is influenced by (later karate) is advocated.[27]The points are also described below.

    Our office / key point

    Our office (site to be used)


    • Fingertip pad <finger tip>: protrusion, exophthalmos, sliding *
    • Fist (fist) <Fist>, <Grip Fist>: Oblique, Yokoate, Top, Rise, Bottom, Back, Back Corner, Rush, Yoko, Back, Down, Push * , Front diagonal *, Front *, Large front *, Large Yoko *, Large front *, Large upper *, Left / right hit *, Front / rear collision *, (Both hands) Upper collision *, Large (Both hands) upper Crash *, alternating left and right bottom clash *, two-handed bottom clash *, rear crash / front bottom crash *
    • Knifehand strike(Hand sword, little finger side edge of palm) <Hand sword>: Knifehand strike, diagonal strike, trailer *, diagonal strike *, diagonal strike *, large oblique strike *
    • Elbow pad (elbow head): Rear pad, post-take *, large rear pad *, front-back collision *
    • <Back of hand>


    • Kneecap (knee pad) <kneecap>: front pad, both hands *, reverse hand *
    • Foot pad (sekito hit, front end of foot) <sole or foot ball>: oblique kick, front kick, high kick
    • Heel hit <heel ball>: back kick, side kick,Footsteps*


    • <Head> (frontal region and occipital region)

    The above is Jigoro Kano's "Judo Textbook" (1931), <> is "History of World Judo" and "Katsuho to Atemi" (1965), * is "The Definitive Kodokan Judo" by Kodokan (1995), "Japan "Budo" "Kodokan Judo Technique Name List" edited by Nippon Budokan (2007), * is based on the classification of "National Physical Education for Energetic Good Use". Most of the atemi techniques are hung on the arms and legs, but sometimes the head is also used.[28]..Use the front and back of the head as points of emphasis[29]..When hugged by the opponent, attack the opponent's face with the forehead from the front and the back of the head from the back[30]..When using the atemi technique, you must be agile and nimble, at the same time calm and calm, and hit accurately, but after hitting, at the same speed (rather faster) as when hitting, behind You must pull and immediately be ready to move on to the next action.Therefore, if you hit it, you must practice pulling it together.[29].

    Key point

    The key point isTenjin Shinyo-ryuIt follows the name of.Tenku, Kasumi, Tori Rabbit, Bone, Philtrum, Crescent Moon, Matsukaze, Murasame, Hidden, Tanchu, Suigetsu, Ganshita, Meisei, Moonlight, Lightning, Lightning, Umushita Tanda, Bell (golden), Elbow Stuffing, navel, navel.Atemi techniques are taught in the form, but since they are rarely performed later in promotion and promotion examinations, even judo practitioners often do not know their existence, and the number of instructors decreases. It was.

    Atemi techniques related to ground fighting and sleeping posture

    JudoAtemi techniqueAtPole shapeIn the technique of Yokouchi, "Yokouchi"Arm triangleElbow pad for the reception that was defeated bySuigetsuIt is a technique to hit (Epigastrium), and in Itori's "Post-Take", a fist is applied to the receiver who was caught up in a sitting throw and knocked down.BellIt is a technique to hit (the key point of the crotch).In the "post-take" of the witness, it was defeated by throwing from a standing stateKnifehand strikeTheRabbitIt is a technique to hit (between eyebrows).[31]

    In addition, National physical education for good energyIndependent movement, second-class atemi technique, arm-fist fist "lower collision" ("left and right alternating lower collision", "two-handed lower collision", "front lower collision") It is an exercise that physically performs the expected movements.[31]

    In addition, the heel of the atemi / foot pad "footstep" isKodokan self-defense・ Hand part ・ When assembled ・ When used in “Hugging” (heel), it is a technique to step on the instep with the heel.[32][33]However, as an application, it is also a technique for trampling on a fallen opponent.[34]

    Ground fighting

    Judo is not just a grappling holdBrazilian Jiu Jitsu,総 合格 闘 技Pass guard, sweepGround fightingThere is abundant technology.It's no wonder that pass guards lead to scores in inflection techniques, but there are plenty of sweeps, even though there aren't many generic terms and concepts like "sweep" where you can't get points like Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.UFCMartial arts with pass guard and sweep skills are rare, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Mitsuyo Maeda absorbed the skills while serving as instructors.UKJapanese Jiu-Jitsu SchoolFusen-ryuJiu-jitsu that follows the flow ofClothed mixed martial arts OfJiu-Jitsu Fighting Systemand so on.Initially foundedGround fightingIs not so important and has a history of struggling to deal with the ground fighting of other Jiu-Jitsu artists in the early days.

    Judo kata

    At the beginning of the establishment of Kodokan,Tenjin Shinyo-ryu,Ups and downsThe shape of was practiced as it was, and the techniques and concepts of atemi techniques were inherited and practiced from there.[35][36][37]..After that, maintenance classification was performed according to the purpose such as randori technique and serious game technique, and techniques were added.Dainippon BoutokukaiBased on discussions and research with the Koryu Jiu-Jitsu schools through the Forming Committee, etc., "As a result of the research on the actual field, we finally reached the consensus of all."[38]As a result, the techniques of each school were added, and it became a later form.

    Jigoro Kano wrote as follows. "If you look at the traditional forms of Jiu-Jitsu,Ups and downs,Kyushin-ryuCan be represented byArmor groupingThe shape of the system andYangshin-ryu,Tenjin Shinyo-ryuTo be represented byAtemi,CaptivityIt can be roughly divided into the form of the system.Among the forms of randomization, the form of throwing belongs to the former, and the form of solid and pole belongs to the latter.The shape of the pole thus created cannot be recognized as perfect, but it can be clarified that even today, it is far superior to the shape of the traditional Jiu-Jitsu sect. It's a place. "[38]

    Judo competition


    Kodokan JudoShape(Person),Random(Randori) is shown to practice the technique.However, "judo" in competitions almost means randomness, and the public is not aware of its shape.

    From thisthe 1990sSince then, the competition of "form" has been promoted, and the form competition explained in the next section has also been held.

    Form match

    The form of competition has begun.In Japan, the Kodokan and All Japan Judo Federation held in 1997 (Heisei 7), and the form of competition began. After the 10th (10 years) national championships, the momentum for holding international competitions has increased, and was held at the Kodokan Daidojo in 2007.Here, four types of shapes were adopted, except for Kodokan Kodokan self-defense, five shapes, and old-fashioned shapes, all of which were won by the Japanese team.In Europe, the European Judo Federation held the 4st European Judo "Shape" Championship in the suburbs of London in 2005 (Heisei 17).In addition, SEA (South East Asia) Games in Southeast Asia has been implementing Nage-no-kata and Nage-no-kata since 1. In November 2007, the International Judo Federation held in Paris, but missed the championship in the form of throwing. The first in October 2008World Championship MaltaIt was held in Japan, and all five events were won by the Japanese.The 5nd World Championship was held in Budapest in May 2, and the Japanese team won all five types.


    Tournament level

    Kodokan Judo games are usually limited by age and weight, and men and women are different.There are restrictions on age as follows.

    1. Masters: 30+
    2. Senior
    3. Junior: 15 to 21 years old
    4. Youth
    5. Kade: 15 to 18 years old

    Main competition

    Weight class

    Since judo was originally based on the idea that it should be contested indiscriminately, Kodokan judo was centered on classification and age, except for indiscrimination.However, taking the opportunity of the Tokyo Olympics, it was the first time that the weight classification was set up in three classes: lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight.Kodokan Judo was later divided into eight classes, but it may differ depending on the age of the organizer and athletes.At international competitions, restrictions differ for seniors, juniors, and cades.

    Senior individual competition
    60 kg or less60 - 66 kg66 - 73 kg73 - 81 kg81 - 90 kg90 - 100 kgOver 100 kgIndiscriminate
    48 kg or less48 - 52 kg52 - 57 kg57 - 63 kg63 - 70 kg70 - 78 kgOver 78 kgIndiscriminate
    Senior team competition
    66 kg or less66 - 73 kg73 - 81 kg81 - 90 kgOver 90 kg
    52 kg or less52 - 57 kg57 - 63 kg63 - 70 kgOver 70 kg
    World Junior

    Ages 12 to 31 as of December 15 of the year of the competition.

    55 kg or less55 - 60 kg60 - 66 kg66 - 73 kg73 - 81 kg81 - 90 kg90 - 100 kgOver 100 kg
    44 kg or less44 - 48 kg48 - 52 kg52 - 57 kg57 - 63 kg63 - 70 kg70 - 78 kgOver 78 kg
    World Cadet

    Ages 12 to 31 as of December 15 of the year of the competition.

    50 kg or less50 - 55 kg55 - 60 kg60 - 66 kg66 - 73 kg73 - 81 kg81 - 90 kgOver 90 kg
    40 kg or less40 - 44 kg44 - 48 kg48 - 52 kg52 - 57 kg57 - 63 kg63 - 70 kgOver 70 kg

    IndiscriminateWorld Judo ChampionshipHowever, it is not an Olympic event.Also the most prestigious in JapanAll Japan Judo ChampionshipIs done indiscriminately.

    International tournament loser revival tournament match

    In addition, Olympic,World Judo ChampionshipThere will also be a repechage tournament.Among the players who lost in the qualifying tournament, the players who faced the best 4 players directly can participate.And the player who won the resurrection tournament and the player who lost in the semi-final will compete for the bronze medal.For this reason, two bronze medals will always be issued.International Olympic CommitteeIs instructed to be one in consideration of other competitions[Annotation 3]But,International Judo FederationRefuses this.

    2012 yearsLondon OlympicsSince then, the system of the repechage has been changed, and only the losers of the quarterfinals can participate, and the winner of the repechage and the player who lost in the semifinal will compete for the bronze medal.

    On the other hand, it is a domestic tournament,All Japan Judo Championship,All Japan Judo Championships by WeightIs not done in.

    Transition of the tournament

    • 1885(18th year of Meiji)-1888(21th year of Meiji)- Metropolitan Police DepartmentInMetropolitan Police Department Martial Arts TournamentIs done.Kodokan is said to have won overwhelmingly after having the opportunity to fight other-style jujutsu.[39].
    • 1956 -1thWorld Judo Championship Tokyo OfKuramae KokugikanIt will be held in
    • 1961(Showa 36) --IJF Weight-based system. 4th class.
    • 1964 - Tokyo OlympicsIt will be a formal competition.
    • 1967(Showa 42) --IJF Weight 6th class.
    • 1977(52) --IJF Weight-based system, 8 class system.
    • 1986(61) --The 1st Judo Tournament for the Visually Impaired (Kodokan)
    • 1998(10) --The national high school overall individual competition will be in the 7th class by weight. (At: Takamatsu) For individual competitions, the qualifying league has been abolished and only tournaments have been held.
    • 1998(10) --The women's team competition (three-person system) of the national junior high school tournament begins.
    • 1998(10) --The All Japan Women's Judo Junior Championships begins. (Kodokan)
    • 1999(11) --All Japan Student Judo Weight Group Championship held.The first weight-based team competition begins.
    • 2009(21)- IJF Grand Prix Seriesas well as the World ranking systemBegins
    • 2009(21) --The 1st Student Judo Women's Selection Weight Group Championship Tournament was held.
    • 2014(26) --The IJF has announced a policy prohibiting all athletes who have been in the world ranking since 2015 from participating in other international martial arts competitions.[40].
    • 2017(29) -Mixed gender team competition will be adopted for the first time at the August World Cadet Tournament (Santiago).In the same month, it will be adopted by seniors at the World Championships (Budapest).

    Match rules

    The rules for randori matches include the Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations (formerly known as the Kodokan Judo Randori Match Referee Regulations) (hereinafter'Kou') and the International Judo Federation Match Referee Regulations (hereinafter'Country').Later, most of the tournaments in Japan came to be held under the rules of the International Judo Federation (international rules), but depending on the level of the tournament, Japan's own methods and judgment criteria are adopted.

    Matches based on the Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations will continue to be adopted in monthly matches, red and white matches, high-ranking competitions, etc. held at the Kodokan.There, in games that comply with international regulations as of 2021KinjiteLeg-grabbing techniques, standing joint techniques, and standing strangulation techniques, which are considered to be handled, are still available.On the other hand, unlike the international regulations, one prospect is allowed for a period of time for girls, and a tournament that is exceptionally allowed for boys will be held, or for girls earlier than the international regulations.Kani basamiHowever, sports-like discrimination is also being made, such as prohibiting the continuation of the game due to fractures and dislocations.

    Also, in the past, as with the Kodokan game rules, Jigoro Kano played a central role in summarizing it.Dainippon BoutokukaiThere were Jiu-jitsu match referee rules (enforced in 1899, renamed to Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Judo match referee rules in 1919, and significantly revised as new Budokai judo match referee rules in 1943).The contents of the Butoku Kai regulations before the new Butoku Kai regulations are basically the same as those of the Kodokan Judo match referee rules, but some of the descriptions are different, such as the importance of ground fighting depending on the ratio of standing skills to ground fighting. It was.Also,Kosen judoTake overSeven Emperor JudoIn this game, we are playing our own game in a format that emphasizes ground fighting.On the other hand, earlier than the Kodokan regulations and international regulationsKani basamiIs banned orArm backThere are also sports-like differentiations such as invalidation as a throwing technique and maintenance of one prospect.Suppression techniqueKesa-gatame-Ura gatameInvalidation, suppression technique developed in Kosen judoHorizontal triangle solidThere are also defensive aspects such as temporary invalidation of.

    The following description of the match method mainly describes the International Judo Federation Match Referee Regulations (2018-2020 edition) (partially revised edition on January 2020, 1).


    In the game field, 9.1 m × 9.1 m (5 ken) (Lecture 1), or 8 m × 8 m to 10 m × 10 m square (Country 1)tatamiAbove ("Battlefield" means a place including the outside of the field: 14.55 m (8 ken), country: 14 to 16 m square).The match will be played inside the match, and any technique played outside will be invalid.Going out of the hall means when one leg is in a standing position, but more than half of the body is in a ground fight, and both bodies are in a ground fight.However, this does not apply if the technique continues (Kou Article 5, National Article 9).

    Match technique

    Compete to control the opponent by using 67 types of Kodokan regulations, 66 types of international regulations, and 29 types of "Kodokan" (both Kodokan and international).Atemi techniques cannot be used.


    Umpire TheChief referee1 person,Assistant refereeIn principle, there are three people, two, but it is also possible for referee 2, assistant referee 3, or referee 1 (Kou 1 and National Article 1 only allow the composition of referee 17 and assistant referee 5). From 1, there will be only one referee on the game field.The two assistant referees will play the match with the referee over the air while checking the video side by side at the referee's seat with a majority vote as before.Julie(Referee committee members) will also communicate wirelessly with the referees in the game field, but refrain from intervening in the evaluation of techniques unless deemed necessary.[41].. By 2018, the assistant referee will not check the video.However, instead of returning to the match field, he contacted the referee wirelessly and decided to proceed with the match by majority vote as before.If the assistant referee was not on the game field, the game would be easy for others to see.The person in charge of video confirmation is not limited to the former referees, but supervisors often do it.

    You cannot protest the referee (Article 16).


    matchBegins with a standing posture (Kou Article 10).It is a one-game match (Article 9 of the lecture), "OneIn the case of ", the match ends at that point regardless of the remaining time. In the case of two "waza-ari", the referee calls "one in total".If both players do not reach "one" within the match time, the "dominant win" will be decided by the difference in the scores of the previous techniques.

    The case of "overall win", which is a combination of "waza-ari" and the opponent's foul "warning", is treated in the same way as "one". (Lecture)
    The difference between the superiority and inferiority of "superior win" is "TeachingThe score by "" is also added. (Lecture)
    If there is no difference in score between the two techniques at the end of the specified time,Golden score methodAs a result, the match ends when the match is extended and one of them gets a score or loses the foul. (Country)
    If there is no difference in score between the two techniques at the end of the specified time, the winner will be decided by the flag judgment by the three referees. (Lecture)

    Game time

    Predetermined between 3 and 20 minutes (Lecture 12).The national polity is 4 minutes for both adult men and women and boys and girls.All Japan Championship is 6 minutes.International regulations stipulate 3 minutes for Masters (60 minutes and 2 seconds for those aged 30 and over), 4 minutes for both men and women for seniors, and 4 minutes for juniors and cades. The time from "wait" to "beginning" and from "as is" to "good" is not included in this (Kou 12 and Country 11).In addition, the technique applied with the signal of the end of the game will be valid, and if there is a sentence of "suppression", the time will be extended until the end (Article 14 of the lecture, Article 14 of the country).If there is no difference between the two techniques at the end of the specified timeGolden scoreThe match will continue until one of them gets the score or guidance of the technique (abolition of flag judgment)[41].

