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⚾ | Why is high school baseball focused on one-on-one matches even though it is a team sport?Considering the popularity of summer Koshien


Why is high school baseball focused on one-on-one matches even though it is a team sport?Considering the popularity of summer Koshien

If you write the contents roughly
By stimulating a sense of belonging, such as blood type, gender, generation, occupation, and hobbies, even the same project may be finished as something outstanding.

This is Kensaku Fukada, a broadcast writer. I, who runs a site called "Planning Warehouse", asked myself, "What is interesting about that project?" → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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    sense of belonging

    Blood Type

    Blood Type(Ketsu Ekigata) isblood cellblood group substances (antigen) is a distinction between individuals based on the presence or absence ofHuman capitalIt can also be called a "serological constitution of the blood", "personality of the blood", or "a method of serologically identifying an individual".Blood type in a broad sense refers to genetic polymorphisms or their classification modes that are distinguished in various ways by individual differences in genetic traits found in blood.[1].Originally blood typeRed blood cellHowever, in recent years, it has been confirmed that various other blood components also have polymorphism.[1]. As of 2019, there are 37 human blood types recognized by the International Transfusion Society.[2].

    In recent years, it has become clear that the prevalence of diseases differs depending on the blood type. →#Blood type and prevalence of each disease

    There is no scientific basis for the relationship between blood type and personality.[3].

    Main classification method

    Hundreds of types of antigens are known, and the number of blood types determined by their combinations is enormous (some say more than trillions).Even if I search the worldIdentical twinsIt is even said that there is no one who has exactly the same blood type as you unless you are.Using this property, animal husbandry, especiallyThoroughbredIn the field of production, blood type was used to prove parentage (currently, direct DNA analysis is used).

    transfusionIf you doABO blood typeSome classifications are natural, such asantibodyis formed, and the mistypedbloodSince aggregation and hemolysis will occur if mixed, it is necessary to match the type.Also, depending on the blood type, aggregation and hemolytic reaction are different.

    In addition, there is a low probability that it is said to be about 70 in 1 people.[4]If one person has multiple blood types, it is called a "blood type chimera" (eg, 99% type AB, 0.1% type AB, etc.).For more informationChimeraSee section.

    A type discovered based on red blood cell antigens

    ABO blood type

    In this section, since it is related to the Bombay type, the Hh blood type is also mentioned for convenience.

    Red blood cellA type of blood group classification method. It is a classification method discovered from around 1900 to 1910, and is the first blood group classification.

    • Type A has A on the surface of red blood cells.antigenhas a gene that expresses (= a gene encoding A-type transferase),plasmaagainst B antigen duringantibodyIs formed.
    • Type B has a gene that expresses B antigen on the surface of red blood cells (= gene encoding type B transferase),antibodyIs formed.
    • Type OgeneThere are no A/B antigens on the red blood cell surface.Antibodies against A and B antigens are formed in plasma.
    • Type AB has genes that express both antigens (A and B antigens) on the red blood cell surface and no antibody formation in plasma[5].

    The Hh blood type was discovered in 1932, and the H substance (=fucose), which is the basis of the ABO blood type, is the antigen.Without this (h type), it becomes the Bombay type, and even if you have the A or B gene, the A and B antigens cannot bind to red blood cells.

    Rh blood type

    Antigen classification of red blood cell membranes. It was revealed around 1940.Currently, more than 40 antigens have been discovered.The main ones are C vs. c/D vs. d/E vs. e vs. 3 vs. 6 types of factors[Footnote 1][6]Among them, information about the presence or absence of the D antigen, which reacts particularly strongly, is most often displayed as positive or negative.i.e.Rh +(D antigen positive) andRh−(D antigen negative).In addition, antigen D has a phenotype of "capital letter D if antigen D is present, lower case letter d if not." (Both DD and Dd genes are D-type, dd only is d-type), but in the case of C and E, it says "There is an antigen of type C (E)" in capital letters, and "There is an antigen of c (e)". Since it has a lowercase phenotype, if both genes are present, incomplete dominant inheritance will occur, and the genotypes of CC and Cc and cc, and EE and Ee and ee will have different phenotypes, so the phenotypes will be Cc and Ee. For this reason, there are 6 blood types with only the basic 18 factors[7].

    Transfusion of Rh+ type blood to an Rh- type person may cause shock such as blood coagulation and hemolysis. If an Rh- type woman becomes pregnant with an Rh+ type fetus more than once, it may cause illness and miscarriage.2% of Japanese are Rh+[8].

    MNSs blood type

    In 1927, Landsteiner and Levin discovered the MN type antibody from the serum obtained by immunizing rabbits, and the phenotype is divided into three types, M, MN, and N, depending on the reaction with anti-M and anti-N.[Footnote 2][9], This blood type is inherited, but unlike the ABO gene, there is no superiority or inferiority between the M gene and the N gene, and if both are present, the MN type is obtained.On the other hand, the Ss type was reported by Walsh and Montgomery et al. Discovered phenotypes can be divided into three types: S, Ss, and s[Footnote 3].In 190 Caucasians, the S factor was positively correlated with the M factor, and the S-positive rate was 73.4% for the M type, 54.1% for the MN type, and 32.3% for the N type.[10].

    It was later discovered that although they were originally separate blood types, the locations of the genes were close on the chromosome and they were apparently inherited together, so they are now treated together.[11].

    Unlike the ABO type, the MN type antibody does not readily react at body temperature, so it is less likely to cause problems during blood transfusions. Antibodies were originally found in the sera of women with children with hemolytic disease of the newborn and patients who had side effects from frequent blood transfusions.[11].

    P blood type

    (For the sake of convenience, the related Globoside blood type is also mentioned here, and some old materials use the name "Q blood type" in detail, so I will also explain it.)

    In 1927, Landsteiner et al. found antibodies in horse serum, and the phenotype is P.1, P2, P1K, P2K, p and there, P1Type = P1antigen and P antigen, P2type = P antigen, P1KType = P1antigen and PKantigen, P2KType = PKAntigen, p-type = no antigen combination, but P1Kand P2K(both rare blood types) are originally based on the Globoside blood type, and if you do not have this gene, the P antigen will not be completed and the PKSince the antigen is made, it will have a natural antibody with the P antigen as a foreign substance[12].For this reason, the original P formula is an anti-P formula that applies to most people.1react to antibodies (P1type, 35% of Japanese) or not (P265%), so the phenotype is P(+) (= P1), P(−) (= P2) is sometimes written.

    Q expressions are also called UM types.[13]In 1935, Shoichi Imamura of Japan discovered an antibody in pig serum, and named this antigen that reacts with the antibody in pig serum "Q". q type[14].

