A huge "sumo wrestler" appears in a commercial facility in Shanghai, and the Japanese food district creates an atmosphere-Chinese media
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From the Spring and Autumn period to the Qin and Han dynasties, it was called "Kakusho" and was introduced to Japan in the Tang dynasty, and is now a national sport of Japan.
On the 19th, two 2-meter-high "sumo wrestlers" statues were set up in a Japanese restaurant area in a commercial facility in Jing'an District, Shanghai. → Continue reading
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Spring and autumn era
Spring and autumn era(Shunjujidai) (Chinese: Spring and autumn period|pinyin: ) IsAncient chinaInZhou DynastyIt is an era located in the latter half ofweekFrom 771 BC, when the east and west split, to the presentShanxi ProvinceThe great power that occupied the whole area "JinRefers to the period of about 5 years until the 320th century BC, when "was divided into three countries."The name of this Spring and Autumn period was established in the Zhou dynasty.Confucian scripturesHistory book "Spring and autumnIs taken from.
The Zhou dynasty from the rebellion that occurred in 771 BCEastern Zhou(洛邑)WhenWest Zhou(鎬京), And XNUMX years later, Eastern Zhou defeated Nishi Amane to unify the kingship, but the power of yesteryear was almost lost.Due to the loss of order under the Zhou dynasty, more than XNUMX princes, large and small, who are allotted to the whole of China, became independent and began to fight each other for the survival of their own country and the overcoming of other countries.In addition, since the authority of Zhou dynasty was still emphasized, the nations were united as Zhou dynasty's name.ChampionIt became the goal of the princes to take the position of.
Spring and Autumn PeriodSengoku periodTogetherSpring and Autumn Warring States periodIt is often treated collectively as.From the fact that the Zhou dynasty after 771 BC, which made Wangcheng the capital, is called the Eastern Zhou.Eastern eraAlso known as.There are various theories about when the boundary between the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period should be.JinThe most widely adopted is 453 BC, when the three nations split into three nations, or 403 BC, when the three nations officially became princes.
The era of the first half and the champion
Zhou's dissatisfaction with the lords who were dissatisfied with his bad politics幽王But,771 BCThe next year, the son of the King You of ZhouZheng OfWu GongWith the help of洛邑Revive Zhou.This is平王And the following lapsEastern ZhouIt is called, and this is the beginning of the Spring and Autumn period.
After this, Zheng's Takeko, who made a great contribution to Zhou's eastern transition, wielded power, but was rather dismissed by Zhou due to his overwhelming achievements.Of the child of Takeko荘公In the place of Zhou桓王Despite being subdued by, he succeeded in repelling ().In response to the vassal's words that he should pursue him at this time, Zhuang replied, "It is not good for Tenshi."While this anecdote represents Zhou's great loss of authority, it also shows that the princes still had respect for Zhou.However, the national prestige of Zheng will not behave much after Zheng.Chung was the family of a royal lord (directly under the royal family), but his territory was narrow and his national power was only under the middle.On the other hand, the princes who have paid homage to Zhou even after Zhou's eastern transition began to make their own political and military movements when they witnessed the reality that Zhou was defeated by one lord, Zheng. It was.CurrentHubei ProvinceSuizhou CityWas in the vicinityThe inscription on the bronze ware that was stored in the tomb of the Hou in the Spring and Autumn period says "Zhou dynasty already."..In addition, Zhou's power weakened as Zhou's succession battles occurred many times..
It is the eastern power that holds the hegemony on behalf of Chung.QiIs.Zhou Jianguo's great honorary vassalGreat hopeQi, who was the founder of the company, greatly expanded the undeveloped area in the east and enriched the national power. 14th generation襄公The country was confused by the struggle for succession after his death, but the internal turmoil was contained.Duke Huan of QiAnd itsPrime minister-Guan ZhongMake a big leap by the success of.Emerging countries that were swallowing small neighboring countries in the south at that timeChuHas greatly expanded its power, and has shown signs of invasion of a small country in Nakahara.Zhou, who should rely on him, is still fighting for power in the smaller royal family, and the small country, frightened by the intimidation of Chu, was obliged to submit.However, with the appearance of Duke Huan of Qi and the opposition to Chu, these small nations began to seek help all at once.Huan of Qi, who confronted Chu, accused him of being rude to Zhou at the Shaoling District and suppressed Chu's invasion.As a result, Huan of Qi, who became the lord of the princes,651 BCNi Aoi Hill (currentHenan ProvinceShangqiu CityMinquan County) AtAssociationAnd made an arrangement between the princes on behalf of Zhou.Due to this achievement, Huan of QiChampionCalledFive HegemonsIs counted first.However, Qi's hegemony remained in the Yellow River basin centered on Zhongyuan, and although he was defeated, he had no power to stop Chu from forming a sphere of influence in the Yangtze River basin. And the battle of Chu in the south will continue.
