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🏉 | Coming-of-age ceremony at "Rugby Sanctuary"! "To avoid denseness" Higashi Osaka City decided


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Coming-of-age ceremony at "Rugby Sanctuary"! "To avoid denseness" Higashi Osaka City decided

 
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In Higashi-Osaka City, about 3000 people participated in the coming-of-age ceremony held at the gymnasium in the city every year, but this year we decided to hold it at the rugby field because we can avoid the three crowds.
 

[Caster Sakamoto] "The coming-of-age ceremony will be held here for the first time in Higashi-Osaka City. It is the sacred place of rugby, Hanazono Rugby Stadium." → Continue reading

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Higashi Osaka City

Higashi Osaka City(Higashiosaka) isOsaka OfNakakochiLocated in the areaCity.Core cityIs specified in.

The population is about 50OsakaandSakai CityBothGovernment-designated cityIt has the third largest population in Osaka prefecture.Osaka metropolitan area OfCentral cityBelong to.

Higashiosaka Hanazono Rugby Field"rugbyAs a "town" and with high technology中小企业It is known all over the country as a manufacturing town where many are located.

Geography

Osaka PlainLocated in the eastern part of. Most of the city area is flat lowlands and many of the riversCeiling riverAnd from this topographical factor1972(Showa 47)Daito Great FloodThen it suffered a lot of damage.

The eastern part of the cityIkomayamaThe mountains of the system are connected, and abundant nature is left.

In the main riversNagase River-Onchi River-Tamakushi River-Daini Neya Riverand so on.

History

The city area isRegulatory country OfKawachi countryIt corresponds to the central part. In ancient times, this area was called Kawachi Bay.Osaka BayIt was a small bay in the back of the river, but gradually separated from the sea and became a lake. That lakeYamato RiverIt gradually became land due to the accumulation of earth and sand carried from the upstream, but due to this background, there were many wetlands and Fukada, and the land was vulnerable to floods.

In ancient timesMr. MonobeIs the place where was based,Moriya MoriyaThe final land of the city was Kizuri (southwestern part of the city), which was an area that was opened early.Asuka PeriodToMainland ChinaWas the gateway toNambatsuMany villages were formed on the highway along the highway.Nara periodTo become and,HeijokyoThe road connecting Nambatsu and Nambatsu was improved, and many villages were formed along the road.

Heian periodbecome,Kumano,KoyasanへEmperor,貴族 VisitWhen you come to visit, as the highwayIkomayamaFollow the foothillsKoya KaidoWas used. Many villages are scattered in the eastern part of the city along this line, and it still retains its quiet appearance as an old village. In the Heian periodHiraoka ShrineIs a big force, and with that as the backgroundMr. MizusashiWas active mainly in the eastern part of the city as a leading lord.

Muromachi PeriodEarly, KawachiGuardianWas entrusted toMr. Hatakeyama Wakae CastleWas built and used as a base to govern Kawachi. After that, Mr. Hatakeyama's guardian, Mr. Yusa, ruled this castle,Onin's rebellionAnd continued after thatFamilyDeclined by the conflict, the castle ownerMr. Hosokawa,Yusa Kawauchi Mamoru,MiyoshiAnd so on. Finally the castleOda NobunagaOf the former vassal of Miyoshi Yoshitsugu who became a vassal ofWakae three peopleGoverned byIshiyama HonganjiWhen the attack began, it became the base of Oda, and Nobunaga Oda also took command at this castle, but it was abandoned after both parties reconciled. Also around hereOsaka Summer TeamAlso known as the stage of the battle of Wakae inKimura ShigenariIt is also known as the land of the end of.

Edo PeriodSince the middle period,Jinbei NakaWhen the replacement work of the Yamato River is carried out by their petitionNitta developmentWas actively promoted by the merchants in Osaka. Cultivation of commercial crops is also popular.cottonIt was a well-known existence as a production center of.

The central part of Higashi-Osaka City has been in the north for a long timeFukano PondTo the westShinkaiike, Before the replacement that is pouring thereYamato RiverFor this reason, it was a wetland for a long time, and although it was certainly the area along the Yamato River basin and the Takano Highway that opened early in the city area of ​​Higashi Osaka City, development tended to be delayed.Muromachi PeriodSince then, even Wakae Castle, which was the administrative center of Kawachi Province, has been recorded as an impregnable flat castle surrounded by swamps on all sides.

History after the establishment of the city

  • 19672/1 : Fuse City,Kawachi City,Hiraoka CityWill merge and Higashi-Osaka City will be established as the 31st city in Osaka Prefecture. In addition to using the former Kawachi City Hall, the city hall has set up the "West Branch" at the former Fuse City Hall and the "East Branch" at the former Hiraoka City Hall, and all three government buildings have been used until the merger of functions accompanying the construction of the new government building in 2003. It was.
  • 20035/6 : City hall relocates to your current location.
  • 20054/1 : In Osaka prefectureSakai City(CurrentlyGovernment-designated city),TakatsukiSecond onlyCore cityMove to.

Chief Events

  • 1976(51)3/26 --ChodoplatingFrom the waste liquid treatment plantchlorineGas is generated.Approximately 100 people were hospitalized after leaking into the city[1].

Administration

Successive mayors

代NameInauguration dateRetirement dateRemarks
First generationSataro Tatsumi1967/2/191970/6/141 period
2 feeFushimi Kanosuke1970/6/141982/6/133 period
3 feeKenji Kitagawa1982/6/141989/12/6Resigned for the second term due to illness
4 feeYukio Shimizu1989/12/241998/5/203 period
5 feeJunzo Nagao1998/7/122002/7/111 period
6 feeMasanobu Matsumi2002/7/122006/7/111 period
7 feeJunzo Nagao2006/7/122007/9/14Unemployed due to a motion of no confidence in the city council for the first term
8 feeYoshikazu Noda2007/10/28Incumbent4st term

Parliament

City council

The fixed number is 38 people.20188/25The group structure at that time is as follows.

