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🚴 | Niigata Prefectural Board of Education disciplines XNUMX faculty members for corporal punishment and drunk driving of bicycles


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Niigata Prefectural Board of Education disciplines five faculty and staff for corporal punishment and drunk driving of bicycles

 
If you write the contents roughly
Specifically, in September, when I sent a notification email to the municipal board of education, special school, and education office, I erroneously attached data containing personal information of 9 teachers' past non-misconduct. And leaked personal information.
 

Prefectural Board of Education to apologize On the XNUMXnd, the Niigata Prefectural Board of Education announced that it had disciplined five faculty members.under… → Continue reading

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Board of education

Board of education(Today is good,English: board of education) IsEducationAboutOffice workTo controlAdministrative committee.

The United States of America

The US Board of Education regularly evaluates the superintendent of education and the secretariat[1].. The Board of Education in the United States has a public hearing system, and the hearing of opinions from residents is institutionalized.[2].. However, some people question the effectiveness of this public hearing system.[2].

カナダ

Canada isEnglishとFrenchIs the official languageBilingual nationAndQuebec,Alberta,OntarioIn many states, individual boards of education have jurisdiction over education in only one language. Quebec, for example, has 1 English school boards and 11 French school boards.[3].

Japan

Overview

The Board of Education of Japan manages and administers office work related to education.Local government(Prefectures,市町村,special area,Some office associations)Administrative committeeIs[4][5].. It embodies principles such as local autonomy in education and independence from the head of educational administration. However, the Board of EducationHead of the local government(Prefectural governor,Mayor),Local councilIt has received various legal and political interference from the above.

Regarding the Board of Education,Local government lawとLaw on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Abbreviation: Local Education Administration Organization Management Law, Local Education Administration Law, Land Law, etc.)

The Board of Education has a secretariat to handle the affairs belonging to its authority (Article 18 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The secretariat of the Board of Education is called the Education Agency in prefectures and the Education Bureau in some cities. The original "educational board" refers to a collegial administrative committee consisting of several board members (Board of Education in a narrow sense), however, the entire organization, which includes a secretariat and a secretariat, is sometimes called the “education board” (Board of Education in a broad sense).

  • Local government law(Showa 22 Yearlaw(No. 67)
    Article 180-8 The Board of Education manages schools and other educational institutions as separately provided by law, and is responsible for organizing schools, handling educational courses, textbooks and other teaching materials, and handling the status of educational staff, as well as social education and other matters. Manages and executes educational, academic and cultural affairs.
  • Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Law No. 31 of 162) Article 2
    (The purpose of this law)
    Article 1 The purpose of this law is to establish the basics of establishing educational boards, handling the status of employees of schools and other educational institutions, and organizing and managing educational administration in local governments.
    (basic principle)
    Article 1-2 Educational administration in local governmentsBasic Education LawIn keeping with the spirit of (Law No. 18 of 120), appropriate division of roles and mutual cooperation with the government so that equal opportunities for education, maintenance and improvement of education standards, and promotion of education according to the actual conditions of the region can be achieved. Must be done in a fair and appropriate manner in cooperation with.
    (Installation)
    Article 2 Prefectures, cities (including special wards; the same shall apply hereinafter) Towns and villages, and local public bodies that handle all or part of the affairs prescribed in Article 23 have an education board.

2018As of September 30, the number of boards of education is 9 in prefectures.Government-designated cityThe number is 20 and the number of municipalities is 1718 (including wide-area federations and joint establishments, and some office associations are not included).

組織

Committee and committee

The Board of Education shall be organized with a superintendent of education and four members (Article 3 of the Land Act). However, in accordance with the regulations, the prefectural or city or local governments' associations to which the prefecture or city is affiliated shall have a board of education of the superintendent of education and five or more members Of the unions, only the towns and villages are members, but the board of education can be organized with the superintendent of education and two or more members. (Proviso to the same article). Committee memberSpecial occupationLocal civil servantIs (Article 12 Paragraph 2 of the Land Act,Local Civil Service ActArticle 3 paragraph 3 item 1).

The head of a local government (chief) is appointed with the consent of the council and is appointed as a member (Article 4 Paragraph 2 of the Land Act). The qualification for appointment of the committee members is "a person who has the right to vote of the head of the local government concerned, has a high personality, and has an insight regarding education, academics, and culture." Also,"BankruptでRehabilitationThose who do not get ","imprisonmentAn appointment cannot be made if any of the above sentenced persons "has been disqualified. In addition, the member shall be a member of the parliament of the local government or a head of the local government, a member or member of a committee placed as an executive body in the local government, or a full-time employee of the local government or the section 28 of Article 5-1 of the Local Government Service Act. It cannot be used as a staff member who occupies a part-time job as prescribed (prohibition of concurrent work, Article 6 of the Land Transport Act).

In addition, regarding the composition of the members, more than half of the membersPolitical partyBeing a member of the committee (paragraph 4 of the same article), and being careful not to cause a significant bias in age, gender, occupation, etc.Guardian(CustodyWho doMinor guardianThere is a provision that the person who is) must be included (paragraph 5 of the same article).

The term of office of the members is four years, and they can be reappointed (Article 4, Paragraph 5 of the Land Transport Act). When a member finds that he/she cannot withstand the performance of his/her job due to a physical or mental disorder, or when he/she finds that there is a violation of duty in his/her duties or other delinquency unsuitable to be a member (Article 2(7) of the Land Act), more than half of the members If you belong to the same political party (paragraphs 1 and 2 of the same article), you will be exonerated, but except in these cases, you will not be exonerated against it (identity security, Article 3 of the same article). Section). A member loses his job if he/she falls under the grounds for disqualification or if he/she is no longer a candidate who has the right to vote of the chief (Article 4 of the Land Act), and with the consent of the chief and the Board of Education, Can resign (Article 9 of the Land Act).