However, after the death of Guan Zhong, the national affairs were disturbed by the Duke Huan of Qi, who had fallen like a stranger, and Qi suddenly fell from the hegemony position in the battle for succession after the death of the Duke Huan of Qi.I tried to become the champion instead of this宋 Of襄公.YinIn the country of the bereaved people, Song had a moderate national power, but Duke Xiang had a high ambition to succeed Huan of Qi and rule the world.First, he intervened in the battle for succession to Qi, and took the position of Akira, who was originally regarded as a prince and was entrusted to Song, and made him Takako.In addition, to become the lord of the lords (currently Shangqiu City, Henan Province)睢県) Held an alliance.However, he was imprisoned by Chu, a senior vassal of the participating countries, who hated Song to take the initiative in this alliance.Duke Xiang returns to Japan and goes into a decisive battle with Chu (Battle of Fei River) However, as a result of compassion for the enemy, he was defeated (Song Jin) and did not win the hegemony.
The second champion after Huan of Qi is the northern power.Jin OfWen GongIs.Jin isWu Gong-献公Over the two generations of the Duke Xian of Japan, the neighboring countries were annexed and expanded significantly.驪姫Due to the turmoil caused by, the Duke Wen and his son fled abroad.Bunko has been in a foreign country for more than 10 years.秦With the help of Jin, he took the position of Jin.The Duke Wen, who became the monarch, later contained the internal conflict of the Zhou royal family, and with Chu.Battle of ChengpuVictory in, and practice soil (now Henan Province)XinxiangYuanyang County)襄王Invited and held an alliance to become the lord of the princes.Bunko, along with Huan of Qi, is the representative of the Five Hegemons of Spring and Autumn.Shinfumi SaitoIs called.
It was the great power of the west, Qin, who played an active part before and after Bunko.穆公Is.The Duke of Qin is in the westEggFight and win,Baili XiWe actively appointed people from other countries such as, and annexed small countries to expand the territory.In addition, to Jin who was confused by the turbulence of Li Ji恵公After that, when Megumi repeated his distrust, he wrecked it in the land of Korea, and after his death, he made Megumi's older brother the throne and made him Jin's Bunko.The relationship between Qin's Duke and Jin's Bunko was good, but after Bunko's death, the relationship between the two countries deteriorated again, and he once again defeated Jin.However, after the death of Qin, most of his vassalsMartial deathAs a result, Qin retreated significantly.
The next hegemony is the southern power of Chu.SooIs.Not a country that was originally feudal from Zhou, but by abilityHubei-湖南He was not recognized as a king because of the circumstances in which he settled down.Later, he was awarded the rank of Viscount from Zhou, but he began to call himself the king because his rank was too low for national power.The King Zhuang eliminated all the bad guys who had been infested in the imperial court at once, and appointed talented people.The King Zhuang, who ruled the country, moved north with abundant troops to intimidate the surrounding small countries, and held a large military parade near Luoyang to put pressure on the Zhou royal family.In addition, the Jin army who surrounded the city of Zheng and came to rescue it邲It was wrecked by (Hitsu).With this victory, Nakahara's small country submitted to Chu.
Mid-term and small diplomatic era
After the Battle of Bi, there will be less conflict between the princes.The reason is that the middle to lower aristocratic classes called Taifu and Shishi, who were under the lords, rose, and the real power of each country was transferred to them, and they were of the same rank in the country rather than in conflict with other countries. Because he was busy fighting with the aristocrats.
As a nobleman who took control of these countries, Jin'sSix Lords, Qi's Six Lords, Lu's三桓, Zheng's Seven Aunts, etc.They sometimes quarreled with each other, formed alliances with other aristocrats, and sometimes with the prince, killing the prince.These phenomena also represent the collapse of the traditional status system.At this timeConfucianismCausedConfuciusIt is believed that the resentment of such a collapse of the traditional system was the source of the study.
Against this background, conflicts between countries are less desirable, and546 BCA mercenary party was held between Jin and Chu.Bihei means to stop the battle.
The expansion of aristocrats has pushed those of origin who had not been in the position of national affairs to the stage of national affairs, and many people are called the Chancellor at this time.The representative one晏嬰・ Chung's子産・ Jin'sSheep tongueAnd so on.In addition, because it was avoided that the great powers collided directly with each other, small diplomacy such as Zichan's childbirth and Lu's Confucius became active.Zichan is the first in ChinaGrammarIs famous for enacting.Regarding this behavior of childbirth, the law had been tacitly understood in the upper class until then, but it was dissatisfied with the newly emerging class people, so the law was put into shape. It seems that we had to keep it.