Parliamentary nameNumber of seatsAffiliated party
LDP10LDP
Komeito10Komeito
Osaka Restoration Society8Osaka Restoration Society
Japan Communist Party4Japan Communist Party
Higashi Osaka Seishinkai1
Liberal Democratic Party Daishikai1LDP
New Socialist Party1New Socialist Party
Terusumi no Kai1
Higashi Osaka Sho no Kai1
A party protecting the people from NHK1A party protecting the people from NHK
vacancy0

Osaka Prefectural Assembly (elected by Higashi Osaka City)

  • Constant number: 5 people
  • Term: September 2019th, 5 (Reiwa 28) to September 2023th, 5 (5th year of Reiwa)
Representative nameParliamentary nameRemarks
Mizuho HironoOsaka Restoration SocietyOsaka Prefectural Assembly
Hiroaki YamashitaKomeitoOsaka Prefectural Assembly
Norifumi ShiokawaLiberal Democratic Party/Independent Osaka Prefectural AssemblyParty membershipLDP
Koichi NishinoReform and maintenanceParty membershipIndependent
Kimihito UtsumiJapan Communist PartyOsaka Prefectural Assembly

House of Representatives

ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
13th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Higashiosaka City)Koichi MunekiLDP2Constituency

industry

Japan's leading中小企业It is a densely populated area, and many small factories with high technology are gathered there. Higashi Osaka Space Development Cooperative (currently) in December 2002Space Development Cooperative SOHLA) Was establishedArtificial satelliteThere are many companies that occupy the world market share, such as advancing the development of (Kinki University is a small one for researchReactorOwns). The ratio of factories to the area is the highest in Japan. The number of factoriesOsaka,横 浜 市Such asGovernment-designated cityIt is the first place except for.

However, it has been decreasing in recent years, and there are cases where houses are built on the site of the factory. In 2007, the shipment value of manufactured products in the neighboring cityYao CityAlthough Higashi-Osaka City returned to the top in 2011 only[2], The difference is widening.

Edo PeriodOldYamato RiverCotton is cultivated on the riverbed, etc.OsakaCenter ofSenbaWith the advantage of being close to, a small industry for processing cotton was developing.Meiji RestorationThe domestic cotton industry was destroyed at once, but the remaining technology became the driving force behind the current region. Making machines for production machines and making their parts. 1958, First time in JapanConveyor belt sushiIt is also the town where the store Genroku Sushi opened (former Fuse City: present)KintetsuFuse Stationnear).

A company headquartered in Higashi Osaka

Major companies founded in Higashi Osaka City

Sports

rugby

baseball

サ ッ カ ー

Sister cities/partner cities

Japan

Outside Japan

Region

population

Looking at the population increase / decrease from the previous census from the 22 census, the population increased by 2010% to 0.83, and the rate of increase / decrease was 509,533th among 43 municipalities and 26th among 72 administrative districts.

Demography27227.svg
Population distribution by age in Higashi-Osaka City and the whole country (2005)Population distribution by age and gender in Higashi Osaka City (2005)
■Purple-Higashi Osaka City
■Green-All over Japan
■Blue-male
■Red-female

Changes in the population of Higashi-Osaka City (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan


Education

high school(And equivalent schools) Describe the above.

University/Junior college

high school

Other

Japan Post Group

(As of 2012 year 12 month)

Collection and delivery post officeIt is,Alms Headquarters (Eiwa) ・Hiraoka(Takadonocho) ・HanoiThere are 3 stations (Hishie). In addition, there are 53 post offices in the city that only carry out window operations.
The Osaka branch Fuse branch office is located in the Fuse / Eiwa post office. In addition, there are 65 locations (including Fuse branch offices) at each post office in the city.Automatic teller machine (ATM) are installed, and 19 of them (same as above) provide holiday services.
The Fuse branch is located inside the Fuse / Eiwa Post Office.

* The postal code in Higashi Osaka City is as follows.

  • 577-00xx-577-08xx : Corresponds to the western part of the city, the Fuse Post Office is in charge of collection and delivery.
  • 578-09xx : Corresponds to the central part of the city, the Kawachi Post Office is in charge of collection and delivery.
  • 579-80xx : Corresponds to the eastern part of the city, the Hiraoka Post Office is in charge of collection and delivery.

Adjacent local governments

Osaka

Nara

Place name in the city

Transportation

Train

There are 26 stations, including transfer stations located at the same location. Since it was created by merging three relatively developed cities, it is not possible to identify the station that plays a central role.

Boarding and alighting personnelFuse StationIs the mostKintetsu Department StoreThe commercial area is expanding around the Higashi Osaka store. Also,JTB publishingIssued byJTB timetableThe representative station is Fuse Station. Also oldHiraoka CityIn the areaGourdzan StationIs seen as the gateway to the eastern part of the city. The nearest station to the main office of Higashi Osaka City Hall isAramoto Station.

Of the followingOsaka Metrocenter laneとKintetsuKeihanna LineIs an integrated operation system and is located in our cityNagata StationThroughDirect operationIt is carried out.

Also, on the Osaka East LineTakaida Chuo Station-JR Kawachi Eiwa Station-JR-Shintokumichi StationIs the Osaka Metro Chuo LineTakaida Station・ Kintetsu Nara LineKawachi Eiwa Station・ Kintetsu Osaka LineShuntokumichi StationIt is close to and it is possible to transfer to each.