Request for dismissal from the committee (recall) System (Local Autonomy Law Article 13 paragraph 3). A person who has the right to vote of the mayor shall be one-third of the total number, as provided for by a Cabinet Order.[Note 1]With the co-sign of the above persons, the representative can request the dismissal of the committee member from the representative (Article 8 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). About request for dismissal of board of education, of Local Government ActrecallThe provisions regarding the above apply mutatis mutandis (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

Confidentiality is imposed on the members (Article 11 Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of the Land Act), and the appointment of officers of political parties and active political movements are prohibited (paragraph 6 of the same article). In addition, in carrying out their duties, the committee members shall be aware of their important responsibilities regarding the administration of the educational administration of the relevant local government and shall comply with the basic principles stipulated in Article 1-2 of the Land Act. In addition, it must use the intention of operating the educational administration of the local government concerned.

Superintendent and Secretariat

The Board of EducationSuperintendent of schoolsIs placed (Article 3 of the Land Act). The superintendent of the education is appointed by the head of the local government with the consent of the parliament from among those who have a high personality and have knowledge about the educational administration (Article 4 of the Land Act). The superintendent's term of office is 3 years (Article 5 of the Land Transport Act).

The superintendent of education supervises the duties of the Board of Education and represents the Board of Education (Article 13 of the Land Act).

The Board of Education has a secretariat to handle the affairs belonging to its authority (Article 17 of the Land Transport Act). The internal organization of the secretariat is defined by the Board of Education rules (paragraph 2 of the same article).

The secretariat hasCoach,Social Education DirectorOther staff is placed (Article 18 Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Land Transport Act,Social Education ActArticle 9-2 (1)). The staff of the secretariat is appointed by the Board of Education upon the recommendation of the superintendent of education (Section 7 of the same article). The supervisor is a school (a school specified in Article 1 of the School Education Act.Ichijo school) In the curriculum, learning guidance and other related matters related to school education and other specialized matters (section 3 of the same article). The instructor must be a person who has insight in education and must be educated and experienced in the curriculum at school, learning guidance and other specialized matters related to school education (paragraph 4 of the same article). The instructor is not a universityPublic school(Schools established by local governments)Teacher(Teacher stipulated in Article 2, paragraph 2 of the Special Law for Educational Public Employees) can be devoted to fulfillment (dedicated teaching staff).

Education Agency

Education Agency(Kyoikucho) isBoard of educationScentedSecretariatOne of the names. "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Showa 31 Law No. 162), many of which are stipulated by the rules of the prefectural board of education regarding internal organizations.PrefecturesPart of the organization.Superintendent of schoolsSums up.

In some cases, the name is not "Education Agency" but "Board of Education Secretariat" which is close to the original meaning.Sagamihara City is the Education Bureau, and Shizuoka City is the Education Bureau under the secretariat.Municipalities often refer to it as the "Board of Education Secretariat" rather than the "Education Agency".Government-designated cityIsSendai city OfSendai City Board of EducationIs called “Sendai Education Bureau”[6].

Job authority

The Board of Education and the head of the local government manage and execute the office work related to education based on the laws, regulations, rules of the local government and rules and regulations established by the institutions of the local government, respectively. Law Article 25).

Authority of the committee

The Board of Education manages and enforces the following matters related to education handled by local governments (Article 23 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Thing about setting, management and the abolition of school and other educational institutions belonging to jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  2. Management of property (education property) used for schools and other educational institutions.
  3. Thing about appointment and dismissal of personnel of the Board of Education and school and other educational institutions and other personnel affairs.
  4. Enrollment of school-age students and school-age children and admission, transfer and withdrawal of students, children and infants.
  5. Thing about organizational organization of school, curriculum, learning instruction, student instruction and vocational instruction.
  6. Handling of textbooks and other teaching materials.
  7. Thing about maintenance of school building and other facilities and teaching materials and other facilities
  8. Thing about training of principal, teacher or other educational staff.
  9. Matters concerning the health, safety, welfare and welfare of principals, teachers and other educational staff and students, children and infants.
  10. Thing about environmental hygiene of school and other educational institutions.
  11. School lunchAbout
  12. Thing about youth education, woman education and public hall business and other social education.
  13. Thing about sports.
  14. Thing about protection of cultural assets.
  15. UNESCOThing about activity
  16. Thing about corporation about education.
  17. Thing about investigation to affect education and basic statistics and other statistics.
  18. Matters concerning public relations related to administrative affairs and consultation regarding educational administration related to administrative affairs.
  19. In addition to the matters listed in the preceding items, matters related to office work related to education within the area of ​​the relevant local government.

Establishment of Board of Education rules

The Board of Education can establish the rules of the Board of Education with regard to the affairs belonging to its authority as long as it does not violate the law or ordinance (Article 14 of the Land Act).

Proposal of opinion for the proposal submitted by the mayor

When the head of a local government prepares a bill for a case in which the part of the revenue/expenditure budget pertaining to affairs related to education and other affairs related to affairs related to education, which is subject to a resolution of the assembly, should be submitted by the committee. You can (Article 29 of the Land Transport Act).