Around this time, the monarch would not be able to stand without looking at the complexion of the aristocrats.ChenThe power of Mr. Ta, who had been in exile, became very large, and in Chu, the national affairs were confused by the conflict between the influential aristocrats and the royal family.
Late Wuyue conflict
On the other hand, in the southern Yangtze River basinKure-YueTwo emerging powers were emerging.Wu闔閭-HusbandTwo monarchs and vassalsSun Tzu-Wu Zixu, Yue is a monarchGoujianAnd a vassalFan LiRapidly expanded its power by the power of.Wu shows the power to bring down the capital of Chu and drive it to the brink of extinction.In addition, he defeated Yue and made him subordinate, advanced to the Yellow River basin, and fought with Jin for the position of lord of the princes.However, Wu is destroyed by a counterattack based on Yue's careful preparation once he has succumbed.Yue also did not shake after the death of Goujian, and was later destroyed by Chu.
Wuyue became a pioneer of steelmaking and entered the Iron Age in earnest from this time, because the order centered on the Zhou dynasty became meaningless because a completely different race became the champion of Nakahara. There is also a theory that it will be the Warring States period immediately after the conflict.
Also in Jin453 BCMr. Satoshi is destroyed by the union of Mr. Wei, Mr. Han, and Mr. Zhao (Battle of Jinyang).Each of the three who gained more strength by sharing the old territory of Mr. SatoshiWei-Korea-ZhaoBuilt a country.Combine these threeSanjinAlso called.After that, the three countries of Wei, Han, and Zhao403 BCWas officially recognized as a lord by the Zhou royal family (although at this stage, Jin also fell into a small lord.376 BCHas survived).At this point, the Spring and Autumn period is completely over.Sengoku periodto go into.
Around the same time, in Qi, Mr. Ta almost completely took control of national affairs.386 BCToTawaByRobberyIt was done, and Qi since Taiko Nozomi was destroyed.Distinguish the subsequent Qi from beforeTadaiAlso called.
Military system / war
In the Spring and Autumn period,宗法The military system is based on the above, with 12,500 people in one army, the third army in the major powers, the second army in the next country, and the first army in the small countries, and this was not greatly extracted.It was the one who had the three armiesJin-Chu-QiIn the case of Qi, one army refers to 1 soldiers.Only Zhou Wang may have six armies,weekHas declined rapidly since the Spring and Autumn period, and the Six Armies could not be formed.In JinWen GongAt that time, three new armies were added to make six armies, but they were soon abolished.
The reason why the army did not become huge was that it obeyed the "sect law" because it formally respected Zhou Wang, that iron was not used yet and the quality of weapons was low, and that there was no iron farming tool and productivity was low. Therefore, the population is also nextSengoku periodMuch less, long-term wars can significantly reduce national power, etc. (鉄Has been used since the Warring States period).
The main wars around this time兵車It was a battle, and there were almost no horses.The Chinese idea of those days was to use high-level vehicles called cars (carriage / chariot).Greater ChinaWho is the one who rides the horse directly狄戎It was thought to be no different from (foreign race).The lord rode a chariot and commanded the war, and deployed infantry with the chariot as the core.
Also, in this era, the custom of fortune-telling before the war still remained.
At this time, a form of war that has not been seen since the Spring and Autumn period can be seen.In other words, at the beginning of the war in the open air, one messenger gets into the other's position, makes a joke, and shows courage.The war began when the other party responded to this idiot with a humor or chased the opponent who showed courage.This was firmly seen until the middle of this era, and surprise attacks were disrespectful.
Besides, you can see the scene peculiar to this era.For example, "Battle of YanlingIt is that.Jin's lordToIs the enemy country of ChuKing GongI found.When he saw King Gong, he got off the chariot, took off his helmet, and ran away.The King Gong of Chu liked it and gave him a bow, but he did not receive it and told him that he was safe and gave him three bows.Also, the prince of JinDukeOn the right side of the car, when he found the flag of the enemy army (Zheng Ziying), he asked Zheng to show the courage of the Jin army and sent him a sake barrel.It was during this period that battles that valued "respect" were developed.From the Warring States period, this scene was not seen and the "gratitude" in the war disappeared.
- ^ "Zhou-Idealized Ancient Dynasty-"Chuko Shinsho 2016 ISBN 978-4-12-102396-4 p.146
- ^ "Zhou-Idealized Ancient Dynasty-" p.166-169
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