West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan)

Kinki Nippon Railway(Kintetsu)

Osaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit(Osaka Metro)

Transit Bus

Express Bus

  • Osaka bus
    • Operates highway buses from Fuse Station (Higashi Osaka Fuse Station stop) to Tokyo and Kyoto. In addition, highway buses to Nagoya and Kyoto stop at Nagata Station. Airport limousine bus with Fuse Station / Nagata StationKIXConnect (Kintetsu Bus,Kansai Airport TransportationJoint operation with).

General route

  • Kintetsu Bus
    • Fuse Line, Chuo Loop Line, Kami Line, Harumiya Line, Kayashima Line, Hanazono Line, Gourd Mountain Line, Shijoba Line, Yoshida Line, Higashi Osaka Hospital Line, Keiho Dai Line, Kindai Shuttle Line
    It has its head office in the city and 4 sales offices (Fuse / Fuse sightseeing-Hiraoka-Inada) Yes,1990 eraSince then, routes have been suspended or abolished one after another, and there are many blank areas for bus routes. New lines (in front of Shin-Ishikiri station-in front of Ishikiri station, in front of Hanazono station-in front of Yoshita station, in front of Yoshita station-JR Suminodo) have also been opened, but in recent years, due to a shortage of drivers and a decrease in passengers, each line in the city has been opened again. The trend of reduced flights continues.[3] In addition, low-pollution non-step buses are being introduced with the assistance of Higashi-Osaka City.
  • Osaka city bus(OldOsaka Municipal Bus)
    • Line 86 Fuse Station --Kamishinjo Station, Line 12 Fuse Station --Abenobashi
    There is a bus stop in front of Fuse Station in the city, and the above system departs and arrives. In addition, since there was a marshalling yard for the city bus, Line 12 was on the Fuse Sannose, but from 2013 it will be on the front of Fuse Station.
  • Osaka bus
    • Fuse Yao Line, Higashi Osaka West District Circulation Bus, Shuntokumichi Station / Kinki University Line
    The company's city route buses have been operating on three routes as of August 2016, starting with the Fuse Yao Line, which started operation on July 7, 29. These routes were established in collaboration with Higashi-Osaka City, Yao City, Osaka Prefecture, etc. for the purpose of eliminating public transportation blank areas.[4].
  • Daito City Community Bus (operated by Kintetsu Bus)
    • Course A Minamishinden / Horai
    It passes through the city, but there is no stop.

道路

In the north-south directionOsaka Prefectural Route 2 Osaka Central Loop Line,National Route 170(Osaka Outside Loop Line), In the east-west directionChuoodoriと 呼 ば れ るNational Route 308It is the aorta of the city.

However, other roads are poor in all directions, north, south, east, and west, and there are also narrow roads (part of the Yao Ibaraki Line) and heavily congested roads (Yao Hirakata Line, etc.) in the main local roads, so it is suitable for route bus operation. Also has an impact.

Places of scenic beauty, historic sites, sightseeing spots, etc.

Memorial Hall / Museum
  • Ryotaro Shiba Memorial Hall --KintetsuYaenosato StationClose toRyotaro ShibaThe house is preserved, and the Shiba Ryotaro Memorial Hall is built next to it. Ryotaro Shiba's study is left as it was before he was alive and can be visited from the outside. Ryotaro Shiba is also an honorary citizen of Higashi Osaka City.
  • Tokukan
  • Seiko Tanabe Literature Museum
Facilities / stadium
Temple/Shrine
Ruins, castle ruins, tumuli[Annotation 1]
Other

Famous people

Historical figure

Political, academic, and speech

Entertainment / Broadcasting / Entertainer

athlete

Other

Person with connection

  • Ryotaro Shiba - Novelist.. Originally from Osaka, he lived in Higashi-Osaka until his death in 1996. Honorary citizen.

Works set in Higashi Osaka City

  • Sakura No. 2 -2006,Asahi Broadcasting
  • Oton's Treasure-2007,NHK Osaka Broadcasting Station * The main stage isKyotango City.
  • Bai Ye Xing --Drama version (2006,TBS TV) Does not clarify the regional setting, but in the novel version, Kintetsu Fuse Station etc. will appear.
  • Nanohana-A documentary film about local children and college students walking around the city. 2007, Higashi OsakaJunior ChamberIt was created to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of. The director isKim Hideyoshi.
  • Hanazono Old Boy-(2014, NHK Osaka Broadcasting Station)
  • Unpleasant Scrum-(2018, NHK Osaka)

Hanazono Rugby Stadium will appear.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Currently, most of these have disappeared due to reclamation and development work without being preserved.
  2. ^ On the north side (central shopping street) across Gourdsan Station Sun road, On the south side (shopping street in front of Inari) Jinja Mall Is nicknamed.

Source

  1. ^ Chlorine gas leak Residents fluttering Higashi Osaka About 1976 people are hospitalized "Asahi Shimbun" March 51, 3, evening edition, 26rd edition, 3th page
  2. ^ The shipment value of manufactured goods in Yao City became the third largest in Osaka Prefecture. --Mayor Yao Seita Tanaka's official blog (dated December 2014, 12, viewed April 2, 2016)
  3. ^ [June XNUMX, XNUMX] Notice of Yoshida Suminodo Line, Ishikiri Line, Kyuhoji (South System) timetable revision and Kongo Danchi Line (Tsuzuyamadai System) abolition --Kintetsu Bus Official Web Page (May 2016, 5)
  4. ^ Basrama International No.179. Porte Publishing. (April 2020, 4). P. 25
  5. ^ "Let's do our best! Higashi Osaka" image song(December 2015, 12, viewed April 14, 2016)
  6. ^ http://topics.jp.msn.com/entertainment/general/article.aspx?articleid=5947243

Related item

外部 リンク

Coming-of-age ceremony

Coming-of-age ceremony(Seijinshiki) is a coming-of-age ceremony年度WithinMitsuruPeople who are 20 years oldSchool ageFor eachJapan OfLocal governmentEvery mainly the second Monday of January (成人 の 日) Is an event to encourage and congratulate.Hold lectures and give souvenirs.Since each local government is voluntarily conducting it, not sponsored by the Japanese government, the school age system for 20 years old is the same, but there are also local governments that sponsor it on days other than Coming of Age Day.[1].