    When Imamura and Furuhata themselves examined the literature, they noticed that this Q formula resembled Landsteiner's P formula. Of the 38 subjects, more than 6% of the 3 subjects agglutinated with both agglutinins (or did not agglutinate with both), but there were a total of less than 11% (XNUMX people) of exceptions who reacted with only one.[Footnote 4]Therefore, they thought that they were different from each other.Later, in 1940, Dahl of Germany also supported the opinion that the P and Q blood types are similar but different blood types.[15]However, the idea that the antibody-antigen of P and Q is the same became mainstream after that.[Footnote 5], which is now summarized in the previously discovered P formula (P1= Q, P2= q).

    Genetically P1 (Q) is dominantly inherited (P1P2The gene notation type becomes P(+) = Qq genotype becomes Q type), so P1 (Q) If one type is present in the parent, both types may be born, but P2 (q) Children of both types are basically P2 (q) become a type[16].

    P2mold anti-P1Antibodies do not react well at body temperature (the reaction is reduced above 30 degrees Celsius and has little effect at 37 degrees Celsius).[15]. ), it does not usually cause problems during transfusion, but there have been cases of delayed transfusion side effects, and other types (p, P1K, P2K) is the majority P1type and P2type transfusion causes incompatibility problems[11].

    Lutheran blood group

    Callender and Race discovered antibodies in the blood of diffuse lupus erythematosus in 1946.

    This patient had received blood transfusions many times, but since the reaction was unrelated to the existing blood type, it came to be called anti-Luselan antibody.a, LubHowever, in 1956, LubAnother antibody (later anti-LubSince there were people who reacted to the antibody), it turned out that there were two types of antigens.For this reason, initially Luais Lubis dominantly inherited (=LubThe type is a type without Lu antigen, and if there is even one type, Luawas thought to be a mold)[17]However, since there are multiple antigens like the ABO type A and B types in subsequent investigations, the phenotypes are Lu(a+b−), Lu(a+b+), Lu(a−b+), Lu (a−b−) can be divided into 4 ways.

    Almost 100% of the Japanese population is Lu(a−b+), and only a minority (less than 1%) is Lu(a−b−).aGene not yet discovered[13].

    Kell blood group

    (For convenience, the related Kx and Gerbich blood types are also mentioned.)

    In 1946, Coombs et al. discovered an antibody (anti-Kell antibody) in the blood of a woman named Kellacher who gave birth to a child.

    Blood cells that are agglutinated by the anti-Kel antibody are represented by K+ or capital letter K, and blood cells that are not agglutinated are represented by K− or small letter k, and since K is inherited dominantly to k, there are KK and Kk phenotypic K+, but K− is kk only.

    The K gene has not been discovered in Japanese, and almost all of them are K-.[13].

    The Kx type has a gene on the X chromosome that was discovered in 1975 (the Kel type is chromosome 7), and is a blood type that uses the Kx substance (on red blood cells and white blood cells), which is the source of the Kel antigen, as an antigen. In the Mcleod type with antigen deficiency, in addition to the reduction of Kell-related antigens,[12], red and white blood cell dysfunction or decline[18].


    Lewis blood group

    In 1946, antibodies were discovered in two mothers who gave birth to babies with hemolytic disease by Moulant in England.[Footnote 6]Two years later, in 2, Danish hematologist Andresen discovered two new antibodies apart from Mullant.a・Lebnamed.A major feature of Lewis antigens is that they are not completed at birth (thus, they do not cause neonatal hemolytic disease), and the type may change as they grow. As children grow up, they change to Le(a+b−) and Le(a−b+), which are completed by about 9 years old. ) may be seen, but is extremely rare in adults[13]There is an example in which 238 Caucasian adults were examined and Le (a + b +) was 0.[19].

    In addition to this, the Lewis formula has the characteristic that it can be divided into cases where it is detected in body fluids other than blood (secretory type) and cases where it is not detected in body fluids other than blood (non-secreted type). Le(a−b+) becomes a secretory type (Le(a−b−) has both patterns). It is a blood type with an unusual feature that the marker is not detected even if there is cancer because it has the side effect of lacking the gene that creates CA19-9. Lea・LebAlthough both antibodies are natural antibodies, many of them do not react at body temperature, so they usually do not cause problems during blood transfusion, but there are some cases where they have antibodies that react at body temperature.[11].

    Duffy blood type

    In 1950, Katbusch et al. discovered an antibody in the body of a patient with hemophilia who had received blood transfusions for more than 20 years, and called the corresponding antibody "Duffy antigen (later Fy(a))".In the following year, an antibody that antipodally reacted with this was found in the serum of a woman who had never received a blood transfusion, and this was designated as Fy(b).[20]. Four blood types, Fy(a+b+), Fy(a+b−), Fy(a−b+), Fy(a−b−), depend on the presence or absence of two antigens, Fy(a) and Fy(b). divided into types.

    Among 59 Caucasians, 28 had Fy(a+b+), 11 had Fy(a+b−), and 20 had Fy(a−b+). b-) was 0[21]However, in Japanese, Fy(a+b+) was 19%, Fy(a+b−) was 80%, Fy(a−b+) was 1%, and Fy(a−b−) was 0%.[13].

    Regarding this, for the Fy(a−b−) type,Africa OfSub-SaharanThe Fy(a-b-) type is very common in people with genetic origins in vivax malaria endemic areas, whereas it is almost absent in people with origins in other areas. show resistance to malaria[Footnote 7]It is thought that this was because it was advantageous for survival.[Footnote 8].

    Kidd blood group

    In 1951, Levin, Diamond, and Niegella discovered a new antibody in the serum of a woman named Kid who gave birth to a child with neonatal erythroblastosis.aand named her antibody anti-Jkaantibody. In 1953 another anti-JkbAntibodies were also discovered, and the phenotypes were Jk(a+b−), Jk(a+b+), Jk(a−b+), Jk(a−b−), but Jk(a−b−) was Mongoloid. It has not been confirmed in people other than people of ancestry, and even among Mongoloids, Jk(a+b−) is 27.2%, Jk(a+b+) is 50.4%, and Jk(a−b+) is 22.4%, even among Japanese, who are a minority. , Jk(a−b−) are rare[12][11].

    Diego blood group

    Discovered in 1954 by Levin et al.The phenotype is Di(a+b−), Di(a+b+), Di(a−b+) in most people, and there are minority antigens such as Wra and Wrb.

    DiaPeople with antigens have not been confirmed except for Mongoloids[13]However, it is a minority even within Mongoloids, and in Japan, Di(a+b−) is 0.2%, Di(a+b+) is 9.0%, and Di(a−b+) is 90.8%.[12][11].