    Evaluation of technique

    The technique is "One","There is a techniqueIt is evaluated by two scores. (Country)

    As of July 2019, if one person takes two "waza-ari", "one with waza-ari" (British: waza-ari-awasete-ippon), And an evaluation based on "one" occurs.The match is decided at that point[43]..This is sometimes referred to as "one matching technique".

    Effect and effectiveness

    In the old international regulations, the type of score was "Effect"When"EffectivenessHowever, due to the revision of the rules, "effect" was officially abolished from January 2009, 1, and "effective" was officially abolished from January 1, 2017.According to the Kodokan regulations, there is originally no "effect" score, but "effective".As for the superiority or inferiority of the evaluation, the score of the technique equivalent to "one" was "with technique", and the score of the technique equivalent to "with technique" was "effective".

    Background of "one with waza-ari"

    The above-mentioned "one waza-ari" rule has been abolished by the International Judo Federation in the past (as announced in December 2016, it was applied from January 12).[44][45]. )

    After that, the rules of the International Judo Federation were revised again, and "one with waza-ari" was revived. Existing as of July 2019[43].


    Four criteria "While controlling the opponent", "Make the back (including the center of the right and left shoulders) large on tatami mats" When throwing with considerable "strength" and "speed" (Kou, country) )
    When the thrown person rolls shortly after landing and gets back (country)
    When the thrown person intentionally escapes to back on the bridge (Kou, country)
    There is a technique
    When throwing while controlling the opponent, and one of the requirements of "one", "big back on tatami mats", "strength", and "speed" is partially missing (Kou, country)
    Even if you don't have a big back on the tatami mat, if you roll and get back after landing (country)
    If you do not wear your back but roll from one shoulder to one buttock, from one buttock to one shoulder, and around the waist (country)
    If you don't wear your back but have both hands or elbows at the same time (country)
    If you get on your back immediately after landing on one elbow or buttock or knee without having to put your back on the tatami mat (country)
    If you don't wear your back but have one hand and the other elbow (country)
    • In the old international regulations, the "effect" was when the opponent was thrown with "strength" and "speed" so that one shoulder, hip, and thigh would touch the tatami mat while controlling the opponent. No score after revision.

    Grappling hold

    There are three ways to win grappling hold (suppression, squeezing, and joint) (Kou 3, 37, 38).

    The first is a repression technique, in which international regulations restrict the opponent's back, both shoulders, or one shoulder to be on the tatami mat, and the opponent's leg is not between him or her. If the body and legs are not pinched from below, restraint is established.If a person who is restrained pinches his leg from above, it will not be "solved" under the Kodokan regulations, but it will be "solved" under the international regulations.In the "1-2018 International Judo Federation Match Referee Rules" published by All Japan Judo Federation, there are two images explaining this rule, but both are sandwiched from below.[46]..The restraint does not become "unraveled", but after 20 seconds, it becomes "one" (30 seconds according to the Kodokan regulations).However, if you had the "Waza-ari" score (throwing technique, grappling hold) first, after 10 seconds, "Waza-ari" became "one in total" (25 seconds according to the Kodokan regulations).Similarly, the technique is judged as follows by the suppression technique for a certain period of time.[41][44][45].

    One: When suppressed for 20 seconds (lecture: 30 seconds).
    Waza-ari: 10 seconds or more and less than 20 seconds (lecture: 25 seconds or more and less than 30 seconds), when suppressed.
    Valid: 10 seconds or more and less than 15 seconds (lecture: 20 seconds or more and less than 25 seconds), when suppressed (abolished from 2017).
    • According to the international regulations before the rule was revised in 2009, it was judged as "effect" if it was suppressed for 10 seconds or more and less than 15 seconds.

    The second is a grappling hold, where the opponent says "OverwhelmedIf you say ", or hit the opponent's body or tatami mats a couple of times so that the referee can understand it), you will win" one ".

    The third is when the effects of the techniques are fully exhibited in the strangulation technique and the joint technique. (Country: When the opponent loses fighting spirit and fighting ability)

    • This condition includes dislocation, fracture, and fainting. (Country: Dislocation and fracture will continue if the referee considers that he has fighting spirit and fighting ability)
    • Depending on the degree of participating athletes, if the joint and strangulation techniques are completely mastered, for safety reasons, the referee will judge "one" without expressing "visited", dislocating, fractured, or fainting. There is a tournament that can be done.This is called "one prospect".Whether or not to adopt this will be decided before the tournament. (Kou only)
    • For safety reasons, elementary and junior high school students and younger are prohibited from joint and chokehold (according to the rules for lectures and boys).

    Prohibited matter

    Kodokan regulations
    Take an extreme defensive posture in a standing posture, have a negative attitude, and have no intention of attacking
    Wrap the hem of the obi or top around the opponent's arm for at least one lap
    Grab a leg to an opponent in a standing position for defense or to move to a throwing technique or an unskilled sleeping technique
    な ど
    Squeeze other than the neck
    Do-JimeIf you stretch your legs and squeeze them, you can just tie your legs around your torso.
    Strangle with your fingers, fists, your hem, and obi that don't have your opponent's collar
    Strangle with both legs without putting the opponent's arm inside
    Pull into a ground fight Without satisfying the conditions
    な ど
    Warning or foul loss
    Throw away your body from a standing positionArm axillaryTo take
    Kawazu gake
    Joint technique other than elbow
    Acts that go against the spirit of judo
    Kani basami(It can be prohibited depending on the degree of the tournament)
    Lift the opponent who is on the tatami mat, or lift the opponent and hit the opponent on the tatami mat
    Control the opponent entwined from behind and fall backward
    Wedge cutting
    な ど
    Foul defeat
    Uchi mata,Hane goshi,DismissalWhen throwing techniques such as, thrust yourself from your head
    International regulations
    Take an extreme defensive posture in a standing posture, have a negative attitude, and have no intention of attacking
    Joint and strangulation in both standing postures
    Wrap around the hem of the obi or top for at least one lap
    Leg grips, including hem grips in obi that are not with the obi below the obi
    Opponent's body (Do-Jime), Neck, head cross your legs, stretch your legs and squeeze (Triangle chokeIs not applicable because he is strangling his neck and arms)
    Strangle with your finger without the opponent's collar, at your own or with your opponent's hem, or with a sash (the book "Judo Rules and Referees" should be interpreted as using your fingers to strangle with your fist, too. And[47])
    Pull into a ground fight Without satisfying the conditions
    Excessively stretch the opponent's leg during strangulation / joint lock
    Deliberately remove the hem of your own and the other's top from the obi
    な ど
    Foul defeat
    When thrown, plunge into the tatami mat from the head to escape landing and score (head defense)
    Seoi otoshi,Seoi nage, With both sleevesSode tsurikomi waist, Holding the collar with both handsKoshi gurumaIn such cases, it is not a foul unless it is intentional.
    When throwing, plunge yourself from your head (diving)
    Trying to throw from the shoulder triangle grip in a standing position
    Wedge cutting
    Third instruction
    Foul loss and disqualification
    Kawazu gake
    Joint technique other than elbow
    Falling down while trying to hang an arm crush from a standing position
    Acts that go against the spirit of judo
    In addition to stepping on the opponent's foot and taking the second "wait"
    Control the opponent entwined from behind and fall backward
    Lift the opponent who is on the tatami mat, or lift the opponent and hit the opponent on the tatami mat
    Kani basami
    な ど

    Penalties for prohibited items

    The referee will give "guidance" to acts that violate the prohibited matters.In some cases, a "foul loss" is declared for a serious violation. For "guidance", points are given to the other party according to the weight (lecture) of the violation.However, according to the international regulations from 2014, the instruction will not be scored until the third time, and only the score of the technique will be displayed on the scoreboard (this will establish a total win that combines the technique and instruction 3). No longer). If the fourth instruction is given, the foul will be lost.If the skill scores are the same at the end of the match, the player with less guidance wins.[41].

    No points will be given in the "first instruction" (lecture).
    In the "second instruction (caution)" (lecture), the other party is given an "effective" score.
    In the "third instruction (warning)" (lecture), the opponent is given a score of "waza-ari".
    In the "third instruction" (country), "foul loss".
    In "Foul Loss" (Kou), the opponent is given a "one" score.

    Score display

    Example of score display (when blue (red) is one, white is one waza-ari, one valid)

    Blue (B) / Red (R)100
    White (W)11

    In a tournament that is valid, the number of valid moves is displayed in the order of one (I), waza-ari (W), and valid (Y) from the left in the score display on the game field or on the TV broadcast.It may be listed above and below.In the case of the above example, if the number of valid times is rarely 2 digits,baseballLike the scoreboard of, it cannot be displayed correctly.