Origin

The ritual of celebrating adults has been around for a long time.BoysToFormer clothes-Loincloth,womanToDress・ There was hair tying.Cultural anthropology,folkloreSo, these thingsRite of passageTreat as one of (initiation).royalComing-of-age ceremonyLaterAs you can see, it was held from 1909 to 1947.

Today's form of coming-of-age ceremony in Japan isSecond World WarSoon after the defeat1946(Showa21 years)11/22,SaitamaKitadachi-gunWarabi Town (currently:蕨 市It is a well-established theory that the roots of the "Youth Festival" held in)[2].defeatTo encourage the young people who will lead the next generation to have bright hope at the time when they were in a state of collapse.[3], The leader of the Warabi Town Youth Group in Saitama Prefecture at that timeShojiro Takahashi(Mayor Warabi) became the advocate and planned the youth festival, and in the schoolyard of Warabi Daiichi National School (currently :)tentThe youth festival program "adultIt was done as a "ceremony".This "coming-of-age ceremony" spread all over the country and became the current coming-of-age ceremony.In Warabi City, it is still called "coming-of-age ceremony".[3],1979(Showa 54)成人 の 日In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the enforcement of the city system and the 30th anniversary of the establishment of Coming-of-Age Day, a monument of "the birthplace of the coming-of-age ceremony" was erected by the city.

Inspired by the "Youth Festival" in Warabi TownJapanese GovernmentIs two years later1948Promulgated and enforced in (Showa 23)Holiday lawThe following day, with the intent of "celebrating a young man who is aware that he has grown up and is trying to survive himself."1949From (Showa 24)1/15The成人 の 日Specified in[3].. Since then, coming-of-age ceremonies have been held on this day in most regions. afterwards,1998(Heisei10 years)Holiday lawAmendment (Happy Monday system)2000From (12), Coming-of-Age Day1第 2MondayI'm moving to. In addition, it should be noted2018By a nearby surveyNagoya city,AlsoMiyazakiHigashiusuki-gunMorozukaAlso claims to be the birthplace[4].

participant

The adults who participate in the coming-of-age ceremony are the days to celebrate those who have their birthdays from the day after "Coming-of-Age Day" of the previous year to "Coming-of-Age Day" of that year. However, recently (especially after the introduction of the Happy Monday system), the so-called school-age system, in which adults are targeted for participation in the ceremony from April of the previous year to March of that year, has become established. However, new adults who have not reached their birthdayUnderage Drinking Prohibition Law-Underage Smoking Prohibition LawByliqueurDrink orsmokingIt is forbidden to do anything.

年齢方式の場合、誕生日の遅い早生まれの人が他の参加者がほとんど見ず知らずの人になってしまったり、ハッピーマンデー制度によりその年の成人の日は19歳で翌年の成人の日は21歳というケースがある(1981年1月9日 ‐ 13日・1987年1月9日 ‐ 13日・1992年1月10日 ‐ 13日・1998年1月9日 ‐ 13日生まれの場合)ことにより学齢方式に変更された経緯がある。

otherHokkaidoSapporoとHiroshimaHiroshima citySo, those who are celebrating their 1th birthday in the past year[Annotation 1]To participate in the coming-of-age ceremonycalendar yearThe method was used. However, in college entrance examsIchinamiIn addition to the fact that it is often difficult to participate in the ceremony just by doing so, if a person who was not subject to the coming-of-age ceremony in another municipality in the previous year moves to school or transfer the following year, he / she will not be able to participate in the ceremony for two consecutive years. Since there were many cases, both cities changed to the school age system after 2.[Annotation 2]Has been done.

1960 eraUntil then, more than half of new adults are already in societyWorking youthWas,1970 eraSince then, students going on to university / vocational school (率) And the decrease in the number of junior high school graduates and high school graduates, the ratio of enrolled students in the total number of new adults is increasing year by year, and it continues to this day.

The Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (December 2019, 12) estimates that the population of new adults in January 31 will be 2020 million. Percentage of the total population has fallen below 1% for 122 consecutive years[5].

Participation of foreigners such as technical intern trainees and international students is also increasing. 2020,MiyagiShiogamaSo I sent an invitation in Indonesian, Vietnamese, English and easy Japanese[6].. The number of foreign participants in 2019 was 6 people, about 30% of the total.[6].

Movements associated with lowering the adult age

In 2022, the revision of the Civil Code will reduce the adult age to 18, but if the 18-year-old has an examination or employment, he invites a person who is 20 years old, etc.Hachioji CityEtc. are answering[7][8]..There is also a movement to change the name in preparation for the difference between the adult age and the age of the participants.[9].

Iga CityWill change to a ceremony for 18 years old, and in 2023, the last ceremony in the conventional format will be held in January, and the ceremony for the grade to reach 1 years old will be held in March, on May 19, 3. It is a policy to hold a ceremony for the grade when everyone turned 2023 years old across the years[10][11].

Dates

The coming-of-age ceremony is成人 の 日, Or the day before (alwaysSundayIt is often held in some areas, but not always in some areas.