    Blood type according to other red blood cell antigens

    (Unless otherwise noted in this section, the source is the list of blood types in Yuka Matsuo's Latest Basics and Mechanisms of Blood Types.[12]Than)

    Yt/Cartwight blood type
    Discovered in 1956.allele antigen Ytaand Ytbexist.
    The phenotypes are Yt(a+b−), Yt(a+b+), Yt(a−b+).
    Xg blood type
    Discovered in 1962.factor is XgaAntigen and CD99, but the latter is also XgaBlood type is Xg because it is a protein related to antigenaIt is determined only by the presence or absence of the gene (Xg(a+) or Xg(a−)).
    Because the gene is on the X chromosome, the genotype is that the female is "XgaXga, XgaXg, XgXg", men say "Xga(Y chromosome), becomes Xg (Y chromosome), and becomes "XgaXga, XgaXg, Xga(Y chromosome)” becomes Xg(a+) type, and “XgXg, Xg (Y chromosome)” becomes Xg(a−).
    For this reason, the Xg(a+) type is more common in women, and in the case of Japanese, "Xg(a+) type: male 69.4%, female 88.8%", "Xg(a-): male 30.6%, female 11.2%".
    Many of them are thought to be natural antibodies, but they are unlikely to cause blood transfusions or neonatal haemolysis.
    Scianna blood type
    Discovered in 1962.Most people have alleles Sc1 or Sc2, and there is also Sc3, which is present in the majority (high-frequency antigen), and Sc4, which is in the minority (low-frequency antigen).
    About 2% of Japanese people have the Sc0.1 antigen, but anti-Sc1 and anti-Sc2 are immune antibodies.
    Dombrock blood type
    Discovered in 1965.Allelic Doaand Doband these antibodies are immune antibodies but have hemolytic side effects.
    In Japan, Do(a+b−) 1.5%, Do(a+b+) 22%, Do(a−b+) 76.5%, Do(a−b−) very rare.
    Colton blood type
    Discovered in 1967.The antigen in most people is the allelic Coaand Cob.It causes hemolytic transfusion side effects and neonatal hemolysis.
    In Japan, Co(a+b+) 0.6%, Co(a+b−) 99.4%, Co(a−b+) rare, Co(a−b−) rare, Co(a−b−) has water permeability. 80% reduction but no health problems reported as of 2009.
    LW (Landsteiner-Wiener) blood group
    Discovered in 1961, most people have allele Lwaor Lwbexist.An antibody is an immune antibody.
    The phenotypes are Lw(a+b-), LW(a+b+), Lw(a-b+), Lw(a-b-), and show reactions similar to those of the D antigen, but they differ in specificity and are irrelevant.
    Lw regardless of raceaThere are many antigens and LwbLW(a+b−) is almost 100% for Japanese.
    As of 2006, anti-LwaThere are no reports of transfusion side effects or neonatal hemolytic disease caused by antibodies.[11]3.
    Chido/Rodgers blood group
    Discovered in 1967.There are quite a lot of types of antigens due to the combination of two types of antigens from different strains.Antibodies are immune antibodies
    Cromer blood type
    Discovered in 1965.Allelic antigen "Tca, Tcb, Tcc” and “WESa, WESb”, but rare blood in transfusion is not this, but the case where most people do not have antigens (high-frequency antigens) (see).
    Knop blood type
    Discovered in 1970.allelic antigen "Kna, Knb""McCa, McCb" "Slaand Vii”
    SlaIn blacks in West Africa, 70% are Sl(a-) because the type without malaria is resistant to malaria.
    Indian blood type
    Discovered in 1973, allelic Inaand InbHowever, as the name suggests, it is a type that has been studied in India and has hardly been investigated in other regions.The majority of Indians (97.08%) are In(a−b+)
    Ok blood type
    Discovered in 1979.antigen is okaOk(a-) is a rare blood only without this.However, as of 2009, there have been no reports of neonatal hemolysis.
    RAPH blood type
    Discovered in 1987.The only antigen is MER2 (CD151), and since the original role of this antibody is a protein involved in the construction and differentiation of kidney glomeruli, MER2 without this antibody causes renal failure in childhood.
    JMH blood type
    Discovered in 1978.The only antigen is CDw108, and although the JMH- type is rare, it may be acquired in elderly people over the age of 60.
    There have also been cases of transfusions of JMH+ blood to people with anti-JMH antibodies without causing problems.
    II blood type
    Discovered in 1956, antigen is I only (lowercase i antigen is synthesized to become uppercase I antigen). Type i may be associated with congenital cataracts.
    GIL blood type
    Discovered in 1981.Antigen is only AQP3.

    Type discovered based on white blood cell antigen

    Human leukocyte antigen

    White blood cellby antigen classification.At present, it is used not only for blood but also as information related to tissue compatibility.humangeneThe sites related to leukocyte antigens above are six major sites, A, B, C, DP, DQ, and DR.組 み 合 わ せIt is said that there are more than tens of thousands of HLA types, and as a result, it is extremely rare that the HLA types of humans completely match unless they are related by blood (Major histocompatibility complexSee also).

    A rare blood group that lacks frequent antigens

    Since it is difficult to secure compatible blood for low-frequency antigen blood types with a frequency of 1% or less,Japanese Red Cross Societyis calling for registration.

    Examples of rare blood types in Japanese that require registration in Japan[22]

    ABO type
    Bombay type, and Oh, it lacks A, B, and H antigens in red blood cells and saliva, and possesses all anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies in serum.For convenience, it is considered to be a subspecies of type O, but because of this anti-H antibody[Footnote 9]Not only type A and B, but also type O red blood cells will agglutinate when transfused, so in principle, only the same type can be used for blood transfusions, in addition to the types that are rare in Japan.Similar type called para-Bombay type[Footnote 10]The same can be said for
    Rh formula
    -D-type (Birdever: Rh: Deletion type). Among Rh antigens, the type that "there is D antigen, but C or c antigen and E or e antigen are not present".By definition, it is Rh+, but when normal Rh+ blood is transfused, autoantibodies react with C (c) and E (e) antigens.Transfusion from homozygous and Rh null is no problem[23].
    Rh null type (---: bar-bar-bar). Transfusion of blood with no Rh antigens or blood with Rh antigens (including Rh-, -D-, etc.) naturally causes agglutination, but other than this, mild anemia, red blood cell deformation, and red blood cell lifespan are shortened. It may cause a problem called Rh null syndrome[23].
    Rh mod type. Similar to Rh null but with extremely weak Rh antigen[23].
    These have antigens but few or some of them are missing.0(D)(−), Rh as donor0(D) Treated as (+): (Other than this, "1% or less required registration", but "weakD (Du)” and “partialD”, which has only a part of the D antigen protein.0(D)(−), Rh as donor0(D) Treat as (+). )[24].
    MNSs expression
    Since both do not have P antigen, they have P antibody as a natural antibody, so the majority of P1, P2cannot transfuse type blood. (p-type is PkBlood transfusion from type is also not possible)
    As a side effect of the lack of P antigens, these blood types are not infected with the human parvovirus B19 of Erythema Infectiosum (Apple Disease), which infects scaffolds with P antigens.[12].
    Lutheran formula
    Lu(a−b−) is a basic type, but the distribution is biased. In Japan, Lu(a−b+) is nearly 100%, making it a rare type.
    Kell formula
    Nearly 100% of Japanese people have this type K-, so inevitably other people are rare.
    Ko type.Kell antigen is absent in all species.
    K+k− type
    Kp(a−b−) type
    Mcleod type.Strictly speaking, the Kx blood group lacks the Kx antigen and is accompanied by a decrease in Kell-related antigens, so it is included here for convenience.[12].
    Duffy Formula
    Fy(a−b+) is the basic type, but the distribution is uneven, and a minority of Japanese do not have the Fy(a) antigen.
    Fy(a−b−) is the basic type, but the distribution is uneven, and a minority of Japanese do not have the Fy(a) antigen.
    kid formula
    Jk(a−b−), basic type, but unconfirmed outside of Mongoloid type.Minority among Mongoloids.
    Diego formula
    Di(a+b−), basic type, but unconfirmed except for Mongoloids.Minority among Mongoloids.
    Rare blood type in Japan where registration of other types is required
    Landsteiner-Wiener formula (LW formula), LW(a−b−) type.immune antibody
    Gerbich formula, Ge-type.
    Cromer formula, IFC-, UMC-, Dr(a-).Both are types of people in whom high-frequency antigens are rarely present.
    Ok expression, Ok(−).However, as of 2009, there have been no reports of neonatal hemolysis.
    JMH formula, JMH−.However, as of 2009, there are cases in which transfusions of JMH+ blood to people with anti-JMH antibodies did not cause any problems.
    Formula II, Type I, Type i.
    Dombrock formula, Do(a+b−), Gy(a−). Do(a+b−) is the basic blood type, but in Japan it is less than 1.5%, and Gyais a high-frequency antigen that most people have, but those who do not have it are rare.
    The following antigens do not belong to the blood group system[12].
    Lan-type, Lan-type.immune antibody
    Jr expression, Jr(a-) type. It occurs in about 1500 in 1 people.There have been cases in which Jr(a+) type blood was transfused to this type of immune antibody without any problems.[12].
    Er expression, type Er(a-).immune antibody.