Create budget and execute budget

The Board of Education does not have the right to prepare a budget plan, to submit a budget plan to Parliament, or to execute the budget (Articles 109 and 186-6 of the Local Autonomy Law). The budget for the school board is prepared by the chief and submitted to the local council. However, the head of the board of directors must listen to the opinions of the Board of Education when making a bill for the portion of the revenue and expenditure budget related to office work related to education (Article 29 of the Land Travel Act). The budget bill submitted to the parliament is deliberated and voted by the parliament (Local Autonomy Act, Article 96, paragraph 1, item 2). However, with regard to budget execution, in most cases, according to Article 180-2 of the Local Autonomy Law, the Board of Education has subordinated execution of the budget execution right of the Emirati. Divided by amount, such as the superintendent of education spending orders of less than 5000 million yen, the director of the Board of Education secretariat spending orders of less than 1 million yen, and the section manager subordinately executing spending orders of less than 1000 million yen Then, there is an example set by the rule (rule decided by the chief).

Delegation of office work to the superintendent of education

According to the rules of the Board of Education, the Board of Education may delegate a part of the affairs belonging to its authority to the superintendent of education, or may act as the superintendent of education and act as a temporary representative (Article 26, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). ). However, the following office work cannot be delegated to the superintendent of education (paragraph 2 of the same article).

  1. Thing about basic policy of administration of office work about education and the execution.
  2. Matters concerning the establishment or revision or abolition of the Board of Education rules and other regulations established by the Board of Education.
  3. Matters concerning the establishment and abolition of schools and other educational institutions belonging to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  4. Matters concerning the appointment and dismissal of staff of schools and other educational institutions that belong to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education and the Board of Education.
  5. Thing about inspection and evaluation of the situation of management and execution of office work about education.
  6. Thing about offer of opinion before making budget bill about education and making bill to submit to assembly.

Duties of the chief

In addition, the head of the local government manages and executes the office work related to the education listed in the following items (Article 22 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Thing about university.
  2. Thing about private school
  3. Acquire and dispose of educational property.
  4. Sign a contract for matters pertaining to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  5. In addition to the items listed in the previous item, execute the budget related to matters related to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.

In addition, the head of a local government may manage and execute any or all of the work related to education listed in the following items (Article 23 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Sports (excluding physical education at school).
  2. Thing about culture (except thing about protection of cultural property).

Educational institution

Local governments, as required by law,library,博物馆,Public hallIn addition to setting up other educational institutions, by ordinances, it is possible to set up specialized or technical research related to education, training of educational staff, facilities for health or welfare, and other necessary educational institutions. Law Article 30). Among schools and other educational institutions, the university is headed by the local government, and the other is by the Board of Education (text of Article 32 of the Land Act). Provided, however, that the head of a local public entity shall have jurisdiction over the educational institution that only administers and is to be executed by the head of the local public entity.

At the school, as required by law,President,head teacher,Director,Teacher, Administrative staff, technical staff and other necessary staff (Article 31 Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). Administrative staff, technical staff, and other required staff shall be placed at educational institutions other than schools, as provided for by law or bylaw (paragraph 2 of the same article). Principals, principals, teachers, administrative staff, technical staff and other staff of schools and other educational institutions under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education shall be advised by the superintendent of education, unless otherwise specified by this Act. Is appointed (Article 34 of the Land Act). In addition, matters relating to the appointment and dismissal of employees, salary, disciplinary action, service and other status handling, except when there is a special provision in this law and other laws,Local Civil Service Act(Article 35 of the Land Transport Act). The heads of schools and other educational institutionsEducation Civil Service Exception LawUnless otherwise specified, it is possible to offer an opinion on the appointment or dismissal of the staff members of the affiliation or other matters to the appointee (Article 36 of the Land Act). In addition, if the principal of a school attached to the university applies, it will go through the president (the same article).

The Board of Education, to the extent that it does not violate laws and ordinances, handles the facilities, equipment, organizational organization, curriculum, teaching materials, etc. of schools and other educational institutions under its jurisdiction About necessary, we establish rule of the Board of Education (Article 33 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). Board of EducationtextbookRegarding the use of teaching materials other than the above, there is a provision to notify the Board of Education in advance or to obtain approval from the Board of Education (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

Municipal school teachers

Municipal school staff salary payment methodStaff prescribed in Articles 1 and 2 (Prefectural expense staff), the right of appointment belongs to the Prefectural Committee (Article 37 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The prefectural committees will appoint the municipal committees to appoint and discontinue the staff of prefectural expenses and other matters (Article 38, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). The principal of the school may offer opinions regarding the appointment or dismissal of the prefectural expenses and faculty members who belong to the school to the municipalities committee (Article 39 of the Land Transport Act). Municipal committees supervise the service of prefecturally funded faculty members (Article 43, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act).

School management council

According to the rules of the Board of Education, the Board of Education shall, as an institution to discuss the management of the designated school among the schools belonging to the jurisdiction, for each designated school concerned.School management councilCan be placed (Article 47-6 paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The members of the school management council are appointed by the Board of Education for residents of the area where the designated school is located, students enrolled in the designated school, parents of children or infants, and others deemed necessary by the Board of Education ( (2 of the same Article). The principal of a designated school must prepare a basic policy regarding the operation of the designated school regarding the formation of curriculum and other matters specified by the rules of the Board of Education, and obtain approval from the school management council of the designated school ( (Section 3 of the same Article).