    Changes in game rules

    • 1885(18th year of Meiji)-1888(21th year of Meiji)- Metropolitan Police DepartmentInMetropolitan Police Department Martial Arts TournamentIs done.No clear material is left about the regulations[39].
    • 1888(21th year of Meiji)- Jigoro KanoIn the judo lecture note "Judo miscellaneous notes" used byThrowingAs a handicraft (Procedure) 6 types, waist work (Waist technique) 9 kinds, foot work (Foot technique) 13 kinds, slaughter business (Sutemi-waza) 6 kinds, side-by-side business (Sutemi-waza) 7 kinds,Grappling holdAs, 9 types of hand stiffness (finger joint technique, wrist joint technique, elbow joint technique), 3 types of foot stiffness (ankle joint technique), body stiffness (Suppression technique) 9 types, neck stiffness (neck joint technique) 9 types, rear-naked choke (Chokehold) Description of 11 types.[48]
    • 1895(28th year of Meiji)- Dainippon BoutokukaiIs established, and a large performance and martial arts competition is held every year at the Budo Festival.It is said that the rules for the Randori match in the martial arts tournament were decided by the agreement for each match.
    • 1899(Meiji 32) --Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Jiu-Jitsu Match Referee Rules[49]Or regulation[50]Enacted.Based on the draft of Jigoro Kano, the chairman of the regulation enactment committee, it will be deliberated and decided by 10 members of the Koryu Jiu-Jitsu, including the Kodokan.Adopt a three-game match with two wins.In this regulation and the Kodokan Judo Randori Match Referee Regulations established the following year, various forbidden hands will be set up during the normal Jiu-Jitsu Randori match.Joint techniques for wrist and limb finger joint techniques have been banned.The number of times there is one waza-ari is at the discretion of the referee.The number of seconds for one suppression is at the discretion of the referee.In joint and squeezing techniques, one prospect was recognized.According to the book "Latest Sports Encyclopedia", ankle joints were allowed.On the other hand, it was forbidden according to the book "Judo Encyclopedia".According to the bookDo-Jime,Ashi garami, Neck joint technique was also forbidden[50][51].
    • 1900(Meiji 33) --Kodokan Judo Randori Match Referee Regulations[49]Or regulation[50]Enacted.Finger joint technique of limbs,FootstepsThe joint technique to the ankle is prohibited.[51][52]..In joint and squeezing techniques, one prospect was recognized.
    • 1916 --Revision of Kodokan Judo Randori Match Referee Regulations.Ashi garami,Do-JimeWas banned[53].
    • 1919Since then, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Jiu-Jitsu Match Referee Regulations have been renamed to the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Judo Match Referee Regulations.
    • 1924(Taisho 13) --Prohibition of "drawing in".Until then, the judo match that had been held in the "three games" where the winner was decided by taking two games firstOneChange of referee rules decided by the game.
    • 1924(Taisho 13) --The referee is expected if the opponent is skillfully lifted horizontally to a considerable height from both the vertical and horizontal directions according to the Budokai Judo Match Referee Regulations and the Kodokan Judo Random Match Referee Regulations in 1925. To stop throwing it down and make the person who lifts it the winner. ((Daki ageOne)[54]
    • 1925(Taisho 14) --According to the book "Latest Sports Encyclopedia", Butoku Kai,Ashi garamiTo a prohibited technique.Three gamesOneChange to a game[50].
    • 1926By then, joint techniques other than arm joints are prohibited.[55].
    • 1929(Showa 4)- Odairei Memorial Tenkan Martial Arts TournamentEstablished "dominant win" based on judo randori match rules, three referees, attitude, attitude, skill, etc.
    • 1935(Showa 10) --In FranceKawaishi Brewery Kawaishi methodUsing a judo professor.There as a throwProcedure,Waist technique,Foot technique,Sutemi-wazaIn addition to the classification of shoulder technique, use of shoulder technique classification, and as a grappling holdSuppression technique,Chokehold, ElbowJoint techniqueBesides, the adoption of wrist joint technique, ankle joint technique, and neck joint technique.[56]
    • 1941(Showa 16), the Kodokan Judo Random Match Referee Regulations revised that it is prohibited to throw down a person regardless of his or her posture if the opponent is lying on his back.[54]..The time for one suppression, which was decided by the referee's subjectivity, was unified to 30 seconds."Waza-ari" in grappling hold is only for suppression[57]..In addition, regarding grappling hold, it was revised that it was prohibited to use the conventional standing technique, but it can be moved to the sleeping technique "only when the technique is effective by applying the chokehold and joint technique while standing".[58], Now accepts grappling hold from standing[59].
    • 1942(Showa 17)- Dainippon BoutokukaiWill be reorganized.1943(Showa 18),New Butoku Kai Judo Match Referee RulesIt is intended to make judo games into combat maneuvers.ConditionallyAtemi techniqueAddition of a clause permitting the use of. (XNUMX) Elbow joints for outsiders, (XNUMX) Elbow joints, wrist joints, ankle joints for superiors, (XNUMX)titleRecipients are all joints except the spinal joints, although there are restrictions depending on the grade title, alleviation of joint techniques that allow attacks on all joints other than the spinal column.[59]
    • 1945(20) --Budo ban due to Japan's defeat.1946(Showa 21) --Dissolution of Dai Nippon Butoku Kai.1949(Showa 24) --The All Japan Judo Federation was established.1950(Showa 25)- Ministry of EducationからGhqRegarding the revival of school judoMinister of EducationSubmission of petition.The revival of school judo is intended to exclude techniques that are considered dangerous among the atemi and joint techniques performed during the war.
    • 1950(Showa 25)- International Judo Association(Professional judo) Inauguration.Adopted a rule that allows joints to fingers, ankles, wrists, shoulders, etc.Disbanded within the same year.
    • 1951(Showa 26) --The name of the refereeing regulations has been changed from the previous "Kodokan Judo Randori Match Refereeing Regulations" to "Kodokan Judo Match Refereeing Regulations".Amendment of referee rules.As a new competition rule, the standard rule of the game field and judo clothing.In joint and squeezing techniques, even if you don't have "visited", if you have fainting, fracture, or dislocation, you can use one.There is no prospect.Revised the lifting height for one dakiage to "approximate shoulder height"[54].. Evaluation of techniques close to "waza-ari" and "effective" as a score are adopted. Established standards for "winning superiority". The numbers of "waza-ari" and "effective" were not absolute, but most of the "waza-ari" were won.The time for "waza-ari" in the unclear suppression technique was set to 25 seconds.[60].
    • 1955(30) --Revision of Kodokan Judo match referee rules, one combined technique in 25 seconds after "waza-ari".
    • 1957(32) --Revision of Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations. Winning by "waza-ari" and "warning" is called "overall win".
    • 1962 --Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations Semi-Revision.If you are going to go out of the venue not only for restraint but also for ground fighting in general, we decided to pull it into the venue from the "as is" sentence.[61].
    • 1966(Showa 41) March 3-Renamed from "Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations" to "Kodokan Judo Match Referee Regulations".The throwing score is now recognized even if the whole body of the thrown person goes out of the field[61]..In principle, it is not possible to take it, but depending on the tournament, it will be partially revived so that you can get one prospect with joint technique and strangulation technique.
    • 1967(Showa 42) --IJF Match Referee Regulations (International Regulations) established.Without one prospect.
    • 1974(49) --To amend international regulations."Effective" and "Effect" are used as scores for throwing techniques.
    • 1975(Showa 50)- Vienna World Championships"Effect" is adopted from.
    • 1980 --Revision of Kodokan match referee rules.Added rules for girls.Clarified the obligation to wear a white T-shirt, which was a custom.Wearing a band with a white line.To be able to make one prospect.
    • 1981 ――Under international regulations, you cannot get a score by dakiage[54].
    • 1981By then, Ude hishigi, who throws his body all at once according to the Kodokan match referee rules, warns or loses the foul.The throwing technique that thrusts himself from the head loses the foul[62].
    • 1982(57) --Kodokan match referee rules and boy rules.
    • 1985 --Revision of Kodokan match referee rules.In girlsKani basamiWas banned[63]..The penalty was "warning".One daki age is deleted[54].
    • 1989 --Revision of Kodokan match referee rules.Even adult boys can ban Kani basami at the discretion of each tournament organizer[63]..The penalty was "warning".
    • 1993 ――The act of chewing judo clothing with your mouth in accordance with the Kodokan regulations in international regulations is the guidance[52].
    • 1994until[64], For men and women according to international regulationsKani basamiWas prohibited.The penalty was "warning".
    • 1995(7) --Revision of Kodokan match referee rules.As a general rule, girls are no longer able to take one prospect, except for some tournaments, to suit boys.
    • 1997(9) --At the IJF General AssemblyBlue judo clothingIntroduced approved.By international regulationsSuppression techniqueIn 25 seconds[65][Annotation 4][66].
    • By 1998, according to international regulations, if a person being suppressed can pinch the opponent's leg with both legs even from above, it will be "unraveled".[Source required].. on the other hand,2004Was active untilMakoto TakimotoSaid that when he was active, this was not a "solved" rule.[67].
    • 1998(10) --Suppression technique according to international regulationsUra gatameIs disabled.Kani basamiAnd collapseArm axillaryPenalty changed to "Foul Loss".Kani basami is prohibited by the supplementary provision of one of the serious violations, "especially the neck, spine, spinal cord, etc., which injures or harms the other person, or acts contrary to the spirit of judo."[63][68].. (Specified in the main rules in 2018)
    • 1998(10) --The first IJF official tournament to adopt blue judo clothing.World Cup (Minsk).
    • 2000(12) --All Japan Judo Federation's first referee video trial at the Fukuoka International Women's Judo Championships.
    • 2001By the time the international regulations have been revised.In the case of dislocation or fracture due to joint technique etc., if the referee is still considered to be capable of fighting, one will not be taken.[66].
    • 2003(15) --Senior match time for women in the World Championships has been reduced to 5 minutes.The penalties of international regulations are divided into "guidance" and "losing fouls".Overtime "Golden Score" adopted.
    • 2008(20) --The "effect" of the score is abolished by international regulations. (Implemented in January 2009)
    • 2009(21) October --In international regulationsMorote gari-Kuchiki taoshiLeg-grabbing techniques such as are not prohibited, but are restricted. The first time is guidance, the second time is a foul loss.
    • 2010(22) --International regulations regulate sudden "bear hug" from the state where neither of them has a partner.[69]..Losing the foul in the first leg grasping technique[70].
    • 2013(25) --February 2013Grand slam parisFrom augustRio de Janeiro World ChampionshipUntil then, according to international regulations, a one-person referee system on tatami mats, if you have a pistol grip, cross grip, or obi, you will be given guidance if you do not attack immediately. The act of grasping the leg is totally prohibited, the flag judgment is abolished, the time of the suppression technique is shortened, the suppression techniqueUra gatameIt has been decided that a major rule revision plan such as revival will be introduced on a trial basis.After verifying this result, it will be discussed again whether it will be officially introduced.[71][72][73].
    • 2014By the time, according to international regulations, if you are holding the opponent's top with both hands, even if your arm touches the opponent's leg, it will not be a foul of grasping the leg.[74].
    • 2014(26) --February 2014Continental OpenFrom newIJFMatch referee rules will be introduced[41][75]..If you are in a standing position on the shoulder triangle grip that holds one arm and head of the other person with both arms, "wait".Even in the sleeping position, if you pinch the opponent's torso with both legs from the shoulder triangle grip, "wait".The distinction between standing posture and sleeping posture has been changed.If the back, belly, arms, arms, and knees are not on tatami mats, the opponent in the standing posture will be scored if thrown immediately.At this time as well, it is prohibited to grab the legs of the opponent in a standing posture.If you put your legs on the back of your head or back of the person who is kneeling and put your back onHorizontal triangle solidIt is regarded as a grappling hold such as, and a throwing skill score is not given.If both are on both knees, stay in a sleeping position.Guidance is the act of intentionally pulling out the hem of the standing posture and the hem of the opponent's top[76].
    • 2015By then, according to international regulations, the hem grip of the upper garment that entered the belt below the belt is also included in the leg grip, and the foul is lost.[77].
    • 2016 --Under international regulations, if you stand and throw from the shoulder triangle grip ignoring "wait", you will lose the foul.
    • 2016- Rio de Janeiro OlympicsIn the women's 57 kg finalRafaela SilvaHowever, he scoops the opponent's leg with the elbow of the arm holding the sleeve and takes a waza-ari, but it makes a fuss that it may be a foul of grasping the leg. The IJF is not a foul, he said.
    • 2017If you land with both elbows or both hands by throwing technique according to international regulations by (29), there is a technique.Waza-ari if you land on one elbow, buttocks, or knees and then immediately hit your back.
    • 2017(29) --The following new rules will be applied in the international regulations.The match time for boys was 4 minutes, the same as for girls.The validity is abolished and the score of the technique is only one and there is a technique.Waza-ari includes the conventional "effectiveness", so no matter how much you take it, it will not be one (one abolition of waza-ari).If the skill score is not entered in the main battle, even if you take guidance, you will not win.Golden score method(Hereinafter referred to as GS). In GS, it will be settled when there is a change in the score of the technique or the difference in the number of instructions at the end of the main battle.However, at the end of the main race, in order for a player who has been given a lot of guidance to win in GS under the guidance of the opponent, it is necessary for the opponent to receive guidance twice or three times in a row.If the guidance is taken three times, the foul is lost.The first time he teaches leg grasping, and the second time he returns to losing the foul.Also,MouthpieceWill be allowed to wear[44][45][78][79].
    • 2017(29) -Revision of Kodokan Judo match referee rules.Suppression techniqueUra gatame,Knee-onIs recognized.
    • 2018By the time, according to international regulations, throwing from the shoulder triangle grip in a standing position is a foul loss even before "wait".If you plunge into the tatami mat from your head to escape landing or score in a throwing technique, you lose the foul with head defense.
    • 2018(30) -The following amendments have been made to the provisional rules of the previous year in the international regulations.
      • One with two waza-ari (one with waza-ari) has been revived.The game will be decided only by the score by the technique or the foul win, and the guidance settlement in GS has been removed as before[80].
      • If you roll shortly after landing and get on your back with a throwing technique, just one.If you roll over and get on your back, there is a waza-ari.No score if there is an excessive gap.
      • In the return technique, even if you use the impact of landing on the tatami mat to perform the return technique, you will not get a score.Even if you put your back on the tatami mat first and then perform the return technique, you will not get a score.
      • If you roll from one shoulder to one buttock, from one buttock to one shoulder, and around the waist with a throwing technique, there is a technique.
      • If you hit one hand and the other elbow with a throwing technique, there is a technique.
      • Even if you are in a sleeping position, if you stand up and throw it, you will be subject to the score of the throwing technique.
      • For guidance, joint and strangulation in a standing position, and if it is particularly dangerous, lose the foul.The distinction between the standing posture and the sleeping posture in the joint technique and the strangulation technique is the same as before 2013, and if the opponent is kneeling, the joint technique and the strangulation technique can be applied as if they were in the sleeping posture.Therefore, if you have knees but do not have both hands, arms, knees, back, or belly, you can perform throwing and grappling hold (joint, squeezing, and depressing) from the opponent in the standing posture. I'm in danger of not being able to defend myself by grabbing my leg.
      • For guidance if the opponent's leg is stretched excessively in squeezing and joint techniques.
      • The act of intentionally pulling out the hem of the opponent's top from the standing posture should have been instructed since 2014, but this is not stated in the "2018-2020 International Judo Federation Match Referee Regulations" published by All Japan Judo Federation. Only my own top[81].
      • The leg grip is changed to normal instruction. (Abolition of "foul loss" in two leg-grabbing instructions)
      • In connection with the turmoil at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics, it was revealed that movements with the opponent's collar and sleeves (mainly elbows) are not subject to leg-grabbing fouls.[80]..On the other hand, the "2018-2020 International Judo Federation Match Referee Regulations" published by All Japan Judo Federation states that "If you do not have judo clothing, you will not be penalized."[82].
      • You can also teach "hugging" after just touching the other person's top, etc."Hugging" when the other party only has himself and does not have the other party is also instructed.
      • Seoi otoshi, With both sleevesSode tsurikomi waist, Holding the collar with both handsKoshi gurumaIn such a case, the head defense that thrusts into the tatami mat from the head is not a foul unless it is intentional.
      • Regarding the case of giving "guidance" to athletes who are in a disadvantageous situation in ground fighting and the referee's "as is" declaration, which was limited to cases where medical practice is required in ground fighting, it is possible to do it whenever necessary.
    • 2019By the time, under international regulations, it is permissible to grab the hem together with the obi, not to grab the legs.
    • Held on March 2019-3, 8Grand Prix MarrakechTherefore, according to international regulations, if the hem of the upper garment (including the back) comes out of the obi and the judo garment is disturbed during the match, the athlete must quickly prepare the judo garment immediately after waiting.If you neglect to do so and the referee warns you twice, you will be given guidance.If you want to untie the obi and prepare the judo garment, you must obtain the instructions and permission of the referee.[83].
    • 2019 Year of 11 MonthGrand Slam Osaka 2019In the IJF-sponsored tournament, the inspection of "the hem of the upper garment completely covers the buttocks" becomes strict.[84].
    • 2020 --International regulations have been changed as follows.
      • Even after 2018 when the joint technique in the standing posture was prohibited, the score of the throwing technique was given[85][86], Have never been given guidance[87]Both standing postureArm backIs regarded as a joint technique and is used for guidance.
      • Even if you thrust it into the tatami mat from your head, it will not be a foul if you are not intentional.Seoi nageIs added.
      • I lost the foul just by trying to throw from the shoulder triangle grip in the standing posture.If you try to stand up from the shoulder triangle grip in the sleeping position and throw it, it will be "wait".
      • Waza-ari when landing with both elbows or both hands in a throwing technique is limited to "simultaneous".If you have the skill of landing one hand and the other elbow, it does not have to be at the same time.
      • "Wait" to step on the other person's foot. The first time is only pointed out, the second time is a foul loss[88][89].
    • January 2020, 1 --All Japan Judo Federation publishes a document stating that the international regulations also guide the act of intentionally pulling out the hem of the opponent's top from the standing posture[90].. It was a regulation from 2014.
    • February 2020, 2-All Japan Judo Federation publishes a document that "waits" for the act of intentionally grabbing the opponent's hair and performing a technique under international regulations. The first time is only pointed out, the second time is a foul loss.Reissued a document stating that the act of intentionally pulling out the hem of the opponent's top from the standing posture is also instructed.Furthermore, it was also described as "in the future."In fact, it was dispatched by All Japan Judo Federation under the regulations from 28.Sosuke MatsumuraOpponentKim Min JungIn 2019World Junior Judo ChampionshipsI'm being instructed by this[91][92][93].

    Dan system

    At Kodokan JudoDan systemIs adopted.This starts with a grade with a large number, and as it progresses, it becomes a rank with a small number, and above the first rank, it becomes a rank with a large number again.

    The rank system isGo,ShogiIt has been practiced for a long time in martial arts, but it was first introduced in the martial arts world.Jigoro KanoKodokan Judo.afterwardsDainippon BoutokukaiBut,Metropolitan Police DepartmentThe dan system introduced in the above was combined with the dan system to make it a dan system, and it was introduced in judo, kendo, and archery (Butoku Kai was introduced after the war.GhqBecause it was dismantled by1948Was taken as a special case to recognize the rank acquired by the Butoku Kai as the rank of the Kodokan.[94]).

    The first stage isBlack beltIt is widely known that "Kuroobi" is a word that is also accepted in English-speaking countries.米 国A magazine called "Black Belt", which is an English translation of the black belt, has also been published.Originally of judobandBasically, do not washTrainingThe black belt became a symbol of strength because it became black over the years.Brown beltIt is also said that it is this residual form that is set in the middle from white to black.

    Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, wrote in "Overview of Judo" that "there is a limit to the number of people who have been promoted from the first stage to the tenth stage, and who have the ability to advance to the eleventh stage and the twelve stages. No upper limit has been set as stated.However, there is no precedent for raising the rank above the tenth rank, and today the tenth rank is the de facto highest rank.[95]..In the first place, the rank is not determined only by the "strength" of judo, so the higher the rank, the moreHonorary rankThe meaning is getting stronger.Actually, the conditions for promotion (competition results, training period, referee record, etc.) are clearly stated up to XNUMXth dan, and the XNUMXth dan promotion will be deliberated and decided by the living XNUMXth dan owner. The standards are very vague, such as leaving the discretion of the director of the Kodokan to the tenth stage.[95]..On the other hand, most of the active players are from XNUMXrd to XNUMXth dan, which isAll Japan Judo Championship,Olympic judo competition,World Judo ChampionshipThis is because there are restrictions such as the upper limit of the rank of "special promotion" given to those with outstanding skills in the Kodokan red and white games in spring and autumn, and the age and training period.In fact, he won the world championship seven times in two consecutive Olympic titles.Ryoko TaniHowever, the rank of the active era was four.

    As of 2012KodokanThe ten-dan ownerYamashita Yoshitsugu,Hajime Isogai,Shuichi Nagaoka,Hisafune Mifune,Kunisaburo Iizuka,Kaichiro Samura,Shotaro Tabata,Masataro Matsuri,Shozo Nakano,Tamio Kurihara,Sumiyuki Kotani,Toshiro Daigo,Ichiro Abe,Yoshimi OsawaThere are only 15 people (in order of promotion year), and it is a very narrow gate, 12 in 1 beginners of judo.[95]. AlsoInternational Judo FederationThe ten-dan owner inAnton Geesink( Netherlands), (United Kingdom),George KerrThere are three people (UK).Besides, of the French Judo FederationHenri Courtine, Of the Dutch Judo Federationnl: Jaap Nauwelaerts de AgéHas acquired the tenth rank.For girls, the tenth dan is2011Obtained 8th Dan from USA Judo Federation in AugustKeiko Fukuda(In the United States) There is only one person (Kodokan is 1th dan).

    Organizations nationwide for promotion and promotionKodokanIt is necessary to take the promotion test / promotion test that is conducted with the approval of.In the grade, the test is conducted in the form of a match between examinees, and if the result is excellent, skipping grade is also allowed.At the first stage and above, the exam is a matchJudo kataBasically, the judgment is made based on the total score of the three points of the performance / written test, but it may differ depending on the implementing body. (Note below) Officially when the first stage test is passedKodokanIn addition to being admitted to the introductory course and being issued a membership cardBlack beltIs allowed to be worn.

    Title system

    In the prewar martial arts organization "Dainippon Butoku Kai", judoHanshi,judoPriest,judoTrainer(Smelting certificate winner), Judo (Judoka, Jiu-jitsu)titleWas stipulated.


    Kodokan announced on March 1967, 42 (Showa 3) about the purpose and operation of judo ritual as "ritual in the game".[96].

    Training method

    At Kodokan JudoTraining(Keiko) is mainlyShapeとRandomIs done by.Regarding this, Jigoro Kano said, "The form is the one that predetermines the case of defensive stock regarding attack defense, regulates the maneuvering of the body based on the theory, and practices according to the regulation. Randomization is a certain method. Regardless, it means practicing using selfish means. "Shape and randori should not be considered different, because the underlying principle and spirit remains the same.In addition, Kano Shihan described the situation in the early Kodokan as follows. "Before the Meiji Restoration, the practice of Judo styles was based on many forms. Even at the end of the Shogunate, the Yangshin style, the Kito-ryu style, the Tenjin Shinyo style, and other styles began to actively teach random hunting. However, there were still many schools that taught only the form at that time. However, the reason why Yōshin-ryu came to follow the form mainly in the Kodokan Judo was not necessarily because he disregarded the form. No. First, I taught Ryu, and at the time of the training, I added explanations when appropriate so that I could naturally become familiar with the theory of various techniques, and after the training progressed a little, I taught the form. There is a translation, as if teaching a language, naturally preaching grammar during conversational writing, and finally organizing and giving it. "

    In addition, Kano has four types of judo training methods, "ShapeIn addition to "Random" and "Random"講義"And" questions and answers "are also mentioned.Through the lecture, you will learn the reason of the technique from the viewpoints of anatomy, physiology, physics, etc., and also learn how to learn the mind necessary for the game, attention to mind and body training, etc. Kano explains the need to learn and spend time preaching about them.When there is another game and the practitioner's heart is brave, he talks about what is appropriate for the occasion, and gives appropriate lectures at the opening ceremony of holidays and cold training. Preach the need to give a lecture.And he mentions the importance of deepening the understanding and application of training by asking and answering questions.The purpose of Judo training is to cultivate morality, develop intelligence, apply the theory of competition to the world, and take the human path among the "training body", "game", and "rehearsal". It is a training method that includes a lot of content about the "Shinshin method".