    Rare blood and blood donation

    Blood donationIf a visitor is found to have a special blood type,Red crossThe information is registered in the computer, and the blood is frozen at an ultra-low temperature of -80 degrees or less and stored for a long time (10 years according to current standards).If a person with a special blood type needs a blood transfusion, either thaw this frozen blood and use it, or ask other registered people with the same blood type to cooperate in emergency blood donation (by telephone). orExpress deliveryetc.), or request stocks to Red Cross Societies outside Japan (conversely, if requested from outside Japan, frozen packs will be sent in the same way). There is a registered group called "Rh Minus Tomo no Kai".


    Red blood cell

    A person with type O can give to a person with type A, B or AB, and a person with type A or B can give to a person with type AB. Type AB cannot give anywhere.

    Red blood cell compatibility table[25][26]
    Recipient blood typeAcceptable donor red blood cell types
    AB +O-O+A-A+B-B+AB-AB +


    plasmaAs for compatibility, there is an inverse relationship to the red blood cell compatibility chart, AB can give to A, B, and O, and A, B can give to O. Type O cannot give anywhere.

    Plasma compatibility table
    Recipient blood typeAcceptable donor red blood cell types

    Using these properties, when blood type cannot be determined due to emergency critical bleeding, type O without cross-matching testpacked red blood cells, type ABfresh frozen plasma,platelet concentrateuse.However, before a blood transfusion, a patient sample is always secured and the test is carried out afterward.In addition, the blood transfusion progress is recorded, and the used preparations are collected and stored.Consent may be secured after transfusion.

    Blood type and prevalence of each disease, etc.

    In recent years, large-scale data on the prevalence of each disease for each blood type have been collected.EpidemiologyMore and more scientific research has been published that properly treats

    According to research results published in 2018, the mortality rate by blood group among critically ill trauma patients brought to emergency medical care centers in Japan was 28.2% for type O patients and 11.5% for non-O patients. % and a large difference is recognized. The reason for this is thought to be that type O has about 3% fewer blood clotting factors than other blood types.[27].Conversely, since this type O blood is difficult to clot, blood types other than type O (i.e., type A, B, and AB) are less likely to clot than type O.Myocardial infarction1.25 times atEconomy class syndrome1.79 times higher reported risk (as of 2008) in[28].

    A study published in 2020 found thatNew coronavirusIt has been reported that type O tends to act more protectively than other blood types with respect to the aggravation of[29]. In 2021, a joint research team "Corona Suppression Task Force" to investigate the mechanism of aggravation by multiple research institutes such as Keio University and Tokyo Medical and Dental University,New coronavirus infectionrate of severe disease if infected withRegarding blood type O, type A and B are 1.2 times more likely to become severe, and type AB is 1.6 times more likely to become severe.[30].

    2009 Brian M. Wolpin research paper[31]according to,Pancreatic cancerFor type B, the risk is 1.72 times higher than for type O.

    In 1962, McDonald and Zuckermann (2) reported that people with type O were 1.2 times more likely to be infected with type A1962 influenza than people with type A, and the mortality rate was also higher than that of people with other blood types.[32]made by[33].

    History of research on prevalence by blood group
    Furuhata Tonemoto had an acquaintance who said that the tuberculin test (BCG) did not become positive no matter how many times he tried it. B of B antigens inIwithout BII・ BIIIonly. ), Furuhata said, “My tuberculosis has BII・ BIIIIf there is an antigen for type B, people with type B naturally have it, so they cannot develop antibodies against it (with the X antigen, which is unique to M. tuberculosis, even type B can develop antibodies), so the response to tuberculin may be poor.” rice field[34]But this was no more than Furuhata's personal guesswork.
    In 2000NatureA review article published in .[35].
    Subsequent studies finally began to report that blood type had an impact on health (stress resistance and disease risk). In 2011, Kim et al. of the Seoul Venture Institute of Information Studies measured the brain waves of more than 4000 adults. From September 2006 to December 9, we analyzed the data of adults (2009 people aged 12 to 20) who requested electroencephalogram measurement from the Korea Psychiatric Research Institute. Attention index and anti-stress index were significantly higher[36].[37]