Relationship between the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Board of Education

Regarding the following, the prefectures and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology are more involved in municipalities than in other administrative fields.Decentralization is considerably delayed in the field of educational administration.. This is because in addition to the involvement stipulated in the Local Autonomy Law, the Local Education Administration Law stipulates “instruction” and expansion of investigation rights that are not in the Local Autonomy Law.It goes against the purpose of Article 1-XNUMX of the Local Autonomy Law.There is a criticism that. The scandal of the Municipal Board of Education is thought to be, in a sense, a fundamental factor in the current system that has created the state of waiting for instructions from the state or prefecture.

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will coordinate with the prefectural committees or municipal committees, the prefectural committee will coordinate with each other, and the Board of Education will maintain close contact with each other, and In cooperation with the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or other boards of education, we must strive for proper placement and smooth exchange of faculty and staff, improvement of work efficiency of faculty and staff, and proper execution and management of office work related to their respective education. Must be (Article 51 of the Land Transport Act).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology can provide the prefectures or municipalities with the necessary guidance, advice or assistance to the municipalities in order to properly process the office work related to the education of the prefectures or municipalities. (Act 48, paragraph 1)[Note 2].. In addition, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology may give necessary instructions to prefectural committees regarding guidance, advice or assistance to municipalities (paragraph 3 of the same Article). The prefectural governor or the prefectural committee may ask the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for the necessary guidance, advice, or assistance from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or the prefectural committee to process administrative work related to education. Yes (paragraph 4 of the same article).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology shall, in cases where the management and execution of office work related to education by prefectural committees or municipal committees violates the provisions of laws and regulations, or where there is failure to manage and execute such office work, children and students It is possible to request corrections because it is clear that the opportunity to receive such education is hindered and that the right to other education is violated (Article 49 of the Land Act).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology shall, in cases where the management and execution of office work related to education by prefectural committees or municipal committees violates the provisions of laws and regulations, or where there is failure to manage and execute such office work, children and students When there is an urgent need to protect the life or body of a person, etc., the Board of Education may be instructed to correct the violation or to revise the management and execution of the neglected office work ( Ground Law Article 50 text). However, this instruction is limited to cases where it is difficult to correct it by other measures (provided in the same article).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or the Prefectural Committee, when it is necessary to provide guidance, advice, assistance, cooperation, etc., is required regarding administrative work related to education that the head of the local government or the Board of Education manages and executes. Can conduct surveys and survey instructions (Article 53, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Land Transport Act). In addition, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will inform the head of the local government or the Board of Education, and the prefectural committee will inform the head of the municipality or the committee of municipalities regarding the necessary investigations regarding the affairs related to education within the area of ​​the prefecture or municipality. You can request the submission of statistics and other materials or reports (Article 54, Paragraph 2 of the Land Transport Act).

Widening the Board of Education

The Board of EducationOrdinary local government(Prefectures, municipalities) andspecial areaIt is often installed for each. However, it is difficult for a small board of education to have a sufficient human and material system, and there is a problem in terms of efficient administration. So, multiple boards of educationSome office associations(Local Autonomy Law, Article 284, Paragraph 2, Land Transport Law, Article 60)Wide area union(Section 284, paragraph 3)Special local government, Of the institution (Article 252-7),Council(Article 252-2 of the same Article), (Article 252-14 of the same Article)[7].

List of some office associations/wide area federations related to education

A list of some office associations and regional federations related to education by work content (as of June 2004, 16) is as follows:[8].. 176 for some office associations, 1 for regional unions[Note 3], Co-located 7[Note 4].

Business contentSome office associations/wide area unions[Note 5]
(States in parentheses are prefectures)
Number of organizations
 All Educational Affairs Association (Okayama)[Note 6]1
School relations(Hokkaido)[Note 7], (Aomori prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Fukushima prefecture), (Gunma prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Chiba prefecture)[Note 8][Note 9], (Toyama Prefecture), (Toyama Prefecture), (Toyama Prefecture),Public Obama Hospital Union(Fukui prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara prefecture), (Wakayama prefecture), (Wakayama prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Hiroshima Prefecture)[Note 10], (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Kagawa prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Kochi prefecture), (Kochi prefecture) , (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Saga prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture) , (Oita prefecture), (Okinawa prefecture)78
Education and training center(Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido)[Note 11],Chubu Kamikita Wide Area Business Association(Aomori Prefecture)[Note 10],Mogami Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Yamagata Prefecture),Haga Area Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 8],Minami Nasu area wide area administrative office association(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 8], (Niigata Prefecture)[Note 8],Special ward personnel/welfare office association(Tokyo)[Note 12], (Fukuoka Prefecture), (Kagoshima Prefecture), (Okinawa Prefecture)15
LunchRelationship(Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido),Chubu Kamikita Wide Area Business Association(Aomori Prefecture)[Note 7],Towada area wide area office association(Aomori prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Saitama prefecture), (Saitama prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Tokyo), (Fukui prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Aichi prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Osaka prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara Prefecture)[Note 8], (Okayama prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture)[Note 11], (Tokushima prefecture), (Tokushima prefecture), (Tokushima prefecture), (Ehime prefecture) (Kochi prefecture), (Kochi prefecture),Reihoku wide area administrative office association(Kochi Prefecture),Kyotsuki Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Fukuoka Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Okinawa Prefecture)44
Social educationRelationship(Aomori Prefecture),Sennan area wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture),Osaki area wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture),Ishinomaki District Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Miyagi Prefecture),Kesennuma/Motoyoshi regional wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Yamagata prefecture),Minamiaizu Regional Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Fukushima prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture),Ina lot wide area municipalities office association(Ibaraki Prefecture),Joso Regional Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Ibaraki Prefecture),Haga Area Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 7],Shioya Wide Area Administrative Association(Tochigi prefecture), (Tochigi prefecture),Minami Nasu area wide area administrative office association(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 7],(Gunma Prefecture),Wide area municipalities promotion and maintenance association such as Takasaki City(Gunma Prefecture),Tomioka Kanraku Wide Area Municipal Area Promotion Promotion Association(Gunma prefecture), (Gunma prefecture),Hiki Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Saitama prefecture), (Chiba prefecture),Sanmu District City Wide Area Administrative Association(Chiba Prefecture),Chosei-gun City Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Chiba Prefecture), (Chiba Prefecture)[Note 11], (Niigata Prefecture), (Niigata Prefecture)[Note 7],Kofu area wide area administrative office association(Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Aichi prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara prefecture)[Note 10], (Tottori prefecture),Tottori Chubu Hometown Wide Area Union(Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Shimane prefecture), (Yamaguchi prefecture),Shodo district wide area administrative office association(Kagawa prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Nagasaki prefecture),Nishi various regional administrative office associations(Miyazaki Prefecture)47