    Certified Referee Regulations

    Judo official games are to be managed by referees who are certified both domestically and IJF.The qualifications of referees are managed by the official referee regulations.Domestic referees are divided into S, A, B and C, and each referee participates in the workshop and maintains his qualifications.There are two types of international, international and continental.

    外部 リンク

    Thought and history of judo techniques

    Jigoro Kano's view of judo was originally broader than the view of judo as physical education and the view of judo as human education that are well known today.1889In the lecture "Judo 22st Group, XNUMXnd, and Educational Value" of (Meiji XNUMX), Kano set the purpose of judo training as "Shinshinho" (intellectual education / application) and "Physical education method (also known as physical education)". , Training method) ”(Physical education),“ Game method (also known as self-protection method) ”(martial arts / serious game / self-protection) (sometimes including“ comfort method ”) In the lower judo, practice attack defense methods, in the middle judo, practice physical education and mental training through training, and in the upper judo, study. The purpose was to make the best use of the physical and mental power (mental and physical power = ability, vitality, energy) obtained in the lower and middle stages of judo training to benefit the world.[97]..Based on Jiu-Jitsu as a martial art (game method), he aimed at randori and form as a physical education method (physical education method) and acquisition of strong spirituality through those trainings (shinshin method) at the same time.

    Judo as a martial art (game method)

    Regarding judo as a martial art, Jigoro Kano said, "First, we created an authoritative research institute to study martial arts unique to Japan, and then investigated martial arts other than Japan as far as possible to create the most advanced martial arts. I intend to teach not only to my people but also to people from other countries. "[98]He also wanted to create a research institute to study martial arts around the world and develop the most advanced comprehensive martial arts.

    In the history of judo, you can learn how to play judo, including the technique of judo, and learn the techniques of ancient martial arts and martial arts, such as weapons. There is a history of research and practice of Judo (Judo No. XNUMX Random Method), which is a separation posture that is performed by rearranging the theory of national physical education and judo, and performing it separately from throwing and grappling hold by means of self-imposed technique and standing joint technique. ..

    Practice using a rubber sword, the idea of ​​fusion of judo and weapons

    Jigoro Kano foretold the introduction of a new practice method for judo around 1918.In order to learn the weapons technique using swords and sticks in judo in the future, he stated that he would like to use rubber and cloth swords for the practice of young children in consideration of safety. "In the place where I'm thinking about it these days, for the training of judo for young children, instead of using a bamboo sword, I used an inflated sword made of rubber, cloth, etc. from the beginning to hit or poke it. I would like to teach the form of removing it. In short, I would like to add what was taught as a traditional form of kendo as a practice of judo in a certain form. "Sports chanbaraIt was supposed to introduce a practice method equivalent to.

    He also described the future fusion with weapons in judo as follows. "Originally, spears, naginata, and anything else that suits the purpose of attack defense should be included in judo, but swords and sticks are the most versatile weapons. Therefore, it is thought that kendo in the world should crawl in as one of the most necessary elements in judo in a certain way. "" Conventional judo and kendo are united into one. I think it should be, "Kano predicted.[99][100][101]

    Popular martial arts activities by judo artists from Japan to foreign countries

    On the other hand, he went abroad to fight different types of martial arts as part of his judo promotion activities and gained fame.Yukio Tani,Mitsuyo MaedaThere are also activities such as.

    Mitsuyo Maeda, who fought around the world, is a friend who lives in Japan from a travel destination.Zan'un UsudaHe has sent several letters to him, detailing the "theory" of heterogeneous combat through numerous battles.There, we consider historical analysis, countermeasures, and conditions for the game against wrestling (Western sumo) and boxing (fisting) that Maeda confronted.Maeda states that wrestling and boxing are bothersome, and at the same time he is proud that judo is the best comprehensive and practical martial art in the world. "I'm convinced that my judo is better than Western sumo (WRESTLING) and boxing (BOXING). Boxing uses only a part of judo and is childish as a self-defense technique. (Omitted) (Boxing) is a personal game, not a serious self-defense technique that anticipates enemies in all directions. Even if I argue, my judo and their fist fighting are not on the same day. ”Maeda clearly defined judo = self-defense in his discourse, and wrestling, boxing techniques, etc. There are claims that it involves the thrusting and kicking of the body.[102].

    In addition, Maeda later practiced fighting different types of martial arts.Open finger glovesThe reference can be confirmed in the books "World Rampant / Judo Musha Shugyo" (1912) and "New Judo Musha Shugyo World Rampant No. 1912" (3), which are a compilation of letters addressed to Japan by Maeda. .. "I need to devise some kind of tool and practice hitting and kicking. I'm currently working on something that looks like a rubber boxing glove with just one finger (about XNUMX cm) out. I'm also working on a new, light and sturdy surface that can also breathe through the eyes and nasal passages, with a rubber chest. You can also attach something like a boxing torso to your chest. I will practice things. Then I will take the opposite of the hand that comes to pick up the sleeves. I think that the above practice is absolutely necessary for a judo artist. "[103][104]

    Also, the father of French judoKawaishi BreweryFrom the examples such as "Kawaishi Method" in Japan, it can be seen that some of the judo techniques left by judoka outside Japan were later lost in Japan.

    Impact on World Military Martial Arts and Hand-to-Hand Combat

    From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, martial arts in the world's military were basically neglected.

    War is almost an era of fighting with guns and guns, and when it comes to close combat in this era, fighting with a sword (saber) mainly used by cavalry and a bayonet worn by infantry on a rifle (sword) and used like a spear. It was that.HoweverWorld War ISo on a large scaleTrench warfareWas unfolded.In addition to firearms and grenades for short distances, it was also important to invade the trench so that the enemy would not be aware of it, so it made a sound because of the frequent battles in the trench at very close distances and in narrow places. Weapons for hand-to-hand combat were also emphasized.In order to deal with the enemy in such hand-to-hand combat, the defenders also needed similar close-range combat techniques.For this reason, close quarters battles have been devised in each country.The greatest feature of this era was that trench warfare required weapons and martial arts to fight at close range, and military training began to incorporate existing martial arts for close quarters combat. ..After World War IMilitary martial arts-Close martial artsOne of the martial arts that attracted attention as the basis of this is Japanese judo and (Koryu) jujutsu.And the manual martial arts of this timeboxingAnd judo are the main focus.

    The spread of judo and jiu-jitsu to countries other than Japan was just before World War I, and many judoka and jiu-jitsu artists are promoting activities outside Japan.Before World War I, a phenomenon that could be called the Jiu-Jitsu boom occurred in the United States and other countries.Also, at that time, there was an interest in Japan from the world toward the victory in the Sino-Japanese War and the perspective from an oriental hobby.Jigoro KanoBeing a subordinate from the standpoint of an educatorLafcadio Hearn (Yakumo Koizumi)Introducing Judo (Jiu-Jitsu) to countries other than Japan, and the influence of Jigoro Kano's own trip to Europe can also be seen to have an impact on the Judo / Jiu-Jitsu boom.President of the United StatesTheodore RooseveltOne of the four Kodokan Shitenno who taught Kodokan Judo as an instructor at the US Naval Academy with the trust ofYamashita YoshitsuguIn Russia, he learned examples such as (later the first tenth rank in history) and Kodokan Judo.SamboBecame the founder ofOshchepkovJudo has been incorporated into the military close-range martial arts element in various countries such as the United States, Russia, Britain, and France.

    Developed by British William E. Fairburn,Second World WarIt can be said that it is the origin and foundation of modern military martial arts, which has been adopted in various countries and has been highly evaluated.Fairburn systemJudo technology is also adopted in.

    Adoption and influence on the Japanese army

    In Japan, after the Meiji Restoration and the founding of JudoArmy Academy,Army Military School,Naval schoolJudo was adopted and actively practiced in military schools such as.Also with itDainippon BoutokukaiKodokan Judo was officially adopted as a school of the role of unifying the Jiu-Jitsu department.Dai Nippon Butoku Kai Martial Arts CollegeThe training was held at.

    New Butoku Kai Judo Match Referee Rules

    After the death of Jigoro Kano, as World War II broke out and the war situation expanded, the conventional method was established in 17.Dainippon BoutokukaiHas been reorganized and the Prime MinisterHideki TojoThe Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (New Butoku Kai) is formed.

    In 18, at the Shin Budokai, "Aiming for practical training,Melee battleThe guidance policy of judo at the Shin Budokai will be announced, which is "to be called the decisive battle posture of judo" with the purpose of "training in a short time that can be effective in fighting".The reexamination of the practicality of judo began when Jigoro Kano was alive, and it does not contradict Kano's assertion of the importance of "serious competition" that does not neglect the "atemi" and "form". There wasn't.

    Shin Butoku Kai is a judo hanshiTamio KuriharaFocusing on (later Kodokan XNUMXth Dan), we will recommend the conversion of judo into tactics.Kurihara divides judo into two parts, "when separated" and "when assembled", and when separated, "applies the hesitant movement to the shape of the pole, and assumes various possible cases, and the combination. Practicing with a lot of hands, and if you are quite proficient, use armorRandomizationYou should practice to a certain extent (...) Don't assume that you are just one person, and always hypothetical research with several people. "In the next case, he explained the revival research of "taking knuckles and arm joints", paying attention to the research and application of "old style", and the necessity of warm old wisdom.

    Prior to the Shin-Butoku Kai, in 16, the Kodokan was "revised to perform squeezing and joint techniques while standing, and to move to ground fighting only when the technique had a considerable effect." It was supposed to recognize the consolidation technique.

    According to the judo referee rules newly created by the Shin Budokai, "Article XNUMX Match isAtemi technique,Throwing technique,Grappling holdHowever, in ordinary games, the atemi technique must be used, "but a clause is added to allow the use of the atemi technique.It was also suggested that the game should be played without armor as a special case, while giving consideration to the safety of the game with atemi skills by wearing armor.

    またJoint techniqueWill also be relaxed.

    Article XNUMX Joint technique is performed according to the following criteria.

    (XNUMX) Elbow joints for outsiders

    (XNUMX) Elbow joints, wrist joints, ankle joints

    (XNUMX) Title recipients are all joints except the spinal joint

    Although it is limited by the grade title, it is allowed to attack all joints except the spinal column.

    In addition to technology, judo games have been made into tactics.

    As a rehearsal hall and clothes, it was stated that "Judo can be carried out outdoors or in any clothes, and the sandbox lawn, etc. should be used as a dojo."In the practice, it was said that "especially focus on youth and practice outdoor tactics."The form of training was said to be "conventionally, in view of the tendency to lean toward individual training only, to teach group training in particular", and multiple people were free to attack and defend.further"RenshiFor those above, we decided to use the atemi technique together to make a match, "and randori was imposed.However, it is warned to do only randori, "Practice is to acquire basic movements and techniques (including shapes) so that it can be effective in hand-to-hand combat in a short time", "basic movements" "ShapeThe value of the practice method was re-evaluated in the context of combat training.In addition, judo leaders were required to comprehensively practice all types of martial arts, saying, "I should try to carry out my duties and work hard on all aspects of martial arts, including kendo gun kendo." [105]

    Physical training martial arts

    In addition, as the war situation becomes more serious, the name of "gymnastics" since the Meiji era will be changed to "gymnastics" at school.In the government-led national school physical training department, training of imperial thought and training of combat maneuvering ability were required."Training", "gymnastics" (manual gymnastics, jumping, hanging, horn power (sumo), swimming, etc.) and "martial arts" (kendo, judo, jukendo) are imposed as teaching materials for the gymnastics department, and judo and kendo are biased. It was explained that they should be done together without any problems, and that they should always focus on attacks.The contents of judo in martial arts are taught as "basic", "religion", "structure", "body operation", "passive", and "atemi", and "applied" as "grappling hold". There were "throwing techniques" and "fixed techniques".This atemi technique is a technique of single movement of national physical education for good energy, and the extreme technique is consistent with the technique of relative movement.It can be said that the atemi technique in judo technique was emphasized as the "basic", and during the war, judo was changed to teaching materials aimed at actual warfare.[106]..During World War II, during the "Body Training Course Martial Arts", Atemi techniques were organized and developed around school judo.Judo's atemi technique is treated as a martial art, and progresses from basic training to practical instruction using a striking platform and a striking tool, and by the end of the war, the atemi technique is a conventional instruction. Abandoned the system and moved to hand-to-hand combat, where the war ended.[107].

    Martial arts ban and revival of school judo

    With the end of the war, as part of Japan's democratization policyGhqAnd some of its stationsCIEConsidered measures for the implementation of "martial arts". The CIE regarded martial arts as military art and warned the people of fostering militarism.Along with this, judo, which was positioned in the framework of martial arts, was banned as well as kendo and archery. (Budo ban)

    Furthermore, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, which was under the control of the military during the war, was forced to dissolve because it was said that it "still stands as a militaristic organization."

    However, there are many petition for the revival of judo, and it is based on a petition by the Ministry of Education.

    1. About educational value
    2. About the implementation method
    3. About the referee
    4. About the interest of the general public
    5. About the competition
    6. About the organization of the judo world

    Explanation and reform plan are submitted to the general commander.It can be said that the new judo presented there had a foundation for becoming a "competitive sport."In response, GHQ issued a memorandum of understanding to the Japanese government regarding the revival of school judo, and as a note from the CIE, "Judo that may be implemented is the judo stipulated in the minister's petition." After being done, the revival is recognized.

    However, in "2. Implementation method", ○ the implementation of games by weight and age in addition to the stage, ○ the whole method of collectively performing as part of the martial arts training in the field like during the war Along with abolition, etc., ○ The petition includes the fact that the techniques that are considered to be dangerous in the atemi and joint techniques are excluded, and it was composed mainly of the atemi and joint techniques. National physical education for good energy will not be carried out because of its strong martial arts.

    Jigoro Kano devised and announced the national physical education for good energy not only in the martial arts aspect that GHQ was wary of, but also in complementing the conventional judo as physical education and virtue education, and practice alone in the practice method. It made it possible, and strongly included the spirit of Kano's judo and the desire for "good energy and mutual prosperity."

    There are still voices regretting that Kano's thoughtful and energetic national physical education is still neglected even after the occupation without the prohibitions and restrictions being lifted during the occupation period. is there[106].

    Then, judo as a post-war sport dominated the domestic world, and the practitioners became exclusively interested in randori practice and became enthusiastic only about winning and losing in the game.The shape was dismissed, and the study and practice of atemi techniques were neglected and neglected.However, ironically, in Western countries,Art of self-defense(Self-defense) Was emphasized, and there is a fact that judo atemi was actively practiced.[107][108].

    International Judo Association

    After the war, while the trend of sporting judo as an occupation policy by GHQ, which was carried out due to the defeat of Japan, as a movement to seek the reproduction of judo as martial arts and martial arts again, in 1950, even in the randori competition. Aimed at martial arts and martial arts that adopted experimental rules such as lifting the ban on almost all joint techniquesProfessional judo OfInternational Judo AssociationIs also flourishing.

    Jukuken box office (overview)

    From the latter half of the Meiji era to the end of World War II, there is a history of the popular "Judo match", which is a foreign-style match between foreign boxers and judoka.The pre-war Jyuken box office was the nephew of Jigoro Kano.Kenji KanoAfter the war, the post-war Jukuken box officeToichi MannenIs done by.