    The discovery and history of blood types

    • 1900 years,AustriaMedical scientistKarl Landsteiner(Karl Landsteiner, 1868 - 1943) discovered blood types for the first time, and published the following year in 1901.[38].Her type names were "A, B, C" and she named her own blood type A. (discovery of ABO formula)
    • In 1902, a fourth model was added by Alfred von Descastero and Adriano Stürli.[39].
    • In 1910, Emil Freiherr von Düngern and Ludwig Hirschfeld gave the fourth type the name type AB and changed the name of the type from "type C" to type O.[40].
    • In 1927, Landsteiner and Levin discovered anti-M and anti-N antibodies in the serum of immunized rabbits, and announced that human blood cells could be divided into three types using these antibodies, resulting in the MN blood type. advocate. (discovery of MN formula)
    • In 1927, Landsteiner and Levin discovered the P antibody in horse serum. (Discovery of P formula)
    • In 1932, Schiff and Sasaki discovered that some people had blood group substances detected in their saliva, while others did not. (Discovery of secretory and non-secretory types)
    • In 1937 Landsteiner and Alexander WienerRhesus monkeydiscovered the D antigen through experiments using[41].Because rhesus monkeys are commonly known as Rhesus Monkeys in English,Rh factor” came to be called. (Discovery of Rh formula)
    • From 1941 to 1946, it was discovered that there were multiple Rh-type antibodies and antigens, and by 1946, six major types (currently C, c, D, d, E, and e types) were discovered.
    • In 1945, Owen discovered the first blood chimera in a cow.
    • In 1946, Callender and Race developed anti-Luselan antibodies (more specifically, anti-Luaantibody) was discovered. (Discovery of the Lutheran formula)
    • In 1946, Kell antigen was discovered by Coombs, Moorant and Race. (Discovery of the Kell formula)
    • In 1946, Murant discovered the Lewis antigen. Anti-Le in 1948a・Anti-LebIt turns out that there are two types of (Discovery of the Lewis formula).
    • In 1947, Walsh and Montgomery discovered the anti-S antibody, and in 1951, the anti-S antibody.These Ss formulas are also found to be closely related to the MN formulas, and will be integrated later. (discovery of MNSs expression)
    • In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered by Kattbusch, Morrison, and Birkin. (Discovery of the Duffy formula)
    • In 1951, Kidd antigen was discovered by Allen, Diamond, and Nigela. (Discovery of Kidd formula)
    • In 1953, British hematologist Dunsford discovered human blood chimeras.
    • In 1954, Levin et al. discovered the Diego antigen. (Discovery of the Diego formula)
    • In 1991, the blood taken at Fukushima Medical University Hospital showed transfusion incompatibility different from the known blood types, and was tentatively named as blood without the KANNO antigen. It was named KANNO(–) type. (Discovery of Kanno type)
    • In 2019, 1991 years after its discovery in 28, the KANNO type was recognized as the 37th blood type by the Blood Group Nomenclature Committee of the International Transfusion Society.This is the first time in history that a Japanese blood type has been recognized internationally.

    non-human blood type

    "Blood type" meaning that there is the same antigen as human blood type
    In the early days, it was thought that blood types existed only in humans and not in other animals (=these antibodies/antigens are unique to humans). Regarding β), “Rabbit, dog, and bovine blood cells absorb β, and cat and dog blood cells absorb part of β.[Footnote 11]. ”, and various antibody-antigen reactions were investigated as it was thought that animals also had blood types like humans.[42].In the same year, Forsmann of Sweden injected a saline extract of guinea pig kidney into rabbits.Forssmann antigen(also known as Horsmann antigen) has the property of lysing sheep blood cells unrelated to guinea pigs (this is called isomer hemolysin), and reported that there is a common antigen between guinea pig organs and sheep blood cells. Adelsberger reported that antigens produced by injecting human type A blood cells into rabbits lysed sheep's blood cells in addition to humans, but later investigations confirmed that the two were the same.[43]Based on these, it was confirmed that antibody-antigen reactions occur in various organisms including plants, but antibodies such as normal serum (polyclonal antibodies) react with similar antigens even if there is a difference in strength. Therefore, in order to ensure more accuracy, we are currently investigating with monoclonal antibodies (antibodies that react only with specific antigens), which are also used in ABO blood group tests.[44], As a result of this investigation, it was found that the antigen that reacts with the anti-B antibody proposed by von Düngern et al. is a substance found in many mammals called the alpha 1-3 galactoepitope, and that it is a type of A antigen. The Forssmann antigen is also found in many vertebrates. Far from being a substance different from the human B and A antigens, it is a substance that does not exist in most primates, including humans (New World monkeys are an exception). i know there is[45].
    (The data generally known as the blood types of heterogeneous organisms is quoted from Shigeru Yamamoto's book "Blood Type" (Kagaku Doujin 1986), but the original text is "ABO blood group antigens or analogous antigens". Yes, including antigens different from those in humans[46]. )
    However, the ABO blood group antigens of bacteria are almost the same antigens as those of humans.[47], It has been pointed out that there may have been horizontal gene transfer (horizontal transfer between bacteria has been confirmed, but it has not been confirmed whether there is transfer with vertebrates).[48].
    Bacterial antigens are prone to change, and mutations can result in different types. Taking the case of Shigella Shiga as an example, rabbit immune serum is added one after another, making the old type of bacteria disadvantageous. As a result of changing the environment from S type to R type (this is not a blood type but a type of bacteria), at the time of the first S type bacterium, "F (Forssmann antigen) O C[Footnote 12]・B” was changed to “F・O・C・B・A→C・B・A→O” as the immune serum was administered.[49].
    Genetic analysis reveals that among vertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals (some species do not have the ABO gene), while birds and fish do not have the ABO gene. 1It has characteristics such as not having a fucosyltransferase gene (only Coelacanth is a special case, and only FUT2 that determines the secretion type is present).[50].Even if we look only at mammalian primates, there are some that have all the ABO genes and some that have only some, regardless of relatedness (e.g., chimpanzees, which are closely related to humans, do not have the B gene, but orangutans, which are more distant, have all of them, etc.). ), it is possible that all species existed at the earliest stage and later disappeared depending on the species (Trans-species inheritance theory theory "trans-species inheritance"). and B genes were born (Convergent Evolution Theory), etc., and the former is currently dominant.However, there is also a theory by Homare Kitano of Ibaraki University and Seiya Saito of the National Institute of Genetics that ``the human A-type gene temporarily disappeared and was revived by recombination with the B-type and O-type genes.'' Gene mutations may be revived even if they are lost once[51].
    "Blood type" according to the blood group antigens of the organism itself
    "A and B" here are unrelated to human A and B types, and correspond to the blood type system ("how to divide blood types" like ABO blood type and Rh blood type in humans) .As with humans, animals also have blood types for white blood cells, but unless otherwise specified, we will focus on red blood cells here.[52].
    14 types of A, B, C, D, E, H, I, J, K, L, P, R, Hi, Th.
    B and C have the same antigens on white blood cells.
    As a difference in susceptibility to disease, B21 type of B blood type isMarek's diseaseresistant to
    There are five types, A, B, C, D, and E, but there are differences depending on the variety.
    The khaki-Campbell type with khaki wings has the above five blood types, but the wings are white.Peking duckThe system is only C, D, and E.
    Fin whale[55]
    There are Ju expressions, which are divided into Ju1 type, Ju1/2 type, and Ju2 type.
    Most of the fin whales off South Africa and the South Pacific are Ju1/2 and Ju2 types, but in the southwestern Indian Ocean, the Ju1 type accounts for the majority.
    A horse[56]
    8 types of A, C, D, K, P, Q, T, U.
    The 17 types of D-type blood are the most common.
    Different breeds have different blood types, and 10 out of 3 Shetland ponies have type Aa blood.I once had 10 out of 7 thoroughbreds.
    Six types of A, B, C, M, RO, and VW.
    The most common classification is B blood type, which has dozens of types (blood group antigens).
    The most common blood types differ depending on the breed, and among the B blood types, most Saanen breeds are B15, and Alpine breeds are B17.
    7 types of A, B, C, D, M, RO, and XZ.
    The most common classification is B blood type.
    Different breeds have different blood types, and with the XZ system, all Suffolk sheep (black-faced sheep) are type X, but there are X, XZ, and Z types among Corridale sheep.
    12 types of A, B, C, FV, J, K, L, M, N, S, Z, RS, T.
    The bovine B blood type is the most diverse of all animal blood types, with more than 300 types.
    Different breeds have different blood types, and in the FV system, type V is found in 2 in 1 breeds in Japan, but it is not found in foreign cattle.
    17 types of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S.
    The most common classification is the E blood type, which has dozens of types.
    It is known that differences in H blood type are related to meat quality, and differences in K blood type are related to body weight and thickness of fat.
    Wild boars have the same blood type system, but regional differences are greater than the differences between pigs and wild boars. However, blood types do not tell the difference between pigs and wild boars of their ancestors and descendants.
    Since it has been used as an experimental animal for a long time, various blood types have been reported, and soon after research on blood types began (1901), there were five types: H1, H2, K, G・g, K1・K2, and Hg. has been discovered.
    The most common way to divide is the six types of Hg blood type.
    Ea-1, Ea-2, Ea-3, Ea-4, Ea-5, Ea-6, Ea-7, Ea-8.
    Inbred strains of mice have been established as experimental animals, and individuals of the same inbred strain all have the same blood type, but those of different strains are different. In the Ea-8 formula, all BALB/C strains are type b, C57BL/10 is type a, and so on.
    Dog blood types are called DEA (Dog Erythrocyte Antigen), and there are dozens of types, including 1 (1.1, 1.2), 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. (Dal, Kai1, and Kai2 have also been discovered.)
    Taking the DEA1.1 blood type (whether or not there is a DEA1.1 antigen) as an example, in Japan, 1.1-70% of dogs are DEA80+ and 1.1-20% are DEA30-. Depending on the dog breed, one or the other is often found.
    The DEA1.1 blood type is not a natural antibody, but in principle, the blood type should be matched during transfusion (however, transfusion from DEA1.1- to +, such as human type O → other types, is dangerous) is low, so it is sometimes done)
    There are AB blood types, which are divided into three types, A, AB, and B (unrelated to human ABO blood types), and there is also a blood type called Mik.
    AB blood type is related to blood transfusion, so research is progressing[65]
    There are A antigen and B antigen, and if only one of them is produced, it becomes type A or B, and if both antigens are produced, it becomes type AB.
    However, it is not determined by whether you have the A antigen gene or the B antigen gene, but whether you have both or only one, but it is determined by how the CMAH gene, which determines your blood type, has normal and eight types of mutated genes. be.
    • If at least one of the CMAH gene pairs is normal, only the A antigen is produced and the A type.
    • If both CMAH genes are mutated and there are 8 specific combinations, only the B antigen is produced and the B type.
    • If both CMAH genes are mutated and there are three specific combinations, both antigens are produced, type AB.
    On average, about 95% of A type, about 5% of B type, and very little of AB type, but there is a difference depending on the breed, and it is reported that British Shorthair is 59% of B type and Ragdoll is 18% of AB type. (p.56)
    Since it is basically similar to humans, it possesses the antigen itself by the ABO gene. (However, it may not be the blood type itself)
    • Humans, orangutans, cynomolgus monkeys, white gibbons[67]: A・B・O genes
    • Gorilla, Japanese macaque, Possum gibbon[67]: B gene
    • Chimpanzee: A and O genes
    • common squirrel monkey, angora colobus[67], Guerreza[67]: A and B genes
    • Common Marmoset, Bonobo[67]: A gene
    Other unique blood types include:
    • Chimpanzees: RCEF and VAB formulas
    • Cynomolgus monkey: Arh-Brh-Crh-Drh formula
    • Rhesus monkey: ABCDE formula