The organizations that were established or revised after the above list was created (June 2004, 16) are as follows.

History

Allied Supreme Commander General Command (GHQ/SCAP) Upon request,The United States of AmericaAn educational mission from1946(Showa 21) Visited Japan on March 3th and 5th, the first on March 7th of the same yearAmerican Education Mission ReportWas submitted and made an installation recommendation. So the Ministry of Education1948The Board of Education was established in 23. This system isDecentralization, In view of the principles of democratization and independence, especially the characteristics of educationEducational administrationBased on the idea of ​​ensuring the stability and neutrality ofBoard of Education ActFounded by. A budget-based administrative committee that is independent of the heads of local governmentsOrdinanceHe had the right to send the original draft and the personnel right to the staff of elementary and junior high schools.

However, due to factors such as "low voter turnout in the board of education elections, candidacy/election of the chief's rival to the board of education, and election activities that mobilized the faculty and staff union" (MEXT, 2004), the board of education was abolished immediately after its establishment. Is claimed.

1956In (31st year of Showa), the public election system was abolished and the appointment system was introduced in order to eliminate the harmful effects of partisan conflict on the Board of Education.Reverse courseXNUMX), the Local Education Administration Law was enacted that introduced the appointment approval system for the superintendent of education and abolished the right to send budget and regulations by the Board of Education in order to harmonize with general administration. It can be said that the chief's influence on educational administration has increased.

Since then, there has been a public debate about the reform of the Board of Education system at the policy level.Extraordinary Education CouncilIt was (Examination).

Looking at the response of each board of education to a series of educational devastation such as school violence, insidious bullying, and so-called problem teachers in recent years, we realized that we are aware that we are responsible for the administrative administration of education in each region. The Board of Education has a sense of responsibility, a sense of mission, lack of understanding of the spirit of decentralization of education, lack of independence, and lack of perspective on the XNUMXst century and motivation for reform. There seems to be a lot. — National Council on Educational Reform 2nd Report “Basic Direction of Educational Administrative and Financial Reform”, 1986

Then, as the direction of reform,

  • Selection and training of board members
  • Term and full-time system of superintendent of education (municipalities)
  • Establishing a complaint handling responsibility system
  • Dealing with teachers who are not qualified
  • Ideal management system for small municipalities
  • Cooperation with governor departments

I am making recommendations.

In the following year, in response to the flow of a trial teaching session, the "Survey and Research Collaborators Conference on Activation of the Board of Education" was established, and measures to activate the Board of Education were examined. The content is

  1. Appointment of the Board of Education
  2. Appointment of superintendent of education (dedicated superintendent of supervision of municipalities and introduction of term of office for superintendent of education)
  3. Management of the Board of Education
  4. Ideal business processing system
  5. Reflecting the intentions of local residents
  6. Cooperation with the head office

The specific measures for these items were proposed. This conference does not exist in the admissions trial, "3. Management of the Board of Education", "4. Ideal way of administrative processing", "5. Reflection of the intentions of local residents", etc. The emphasis is shifting to traditional management. Although proposals such as the dedication of the superintendent of municipalities and the introduction of a term system for superintendents of education did not materialize, the survey coordinators' conference on the state of local education administration and the decentralization promotion committee of the government also decided that the Board of Education Reform was considered.

1996From (8)Decentralization Promotion CommitteeThe examination was advanced in. In the next five recommendations, the Committee referred to the abolition of agency mandates and the review of individual matters such as mandatory regulations and subsidies regarding the relationship between the national and local governments. In relation to the Board of Education, recommendations were made for the abolition of the appointment approval system for the superintendent of education, the review of the relationship between the Minister of Education and prefectural boards of education and municipal boards of education, and the decentralization promotion plan was decided by the Cabinet.

Next year1997In 9, the "Survey and Research Collaborators Conference on the ideal way of local educational administration for the 21st century" was established.

  • Relationship between school and school board
  • Relationships between countries, prefectures, and municipalities
  • Relationship between local residents and the school board/school
  • Administrative system of the Board of Education
  • Cultivation and promotion of local communities

The points of discussion regarding the review of the local educational administration system were summarized along the pillar.

The middle school referee itself1998In 10, he made a report (“The future of local education administration should be”). Also,2000In the partial revision of the Local Education Administration Act due to the enactment of the Decentralization Collective Promotion Act of (12),

  • Abolition of appointment approval system for superintendents
  • Review of regulations regarding guidance
  • Abolishing standard setting for prefectures

I went. As a result, at the discretion of the Board of Education, it became possible to organize a small number of mathematics classes, and the election of the superintendent of education was carried out from among the members of the Board of Education appointed by the Emirates.

