Photo The Ministry of Transport has promulgated regulations on the safe use of bicycles (provided by the Ministry).
[Indonesia] Promulgation of safe use regulations for bicycles, Ministry of Transport [Transportation]
If you write the contents roughly
Bicycle parking lots must be installed in public transportation passenger facilities, office buildings, commercial facilities, schools, and places of worship.
On the 18th, the Indonesian Ministry of Transport promulgated regulations on the safe use of bicycles.Lights required for bicycles, etc ... → Continue reading
NNA Asian Economic News
Wikipedia related words
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Public transport(This is theEnglish: Public transport) is used by unspecified number of peopleTransportationRefers to. In addition,TaxiThere is an interpretation that this is included in public transportation and an interpretation that it is not included..
Definition in Japan (barrier-free new law)
Japan OfAct on promotion of facilitation of movement of elderly people, persons with disabilities, etc.(Barrier-free new law) defines "public transport operators, etc." as follows..
- Railway Business LawbyRailway operator
- Orbit methodOrbit by
- Road transport lawGeneral passenger car carrier and general passenger car carrier by (Transit Bus-Taxi）
- Car terminal lawWho run a bus terminal business by
- Sea Freight LawbyPerson who runs regular passenger liner business
- Aviation lawbyJapanese air carrier
- A person other than the above who installs or manages the following passenger facilities
- Railway facilities under the Railway Business Act
- Transportation facility by sea transportation method
- Air passenger terminal facility
- Air route
- Domestic flights
- International flights
- Demand type traffic
- Environment issues
- Traffic vulnerable
- 3D Express Coach
- Finnish models of public transport
- International Association of Public Transport
- Passenger load factor
- Patronage (transport)
- Private transport
- Public transport bus service
- Public transport route planner
- Sustainable transport
- Transit district
- Transit pass
Some are in the basement or lower floorsstore, restaurantSome of them are occupied by office buildings, but if most of them are for office use, they are "office buildings" (or "office buildings".Complex office buildingAlso called).
Office building as an investment target
Depending on the form of ownership of the office building,Tenant building(Others =tenantThe one that rents out office space. (Also called a rental building)Own buildingIt is roughly divided into (the same owner and user). Tenant buildings are operated by rent income. By convention, office rent is expressed per area, so (both effective ratio and rented room area ratio) is emphasized as an evaluation index of the profitability of office buildings. The rentable ratio indicates the ratio of the leasable floor area to the total floor area of the building. Factors that have a great influence on the rent market include location conditions and the age of the building.
When looking at office buildings as investment targets, initial investment (initial cost) Land purchase costs, construction costs, etc., rent income, operating costs, maintenance costs (running cost) Will be collected. It can be said that it is a risky investment because the initial investment is large, but in recent years it has become the ownership of one office building.SecuritiesThere is also a search for a method to make it easier to raise funds by making it smaller.
Tenant building owners vary from companies that own a large number of buildings nationwide to individuals who own a pencil building (described later) and use part of it as their home.
Even in the company's own building, the initial investment is recovered by a part of the profit generated by corporate activities, and although it does not take the form of rent income, the management policy does not change significantly. However, in the case of an in-house building, the building itself may bear the image of the company, which also affects the design. For exampleITOCHU CorporationIn the case of,Solar powerIt is known for operating its own building with an emphasis on taking in natural lighting and natural lighting.
Office building as a building
JapaneseBuilding Standards LawIn the office buildingSpecial buildingNot included in. Therefore, it can be said that legally free planning is possible compared to buildings for other purposes. However, since it is generally prioritized to secure the maximum floor area with an emphasis on profitability, the shape of the building is largely determined by the site conditions. In particularDiagonal line restriction,Shade regulation,Floor-area ratio,Construction rateTake the maximum volume allowed by. Furthermore, in order to maximize the rentable ratio, the plan is naturally a vertical flow line (StairsRoomelevatorRoom, evacuation equipment, etc.) and equipment piping for electricity, air conditioning, sanitation, etc.コ アThe shape with is typical. Plane components include the core, toilet, washroom, and boiling room mentioned above in the office.Service spaceIt becomes a simple one with the addition of. Since the lower floors, including the first floor with the entrance, and the middle floors, excluding the upper floors, which have different shapes due to restrictions on diagonal lines, have almost the same planar shape, these floors are generally used.Reference floorCalled. The rentable ratio of the standard floor is usually about 75 to 85%.
Land prices have risen significantly in office districts, which have high utility value as offices, resulting in the promotion of high-rise buildings. In recent years, many high-rise condominiums have become commonplace, but the influence of land prices cannot be ignored in the background that most of the early skyscrapers were office buildings. In the administration, the Building Standard Law stipulatesComprehensive design systemWe welcome high-rise buildings by limiting areas and conditions, such as by relaxing the floor area ratio by applying.