    blood type and personality

    It is not scientifically considered to be related to blood type and personality, and none of the currently known blood type personality theories are recognized as correct.[68]..But in the 1970s and early 2000s, many televisions and books spread the classification unfoundedly, and some still believe in the link between blood type and personality.[69].The spread of blood type personality classification is due to Japan and its influence South Korea,TaiwanOnly in some areas.In the first place, the region where type B and AB are high is only in Asia, and in many regions of the world such as Europe and the United States, it is mainly composed of type A and type O, and in those regions, it is customary to associate personality and blood type. Japanese blood type personality classification is considered strange[70]..In the first place, there is little interest in blood type, and many people do not remember their blood type (transfusionWhen it is necessary, a blood type test will be performed on the spot.)[71].

    The words and actions that judge a person's personality by blood type and make the other person uncomfortable or anxiousBlood type harassment(Common nameBrahara), And in recent years it has been taken up as a social problem.[72]..Some companies were instructed by the Labor Bureau to improve because there was a blood type entry field on the application form for the recruitment test.[3][73].Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Blood type has nothing to do with job performance or aptitude."[3][74].

    The following psychological phenomenon is cited as the reason why people feel that the blood type personality classification is correct even though it is said to have no scientific basis.

    • Burnham effect.A phenomenon in which ambiguous and general descriptions of personality that apply to everyone (such as wanting to be liked by others) are misunderstood as accurate statements that apply only to oneself.[75].
    • Confirmation bias.Phenomenon in which one emphasizes only statements that support one's beliefs, and neglects information that contradicts them.[76].
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy.Phenomenon in which even if a description is unsubstantiated, if you believe it and act on it, the result will be as described.[77].


    1. ^ In old books, "C, D, E, c, d, e" was changed to the American style "rh´, Rh0, rh´´, hr´, Hr0, hr''".
    2. ^ Strictly speaking, like the ABO formula, the MN formula also has M1Type and M2type, N1type and N2, and both M and N1There are subtypes in which the type is dominantly inherited.1and N-type (both) become stronger during the fetal period, whereas M-type2On the contrary, the kata shows a change that weakens.
    3. ^ Note that the secretory and non-secretory S and s are completely unrelated, so be careful not to confuse them.
    4. ^ According to Furuhata et al.'s "Q blood type and its inheritance" Table 38, among 7 subjects, "P only response = 18.4 (4%)" "Q only response = 10.5 (16%)" "Both response = 42.1 people (11%)" and "Both no response = 29.0 people (XNUMX%)".
    5. ^ As an example, in Table 6 on page 1968 of Gakken's "Primary Color Present Science Encyclopedia 327 Ningen" (1), both data are put together and ``there is a theory that both (P type and Q type) are the same.'' and the proviso is written.
    6. ^ However, the infant with this hemolytic disease was not directly related to this Lewis antigen, and one mother's serum did not react with the fetal blood cells.
    7. ^ Crescent feverMalaria parasitebinds to two antigens, Fy(a) and Fy(b), on the surface of erythrocytes in the human body and invades and proliferates in erythrocytes. The Fy(ab-) type, which does not have antigens of either Fy(a) or Fy(b), becomes difficult to do this, making it difficult for malaria parasites to proliferate in the body.
    8. ^ In addition, this is only for Plasmodium vivax, and since Plasmodium falciparum has a different mode of invasion into red blood cells, Duffy blood type is not related to Plasmodium falciparum resistance.
    9. ^ Anti-H antibody itself is the most common type A and AB type A1Type and A1Although it is also present in type B serum, it is rarely considered a problem in blood transfusions because it does not react at body temperature, but the Bombay type anti-H antibody reacts at body temperature.
    10. ^ The problem of blood transfusion is the same here as the Bombay type, but the A and B antigens are weak but present.
    11. ^ In this sentence, I'm not sure if the dog's blood cells absorb all or part of β, but the original text of "Blood Type Story"
    12. ^ Antibody that reacts with type A, B, and AB blood cells but does not react with type O blood cells