2000 (Heisei 12)National Council for Educational ReformBut,

  • Diversification of the composition of the school board and participation of parents
  • Conference opening principle

2 years later2002The law has also been amended. In this way, the educational administration reform is implemented in such a way that the Cabinet establishes an advisory body directly under the Cabinet and shows the direction of the reform by taking the lead, and in response, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Education examine the policy as symptomatic treatment. Has been done.

2006In July, the government decided to establish a special zone for structural reform that could transfer authority such as administrative matters related to culture and sports to the chief by deregulating the board of education of the municipalities. And “Basic Policy on Structural Reform”, 7). The policy is, "In light of the fact that the Board of Education system does not function sufficiently, while paying attention to ensuring political neutrality of education, for the time being, the authority of the Board of Education of the municipality (for example, We will proceed with the experimental efforts of the special zone, which will transfer administrative and administrative authority, administrative authority regarding culture and sports, etc.) to the chief, and will radically reform the educational administration system and board of education system. To conclude."

However,2 Nakamura bullying suicide casesIn response to the growing criticism of public opinion about the response to the Board of Education overEducation reproduction meeting(AfterEducational revitalization meeting), it is considered to enhance the function. In addition, every time school bullying is reported, criticism of the school board response and the whole system is occurring.

2017In October, we began studying the administration of cultural property protection to review the system so that the head office of the local government can also be in charge.[9].. And on April 2019, 4Cultural property protection lawEnforced by revision —[10].

It is said that cultural facilities such as libraries and museums under its jurisdiction will be transferred to the head office of the local government to revitalize the area.Central Education CouncilWas arguing[11].. Law enacted in June 2019 to move the head office from the Board of Education[12].

Board of Education System Reform Trend

It has been pointed out that the Board of Education system has become a mere skeptic, and the theory of activation and the theory of abolition/reduction have been developed. The trends are described here.

Abolition and dismantling theory from the business world and chiefs

The first thing that strongly advocated the abolition/reduction of the Board of Education wasNeoliberalismSocial and Economic Productivity Headquarters (current: Japan Productivity Headquarters)Met. The association1999In (11), "Report on Educational Reform... Educational Reform of Choice, Responsibility, and Solidarity" was announced. Among them, it is meaningless that elementary and junior high schools and high schools are entrusted to the different level of the board of education such as municipalities and prefectures, and that the board of education is the end of the administration of education because it is not publicly elected. In addition, the Board of Education's powerful authority and bureaucratic organization hinder the achievement of school independence. The government boldly insisted that the Board of Education would be significantly reduced and contracted by the transfer of the authority of private education and school education to the principal.

The so-called reformist mayors across the country have publicly urged the theory of abolishment and reduction of the Board of Education system, as will be described later. It is one of the six regional organizationsNational Mayors' AssociationIt is,2001(13), "Opinion on strengthening cooperation between school education and local community...Promotion of decentralized education and review of the role of the Board of Education..." was announced, and in the vertical series with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology at the top. Weakness of voluntary activities in the region, a closed impression due to the lack of contact with non-school educators, and relationships with the mayors of municipalities." On top of that, he proposed the voluntary establishment of a board of education, the strengthening of cooperation between the mayor and the board of education, and the daily exchange of opinions between the mayor and the board of education or the superintendent of education, even though it was a subject for consideration.Lifelong educationRegarding the field, “It is desirable to have a comprehensive approach from various directions rather than a vertical division. In such fields, there is a strong need to be under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education because of the political neutrality of education. There is no reason to think that there is a situation."

In fact, two months later in April 2,Shimane Izumo, The social education and lifelong learning fields such as cultural assets, arts and culture, sports, and libraries were transferred to the head office. As a result, the Secretariat of the Board of Education will be responsible for tasks specialized in school education. Similar movementsAichiTakahama,GunmaOta CityIt has spread to other cities. So to speak, it can be said that the dismantling or reduction of the Board of Education is in progress.

There are also voices from countries that promote decentralization. The Decentralization Reform Promotion Council2004(16) submits a statement of opinion requesting flexibility of mandatory regulations of the Board of Education, stating that "the option of not adopting the Board of Education system should be accepted at the discretion of local governments according to the actual conditions of each region" doing. The conference also said, "From the perspective of unifying the administration of lifelong learning and social education and the departments in charge of childcare, it is necessary for local governments to freely select and coordinate these departments." It appeals to the importance of new infrastructure development of the local education system in preparation for the advent of the decentralization era ("Opinion on the development of administrative system such as promotion of administrative and financial reform of local governments"... Further promotion of decentralization reform Aspiring to become a self-reliant/independent community…).

By pushing this,Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Structural Reform 2004Was decided by the Cabinet, and among them, "In order to take advantage of the ingenuity of the region and increase the degree of freedom of the school, in conjunction with the reform of the Board of Education by the end of 16, strengthening the authority of the principal and the school “Providing a policy for the expansion of external evaluation of”.

Educational journalistNakai Koichi"The Ministry of Education is the most enthusiastic about reform in the entire education world," and "it is the prefectural Board of Education that holds down the uniqueness of the municipal board of education." "The reasons for this are "all prefectures are uniform", "the principle of equal opportunities for education", and "elimination of regional disparities". However, he is the author of The Truth of the Board of EducationYukaku KakudaPoints out that the Ministry of Education and other central politics and government offices have used the Board of Education for centralization of power and have hindered decentralization reform.