成人 の 日Ceremony held in other than that yearGolden week,Obon(Old tray), orNew year three dayからKadomatsuTo doMunicipalityThere are also many. For example, in 2017NiigataIs Coming-of-Age Day1/8There is no case to implement in, the day before1/7There are only 2 cities (2 venues), and the rest is held in March, April, May, or August.[13].

Especially in heavy snowfall areas1In areas where it is warmer than (there is a problem that snow stains the clothes) and many people leave their hometown to get a job or go on to school, many people go home.5 OfGolden week,8 OfObonThis is because it is easier to participate in the event. The local government, which used to be held in January, is now in May (Niigata Prefecture).Nagaoka5 regions[13][Annotation 3]) And August (the remaining 8 areas in Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture)[13],WakayamaHigashimuro-gunTaiji Town[Annotation 4],IshikawaHebei-gunTsubata Town[Annotation 5]) Has been changed by some local governments[15].

In 1988Emperor ShowaDue to the self-restraint caused by the demise of the crown, some local governments canceled or postponed (including re-postponing) the ceremony in 2020 due to the spread of the new coronavirus infection.[16][17][18].ShizuokaYaizu CityIn 2020, some local governments changed the holding method and implemented it as planned.[19].

Venue

In most cases, the city can accommodate a large number of participantsMultipurpose hallOr largegymnasiumIs used[13].Government-designated city,Core cityIn the case of a large city such as, the city is held at one venue[Annotation 6],Administrative districtOr a city that has a venue for each area equivalent to it[Annotation 7], A city with venues for each subdivided district[Annotation 8]And various. Also,Great Heisei mergerEven local governments whose area has expanded due to such reasons may set up venues in each area where it is easy to participate, such as the local government unit before the merger.[Annotation 9].

Local as a characteristic venueTheme parkSome local governments hold it in. As an example from 1998 to 2013FukuokaKitakyushuInSpace worldComing-of-age ceremony at (closed at 2018:1 am on January 1, 2)[Annotation 10], Continued since 2002ChibaUrayasu cityAtTokyo Disney ResortComing-of-age ceremony at[28][29](Disneyland borrowing will be canceled in 2021 due to the spread of the new corona),AichiAnjo City OfDen ParkComing-of-age ceremony at[30]and so on. In the case of Urayasu City, it is taken up by the media, but there are criticisms. For example, January 2006, 1Asahi ShimbunEvening edition 1 page "Elementary particles"A new adult in Urayasu. If you look happy with the rat dance in the amusement park, you will be reminded of the future."

ChibaNarita CityThen, because the venue facility where the coming-of-age ceremony was held every year was renovated, in January 2015Narita International Airport第 2Terminal buildingIt was held in the previous outdoor space. Since then, it continues as of 2018[31].

Nagoya cityOf the 16 wardsHigashi Ward-Naka-ku-Showa Ward-AtsutaIn 12 wards excludingprimary school OfSchool districtComing-of-age ceremonies are held mainly at school facilities. There are 2018 coming-of-age ceremonies in the city held in 174.[32][33].

In addition, some local governments need to apply in advance to participate in the coming-of-age ceremony.[Annotation 11].. In addition, some places have a membership fee system (for example, Aichi Prefecture).Inuyama[36]).

problem

Delay in redefining the purpose

January 2004横 浜 市Public awareness survey conducted by the Board of Education[37]According to the report, the original purpose of "events for new adults to become aware that they have grown up" is the most common in most generations, but among the target groups of minors, new adults, and 20s. "Friends meet again"Alumni Association”Is about 2% to 3%. In addition, for women in their twenties and under, "suits andSunny clothesThe number of "events where new adults meet in one place" is in the 2% range, and it can be seen that the purpose setting of the event on the host side is diverging from the expectations of the participants.

In the above survey, 82.7% of high school students and minors answered that they would like to participate in the coming-of-age ceremony, and 17.2% did not want to participate. Among the responses from high school students and minors, the most common reason for not participating was "because I am not interested in the content" at 36.8%.singerDue toconcertRegarding attractions such as these, more than 50% of high school students, minors, and new adults answered that they needed them.Mayor,政治家Regarding the introduction of guests, etc., more than half of all generations answered that they did not need it, and the Yokohama City proposal stated that the entire ceremony was held.RedundancyIt is one of the factors that make the content scarce. "

Decrease in attendance

Originally, the coming-of-age ceremony, as the purpose of the law, blesses and encourages young people who have reached a certain age, and the participants create a better society as responsible and independent members of society. It was to make a decision to contribute to the society and to widely enlighten the society.

But,1970 eraWhen you enterExamination warDue to intensification ofRoninWith the increase ofUniversity entrance examination center examination(OldCommon first-stage academic ability test) And the date and time overlap[Annotation 12].. The above-mentioned Yokohama City Board of Education public awareness survey[37]では新成人では成人式に「参加した」という回答は74.6%、「参加しなかった」は25.4%で、20代では「参加した」が 69.9%、「参加しなかった」は30.1%となっている。新成人・20代の回答では参加した理由としては「一生に一度のことなので、とりあえず参加した」が45%前後で最も多く、参加しなかった理由としては「仕事や勉強などで時間がなかったから」が新成人18.8%、20代28.2%で最も多かった。

Recently, some local governments have devised ways to increase the attendance rate.[38].

Urban and county

UrbanizationThe number of people attending the coming-of-age ceremony in the county decreased, while the number of people in the urban area increased significantly.