    1. ^ a b Koto bank[1]
    2. ^ New human blood type "KANNO" discovered Nikkei Medical Article: 2019/10/15
    3. ^ a b c Kengo Nawata (2014), “[Original Treatise] Unrelatedness between blood type and personality-Empirical rationale using large-scale social surveys in Japan and the United States-"Psychology Research," 2014, Vol. 85, No. 2, p.148-156, two:10.4992 / jjpsy.85.13016, Japanese Psychological Association.
    4. ^ Broadcast on April 2009, 4 World astounding news
    5. ^ Satoshi Ogawa, edited by Satoshi Ogawa, 7th Edition of Internal Medicine-vol6, Nakayama Shoten, 2009, p49
    6. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto "Blood Type Story" Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 74P
    7. ^ Yuka Matsuo, "The Latest Basics and Mechanisms of Blood Types", Shuwa System Co., Ltd., 2009, 128-129P,ISBN 978-4-7980-2422-6
    8. ^ "Blood Type". Japanese Red Cross Society.As of August 2012, 8original[Broken link]More archives.2009/10/4Browse.
    9. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 36-39P
    10. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, P40.
    11. ^ a b c d e f g Kiyoshi Kitamura, Edited "Blood Type and Blood Transfusion", "The Latest Medical Course for Nursing 9: Blood and Hematopoietic Diseases", Nakayama Shoten Co., Ltd., 2006nd Edition, 2, 348-349P,ISBN-4 521-62511-8
    12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yuka Matsuo, "The Latest Basics and Mechanisms of Blood Types", Shuwa System Co., Ltd., 2009, 195-208P,ISBN 978-4-7980-2422-6
    13. ^ a b c d e f Hiroshi Hoshi, "Mutation from the viewpoint of function", "Encyclopedia of Primary Color Modern Science 6-Human" Teizo Ogawa Representative, Gakken Co., Ltd., 43, 327P Table 1 "Major blood types and their frequencies".
    14. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, P41-52.
    15. ^ a b Tanemoto Furuhata, Shoichi ImamuraQ blood type and its inheritance (reported on February XNUMX, XNUMX)" Bulletin of the Japan Academy, Vol. 7, No. 2, The Japan Academy, 1949, pp. 87-94, two:10.2183/tja1948.7.87, ISSN 0388 – 0036, NOT 130004950702.
    16. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 46-47P
    17. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto "Blood Type Story" Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 81P
    18. ^ Kiyoshi Kitamura, Edited "Latest Medical Courses for Nursing", Nakayama Shoten Co., Ltd., 2006nd Edition, 2, 349P,ISBN-4 521-62511-8
    19. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto "Blood Type Story" Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 86P
    20. ^ Tanemoto Furuhata, "The Story of Blood Types", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, pp. 87-88.
    21. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 88P, III, 10th page.
    22. ^ Kiyoshi Kitamura, Edited "Latest Medical Courses for Nursing", Nakayama Shoten Co., Ltd., 2006nd Edition, 2, 350P,ISBN-4 521-62511-8
    23. ^ a b c Yuka Matsuo, "The Latest Basics and Mechanisms of Blood Types", Shuwa System Co., Ltd., 2009, 130-131P,ISBN 978-4-7980-2422-6
    24. ^ Kiyoshi Kitamura, Edited "Latest Medical Courses for Nursing", Nakayama Shoten Co., Ltd., 2006nd Edition, 2, 347P,ISBN-4 521-62511-8
    25. ^ "RBC compatibility table”. American National Red Cross. As of December 2006, 12.original[Broken link]More archives.2006/12/24Browse.
    27. ^ Wataru Takayama, Akira Endo, Hazuki Koguchi, et al."The impact of blood type O on mortality of severe trauma patients: a retrospective observational study2018 May 2;22(1):100. two:10.1186 / s13054-018-2022-0.
    28. ^ Wu O, Bayoumi N, Vickers MA, Clark P.ABO (H) blood groups and vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2008;6(1):62–9.
    29. ^ Severe Covid-19 GWAS Group; David Ellinghaus, et al.Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure2020 Oct 15;383(16):1522-1534. two: 10.1056 / NEJMoa2020283.
    30. ^ [Commentary] The difference between "corona aggravation" by blood type "AB type" is 1.6 times more than "O type" revealed by the latest research, Yahoo! Japan News, 2021/5/17 (Monday) 20:58 delivery
    31. ^ Wolpin, Brian M. and Chan, Andrew T. and Hartge, Patricia and Chanock, Stephen J. and Kraft, Peter and Hunter, David J. and Giovannucci, Edward L. and Fuchs, Charles S. (2009-03). “ABO Blood Group and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer}”. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101 (6): 424-431. two:10.1093/jnci/djp020. ISSN 0027 – 8874. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djp020. 
    32. ^ McDonald JC, Zuckerman AJ. (=1962-07-14). "ABO Blood Groups and Acute Respiratory Virus Disease". Br Med J. 2 (5297): 89-90. two:10.1136 / bmj.2.5297.89. ,PMID 20789459, PMCID PMC1925283.
    33. ^ Watanabe MakotoResearch on ABO blood group substances contained in influenza A2 virus: especially on the infection prevention mechanism by hematoagglutinin"Journal of Japanese Hygiene, Vol. 25, No. 6, Japan Hygiene Society, 1971, pp. 512-525," two:10.1265 / jjh.25.512, ISSN 0021 – 5082, NOT 130000992907.
    34. ^ Furuhata Tanemoto, "Blood Type Story", Iwanami Shinsho, 1962, 116-117P
    35. ^ Risch NJ. (2000). Searching for genetic determinants in the new millennium. Nature, 405 (6788), 847-856.
    36. ^ A Study on the effects of one's blood type on emotional character and antistress of adults, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 12 (6), 2554-2560.
    37. ^ * Hiroshi Nagata (2013) "Diseases that are easy to get by blood type, diseases that are hard to get, cancer, gastric ulcer, cerebral infarction to infectious diseases" Kodansha Bluebacks ISBN-978 4062578394
    38. ^ Dr. Karl Landsteiner, Ueber Agglutinationserscheinungen normalen menschlichen Blutes, Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 14 Jg., Nr.46 (14. November 1901), S.1132-1134.
    39. ^ Dr. Alfred v. Decastello und Dr. Adriano Sturli, Ueber die Isoagglutinine im Serum gesunder und kranker Menschen, Munchener medicinische Wochenschrift, 49 Jg., No.26 (1. Juli 1902), S.1090-1095.
    40. ^ Prof. E. v. Dungern und Dr. L. Hirschfeld, Ueber Vererbung gruppenspezifischer Strukturen des Blutes, II, Zeitschrift fur Imunitatsforschung und experimentelle Therapie, Bd.6, H.1 (22. Juni 1910), S.284-292.
    41. ^ Landsteiner K, Wiener AS, An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood., Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1940;43:223-224.