    Responding to beasts by making the best use of energy

    On December 1926, 12, the founder of the Kodokan, Jigoro Kano,Shuichi NagaokaWith (at that time, 2th dan) and Yokomoto Iseyoshi (at that time, 1th dan), he left Kobe Port to head to Okinawa (Ryukyu) for the purpose of inspecting Bunbu.After arriving on January 3, 6nd year, he witnessed judo red and white games and promotion games at Naha's "Shobukan", performed formal performances, and enthusiastically watched the battle between Okinawa's famous hub and mongoose. Yokomoto, a companion, records Kano, who talks about learning how to breathe in a serious game of judo and using it as a reference.In addition, the group is observing the performance of Karate in Shuri and Nago. On the night of the XNUMXth, I enjoyed Ryukyu cuisine with local celebrities, but at this seat, the following question was asked to Kano. "Teacher! In judo, why should you respond to this when you are struck by a beast?" Kano replied with the following strange answer. "There are various beasts. There are tigers and lions. I can't say unconditionally, but at the same time, bears are the most common in Japan, so let's talk about that. (Omitted) Bears are scared of people. (Omitted) Even if you light a fire or make a loud noise, you will run away from the bear. In addition, listen to various stories about bears and swallow them. In that way, you can actually deal with bears. Rather than letting the bears come into contact with each other to decide the game, the first thing is to keep the bears away. (Omitted) The first thing is to be prepared so that you can get rid of them, if any, and weapons. Is the best way to do it. In any case, use the best power, that is, the best use of energy, this is Judo. "[109][110]

    Judo as physical education (physical education method)


    1909(Meiji 42), Jigoro Kano was "fictitious" (not a concrete activity)physical educationFor this reason, we are announcing "simulation exercises" by "imitation" that takes the middle between "exercises that simply move the limbs of the body" and "actual work" (actual exercises through daily life and play).[111].. "Pseudo-gymnastics"Judo kataIt was devised as one of the gymnastics, not as one of the gymnastics, but its contents include 1 kinds of exercises such as physical labor and judo movements (counting (keisu), kuma (tamamaki), flat plate (hiraitamaki)). Includes vertical plate polishing, turret push, four-way kick, four-way hit, pump, and car circumference. Judo technique (Atemi technique) Was built in[112][113].. It can be seen that "pseudo-gymnastics" was in the process of producing "National Gymnastics for Energetic Good Use" that Kano will announce later.[114]

    National physical education for good energy

    1927(Showa 2), Kano said at the Kodokan Cultural Association, "National physical education for good energyIs announced.It is for improving people's livesphysical educationとMartial artsAlso serves asRandomAnd otherShapeBecause it does not actually throw the opponent compared toJudo clothingYou can practice anytime, anywhere without the need for special facilities or equipment such as dojos and judo.Atemi techniqueAtemi, so that you will not be dismissedJoint technique,ThrowingIt was created as a physical education method with various purposes, including various techniques such as.Among them were the movements of polishing things and the movements similar to the atemi technique (thrusting, kicking) included in "pseudo-gymnastics".

    Kano is1932(Showa 7) In "Celebrating the XNUMXth Anniversary of Kodokan", "National Sports for Good Energy" is "National Sports for Offense and Defense" and "National Sports for Offense and Defense".danceHe says that it is composed of two types of "ceremonial national physical education" and that he is trying to complete the "dance ceremony" that was in the middle of his research. "Judo is in the dojo from its original purpose.RandomIn view of the fact that I am not satisfied with my practiceShapeUse more power in your research and practiceStickman,FencingAlso studied and outpatientwrestling,boxingIn addition, we must strive to improve them.Thus,Martial artsAs a result, we will train the highest authority, first domestically, and gradually reach the world. ~ Omitted ~ In addition, at the same time as promoting the offensive and defensive national physical education that has already been devised today, we will continue to study this more deeply and strive to improve it. I will continue my research and strive to announce it to the world as soon as possible. "[115][116]

    The purpose of Kano's envisioned "national physical education for good energy" is to cultivate the spirit of good energy.world peaceIt had reached the realization of1938After Kano's deathPacific WarAs it expands1942ToNational schoolMandatory in the physical training department ofmartial artsAtemi skills of the contentsExtreme skillWas adopted.After Japan's defeat1950(25) In MayMinister of EducationAmano TeisukeからGhqThe content of the petition for the revival of judo submitted inManeuverThere was a statement that "the method of collective abolition as part of the training was completely abolished" and "the technique that seems to be dangerous in the atemi technique, the joint technique, etc. was excluded".In this way, in Japan after the end of the war, "seiryoku Zenyoiku" became popular with GHQ and the general public.MilitarismThere was a concern that it would remind us of the war, and the implementation in public was weighted.Due to the social situation after the defeat in Japan, it was necessary to move away from the front stage, but in this form, Kano admits the random competition, but there are research results everywhere to correct its harmful effects, and it is said that it is competitive in judo. It is a valuable resource for learning Kano's perspective on how to balance martial arts.[114]

    Judo dance

    Judo dance incorporates the judo technique that was danced by female members from the dawn of the Kodokan to the end of the Showa period.danceIs.At that time to womenmatchBecause there were few opportunities for Jigoro Kano, "Gender equalityI want to popularize judo. "It is said that it was devised by incorporating dances that are easy for women to work on.It can also be used as a reference for exploring the "dance ceremony" of the "national physical education for good energy" that Kano continued to study.Judo dance spread in earnest in the middle of the Showa era, and he was instructing the Kodokan girls' club.Haruko NiboshiWas actively instructed.The dance was inherited by the same member,All Japan Championship,National bodyIt was shown between games.However, in the 1990s, with the full-scale competition of women's judo, judo dance was rapidly abolished.Also1998With the death of Nissei, there are no leaders from the early days.It is a judo dance that has once stopped, but there are also movements toward a resurrection.However, there are no materials related to judo dance in the Kodokan, and few people know the time.[117]

    Judo as an education / spiritual training / application (Shinshinho)

    Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kodokan Judo, gave a lecture on "Judo 22st Group, No. Of the "Judo Shushinho", the "Judo Shushinho" has three main benefits.

    1. Recharge of Tokume
    1. Intellectual education
    1. Application of the theory of competition

    Kano argues that the theory of judo training can be applied not only to competition, but also to world politics, economy, education, and anything else.Kano argued that these teachings were of great benefit not only to the practice of judo competition, but to all things in society.One of the most important tips is, "Don't win, don't lose, don't lose, don't be alert, don't be in danger, don't be afraid, just a straight path. Kano emphasizes that in any case, do the best possible means in any case, with the teaching of "Step on."[118]

    Application of French judo education

    While judo has become widespread and widely accepted worldwide, it has been widely accepted in France and its educational benefits have been inherited.There are the following opinions on the background. "Judo is also a symbol of oriental culture. However, France also had the soil to accept. Awazu (Awazu)Shozo Awazu), And became France's first world champion (men's light weight class) in 1975.French Judo Judo Kendo and related Budo Federation(French Juren) ChairmanJean-Luc Rouge"There is something in common between Bushido, a judo that values ​​courtesy, and Chivalry, which is represented by fencing. It suits the national character." "[119] Father of French judo who went to France before the warKawaishi BreweryThe teaching method devised by the company is still being used as the "Kawaishi Method".Called the father of British judoUK OfMartial Arts AssociationWas teaching judo inGunji KoizumiInvented and adopted by Kawaishi in French judo instruction, various color bands that subdivide each grade from the conventional white belt to the black belt are great for the spread of judo in France. He contributed and was later reimported to Japan and introduced in the guidance of the rank, and is also adopted in various martial arts and martial arts.In addition, French judo has "eight knowledge" (le code moral du judo), which is a fusion of Bushido and Chivalry, and is emphasized as an educational purpose and value.As "8 tips" in French judo

    • "Courtesy" Politesse
    • "Courage" Courage
    • "Friendship" Amitié
    • "Katsumi / Self-control" Contrôle de soi
    • "Sincerity" Sincérité
    • "Humility" Modestie
    • "Honor" Honneur
    • "Respect" Respect

    Can be mentioned.ThereNitobe InazoBut"BushidoIt can be seen that the virtue mentioned in "" is similar to "courtesy," "spirit of courage, struggle, and patience," "righteousness," "Katsumi," "honesty, faithfulness," "feelings of jin and concealment," "honor," and "loyalty."[Annotation 5][120][121]..In addition, the judo instructor qualification in France is a national license, and the 300-hour course is a lecture on judo, where you can learn medical aspects and spiritual elements. It can be said that it is an application of one of the training methods, "lecture".


    Entertainment, beauty education, judo for a wide range of purposes (consolation method)

    After the lecture of "Judo Ichigo Nami ni No No Value for Education" in 22, Kano re-announced the purpose of judo, including the consolation method, and added new elements (fun of exercise, randomness). , Match, and the enjoyment of seeing the form, including beauty education in the form of art) is added to judo to insist on a wide range of purposes in judo. In 1913 (Taisho 2), Kano wrote in "Overview of Judo", "Judo practiced the technique of controlling the hands by applying the principle of Judo, and also studied the theory, and by training the body. When it's time, it's a physical education method, when it's time to train the spirit, it's a method of training, when it's time to enjoy entertainment, it's a method of comfort, and when it's practiced, it's a method of fighting. Judo is "based on the principle of juju, physical education for physical training, mental training for mental training," comfort "for entertainment, and a game for learning attack defense. ".

    Kosen Judo, Seven Emperor Judo

    Kosen judo is a judo that was born in the Taisho era in opposition to the Kodokan judo, which emphasizes standing skills.

    Kosen judo adopts a style that emphasizes ground fighting, and is characterized by eliminating as much as possible the elements of "waiting" and "outside the field" and the scoring system such as "effective" and "waza-ari" at the time of stalemate. ..Even in the gameTeam competitionThe match time is longer than that of Kodokan Judo and International Judo.The player is oldImperial UniversityAnd many of them.After the war, by the Judo Club of the Seven Universities of the former Imperial UniversitySeven Emperor JudoWas awakened as a judo that follows the flow of Kosen judo.Besides the rivalryBrazilian Jiu Jitsu-総 合格 闘 技As the backbone ofFighting sportsMainly active in the field.

    Nippon Budokan and Judo, Martial Arts Charter

    In June 1961 (Showa 36), judo1964 Tokyo OlympicsJudo enthusiasts formed the All Japan Judo Federation when it was decided to be a formal competition.Member of the House of Representatives appointed president of the federationMasataro Matsuri(Later, Judo XNUMXth Dan,KodokanThe Hall of Fame) stated, "We would like to build a world-class martial arts hall of fame in the center of Tokyo to promote the development and dissemination of this martial art."On June 6, the same year, the Budo Kaikan Construction Parliamentary League was formed. Chairman: Matsutaro Shoriki, Vice Chairman:Mikio Mizuta(Judo XNUMXth Dan, Kendo XNUMXrd Dan),Matsumae Shigeyoshi(LaterAll Japan Judo FederationDirector ・International Judo FederationChairman),Yonosuke Sato,Akagi Munenori(Kendo Hanshi) took office.

    On January 1962, 37 (Showa 1), with the approval of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyNippon Budokan(Chairman: Matsutaro Shoriki, Vice Chairman:Kimura Atsutarou<First generationAll Japan Kendo FederationChairman>, Shigeyoshi Matsumae, Chairman: Munenori Akagi) was established. The Nippon Budokan was completed on September 1964, 39 (Showa 9).October 15-10 of the same yearTokyo Olympics OfjudoWas carried out.

    Since the establishment of Nippon Budokan, Vice Chairman, Director of All Japan Judo Federation, Chairman of International Judo Federation,All Japan Student Judo Federation(Gakujuren) The term of office of the fourth chairman, Shigeyoshi Matsumae, who has served as chairman, was on April 1977, 52 (Showa 4) in the Nippon Budokan.Japan Martial Arts CouncilWas established on April 1987, 62 (Showa 4) at the ceremony to commemorate the 23th anniversary of the establishment of the Japan Martial Arts Council.Martial arts charterIt has been enacted.

    All Japan Judo Federation(All Japan Judo Federation) also moved into the Kodokan later, but at the time of the internal conflict between All Japan Judo Federation and All Japan Judo Federation, he moved into the Nippon Budokan.Therefore, this internal conflict was also expressed as "Kodokan vs. Budokan".

    Impact on other martial arts and martial arts

    As a martial art / martial art influenced by judoSambo,Nippon Kempo,Tomiki style Aikido,Brazilian Jiu Jitsuand so on.

    Nippon Kempo is a judokaSokai SawayamaHowever, in judo, he established a system of atemi skills that is becoming obsolete, and made it even more competitive.

    Sambo is a Russian who learned judo at the KodokanVasili OshchepkovIt was introduced to Russia by the Soviet era and spread as a national sport by its disciples.

    Tomiki-ryu Aiki Randori was created by Jigoro Kano, who was trying to promote the atemi technique of judo and the standing joint technique (judo in a separated position).Morihei UeshibaWas dispatched toKenji TomikiAlso known as the Judo Second Randori Method.Tomiki, who was a professor at the Faculty of Education, Waseda University, was instructing in the Waseda University Judo Club Aiki Group as the second method of randori of judo.

    Brazilian Jiu JitsuWas also called the Kodokan Three Crows and the Four Tennos of Kuma (Overseas Four Tennos)Mitsuyo Maeda(Conde Koma) In Brazil based on the judo technology that fought and refined different types of judo battles outside Japan when the judo spread overseas.Carlos GracieThere is a strong theory that the technique taught by Judo is a martial art derived from judo.

    Besides, a Kyokushin technician from JudoTokoWas establishedEmpty roadThe influence of judo is strongly seen in throwing and ground fighting.

    Studied at the Kobudo Study Group by Jigoro Kano at the KodokanMinoru MochizukiHowever, Kano's ideas, judo theory, and influence are inherited.

    International Jiu-Jitsu Federation (JJIF)Jiu-Jitsu Fighting SystemThe influence of judo can be seen strongly along with the traditional karate technique. JJIF also does Brazilian Jiu-JitsuGround Fighting Jiu-JitsuIt is also carried out under the name of. JJIFNational Federation TheFrench Judo Judo Kendo and related Budo FederationIn about 8 countriesInternational Judo FederationIt is a double member of the same organization as the National Sports Federation of[122][123].. (As of October 2019)

    Ryukyu(Okinawa) Originated in Karate (Karate,karate) Landed on the mainland with the introduction of Kodokan founder Jigoro Kano, in 1933.Dainippon BoutokukaiApproved by the Okinawa Chapter as a Japanese martial arts and jujutsu school, and incorporated into the judo division at the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai in 1934.Karate at that time was equivalent to free randoriKumiteDid not exist and only the pattern was performed, but in judoRandomizationAnd kendoBamboo sword trainingKumite will be researched and maintained after landing on the mainland with reference to.Also like today that Kodokan Judo maintainedRoad,Black belt-Color bandsystem,SegmentKarate was changed to Karate, and Karate was adopted during the Butoku Kai era and under the judo era.Second World WarAfter Japan's defeat in Japan, Judo and KendoGhqJudo was one of the three major divisions, greatly influenced by the martial arts ban.Atemi techniqueWill be restricted and neglected.At the time, karate, which had little influence in Japan and was rarely restricted, will advance through the gap of neglect of postwar judo atemi skills.[107].

    Shinden Fudo RyuI learned KodokanEdward William Barton-WrightCombined with European martial artsBartitsuWas founded.

    In Japan at the end of the Pacific War, it included the techniques of manual and weapons, which was put together by judoka Muneo Shioya in preparation for the mainland decisive battle.Sogo Martial Arts Martial ArtsThere is.Since the war is over, it has become a "phantom fighting technique".

    Impact on professional wrestling technology

    A professional wrestler who played against judoka and judoka both inside and outside Japan during the Taisho era and also called himself a judo champion.Ad SantelIs judoUra nageLearnwrestlingWhat I brought to today's professional wrestlingBack dropIs the source of.

    Judo's atemi technique used by Japanese judoka and judoka who were active in the prewar overseas professional wrestling worldHand swordWas called a chop (judo chop) overseas.It entered Japan in the form of being reimported and became known as Karate Chop.

    The judoka and boxer battle performance, which flourished in the late Meiji era to the 30s before the war and around the 1950s after the war, has become the predecessor of professional wrestling in Japan.Also held in 1976Mohammed Aliとア ン ト ニ オ 猪 木Used in the matchInoki Ali stateIs also one of the judoka's anti-boxer strategies used at the Judo boxer[124], The 1944 novel "Sanshiro』Also, the depiction of taking that tactic is made in the battle scene of the main character, Sanshiro Sugata, against the boxer.