In the county area, many people go out to urban areas after graduating from high school to go on to university or get a job, and university students have already finished their winter vacation and working adults have already gone out.New year three dayIt was difficult for me to go home just for the coming-of-age ceremony on January 1th. As a result, the number of local governments holding coming-of-age ceremonies during the Obon festival has increased in the counties. In addition, the coming-of-age ceremony guide is often sent based on the resident's card, etc., and the coming-of-age ceremony guide in your hometown may not come. If you want to attend the coming-of-age ceremony of a municipality different from your current address, you need to apply to the municipality of your choice. From every 15, when Coming-of-Age Day shifts to the second Monday, there are many cases where it is held the day before in rural areas (city below the core city). In addition, even at this time of year, it is difficult to return home, or even if you can return home, the physical burden is heavy, and unlike Obon, there are cases where the season is the same as New Year's.[39].

Deterioration of morals

Box administrationWhile being toldPublic worksBy the latter half of 1990, when the budget for the coming-of-age ceremony continued to increase, the facilities that could hold the coming-of-age ceremony were expanded in urban areas. However, after the early 1990s, when the second baby boom generation reached the coming-of-age ceremony,YoungerThe number of adults has been steadily decreasing due to the influence of. By the end of the 1990s, vacant seats at the ceremony venue became more prominent in urban areas. In addition, due to the increase in vacant seats, people who could not enter the venue in the past can now enter the venue, and it has become apparent that it was done outside the venue and did not cause any problems. For example, in the venue where my language does not fitMobile phoneIn some cases, a group of new adults rampages at the venue and interferes with the ceremony.Obstruction of public affairsFocusing on cases caused byArrestedSome cities, towns and villages have developed into a turmoil (eg, in 2001).Takamatsu). In addition, since 1, when Coming-of-Age Day moved to the second Monday of January, most local governments have adopted the school-age system for adults, so the coming-of-age ceremony is effectively used in junior high school and high school.Alumni AssociationIt has come to be understood in a specific sense.

Furthermore, even if the young people attending the ceremony are dressed up in kimono on the outside, they are so absorbed in chatting with friends they have met for the first time in a long time, and are interested in the ceremony and lectures by the mayor of the local government. The ceremony is noisy without showing. As a result, the coming-of-age ceremony, which is a place where you should make a decision as a full-fledged adult, has become a place where youth's morale declines. This kind of phenomenon is a coming-of-age ceremonySeven hundred fifty-three phenomenaSay. Even in the 21st century, various problems have occurred in various places.

comedycombination"London boots No. 1 No. 2"ofAtsushi Tamura 2016(Heisei28 years)1/11ToTwitterAs a result of conducting a questionnaire about the coming-of-age ceremony, about 18 votes were collected by 6:900 the next day, and 70% indicated that the coming-of-age ceremony itself was necessary. , "Necessary as before" is only 33%, "Need to change shape" is 35%, "Not necessary" is 23%, "I don't know" is 9%, and some change of the current situation including abolition is necessary. More than half of the respondents[40].

Coming-of-age business

The unit price is high at the coming-of-age ceremonykimono・ Kimono (especially for womenFurisode) Is worn by many new adults, so it is considered to be the biggest earning time for the kimono industry. In recent years, as Japanese people are moving away from kimono and the number of dry-goods dealers is steadily decreasing, it is a rare opportunity to appeal the goodness of kimono to young people. Men are crested in recent yearsHakamaThe appearance of participating in kimono such as is also conspicuous. Kimono is expensive, so you can rent it or get it from your mother.FallingMany people can do it[41].

In addition, dressing for new adultsmake up・ Do hair and makeupBeautyFor the industry, coming-of-age day is a time to earn money. In addition, before the coming-of-age ceremony, we hold make-up classes for new adults who are starting to make up in earnest.CosmeticsThere is a movement in the cosmetics industry to promote the product, and a new adult who has finished dressing on the day of the ceremony takes a commemorative photo.写真 館However, the competition for new adults in related businesses is heating up, with emphasis on advertising.

In 2018横 浜 市A company that sells furisode, etc.Hare no HiWas suddenly suspended on January 1th, which is Coming-of-Age Day of the same year, so new adults who had reserved dressing by purchase or rental from the company could not wear sunny clothes and canceled participation in the ceremony. Occurred a situation such as[42].. Some customers of the company paid a reservation fee for the coming-of-age ceremony two years from now, and a person in the kimono industry pointed out that "the traders are preempting customers due to the declining birthrate."[2].

Furisode is now a tradition for women like "coming-of-age uniforms"[43], This is a "made illusion" of the kimono producerKo Ishizakiaccording to,Second World WarThe kimono industry, which was in a state of destruction due to the prohibition of luxury goods inside, was in the 30's (XNUMX's)1950 eraSecond half~1960 eraIn the first half), we focused on the coming-of-age ceremony as a reconstruction measure, and with the above-mentioned "genpuku" as a hint, we tried to have the unmarried women wear furisode for the coming-of-age ceremony.Department storeIt is said that it was the trigger that moved to the center. Of the kimono market, which is currently estimated to be about 2800 billion yen, the coming-of-age kimono-related market is important at about 700 billion yen. "Women are furisode" was not established from the beginning when the coming-of-age customs began to spread, and according to Warabi City, the clothes of the participants of the "Youth Festival" mentioned above were "Men areNational clothes,women areMonpe"was[44].

On the other hand, it is known that many new adults wear flashy costumes.KitakyushuAt the coming-of-age ceremony, new adults who ordered costumes believed in false rumors that they did not have to pay the costume fee, and there are cases where they step on the costume fee, and the costume rental shop side is new. Proceedings against adults one after another[45].

Various coming-of-age ceremonies

In-house coming-of-age ceremony

An industry that employs many high school graduates every year, and holidays are the time to fill inDepartment store,Supermarket,Restaurant industrySuch as retailTrain-Orbit,Sightseeing busandShipTransportation business, such asSteel,Chemical, Textile, papermaking,AutomobileManufacturing industry, such aselectricity-City GasIn such cases, due to the nature of the businessShift work,Shift workTherefore, many people cannot participate in the coming-of-age ceremony held by the municipalities.