    42. ^ Furuhata (1962) p.92-93
    43. ^ Furuhata (1962) p.110-111
    44. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.148-152
    45. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.148-154
    46. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.151
    47. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.153-155
    48. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.170-173
    49. ^ (Furuhata 1962) p.112-113
    50. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.163 figure, 161-165
    51. ^ Yamamoto (2015) p.166-169
    52. ^ (Omi 2018) p.28-29
    53. ^ (Omi 2018) p.30-31
    54. ^ (Omi 2018) p.32-33
    55. ^ (Omi 2018) p.34-35
    56. ^ (Omi 2018) p.36-37
    57. ^ (Omi 2018) p.38-39
    58. ^ (Omi 2018) p.40-41
    59. ^ (Omi 2018) p.42-43
    60. ^ (Omi 2018) p.44-45
    61. ^ (Omi 2018) p.46-47
    62. ^ (Omi 2018) p.48-49
    63. ^ (Omi 2018) p.50-53
    64. ^ (Omi 2018) p.54-57
    65. ^ (Omi 2018) p.100-101
    66. ^ (Omi 2018) p.58-59
    67. ^ a b c d e Yamamoto (2015) p.150 figure
    68. ^ * Akihiro Uemura, Tatsuya Sato (2006) "Diversity of blood type personality-related theories as pseudo-personality theory"Personality Studies," 2006, Vol. 15, No. 1, p.33-47, two:10.2132 / personality.15.33
      • Hiroshima Shudo University Faculty of Humanities Associate Professor Daisuke Nakanishi's website "Let's stop blood type personality judgmentThe problems and discrimination of blood type personality judgment are explained in detail from the standpoint of a psychologist.
      • Osaka University Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences Cognitive Brain Science Laboratory "Is there a relationship between blood type and personality?'
      • Masao Ohmura(1990, 1998 new revision, 2012 new edition) "Blood type and personality" Fukumura Shuppan ISBN 9784571240485
      • Nobuhiro Murakami (2005) “The psychological test was a lie.Everyone who took it saw a fool” Nikkei BP
      • WU Kunher, LINDSTED Kristian D., LEE Jerry W. (2005). Blood type and the five factors of personality in Asia.-- Taiwanese treatise.The study found a denial of an association between blood type and extroversion.
      • Kenji Yamazaki and Akira Sakamoto (1992) "Self-fulfillment Phenomenon Based on Blood Type Stereotypes -Time Series Analysis of National Surveys-", Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Japanese Society of Social Psychology - Theories related to blood type personality spread socially. From 1978, a few years after the start of the study, to 1988, a total of 32,347 Japanese people evaluated their personality over time.It showed that there were significantly more people who believed in the blood type personality classification and behaved according to it.
      • Sakamoto, A., & Yamazaki, K. (2004). Blood-typical personality stereotypes and self-fulfilling prophecy: A natural experiment with time-series data of 1978–1988. Progress in Asian Social Psychology, 4, 239–262. - Similar content to Kenji Yamazaki and Akira Sakamoto (1992) above.
      • Koji Muto, Masahiro Nagashima et al. (2012) "Empirical and critical research on pseudoscience for building scientific literacy in teacher training courses"2011 Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Report" -Kenji Yamazaki and Akira Sakamoto (1992) analyzed about 1978 people every year (1988 people in total) for 11 years from 3,000 to 32,347, but this data was extended to the 2000s, the same results were found (detailed numbers and years are not included in the report).
      • Shigeyuki Yamaoka, Masao Omura, Shuichi UkiyaConference information Discrimination and delusion in blood type personality judgment (independent project (2))"Proceedings of the Conference of the Japan Society of Personality Psychology" two:10.24534 / amjspp.18.0_11 - When 1999 people were examined from 2009 to 6600, significant differences were found in many items only in subjects with stereotypes for blood type personality classification.
    69. ^ MARI YAMAGUCHI (May 2005, 5). “Myth about Japan blood types under attack”. The Canadian Press. As of February 2013, 2originalMore archives.2014/4/5Browse.
    70. ^ NewSphere articles that introduce overseas articles (Reaction of foreign media to blood type) says, "Perhaps because there is no connection between blood type and personality overseas, this custom in Japan seems new."Foreign media often introduces the blood type personality test as a strange custom in Japan (US NY Times article,British BBC article
    71. ^ BBC NEWS Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality?
      Daily Saizo[Nori and Tamami's Strange Sociology Vol.5] Only Japan in the world!?'
    72. ^ "Request for "Program that deals with blood types"”. BPO (Broadcasting Ethics and Program Improvement Organization) Youth Committee. 2014/4/5Browse.
    73. ^ "Scientific blood type and personality" not related "... Survey of over 1 people in Japan and the United States". Yomiuri Shimbun (YOMIURI ONLINE). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news/20140722-OYT8T50051.html 2014/8/17Browse. 
      “Type B is at its own pace?…Researcher “It doesn’t matter””. YOMIURI ONLINE KODOMO. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kodomo/newspaper/compare/20140723-OYT8T50076.html?from=yartcl_popin 2014/8/17Browse. 
    74. ^ The content of the announcement by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare that "blood type has nothing to do with work ability or aptitude"Kumamoto Labor BureauYou can check it on the site of. Retrieved October 2015, 10
      However, it summarizes the labor bureaus nationwide.Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare HeadquartersNo similar announcements can be found on this site. Retrieved October 2015, 10
    75. ^ “You can trust this fortune-telling.☆Barnum Effect☆”. BONITA message. http://bonitamessage.jp/ww/cont/id/1152 2014/7/25Browse. 
    76. ^ “Beware of ``confirmation bias'' ~ Correlation between blood type and personality ~”. ITmedia Alternative Blog. http://blogs.itmedia.co.jp/tani/2014/07/16-4800.html 2014/7/25Browse. 
    77. ^ “Prophecy Self-fulfilling”. JAW Health and Safety Homepage. http://www.jaw.or.jp/anzen/letter/no_25.htm 2014/7/25Browse. 


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