    Influence from other martial arts

    As the internationalization of judo progresses, changes in technology centered on foreign players have also begun to be seen.This is because many overseas judo athletes work on martial arts and folk martial arts in each country at the same time as judo, incorporate the technology into judo, devise new technology through trial and error, and change (evolve) the technology every day. Because it is letting you.As a folk martial arts / martial arts in which technology is incorporated into judoCatch As Catch Can,Buff,Sambo,Brazilian Jiu Jitsuand so on[Annotation 6]..In response to changes in technology, Judo overseas as seen worldwidemartial artsNot "judo" asCompetitionIt has been pointed out that it is becoming "JUDO", and there are opinions that the original spirit of judo may be forgotten, and that there is concern about the alteration of judo.On the other hand, judo was formed by devising not only domestic jujutsu but also overseas martial arts from the beginning, and the style that integrates each martial art like international judo is the original form and spirit of judo. Some people think it is close. "In the Meiji eraJigoro KanoJudo became a kind of mixed martial arts when he made judo by extracting techniques from Japanese jujutsu schools.Furthermore, this time, judo has become a mixed martial art internationally.And sambo,BJJIs integrated up to.Even if we see that there are 23 countries that have won medals in judo, internationalization is progressing considerably. "[125]

    Many techniques have been introduced from other martial arts and martial arts since the time of Jigoro Kano, but since then, as techniques introduced into judo from other martial artsGeorgiaImproved Chitaoba's techniqueBand recoveryHabareri,(I.e.From wrestlingGavare, Rear-naked choke from mixed martial artsPeruvian tie chalkand so on.According to international regulations, Habareri is partially difficult to use due to the total ban on leg grasping from 2013, and Gavare can no longer be used.

    Judo at the 2012 London OlympicsInaugurated in response to the struggle of Japanese players inYasuo InoueAccording to the Japan Men's National Team coaching system, "Internationalized JUDO has become a complex of martial arts in the world. If it fits within the framework of judo, no new ideas will be born." To win the judoBrazilian Jiu Jitsu, Sambo,Mongolian wrestling,Okinawa angular strengthWe actively interacted with ethnic martial arts such as, and incorporated practice to strengthen it.In addition, we promoted reforms and ingenuity, such as taking measures when holding kumite, leading to practice of judo as a strengthening, and incorporating practice of batting mitts.[126].

    Judo at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsSawNoriko MizoguchiThe reason why "waiting" in ground fighting has become slower than before is that it may be intended to increase the presence of ground fighting at the Olympic Games and prevent people from flowing to Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, which is remarkably prosperous in recent years. ,It has said[127].

    2019,2020In January of the All Japan Women's National Team at a training campJapan Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu FederationChairman'sYuki NakaiInvite them to receive guidance on Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu ground fighting[128][129].

    Judo and weight training

    Full-scale strength training was introduced to Japan around 1900, and was the founder of judo.Jigoro KanoIt is said that the achievement of was great.Kano is called not only "the founder of judo" but also "the father of modern Japanese strength training".[130].

    Kano is called the father of modern training in Europe while traveling to Europe while promoting judo to the world.Eugene SandowEncountered and resonated with the strength training book "Sandow's System of Physical Training" (1894) written by.Kano, who realized its utility, was serialized and introduced in the Kodokan magazine "Kokushi".At that time, this series became popular, and in 1900, Kano published "Sandau Physical Fitness Training Law" from the Society of Engineers.Kano recommended the physical fitness training method not only to the judo world but also to the people, and sold and promoted the hand tools (dumbbells) used by Sandou for gymnastics.

    In 1933 (Showa 8), Kano, who was attending the Congress of Vienna as an IOC member, purchased and imported a formal barbell set from Austria on his way home.This barbell was taken to the Ministry of Education Physical Education Research Institute in Yoyogi, Tokyo at that time.Weight liftingTechnical research and practice were carried out, and a seminar for dissemination was also held.

    Kano's activities and translation books are the ancestors of the Japanese bodybuilding world.Takemaru WakakiIt also has an influence on such things, and it is also the reason why Wakagi woke up to weight training.JudokaKimura MasahikoBecause of their foresight, they also receive weight training guidance from young trees.

    In this way, Kano understood and introduced the effectiveness of strength training, but for a while it was not widely used in the judo world and was not given much importance.

    The reasons for this are that "the practice of judo itself is strength training", "the power used in judo is different from the power cultivated by muscle training", and "the right judo is to control the flexibility and stiffness". It is said that the idea was influenced.It is also mentioned that at that time, the skills possessed by the Japanese were fully applicable to foreigners who were superior in physical strength.

    However, Kano's spirit of judo, "Energetic good use," is a development of "Judo's reason" and "Judo control," and it can be said that it is a kind of well-balanced Judo that also includes Tsuyoshi. It was a thing.

    In addition, as judo spread all over the world and foreigners began to acquire skills, they became able to take various strategies, and Japanese people began to struggle in international competitions. When it comes to battles between advanced players who have acquired basic skills such as "the skill is in the power", this time the power becomes one of the factors that make the difference between victory and defeat, and power is needed to utilize the skill. ..

    The full-scale introduction of strength training to the Japanese judo world was in 1988.Seoul OlympicsAs a result of the analysis of the cause of the defeat, when the strengthening committee was held after the tournament and the cause of the defeat was thoroughly discussed, the basic physical strength was inferior to that of foreign players.Tokai UniversityBeginning with the invitation of professor Seiji Aruga as a strength coach[130]. Also2012 London OlympicsThe director who was established in the wake of the devastating defeat ofYasuo InoueThe all-Japan men's judo system has led to the introduction of more accurate physical training based on scientific viewpoints.We promoted strengthening by incorporating medical science into guidance such as systematic and systematic strength training, nutrition, and strengthening of data analysis.[131].

    There, he set the following policy as a training goal, saying that he would introduce training that is competitive in terms of physical fitness.

    • Acquire comprehensive muscle strength to keep up with the power and speed of the world's strongest opponents, and build a strong body.
    • Strengthen physical strength according to individual and class.Make use of the characteristics of techniques and movements to build muscle strength to compensate for weaknesses.
    • Develop muscle endurance that can be used in games.
    • Build your body to prevent and prevent injuries[132].

    Judo at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsJapan won a total of 1 medals for men and women, the most in one tournament.

    Judo and Karatedo gi

    Judo was initially Jiu-jitsuTraining clothesI was practicing wearing a hakama, but the shape was wide sleeves and up to the elbows, and the lower hakama was short and only around the thighs.Because the scratches did not endure1907Around (Meiji 40), Jigoro Kano created a judo garment with long sleeves and hem by incorporating elements of clothing into the conventional one, and began to improve and practice as it is today.This improvement also broadened the range of techniques and helped advance the throwing technique.[133].Dainippon BoutokukaiSince (Kodokan) judo was also adopted in Japan, new shapes of dogi were introduced in the form of reimports to the old-fashioned jujutsu schools that were participating in the Butoku Kai at that time, and they will be established thereafter. It will also be adopted and influenced by martial arts.1922, Produced by Jigoro Kano,Funakoshi YoshinoriAsk toKodokanThe judo garment was worn by Gichin when he was performing and teaching karate.After that, karate was different from judo in terms of movement and training content, so the judo garment was gradually improved, and the current karate garment was born.Judo and karate are generally considered to be separate, but that is why they have something in common in Keikogi (see details).Karatedo #Karate Doi).

    The color of judo clothing is basically white only.However, there was a problem that it was difficult for the spectators to distinguish between both players in the match with white judo clothing.1997The International Judo Federation decided to introduce colored judo clothing, and since then, blue judo clothing has been used in international competitions, and even when held in Japan, blue judo clothing is allowed to be worn only in international matches. ..On the other hand, Japan opposes the introduction of colored judo clothing, so only white judo clothing is used at domestic competitions.

    At the stage of studying the introduction of color judo clothing, various colors such as red, green, and yellow other than blueNational colorCountries in favor of the European Judo Federation, such as the European Judo Federation, have urged them to freely wear judo clothing.In the end, we decided to introduce only blue because we should be able to distinguish it and because of consideration for countries in opposition such as Japan.

    Jukuken box office

    From the end of the Meiji era to the 30's of the Showa era, there was a heterogeneous fighting competition called "Jukuken" that existed like the adahana of the times.Judo is Judo vs Boxing (boxing), The judoka fought in the judo style wearing a dogi, and the boxer fought in the boxer style wearing gloves. After Perry's arrival in 1853, when boxing was introduced to Japan, foreign sailors who used boxing techniques and Japanese wrestlers and martial arts began to play other-style games.These other-style games gave birth to the other-style game boxing "Judo match" by foreign boxers (most of whom are proud sailors) and judoka who were popular from the late Meiji era to the end of World War II, and boxing technology. Will increase the number of people who learn.

    The founder of judo used the name "juken" for the first timeJigoro KanoIs the nephew ofKenji KanoIs said to be.Kenji, who jumped out of the Kodokan at a young age, established Japan's first boxing gym International Jukuken Club (later renamed Dainippon Kentokai) at his home in Kobe after seeing a Jukuken match in Yokohama.Kenji's Jukuken box office was a great success, and it became so popular that it attracted a full audience not only in the Kansai area but also in Tokyo.After that, in 1931 (Showa 7), he participated in the formation of the All Japan Professional Boxing Association (later the Japan Professional Boxing Association).It laid the foundation for the development of the Japanese boxing world.

    After that, it was after World War II that Jukuken, which had almost disappeared after the war, was revived in Tokyo.Toichi MannenThat is the "Japan Jiu-Jitsu Federation" that was launched by Morie Nakamura and Koichi Kijima.Toichi Mannen is after the Jukuken box officeAll Japan Women's WrestlingWill be established and the content of activities will be changed.

    At the Jukuken box office performed by Kenji Kano, the activities are divided into three periods, before, during, and after.It is said that Kenji was trying to revive judo as a martial art that can deal with atemi and weapons through a battle with a boxer in the first half of Judo.Kenji also planned a match against martial arts and martial arts other than boxing, and promoted judo remodeling.

    It is said to be from the same idea as his uncle Jigoro Kano.Jigoro Kano's ultimate goal in judo is "upper judo," which uses the power of mind and body most effectively to benefit the world, and "middle judo," which aims for physical education and training, as a method of attack defense. After drawing the three-stage structure of "lower judo", it is best to start judo from "lower judo".Jigoro thought that it had to be a self-defense and mixed martial arts that could respond to all kinds of attacks as an "offensive and defensive technique."And Jigoro pursues the completion of his ideal "judo" until his later years through research on other martial arts and martial arts such as boxing, karate, aiki jujutsu, and stick art.Kenji Kano was pursuing judo as an "offensive and defensive technique" through the practice of heterogeneous martial arts with other martial arts and martial arts at the public game called "Judo Kenko", and in that respect Kenji Kano was his uncle Kano. It is said that he shared the same awareness of the problem as Jigoro.

    But the American wrestler in 1921,Ad SantelJigoro Kano, who had been tolerant of entertaining heterogeneous fighting games until then, was in a position of public office due to the open game "Ad Santel Incident" between judo and wrestling played by Kotaro Kojima's students. A policy change will be made to prohibit participation in "entertainment" activities that take "Kido-sen".

    "Taking money to show the judo work or playing a game has no choice but to take Kido money and show the art. I and he do the same thing. If it happens, the spirit of judo will disappear completely, and the general practitioner should be very modest. "

    And Jukuken Kogyo was forced to change direction to spectator sports, gradually transforming into a nationalistic show, and eventually ending.[134].

    In the technical book "Judo match method of the Kodokan 11th Dan, Asajiro Takeda" published in XNUMX, the match method of the judoka's opponent is explained and introduced.

    Judoist in attitude, how to hold, how to look and breathe, how to work with both hands, movement of legs, movement of body, analysis of fist fight, defense of boxing punch, how to handle and attack, fight against different species How to assemble a naked body to an opponent, how to assemble to parts such as arms, wrists, neck, and body, application of throwing, strangulation, and joint techniques, ankle joint techniques, various methods of two-handed cutting, later It is explained that "one-legged / two-legged tackle" is effective.[135].

    In the technical book "New Judo" by Osamu Hoshizaki, the 16th dan of the Kodokan published in XNUMX, he advocated "Knowledge of a judoka who is a fist fighter" with a boxer at the time of Judo boxing. The battle method of[136].

    • First, the judoka himself trains in boxing for at least a few months.Of course, it is also effective to use judo atemi, but boxing practice is the first condition as a way to get a good impression of the audience and win beautifully.
    • Practice studying various types of footwork and reading from the foot usage what kind of punch the enemy will make.
    • Practice freely advancing and retreating while firmly guarding the face with both arms, and kicking the opponent's punch with the counter.
    • Practice jumping at once by seeing the enemy's skies.The spring and timing of the whole body are essential.
    • Practice to throw immediately after jumping and connect to reverse / squeeze.
    • He also uses his atemi legs against the boxing fighter to operate a series of ground fighting and standing skills to win.
    • In the fight against boxing, it is important to always calmly aim for "the future".

    Heterogeneous martial arts in Brazil by professional judo

    1951,International Judo Association(Professional Judo)Kimura MasahikoSeven steps,Toshio YamaguchiXNUMXth Dan, Yukio Kato XNUMXth Dan Japanese Judo EnvoyBrazilWas invited to.At this time,Gracie Jiu JitsuとHeterogeneous martial artsIt is carried out.

    9/6Yukio KatoRio de JaneiroでHélio GraciePlay against.The match ends in a draw with 10 minutes and 3 rounds, no single win by throwing, and a jujutsu deathmatch rule without a point system.9/23The two rematched, but in the 8th minute Kato was squeezed by a cross strangle from below and Erio ended up winning one.

    As a snow humiliation battle10/23ToKimura MasahikoPlays against Hélio Gracie.However, as expected, Erio was treated as a child by Kimura.Kimura is good at 2R 3 minutes after the startArmSince Erio was unconscious, his brother Carlos offered to stop and Kimura won, protecting the honor of Japanese judo.Masahiko Kimura, nicknamed "Oni no Kimura," is a judoka who has held the All Japan Championship for 13 consecutive years since before the war and retired undefeated for 15 years, and is said to be the strongest in history.Kimura is sharpOgai MowingIt is famous for its ground fighting, but it also had the top power in Japan.

    For details on the process leading up to the match between Masahiko Kimura and Hélio Gracie, and the content of the match, see the book "Why did Masahiko Kimura not kill Rikidozan?] Describes in detail.According to it, after the match, the two praised each other for their strength and spirit.Erio was impressed by Kimura's strength and became an armKimura RockI gave it the name.

    Development from "soft reason" to "good energy" and "co-prosperity with others"

    Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kodokan Judo, developed the theory of "controlling the opponent by using the power of the opponent", "controlling the theory of judo, flexibly and rigidly", so to speak, in order to explain all the scenes. Considering the fact that it is necessary to "exercise proactive and positive power" flexibly according to the situation, and in addition to the mental function of defending against attacks, only the theory of judo reached the 30's of the Meiji era. I will explain judo that does not depend on.

    Kano announces "good energy" (best use of energy) and "co-prosperity with others" (co-prosperity with others) in the "Kodokan Culture Association" platform in the establishment of "Kodokan Culture Association" in 1922.

    1. The best use of energy is the key to self-completion.
    2. Self-completion is achieved by helping other completions.
    3. Completion of self and others is the basis of mutual prosperity of humankind.

    Jigoro Kano's "good energy" (judo is the way to use the power of mind and body most effectively) has two meanings.One of them is to use the total power of the body and mind rationally and efficiently to achieve the maximum effect.The other is that the true purpose of human life is human "survival and development of social life."[137][138]It means that it is "good" and that the purpose of the act is always good to increase the degree of effectiveness. "The way to use the power of mind and body most effectively" is a combination of both meanings, because the purpose of the act is greater good, and the method of achieving the purpose is more rational and efficient. It is "judo" to investigate and practice the principle of "way".[139].

    The meaning of judo is greatly expanded by greatly expanding the two major principles of "good energy" and "co-prosperity with others" from the principle of mere attack defense method to the principle of all human actions. It will be.

    The self is completed by the best use of energy (individual principle), the completion of this individual immediately helps the other completion, and the self-other co-prosperity (social principle) that co-prospers together with oneself leads to the pursuit of human happiness. ..

    Universality and flexibility by vigorous use

    In explaining "good energy" in martial arts, Jigoro Kano uses the power of the opponent in the conventional principle to control the opponent. It's just one of the theories, not a big inclusive word.[140][Annotation 7]As a matter of fact, it also includes it, and the reasoning that applies in any case at any time.[142], Universality[143]It leads to "energy good use" as an inclusive concept with.The scenes that are complemented, which cannot be explained by the conventional "soft reason", the scenes that escape from strong restraint, the scenes that skillfully use power to break weak power, and the bad guys who are in trouble all the time. A scene where you try to catch it, but the other hand does not attack from the other side and you need to reach out from here in a suitable way[144][145]Also, kick the opponent at the time of the game, poke with your hand, slash with a sword, poke with a stick[140]It is also applied to the atemi[142]It becomes an inclusive principle / concept.