Therefore, in these industries, many companies held their own coming-of-age ceremony in-house (in the workplace). To be representativeHato bus,Meitetsu Group,Fuji Expressand so on. However1990 eraSince then, due to the recession and the increase in university enrollment,high schoolAs more companies do not hire graduates, fewer employees turn 20 (Employment ice ageSee also),in additionRestructuringMany companies have canceled the in-house coming-of-age ceremony as they have been pushing ahead with cost reductions. vice versa,ToyotaIs at your kneesToyota City(Most venues)AichiIn some of the cities, towns and villages around it, the company's business schedule (Toyota calendar), The date of the coming-of-age ceremony is shifted.

SDF,Coast Guard CollegeBasically, it is a dormitory system, and some people cannot attend because the work schedule overlaps with the coming-of-age ceremony in their hometown.GarrisonAnd bases, Japan Coast Guard AcademyNational Defense AcademyComing-of-age ceremonies are held individually at educational facilities such as.Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceThen released the parking brakeFH70(Matsuyama Garrison)[46][47],tankAnd tug of war (Kita Eniwa Garrison)[48]There are characteristics for each garrison and unit.JMSDFAmong the members ofNewsIf you were on boardAntarcticComing-of-age ceremony may be held at[49][50].

Rehabilitation facility for people with intellectual disabilitiesな どBoarding systemComing-of-age ceremonies for residents are also held at these facilities.

As with the above occupations, celebrities often have holidays at the time of entry, so the entertainment agency unit[Annotation 13]And as a peculiar exampleAKB48Is holding a similar coming-of-age ceremony jointly with a sister group[52].

Coming-of-age ceremonies in various places

OkinawaIshigakijima OfIshigakiIn Shiraho, events such as "adults gather villagers in the public hall and express the joy of adulthood and gratitude for the village by dancing" are traditionally held.TV station OfWide showBut "it's a rough patternComing-of-age ceremony in OkinawaIn ", this is taken up. There are many coming-of-age ceremonies of this type in some regions.

1/2 coming-of-age ceremony, standing ceremony, etc.

recently,school event,Comprehensive learning timeFor (comprehensive learning) etc., for 20 years old (most people will meet when they are in the 10th grade of elementary school), which is half the age of 4 years old1/2 coming-of-age ceremony"(Nibun no Ichisei Jinshiki),"Ten-year-old ceremonyThe number of elementary schools that open "Jisaishiki" is increasing nationwide. 1/2 turned 10 years old in connection with coming-of-age ceremonyDaughterThere is家庭Then,motherTalk with my daughter and togetherFirst braSome manufacturers recommend buying[53].

Also, some junior high schools are in the second or third year of junior high schoolschool eventAsStanding ceremony"(Rishiki),"Lichun ceremony"(Lichun),"Juvenile"(Shonenshiki),"Genpuku ceremonyThere is a place to do "Genpuku". This is an old coming-of-age ceremonyFormer clothesSince the time to reach is the time of the current junior high school students, it also has the meaning of learning the custom.

Second coming-of-age ceremony, thirty ceremony, etc.

さ ら に,Right to voteCelebrate 25 years oldSecond coming-of-age ceremony(Daini Seijinshiki) has also begun to be held. The first time2010(22)1/11of"成人 の 日ToTokyoNakano OfNakano SangurazaIt was held in.

In addition, in 30 (Heisei 2012), as an event to encourage and congratulate those who are turning 24 years old.Thirty type(Miso Jishiki),KanagawaKawasaki Cityso,30-year-old coming-of-age ceremony KyotoYosano-gunYosano TownIt was opened in. The thirty-way ceremony is in Kanagawa prefecture, with the aim of confirming ties with classmates who have left their hometown and strengthening ties with the local community.Hiratsuka,Hokkaido,Osaka,Niigata, Josui Hall, Meiji Kinenkan, etc., 30-year-old coming-of-age ceremony is in Kitakyushu City,横 浜 市,FukushimaIwaki,Fukuoka City,MiyagiShiogama, The movement of holding is spreading even in the banquet hall of the hotel.

ChibaThen,Toshito KumagaiWith the mayorRyota Yamazato(Nankai Candies-Hanami River Ward"From 40 years old W (20 years old x 2) coming-of-age ceremony" became the founder2018It came to be done from.

Japanese royal family

Emperor,Crown princeas well as the Crown princeAdult age isImperial ruleIs 18 years old.

1909(February 42, 2)Imperial lawFrom No. 4)royalOut ofEmperor,Crown princeas well as the Crown prince,Prince,王The coming-of-age ceremony has come to be held for1947 OfAbolition of imperial decree and attached lawsAbolished by[54].. The royal coming-of-age ceremonyEmperorAnd it was a ritual performed when the imperial family reached the age of majority.According to the decree, the emperor, crown prince and grandson were 18 years old, and the other royal families were 20 years old.

In the case of the emperor, it is performed in front of the wise place (Article 5), and it is dedicated to the wise place, the imperial spirit hall and the temple, and the messenger is made to worship at the shrine, the emperor Jimmu mountain tomb, and the mountain tomb of the late emperor (Article 3). After the ceremony, we will have an audience at the Emperor's Temple and the Temple, and we will also have an audience with the Empress Dowager and the Empress Dowager, and we will receive the Asaga at the main hall and receive a feast in the palace (Article 5 and below).

In the case of the royal family, it is held in front of the wise place, and it is done in front of the shrine and temple, and the emperor, empress, empress dowager and empress dowager are seen in the morning (Articles 9, 11 and 12).