The abolition and contraction theory of the Board of Education of administrative scholars

Administrative scholars also raised the theory of abolishing and reducing the Board of Education system.Masato ItoIn the "Iwanami Course Local Government Plan Organization", regarding the future reform of educational administration, (1) Educational Board Activation Model, and (2) General Administration Model in General Administration, (3) Parents The three types of market/selection models based on the school selection system were typed into three governance models and the integration of educational administration into general administration was mentioned.

The first model for revitalizing the Board of Education is, "While aiming to ease the conventional control of the Ministry of Education, we do not add reforms to the root of the system, but rather increase the specialization of the Board of Education, It aims to expand the presence of the school board." As will be described later, it aims to enhance the specialization of the Board of Education by making heavy use of those involved in educational administration and teaching profession, and has gained support not only from the Ministry of Education but also from the academic academia and faculty members.

The second general administrative model is that the Board of Education has a relative independence from the head of the ministry, and "puts the education administration directly under the head of public election" and It will be abolished and reorganized into a department as an assistant mechanism of the chief.” By entrusting the jurisdiction of cultural and social education administration and school education administration to the autonomy of local governments, the chief of the representatives of local governments intends to "develop comprehensive educational policies in line with the needs of local residents". There is.

The third market/selection model is "toward a thorough decentralization of the educational administration system itself." This model advocates "creating a competitive market for the supply of public education by giving schools autonomy as an organization and at the same time giving parents and children the right to choose a school." The market/choice model is “to introduce the market principle into public education with the aim of moving away from the control of the Ministry of Education and uniform school management, and at the same time, the Board of Education delegates significant authority to each public school. The concept is to reduce or stop the function."

Ito has threeGovernance-After presenting the model, he posed the question "whether the activation model of the Board of Education actually causes the activation of the Board of Education." “Reforms aimed at activating the Board of Education will lead to further dematerialization of the Board of Education, with the possibility that the deputy superintendent of education and education will take more initiative than the current situation and deliberation of the Committee may become even more mere. There is a possibility”. Ito stated that he was "centralized with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology at the top" due to the fact that the Board of Education has been set up uniformly from prefectures and ordinance-designated cities to small towns and villages, and the educational administration network has been spread throughout the country. A network of effective guidance and advice is free from the will of the mayor, parliament or residents." It affirms the abolition of the Local Education Administration Law, the abolition of the mandatory regulation of the Board of Education by the revision of the Local Autonomy Law, and the diversification of education governance so that local governments can choose the form of education governance at their own discretion.

Educational Committee Activation Theory in Education

On the other hand, the theory of activation of the Board of Education system is the same as the theory of abolishment/reduction of the Board of Education, in that it points out the current situation in which the discussions at the Board of Education have become mere skeletons or are not activated. The idea is that by activating, the Board of Education can be used and survive. It is often issued by educational institutions, educational law scholars, and educational administration scholars, and there are the following activation measures.

Revival of public election system

The first advocated measure for revitalizing the Board of Education is the revival of the publicly elected Board of Education. By introducing a public election system to the Board of Education, it aims to secure democracy and independence and to enhance the control function of the Board of Education.

Qualification of the superintendent of education and enhancement of training for education committee members

Another policy that can be mentioned as a measure to revitalize the Board of Education is the establishment of an educational staff license for the superintendent of education and the enhancement of training for the Board of Education. Positioning the superintendent of education as a specialist in education administration and training it at a university aims to ensure independence of education.

The establishment of an educational staff license for the superintendent of education (hereinafter referred to as qualification of the superintendent of education) is being considered together with the establishment of a license for the principal/supervisor.Kurosaki IsaoThe qualification of the superintendent of education, "said the superintendent, who is entrusted with reforms, has a unique position and responsibility, not merely subordinate to the chief, because of his professional ethics." Kurosaki then checks and balances between the superintendent of education and the board of education, the chief and the board of education, and the chief and the superintendent of education, respectively, resulting in political neutrality and continuity and stability of education. When it comes to guaranteeing, the significance is emphasized.

The education committee members' training was already mentioned in the second report of the trial hearing. There, it is necessary for the board of education to have a deep understanding of the principles of the current system and the challenges facing education and educational administration in order to make appropriate decisions and decisions regarding the administration of educational administration. Therefore, it is necessary to improve and enhance the training of the board of education for that purpose." In response to the report, each board of education is focusing on training the board of education, and is trying to enhance the role of the board of education and the control of educational administration.

Clarification of division of roles between prefectural board of education and municipal board of education

The third consideration as a measure to activate the Board of Education is to clarify the division of roles between the prefectural Board of Education and the municipal Board of Education. This is because "the role of the prefectural board of education is specialized in narrowly defined educational administration, such as setting various standards and conditions for education, and the so-called educational management such as the management and operation of educational institutions such as kindergarten to high school and social education facilities. Is to be entrusted to the municipal board of education” (Masato Honda).

This is the United StatesStateWith education authoritiesPublic school districtIt assumes a relationship with the Board of Education. This role-sharing has improved problems such as the superiority of resources and the licensing rights of private school corporations, and the municipal board of education takes responsibility for the completion of secondary education. Can be encouraged.

Establishment of permanent specialized committees for each policy area (duties area)

For the establishment of permanent specialized committees for each policy area (job area), refer to "The Board of Education has established specialized committees for each major policy area (job area), such as curriculum and educational management. Is a system to participate as a member (chairperson, etc.)" (Kajisa). The committee is responsible for overseeing the policies and actions of the superintendent of education and secretariat, as well as individual policymaking.