    Kano's own discourse on energetic goodness does not have an explanation with the word "go", but Kano's universal thought and spirit also influenced the karate world, and it is a Chinese classic.Three StrategiesIt is said that the word "flexible and flexible" (flexible and rigid) was coined as a coined word that is paired with "flexible and rigid" (flexible and rigid) of "softness".[146]. AlsoShorinji KempoFounder ofReligionSays that judo is understood to be "soft and soft" from Kano's discourse, even though it is "mainly soft".[147].

    The universality of the concept in judo terminology is explained by "energetic goodness", but recent media works have made judo by the words "flexible and rigid, flexible and flexible" and "flexible and rigid". You can see the scene to explain[Annotation 8]..However, they are originally a concept contained in "good energy".

    The transition of postwar judo and its contradictions

    Jigoro Kano's view of judo and other sports and Olympic activities during his lifetime

    Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kodokan Judo, promoted the national and international spread of judo and at the same time.Dainippon Athletic AssociationThe first president and the first AsianIOC(International Olympic Committee) He also held positions such as committee members, and nationally encouraged and promoted other physical education and other outpatient sports.Regarding the question he receives about the relationship between athletics and judo, Kano said, "The voice that only Japanese-specific martial arts that can exclude outpatient athletics and provide mental education and moral training for Japanese people is sufficient" "A voice that preaches the benefits of athletic movements and promotes complete athletics" is not a valid idea, and he said as follows.

    "Judo is a big and universal way. It can be divided into various departments depending on the type of things to which it is applied, and it can be a martial art, physical education, intellectual education, virtue education, and a method of real life. Is a kind of exercise that competes for victory or defeat, but it is a mechanism that trains the natural body and trains the spirit while doing such a thing. Competitive exercise is just the way to do it. For example, there is no dispute that it has a great effect on physical training. However, the purpose of competitive exercise is simple and narrow, but the purpose of judo is complicated and wide. So to speak, competitive exercise is judo. It is only trying to accomplish a part of the purpose of Judo. It is of course possible and good to treat judo competitively, but just doing that is not enough. The original purpose of judo cannot be achieved. Therefore, while admitting that treating judo in a competitive manner is also in line with the demands of today's times, where is the true nature of judo? We must never forget that. "[148]

    On the other hand, Kano strongly emphasizes the games that became active before the war and the judo practitioners who are heading for the supremacy of victory, while also mentioning the advantages of random games and competitions in gaining the spread and understanding of the people. I am worried, and it is "lower judo" that competes for skill in physical training, "middle judo" that includes spiritual training, and "upper" that uses physical and mental strength most effectively to benefit the world. Judo. "In 11 (Taisho 1922), "good energy and mutual prosperity" was established as the principle of judo.

    Kano said, "Judo is deeper and wider than just looking at it as a competition, so I don't want to join the Olympic team on my own." He said he was reluctant to make judo an Olympic sport. It is said,Baron CubertinKano mentioned the need for both judo and outdoor sports when he became an IOC member and participated in the Olympic movement at the recommendation of the International Olympic Committee.

    "By then, I thought that if I was doing physical education, I thought it would be enough if I was doing judo, but when I thought about it more deeply, I realized that judo was not the only thing I could do. It must be an excellent one to train and practice the spirit of Bushido, but this alone is not enough to promote the physical education of the general public. However, gymnastics (at that time) was not interesting, and when I left school There is nothing to do. Baseball and garden balls are interesting, but no one can do it because they need equipment. Good for a few things, but not suitable for the general public. But anyone can walk, run, jump, etc. It doesn't cost anything. It may not be fun to just walk, but if you visit shrines and temples or visit historical sites, it will be linked to moral education. It is highly encouraged. You should also do swimming. It's an extraordinary exercise ... And already at the Higher Normal School, students were encouraged to practice long-distance races and swimming.

    (Omitted) Therefore, I wanted to make sure that martial arts and outdoor sports develop together. (Omitted) The Olympic Games developed in the West also adopted this, and I thought that it was not a consultation that could not add the spirit of Bushido. "

    And in other competitions, he had a big prospect for Japanese participation in the Olympics.

    "I wanted to infuse the spirit of Japan and make the Western Olympics a world Olympic. If I couldn't achieve it by myself, I would like it to be passed on to the next era. It can take a long time. , I rarely wanted to match the spirit of the Olympics with the spirit of martial arts. The closest way to do this is for Japanese athletes to have a strong Yamato spirit and martial arts spirit in their hearts and to play in the stadium. Then, to be a model for world athletes. "[149]

    The transformation of postwar judo and its contradictions

    After the death of Jigoro Kano, judo will undergo a major transition.

    In May 1938 (Showa 13), Jigoro Kano died of illness on his way home from the Olympic Games in Cairo.

    The Japanese government had decided to hold it on July 7, 15 that year.1940 Tokyo OlympicsCabinet decision to return.

    In Europe in September 1939 (Showa 14)Second World WarOutbreak, in December 1941 (Showa 16)Pacific WarOccurs.As the war situation expanded, in 1942 (Showa 17) in JapanDainippon BoutokukaiWill be reorganized under the initiative of the government.Among them, kendo, judo,ArcheryBut,BayonetAs a central martial art withMilitarismIt will be used for thought.Various martial arts and martial arts under the umbrella of Kendo in the Shin Budokai, and various martial arts and martial arts such as karate, hojojutsu, and old-fashioned jujutsu in judo (under the umbrella) It is also clearly stated that it is included.

    In 1945 (Showa 20), Japan experienced a defeat in the Pacific War, and in November 1946 (Showa 21), kendo, judo, archery, etc. were said to have contributed to militarism.GhqDue to the ban on martial arts, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai will be dissolved.

    After that, in 1950, Judo resumed school education in response to efforts to reopen in Japan, the submission of a petition by the Ministry of Education, and the establishment of an overseas judo federation.

    However, when the ban on martial arts is lifted, "judo as a competitive sport" will be pledged by external pressure.It was also regarded as a convenience, and many Japanese leaders were willing to revive martial arts as the center of mental education.

    However, in the trend of international sports,1964 Tokyo OlympicsAt the time of the event, Jigoro Kano, who had been reluctant during his lifetime, will be on the road to becoming an Olympic sport in judo.

    The following points have been made regarding the transformation of judo in the context of these trends.

    In terms of "physical education"

    "With the internationalization of competition, the theory of" strengthening physical strength "to win the competition will gradually increase.on the one hand"ShapeThe aspect of "harmonious development and health of the body" emphasized by Kano will be weakened, as shown by the fact that "" will not be practiced.As a result, "strengthening" to improve competitiveness became the center of judo practice, and the aspect of popularity and lifelong continuity that Kano emphasized as "physical education" was lost. "

    In terms of "game (martial arts)"

    "As" judo as a competitive sport "penetrated, the game was limited to" events in the stadium, "and the pursuit of martial arts, which was quite strongly conscious before the war, rapidly weakened. ..It was also linked to a decline in the practice of "form", which was accompanied by the purpose of preserving martial arts. "Judo is a sport" has become a universal recognition, and the theory of "judo as a martial art" has become increasingly neglected. "

    In the "Shinshin" aspect, especially in the "Tokuiku" aspect, until around 60, there was a lot of argument to stop the "decline in Tokuiku" from the viewpoints of "martial arts", "training" and "courtesy". It was.The worries about the decline in virtue were basically derived from the recognition that "judo as a competitive sport" is not simply the same as other competitive sports, even for those who tolerate it. ..Especially for many leaders since before the war, the theory of "judo as a martial art" that the "seriousness" of martial arts is useful for raising the spirit remains persistent, and the unwavering continuity of "training" makes human beings It was improved and inherited the value that "courtesy" must permeate the whole daily life.

    However, while the effect of judo on virtue education had to be linked to the "lifestyle" and "life" of human beings before the war, "judo as a competitive sport" was limited to competition. It was regarded as a problem.

    In addition, there have been concerns about the decline in the martial arts' unique view of training, values ​​for dan, and behavioral manners.

    In addition, "good energy, mutual prosperity with others" is

    It has been chanted constantly even after the war, but since 60, the chanting has decreased considerably.

    In general, as Kano advocated, the aspect of "applying them to daily life and social life" is no longer emphasized, and how can "good energy and mutual prosperity" be utilized in "judo as a competitive sport"? Interest will be concentrated there.

    Some criticized that "it is difficult to utilize the idea of ​​good energy and mutual prosperity in judo as a competitive sport", but the tone is that "if you win, you tend to reach your goal." It was associated with "criticism of victory first", such as "beginning to rampant."

    The biggest factor that determined these transformations is the growing "victory orientation" that was naturally required at the stadium.The reason is that there is an unavoidable correlation between the victory-oriented "strengthening" and the "decrease" in consideration for the weak (ie, popularity) and affirmation of others (ie, morality), and "victory". "Strengthening of orientation" limited the horizons to only the space-time of "competition" and lost sight of the wide range of values ​​of applying judo to life and way of life.

    Especially in the Japanese judo world, victory on the international stage was strongly demanded by the will and pride of the country of origin, so the value of "victory" was easily linked to the value of "promotion of competition" before the war. Then, "victory", which was positioned as a means value to increase the motivation of practitioners, gradually changed to a purposeful value.

    During his lifetime, Kano repeatedly advocated "Don't get caught up in the victory or defeat in front of you" in order to maintain the system of educational values, but such a postwar "purpose of victory" has broken that system. It was. " [150]

    Social activity

    The Kodokan and the All Japan Judo Federation accept the disorder of the manners and morals of judo practitioners and carry out social activities with the aim of revitalizing their spirits.

    Judo Renaissance

    In Japan, the Kodokan / All Japan Judo Federation launched a joint project "Judo Renaissance" in 13, and is working toward the ideal human education of Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kodokan Judo.

    "Internationalization, competition, and sports are progressing, and only competition results and wins and losses are attracting attention, but now that we have entered the 21st century, we will return to the origin of judo advocated by Jigoro Kano and promote a business that emphasizes human education. It is something that tries. "[151]

    "The Kodokan / All Japan Judo Federation is not only making efforts to develop judo as a competition, but also reminds us of the ideals of the instructor, and is concerned about the way judo should be in recent years, which tends to be tied up only by winning or losing. However, a joint project "Judo Renaissance" was launched with the aim of "human education idealized by the instructor".Its main purpose is to carry out systematic human resource development and volunteer activities, and through this activity, aim for the more comprehensive spread and development of judo. "[152]

    Judo Education Solidarity

    The purpose of "contributing to the international spread of judo, promoting exchanges between people through its activities, promoting cross-cultural understanding, and thereby contributing to the development of young people in Japan and around the world" from 2006. Activities.

    Judo MIND

    The All Japan Judo Federation launched the Judo MIND Project Special Committee on April 2014, 4 to promote the "Judo MIND" project.

    Judo accident

    First of all, the basics of judo throwing are to throw Uke so that his back is big on the tatami mat, but Tori throws Uke so that he does not drop it from his head, and in many throws, Uke's body is about to reach the tatami mat. You have to pull the puller and pull the body of Uke slightly, and Uke is correct passive (strike the tatami mat with your arm to buffer it, and at the same time pull the jaw to fix it by looking at the band and navel and do not hit the back of the head. You must wear it.

    However, Uke may hit his head against the tatami mat if both Tori and Uke or one of them is immature or if there is an extreme difference in body size.For exampleOgai MowingDue to the nature of the technique that Uke is pushed backwards, there is a high risk of banging the back of the head if it is applied to a beginner or a person who is overly exhausted and cannot take passive properly.It has also been suggested that acceleration damage (rotational acceleration damage) may be the cause in addition to the cause of the accident caused by falling from the head, which is due to the application of external force (extreme centrifugal force, acceleration) to the head. Rotational acceleration is applied to the skull, and the entire brain in the skull rotates (biased in one direction), causing the pons vein that connects the brain and the hard membrane to break.Acute subdural hematomaIs the mechanism that leads to[153][154][155]..Concussion caused by a bang on the head without any other interval (date)Second impact syndrome) Causes physical damage to the brain, which increases the risk of injury and death.

    All Japan Judo Federation has established activity guidelines for elementary school students, such as "up to 1 hours of activity per day" to prevent injuries caused by fatigue from long hours of practice.

    Judo accident cases at schools, etc.
    • On July 2002, 7, during a training camp for the Saitama Prefectural High School Judo Club, a first-year male member performed a standing technique with a teacher of the same club, and was thrown by the teacher by dropping his body and fell from his back. Was diagnosed as traumatic acute subdural hematoma at the destination hospital, and the condition was persistent consciousness disorder and vegetative state as a residual disorder.Claimed damages to Saitama Prefecture for violating the duty of care of the victim.Later, the Tokyo High Court admitted that the instructor violated the protection obligation and granted the defendant prefecture a claim for state compensation.
    • 2003 years,Sukagawa City Daiichi Junior High School Judo Club Assault Injury Case
    • 2004 years,Yokohama City Nara Junior High School Judo Club Assault Case
    • In July 2007, a male student in the first grade of the Judo Club of Konko Osaka High School in Takatsuki City, Osaka Prefecture, participated in a seminar such as a promotion examination three days after he collapsed due to a concussion during practice.After complaining of a headache after the model performance, he was withdrawn and was taken to the hospital by calling 7 from his mother who rushed to the venue.He developed acute subdural hematoma and became bedridden due to persistent consciousness disorder. Later, his family, including himself, suffered a total of about 1 million yen in damages to the school corporation, All Japan Judo Federation, and Osaka Prefecture Judo Federation. Seek compensation.Osaka District Court, except for requests to All Japan Judo Federation (Judge Tatsufumi Sato) Agreed to pay a settlement of about 1 million yen.
    • 2008 years,Yokohama Shodai High School Judo Club Member Residual Disability Case
    • In 2009, in Hiroshima prefecturePrivate Onomichi High SchoolA first grade male student bangs his head with a tatami mat while practicing the judo club, develops acute subdural hematoma, and suffers from higher brain dysfunction.Later, the victim and his parents sought damages totaling about 1 million yen from Onomichi Gakuen, which runs the school. August 1, Hiroshima District Court Onomichi Branch (Judge Kazuaki Tsukita) Ordered the school to pay a total of about 8150 million yen, saying that it "violated the obligation to take appropriate measures to prevent accidents".[156].
    • On July 2009, 7, while practicing the judo club at Hatasou Junior High School in Aisyo Town, Shiga Prefecture, a member (29 years old at the time) was an adviser to the judo club (12 at the time) because he was "not able to speak" after practicing with senior students. Received direct guidance from the age).He fainted immediately after undergoing a combination technique of throwing twice and tightening once, and although his adviser beat him with a flat hand, he died one month later without returning to consciousness due to acute subdural bleeding at the hospital where he was transported.Later, the Aisyo-cho Junior High School Judo Club Accident Verification / Safety Measures Review Committee was established.
    "Aisyo-cho Junior High School Judo Club Accident Verification / Safety Measures Review Committee Report"(* PDF) Aisyo-cho Junior High School Judo Club Accident Verification / Safety Measures Review Committee July 22, 7
    • August 2010, 5,Oita Prefectural Taketa Senior High SchoolDuring the practice of the Judo club joint training camp, a male student member (17 years old at that time) received Osotogari and smashed his head and was urgently transported. He died at the hospital where he was transported at midnight on the same day.As a result of judicial autopsy, the cause of death was found to be acute subdural hemorrhage.
    • August 2011, 6,Nagoya Municipal Koyo High SchoolA 1st grade male member was thrown by Osotogari during randori training and smashed his head during a break, complained of poor physical condition during a break, and requested emergency transportation. An emergency craniotomy for hematoma was performed, but he died on July 7, the same year.
    Nagoya Municipal Koyo High School Judo Accident Investigation Report(* PDF external link)Nagoya City Judo Safety Guidance Review Committee May 24, 5
    • 2014 year 10 month,Fukuoka CityA second-year junior high school boy who was practicing at the dojo in the house was temporarily unconscious after being "squeezed" by the instructor.Former member victim manFukuoka District CourtIn February 2015, he filed a lawsuit against this leader.The first and second trials acknowledged the man's complaint and ordered payment of 2 yen, as of June 4, 4,000Supreme CourtDecided not to accept the leader's appeal and the compensation was finalized[157].
    • August 2015, 5,Oita Prefectural Nakatsu Kita High SchoolA 1st grade male judo member bangs his head during randori training and performs emergency surgery for acute subdural hematoma. The victim develops persistent consciousness disorder and is rehabilitated at a medical institution.Later, an accident investigation committee was established and reported.
    About Oita Prefectural Nakatsu Kita High School Judo Accident Investigation Report (Summary) Oita Prefectural Board of Education
    • May 2015, 5 evening,Fukuoka City Mushiroda Junior High SchoolDuring the promised training of the judo club, a female member (13 years old at the time) who had been osotogari smashed her head and fell unconscious and died at the hospital where she was transferred the next day.Later, the city set up an accident investigation committee.
    Fukuoka City Junior High School Judo Accident Investigation Report(* PDF external link) Fukuoka City Judo Safety Guidance Review Committee December XNUMX, Fukuoka City
    • On April 2016, 4, a third-year male member (25 years old at the time) belonging to the judo club of a private high school in Sendai City injured his cervical spine and spinal cord during a club activity match, and was urgently transported to perform surgery. Died May 3 of the same year[158].
    • On the evening of May 2016, 5, a third-year male member (31 years old) was thrown by a classmate at a municipal junior high school in Tatebayashi City, Gunma Prefecture, and was fainted after being thrown by a classmate. Unknown serious body.
    Tatebayashi Municipal Junior High School Judo Accident Investigation Report and Proposal(* PDF)Tatebayashi City Judo Safety Guidance Review Committee January XNUMX
    Other cases
    Related publications
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    • "I still like judo -Judo accident and black belt dignityTV Shinshu (edit), TV Shinano = (edit) Ryuho Shobo October 2015ISBN 4947697520

    Judo accident statistics

    The average mortality rate per 2000 athletes in Japanese junior high school judo from 2009 to 10 was 2.376 per year, the second highest.basketballThe incidence of fatal accidents during judo activities at school is said to be 0.371 people / year in basketball andbaseballIt can be said that it is more expensive than sports such as.The number of deaths from the athlete populationAbsolute value Theæ°´ æ³³,AthleticsThere are more (incorporated administrative agencies)Japan Sports Promotion CenterFrom 2 to 21, 74 cases died in the judo industry and club activities in the school and paid a tribute.Athletics 275 cases, swimming 103 cases).