Even in a small office building, the plane components are almost the same. However, since the ratio of cores in the plane inevitably increases, the rentable ratio has to be disadvantageous. On the first floor, there is no special lobby, just an elevator, stairs, and a mail box in each room, and most of the remaining area is used for stores. In addition, there are many cases where the owner himself lives on the top floor. It is thought that the small scale of the site is due to the fact that it is dragging the land ownership form from before modern times, but its vertically elongated shapepencilSlightly ridiculedPencil buildingCalled.
Office building functions
In Japan, the functions required of office buildings have not tended to be emphasized so much, and it has been said that an appropriate floor area (it is said to be about 5 to 8 square meters per person) is sufficient. However, in recent years, there has been a demand for functions that match the actual conditions of work, and this has also affected rents. Especially office buildings with modern facilitiesIntelligent buildingIt is called, and it may be highly evaluated by tenants.
In particularOAThe wave has changed the actual situation of work, and the office building that serves as the recipient has also been forced to respond. Since the 1990sOA floorOr, by installing a double-structured floor-raising system called a free access floor, specifications for storing the wiring of OA equipment under the floor have become widespread. Nowadays manyWork environmentIt is adopted in. The floor of the OA floor is designed so that a 50 cm square panel-shaped flooring material is laid on a load-resistant structure, and it is easy to redo the wiring of only a part of the floor.networkIt is possible to handle the replacement cycle of telecommunications equipment, which is extremely short for the skeleton, such as the reconstruction of the telecommunications equipment. Going back, many office buildings before the spread of OA floors have low ceiling heights, and there are cases in which the market evaluation is more difficult than the mere effect of building age.
Around 2001-2003, in the office market in Tokyo2003 issueWas often used. In 2003Roppongi HillsWith the simultaneous completion of many large-scale office buildings in Shiodome, Shinagawa, etc., the relocation of large companies to new buildings has progressed, and the vacancy of small and medium-sized rental building companies has increased, which has a negative impact on management. Is a problem that is said to be oversupplied in the office market. From 2003 to 2-3 years later, there seems to be no noticeable increase in vacancy rate or decline in rent, but it is denied that the impact may be delayed depending on future economic trends. Can not. Also, in addition to this2010 issueAs,Baby boomers OfretirementSome are worried that the sharp decline in the office population due to this may cause under-demand. Due to the spread of the Internet society, working from home, so-calledbusiness centerIt is said that the number of offices will increase, and measures to deal with the surplus era of offices have come to be called for. Specifically, conversion of use to housing, stores, etc. (conversion) Etc. have been put into practice.
However, the need for office buildings has not diminished even in the Internet age, such as the role of providing a place for face-to-face communication and the role of separating from private time and space.Flextime systemThis is supported by the fact that more and more companies are abolishing.
Well-known office building
- Kasumigaseki Building
- Sunshine 60
- Roppongi Hills Mori Tower(Roppongi Hills）
- Midtown tower(Tokyo Midtown）
- World Trade Center Building
- Nihonbashi Mitsui Tower
- Izumi Garden Tower
- Sanno Park Tower
- Akasaka Biz Tower
- Ark Hills
- Atago Green Hills
- ShinagawaSkyscrapers (Shinagawa Grand Commons）
- Umeda Sky Building
- Grand Front Osaka
- Kitahama NEXU BUILD
- Dojima Avanza
- Nakanoshima Festival Tower
- OAP tower
- Sakishima Government Building(Former: Osaka World Trade Center Building)
- Abeno Harukasu
- Namba Skye
- JR Gate Tower
- Midland Square
- Nagoya Lucent Tower
- Global gate
- JP Tower Nagoya
- Dai Nagoya Building
- Nagoya Intercity
- Alpen Marunouchi Tower
- Marunouchi KS Building
- Nagoya Tokio Marine & Nichido Building
- JR Tower(Sapporo Station）
- Sapporo Center Building
- Sendai Trust Tower(Sendai Trust City）
- Omiya Sonic City
- World business garden(Makuhari New City）
- Makuhari Techno Garden
- Yokohama Landmark Tower(Yokohama Minatomirai 21）
- Toki Messe
- Porte Kanazawa
- Act City Hamamatsu
- Rinku Gate Tower
- Kobe Shoko Trade Center Building
- Kobe Crystal Tower(Harborland）
- Credo Okayama
- Kagawa Prefectural Government Building
- Takamatsu symbol tower(Sunport Takamatsu）
- JRJP Hakata Building
- Canal City Business Center Building
- ACROS Fukuoka
- Taipei 101
- Burj Khalifa
- Empire State Building
- Chrysler building
- Sears Tower
- Pentagon(The largest office building in the world)