Transfer of authority related to personnel and financial resources (budget) to the municipal board of education

It is related to the theory of division of roles between the prefectural board of education and the municipal board of education, but by transferring authority regarding the personnel affairs of the staff and financial resources (budget) from the prefecture (education board) to the municipality (education board). This claim is to ensure that education administration is carried out closer to the inhabitants, and that education appropriate for schools and children is guaranteed.

Already, in May 2004, the Judge issued an interim report on how to cover the cost of compulsory education, and is considering expanding the authority and responsibility of municipalities. In particular,Prefectural expense staffThe system will be reviewed and expanded to allow for the transfer of authority related to the salary burden of teachers and staff, class organization and the fixed number of teachers to ordinance-designated cities, and the nationalization of the teachers and staff system for municipal expenses.

Strengthening support system for schools

There are many calls for strengthening the support system in relation to school education. Various recommendations have been made, including providing the information needed by the school, flexible administrative measures regarding budget and personnel, and establishing a team of experts for the school.

Introduction of policy evaluation system

The introduction of institutional evaluation of the superintendent of education and the secretariat has been considered for some time, but it has not been realized. However, as pointed out by Kiyoaki Shinohara, such a method is “conditioning or motivation”, and what is most needed for activation is the voluntary desire to be a member of the board of education, awareness of sense of mission, and sense of responsibility. It is supposed to be.

New Zealand

In New Zealand1988In response to the "Picot Report" of the Ministry of Education, the authority of the Ministry of Education was significantly reduced, the Board of Education system abolished for more than 100 years was abolished, and a school board (BOT) system was introduced to transfer authority to the school level.[13].. The "Picot Report" is based on the idea that effective administrative systems should be simple and policy decisions should be made as close to the site as possible.[13].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
注 釈
  1. ^ その総数が40万を超え80万以下の場合にあつてはその40万を超える数に6分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に3分の1を乗じて得た数とを合算して得た数、その総数が80万を超える場合にあつてはその80万を超える数に8分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に6分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に3分の1を乗じて得た数とを合算して得た数。
  2. ^ Requests for submission of technical advice and recommendations and materials, in addition to those pursuant to the same Article,Local government lawSome are based on the provisions of Paragraph 245 of Article 4-1.
  3. ^ Tottori Chubu Furusato Wide Area Association (Tottori) only.
  4. ^ (Miyagi), (Gifu), (Hyogo), (Shimane), (Okayama) 7.
  5. ^ If the work content is multiple, it will be duplicated.
  6. ^ Maniwa District, Okayama Prefecture (old)Yatsuka・(Old)Kawakami-muraThe Board of Education of the Educational Union, which is made up of two villages. In March 2, two villages merged with other seven towns and villagesManiwaAs a result, Hiruzen Education Office Cooperative Association 1 Junior High School and 2 Elementary School became Maniwa City.
  7. ^ a b c d e Located in the Education and Training Center.
  8. ^ a b c d e There is a social education relationship.
  9. ^ ChibaKisarazu-Kimitsu-Futtsu-SodegauraBoard of Education in 4 cities. Establish and manage the Kimitsu Regional Audio-Visual Teaching Material Center. Initially established in 1969 (Showa 44) with Kisarazu CityKimitsu-gun OfTomirita Town-Sodegaura Town-Hirakawa Town-Obitsu Village-Kazusa Town-Kimitsu Town-Koito Town-Seiwa Village-Futtsu Town-Osawa Town-Ama TownThere were 12 municipalities.
  10. ^ a b c There is a school lunch relationship.
  11. ^ a b c There is a school relationship.
  12. ^ Has been set up in the union.KindergartenI am in charge of some of the affairs related to educational staff.
  13. ^ When it was first installed in 1969 (Showa 44)Kawashima-Ginan Town-Kasamatsu Town-Yanaizu Town4 towns
  14. ^ The Sayo-gun Board of Education is the first board of education established in Japan in 1966 (Showa 41).
Source
  1. ^ Japan Academy of Education and Management "Management of Series Education 1 Transformation of Public Education and Reconstruction of Educational Management System" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 135 pages
  2. ^ a b Japan Academy of Education and Management "Management of Series Education 1 Transformation of Public Education and Reconstruction of Educational Management System" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 122 pages
  3. ^ Learn French (FSL): Introduction -
  4. ^ Hiroshi Kaneko et al. "Small Dictionary of Law" (4th edition, revised edition) Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 2008.ISBN 4641000271. 
  5. ^ Law on Organization and Management of Local Education AdministrationThen, the prefectural committee is a board of education in each prefecture, and the board of education is a municipal board of education (Article 18, paragraphs 1 and 2).
  6. ^ Board of Education clerical rules Sendai City Regulation
  7. ^ "Materials for widening the Board of Education" (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Central Education Council Education System Subcommittee, Local Education Administration Subcommittee, 5th, Submission Materials), (June 2004, 6), http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo1/003/gijiroku/04070701/004/001.pdf 2014/3/1Browse. 
  8. ^ "Materials for widening the Board of Education" (Press Release), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Central Education Council Education System Subcommittee, Local Education Administration Subcommittee, 5th, Submission Materials), (June 2004, 6), http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo1/003/gijiroku/04070701/004/004.htm 2014/3/1Browse. 
  9. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (October 2017, 10)
  10. ^ Seasonal travel newspaper
  11. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2018, 4)
  12. ^ Japan Education Newspaper (June 2019, 6)
  13. ^ a b Education Management Society of Japan "Series Education Management 6 Educational Reform and Education Management in Other Countries" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 128 pages

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