    There is data that the average number of children dying during judo practice under school management is more than 4 per year, with a total of 27 deaths in the last 110 years and a total of 2009 from 2010 to 13. A fatal accident has been confirmed[159].Nagoya UniversityAccording to a survey by Ryo Uchida, 1983 people died nationwide during the 2010 years from 28 to 114, of which 39 were in junior high school and 75 in high school, with more than half of the first-year students in both junior high and high school, and 1 died in class. Will be done.SequelaeFrom 1983 to 2009, there were a total of 275 accidents (about 17 accidents / year), of which 3% were reported as accidents during class.[160][161].

    The number of injuries to club activities at Osaka Prefectural High School in 1964 was 39 for judo, 209 for baseball, and 124 for rugby, based on the materials of the Osaka Chapter of the Japan School Safety Association.In addition, according to a survey by the Osaka Chapter of the Japan School Safety Association, the number of injuries to club activities of all-day high school boys in Osaka Prefecture in 105 was reported to be 51 for rugby, 443 for martial arts (mainly judo), and 382 for baseball.[162].

    Judo accidents and civil proceedings

    In Japan regarding judo accidentsNational Judo Accident Victims AssociationExists.Extracurricular activitiesIf the condition suddenly changes afterwards or when returning home, the rotational acceleration damage is almost non-traumatic, resulting in a judo accident and death.Causal relationshipWill be difficult to prove[163].

    Judo accident measures

    For judo accidentsAll Japan Judo FederationHas set up a special committee for safety guidance projects to educate leaders on accident prevention and response in the event of an accident.[164]..The foundation has a tribute system for judo accidents, which means death or grade 1 to grade 3.Sequential disabilityA sympathy fee of 200 million yen and a disability compensation of 2000 million yen will be paid.

    "Gong martial artsIs from June 2010Seven Emperor JudoAfter the tournament matchRyuichiro Matsubara(Professor, University of Tokyo)Toshiya MasudaInviting a (writer), an emergency talk was held by four people, including a doctor from All Japan Judo Federation and a doctor from the Kyoto University Judo Club, and "Let's work together in the judo world to devise positive measures to prevent accidents." It was settled in the story.From the OB of Kyoto University, it seems to be the seven emperor judo centered on ground fighting, "Junior high school students are not yet physically fit, so in class it is not too late to teach only ground fighting and dangerous standing skills after they are physically trained. Isn't it? "However, there are cases in which a second-year high school student injured the cervical spine during basic practice of ground fighting and was in a state of paralysis below the neck.[165].

    Nagoya UniversityGraduate School of Education and Development ScienceRyo UchidaAccording to the survey, the number of deaths at judo sites in Japan has been zero for three years from 2012 as a result of efforts for safety measures.[166], Again, 2015 deaths between 2021 and April 4[167].

    Judo accident and NHK program

    In Japan, many leaders think that "it happens when you hit your head, so it's okay if you don't hit your head", but the idea is sweet.[168]..It is dangerous to hit the head, but even if you do not hit the head, even if a strong acceleration is applied to the head, intracranial hemorrhage may occur and it may be fatal.[168].

    JapaneseMinistry of EducationThe response is very sloppy and unfaithful,Japanese GovernmentAlthough the Ministry of Education knew 30 years ago that accelerated damage caused by judo would cause a fatal accident, it did not even conceal such fact and convey it to the guidance site.[168].

    The Government of Japan (Ministry of Education) filed a lawsuit from the victim's family in a fatal accident that occurred while teaching judo at school 30 years ago, and said that the family "believed to have a headache". In order to claim innocence, he took the trouble to bring up a paper written in English and defended himself in order to claim that "accelerated damage can damage the brain even if you do not hit your head." Nonetheless, it should have been possible to improve the situation by taking countermeasures based on the fact that "acceleration damage can damage the brain even if you do not hit your head" that you brought out for your defense. Despite this, he made no efforts to convey that fact to school sites nationwide, creating a situation in which more than 100 young people would subsequently die in Japan.[168].

    Furthermore, the Ministry of Education made a (inappropriate) rule several decades ago stating that "it is not necessary to report an accident during judo instruction at school to the Ministry of Education", and accident information is not gathered at the Ministry of Education. I have made a system[168]..This created a situation where the danger was increasingly unrecognized and left unattended.[168].

    Those who will clarify the fact that such a dangerous state was left unattended and concealed in 2011, just before the compulsory martial arts in junior high school (as a result, many schools are expected to choose compulsory judo) Came out and emerged as a problem[168]..Japanesephysical educationMost of the teachers have no experience of doing judo, but they intend to have them teach judo, and the minimum training for physical education teachers (how to wear judo clothes, how to wear a belt, etc.) There is even a feeling that you are in a hurry to take a passive approach)[168]..I haven't reached the level of a leader at all[168]..As mentioned above, the actual situation of high mortality rate and disability rate has suddenly become clear in the last few years, and martial arts compulsory (judo compulsory) was implemented as it is in the teaching field as it is. It is naturally predicted that if the number of students who perform judo increases rapidly, the number of deaths and students with disabilities (victims) will inevitably increase.[168][Annotation 9]..Despite this, Ministry of Education officials have not changed their stubborn attitude that "April compulsory judo will be implemented as planned."[168].

    FranceHas become a judo powerhouse with three times the population of judo in Japan, but as a safety measure, to teach judo safely to students (not as athletes) in the wake of a fatal accident that occurred once.National qualificationEstablished,Emergency lifeJudo can never be taught without more than 300 hours of learning and training, including physiology and sport psychology.[168]For example, even if you are an excellent athlete, you can never teach students unless you can give passive and safe guidance.[168]..The sincere attitude of the French government and the sloppy attitude of the Japanese Ministry of Education are in stark contrast and opposite.[168].

    Even in the All Japan Judo Federation, although there was a group of doctors within the federation, it specializes in the head.NeurosurgeryI didn't have a doctor and didn't really understand the truth about the judo accident[168].

    Yuji Nimura(A doctor belonging to the All Japan Judo Federation, himself also Kodokan Judo XNUMXth Dan) is NHK's "Close-up modern(Broadcast on February 2012, 2), before making martial arts compulsory (judo compulsory), a mechanism (system) for judo accident verification by a third party should be prepared in advance, and if so, If an accident occurs during judo instruction (not the Ministry of Education, not the on-site physical education teacher or school principal who tries to avoid responsibility after the accident), a third party will clarify and analyze the actual situation of the accident. However, he pointed out that by doing so, if the actual situation of judo accidents is clarified and information is accumulated, accident prevention measures can be taken.[168].

    In 2012, an affiliated organization of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyJapan Sports Promotion CenterRegarding the special article that the Nagoya branch was planning to publish in the competition magazine, calling attention to judo club activities and fatal accidents during class, "Be careful about posting before the compulsory martial arts in junior high school begins. I was reluctant to postpone the publication in response to the indication from the headquarters.[169].


    In Japan, skin infections have been caused by physical contact since around 2001.Trichophyton tons lanceInfectious diseases (a type of ringworm, so-called athlete's foot, tamushi) have been reported as outbreaks among judo and wrestlers.Can be treated by a specialist such as a dermatologist[170].


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Kodokan Shihan Jigoro Kano's lesson "Judo is the way to use the power of mind and body most effectively. The practice is to train and train the physical spirit by practicing attack and defense, and to acquire the essence of this way. Now, I will complete myself and benefit the world, but it is the purpose of the study of judo training. "
    2. ^ There is no clear historical record regarding the date, place, opponent, and outcome of the match.Yamashita YoshitsuguRecollection of (Magazine "キ ン グIn the October issue of 1929 (Showa 4), in February 10 (Meiji 19)Kodokan Shitenno OfSaigo Shiro(novel"Sanshiro』Model) to Entaro YoshichiMountain stormIn addition to winning in, there are also theories such as May 18, June 5th (19), and October, and there is also a theory that Shiro Saigo's opponent was Taro Akishima.
    3. ^ In other competitions, as a general rule, competitions between countries / regions that lost in the semifinals.In some cases, it is not held by competition and the third place is two countries.
    4. ^ In the book "Detailed Judo Rules and Judgment Law 2001 Edition", it is 1998.
    5. ^ Code morals are based on the honorary and traditional moral norms of judo dans, originally set by Jean-Lucian Jazaran, then president of the dandans in the 1970s.According to Jazaran, the norms of judo leaders are inspired by the ideas presented in Nitobe Inazo's "Bushido."
    6. ^ Unlike wrestling and sambo, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has the commonality with Judo that you can't get score points if you take a guard position even if you lie down on your back in a ground fight, and there is a squeezing technique. It is also being tackled among judo players.
    7. ^ Kano does not state that "soft reason, soft and rigid control" is a wrong idea even in later years, and it is almost always when discussing the principle in the practical dimension. I'm inquiring about it.In other words, Kano said that there was a limit as a so-called universal "applied principle" that could respond to all phenomena, but he still stopped it as a representation when expressing judo.[141].
    8. ^ Serialized in Weekly Shonen Magazine from 1994 to 2000, "New Kotaro Makari Toru! Judo EditionIn the work of Judo, there is a contrast between "flexible and rigid control" and "flexible and flexible cutting" and reference to "flexible and rigid unity".
    9. ^ Related item:Recklessness


    1. ^ "DVD Series Judo Perfect Master" 16 pages.[Detailed information for identifying documents]
    2. ^ "Jigoro Kano Daikei" Vol. 194) P.XNUMX "Don't neglect to apply the principle of self-other mutual prosperity to daily life"
    3. ^ IJF Statutes (Swiss Association) 21 08 2015 ENG.pdf
    4. ^ Tomoyuki Kikuchi, "A Study of Matsudaira Sadanobu's Martial Arts Thought-The Road to Shinko Otsuryu-", Martial Arts Studies, Vol.
    5. ^ Shigetoshi Sugiyama, ed., Martial Arts Theory, 2002th Lecture, 75, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4829304081.
    6. ^ Shun Inoue "The Birth of Martial Arts",Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, 2004, 7 pages.ISBN 4642055797
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    11. ^ "Judo Guidance Method for Boys-Judo Guidance Characteristic of Boyhood-Chapter 1 History of Martial Arts and Judo 5. Police Judo"
    12. ^ Martial arts and dance compulsory Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
    13. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for the safe implementation of judo classes
    14. ^ a b Toshiyuki Takayama (listener / composition), Tetsuya Ono (speaker) "Deathmatch All Japan Judo Federation VS Gakujuren" (1st edition, 1st edition)Sanichi Shobo (Original work December 1988, 5), p. 15. 
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    17. ^ "Women's judo is more of a challenge than the world's trial" type "" "Asahi Shimbun, December 1979, 12, morning edition, page 19
    18. ^ Kodokan "Definitive Edition Kodokan Judo"Kodansha, 1995, Chapter 9, Atemi Techniques, p. 142.ISBN 406207415X.
    19. ^ About the name of judo technique
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    23. ^ Kano Yumitsu,Sadazo Kawamura,Ryozo Nakamura,Yoshinori Takeuchi Toshiro Daigo, "Judo Encyclopedia"Norihisa Sato(Supervised), Japan (Original, November 1999, 11), p. 21.ISBN 4871522059.. "IJF technique name". 
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    138. ^ Supervised Kodokan "Jigoro Kano Daikei Vol. 1988" (First Edition) Book Tomosha, February 2, 25, p. 74. "Sakuko" Vol. 1926, No. 15, June 6 (Taisho XNUMX) "Answering questions about self-prosperity for good energy"
    139. ^ Japan Sports Association / Supervision / Representative Yuzo Kishino Hen "Latest Sports Encyclopedia" (First Edition) Taishukan Shoten, June 1987, 6, p. 1.ISBN 4-469-06203-0. 
    140. ^ a b "Kano Jigoro Daikei" Volume 95) P.XNUMX "The Fundamental Spirit of Judo"
    141. ^ "Inheritance and Transformation of Kano Judo Thought" P.111 (Chapter XNUMX Examination of Basic Concepts in Kano Judo Thought, Section XNUMX Establishment of Good Energy) Kosuke Nagaki Kazama Shobo
    142. ^ a b "Kano Jigoro Daikei" Volume 97) P.XNUMX "The Fundamental Spirit of Judo"
    143. ^ "Inheritance and Transformation of Kano Judo Thought" P.110 (Chapter XNUMX Examination of Basic Concepts in Kano Judo Thought, Section XNUMX Establishment of Good Energy) Kosuke Nagaki Kazama Shobo
    144. ^ "Jigoro Kano Daikei" Vol. 311) P.XNUMX "About the two major principles of training"
    145. ^ "Jigoro Kano Daikei" Volume 5) P.XNUMX "Best Utilization of Energy"
    146. ^ "Clinical Orthopedics" September 2015 Issue "Current Situation and Future Proposals for Strength Training in All Japan Judo to Fight the World" Takeshi Kamiya Kashiwaguchi Shinji P.9
    147. ^ "Nippon Den Orthodox Northern School Shorinji Kempo Instruction First Edition" P.26 27, General characteristics of Kenpo (XNUMX) Goju-integrated, published in XNUMX
    148. ^ "Jigoro Kano Daikei Vol. 1" "Judo and Competitive Movement" p.18
    149. ^ "Jigoro Kano Daikei Vol. 8" "My Olympic Secrets" p.368
    150. ^ "Inheritance and Transformation of Kano Judo Thought" Kosuke Nagaki Kazama Shobo
    151. ^ All Japan Judo Federation homepage
    152. ^ Judo Renaissance Executive Committee "
    153. ^ Judo Safety Guidance 2011 3rd Edition Pages 8-12 All Japan Judo Federation
    154. ^ The thoughts of the bereaved family, moving the judo world Two years after the death of a judo member in Shiga asahi.com August 2011, 8
    155. ^ Knowing the risks of judo and making it compulsory in junior high school Symposium Shiga asahi.com November 2011, 11]
    156. ^ Memory / speech disorder and narrowing of visual field ... Sequelae in judo practice, order for compensation to school Yomiuri Shimbun May 2015, 8
    157. ^ Proceedings for damages Judo narrowing down "illegal" decision confirmed Mainichi Newspaper March 2018, 7
    158. ^ Member died after a judo match Sendai private high school Kahoku Shimposha December 2016, 5
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    164. ^ (FY2011) http://www.judo.or.jp/data/docs/print-shidou.pdf
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    167. ^ ""28 junior and senior high school students died in 114 years" The root cause of the tragic accidents in Japanese school judo is zero in France, a judo powerhouse”(Japanese). PRESIDENT Online (September 2021, 10). April 2022, 1Browse.
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    170. ^ All Japan Judo Federation <Tamushi> "About dermatomycosis (infectious disease)" Q & A


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