In the case of the crown prince and the crown prince, he dedicates himself to the sage, the shrine and the temple on the day of the ceremony, and after the ceremony, he has a feast in the palace (Articles 10 and 12).

Circumstances outside Japan

In other countries, there are few countries like Japan that hold festivals to celebrate the age of majority all over the country.People's Republic of ChinaIn such cases, the event of adulthood (18 years old) may be expressed as a coming-of-age ceremony.[55]..In the United States, at the age of 15, parents give knives and rifles to their children to teach them how to handle them, and make them aware that they have joined the ranks of "adults."

adultThe age of majority varies from country to country, but of the 187 countries / regions with adult age data, 141 countries / regions have an adult age of 18 (including 16 and 17).[56].

(* For the age of majority in each country in the world, see "List of adult ages in the world(See)

Coming-of-age ceremony of tribes, etc.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For example, in 19961976People born between January 1st and December 1st can participate. Most will participate in the ceremony at the age of 12.
  2. ^ In Hiroshima City, calendar year classification was used until the ceremony held in January 1996. The following January 1 was for children born between January 1997, 1 and January 1977, 1, and the coming-of-age ceremony was not held in 1 during the transition period. The following year, 1978, the subjects were born from January 1, 15 to March 1998, 1999. Until January 1978, Sapporo City classified the target people by calendar year, and the 1 ceremony was for people born between January 16st and March 1979st, 3.
  3. ^ Since 1987. Since there is heavy snowfall in January and it is too hot in August, it is judged that it is easy to wear a kimono in May.
  4. ^ From 2017. To have them participate in light clothing.
  5. ^ Since 1969. To reduce the burden on the household. However, in the 2014 survey, 7% of new adults wanted to hold it in January because they wanted to wear furisode and kimono, but it was also in August 1.[14].
  6. ^ 横 浜 市[20],Kawasaki City[20]Many of the ordinance-designated cities, including, use this method.
  7. ^ In ordinance-designated citiesSapporo[21]-Sagamihara City[20]-Osaka(There are also city-wide events through open recruitment)[22]-Sakai City[22]-Nagoya city4 wards of[23]Is the main city (as of 2018).
  8. ^ Hamamatsu city[24]・ 12 wards of Nagoya city[23]-Utsunomiya City[25]-Matsuyama City[26]Etc. (as of 2018).
  9. ^ For example,EhimeThen.Imabari-Saijo City-Shikokuchuo City-Onikita TownIs applicable (as of 2018)[26].
  10. ^ From 2014 to 2018Kitakyushu Media DomeHeld in[27].
  11. ^ Shizuoka City[34],Kyoto City[35]Etc. (as of 2018).
  12. ^ In fact, in the common first-stage era1983-1984, And since the center test1994-1995Was tested on Coming-of-Age Day.
  13. ^ For example,Johnny's OfficeThen, while senior talents are witnesses, new adultsJohnny's Jr.WeMeiji JinguIt was customary to visit. However, after 2006, only a simple coming-of-age ceremony was held in 2008.[51].

Source

  1. ^ Life and Language Manners Meeting (November 2007, 11). Encyclopedia of Speaking and Manners That Are Immediately Useful: Creating Good Relationships in the Workplace, Business, and Community p282Hoken 
  2. ^ a b “Sunny clothes troubles coming-of-age ceremonies every year ... declining birthrates are preemptive”. Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Shimbun). (November 2018, 1). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20180111/k00/00m/040/099000c 2018/1/13Browse. 
  3. ^ a b c "[Coming-of-age ceremony]" Coming-of-age ceremony "in Warabi City, Saitama, the birthplace of the coming-of-age ceremony". Sankei News (Sokoku Shimbun). (November 2018, 1). http://www.sankei.com/life/news/180108/lif1801080027-n1.html 2018/1/14Browse. 
  4. ^ "The coming-of-age ceremony originated in Nagoya? Prior to the established theory of Saitama and Warabi". Chunichi ShimbunWeb (Chunichi Shimbun). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2018, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180116115516/http://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/front/list/CK2018010802000058.html 2018/1/16Browse. 
  5. ^ "New adults, down 3 to 122 million Born in the year of the rat 1062 million”. Nikkei Newspaper. 2020/1/13Browse.
  6. ^ a b "Miyagi) Coming-of-age ceremony, letter of invitation to technical intern trainees in their native language”. Asahi Shimbun. 2020/1/13Browse.
  7. ^ "Coming-of-age reduction The coming-of-age ceremony is still for 20 years old Utsunomiya City”. NHK. 2020/1/13Browse.
  8. ^ ""Coming-of-age ceremony" is 18 to 20 years old? Due to the revision of the Civil Code, the adult age will be 18 years old.". Fuji Television Network, Inc. 2020/1/13Browse.
  9. ^ "Tochigi Kanuma changed the name of the ceremony to "20 Festival" before lowering the adult age”. NHK. 2020/1/13Browse.
  10. ^ ""2023-year-old coming-of-age ceremony" from 5 to May 4, Iga City". Iga Town Information YOU. 2021/1/20Browse.
  11. ^ Coming-of-age ceremony after 2022 (Reiwa 4)-Iga City
  12. ^ Held "66th Miki City Coming-of-Age Ceremony" Miki City, viewed January 2015, 1.
  13. ^ a b c d "Coming-of-age ceremony scheduled for 29 (pdf) ”. Niigata Prefectural Education Agency Lifelong Learning Promotion Division (March 2017, 3). As of January 22, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/22Browse.
  14. ^ "29 coming-of-age ceremony”. Tsubata Town Board of Education Lifelong Education Division (August 2017, 8). As of January 7, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/22Browse.
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  16. ^ Coming-of-age ceremony to postpone, to cancel / Fukaura Town --WEB Tooku, delivered on December 2020, 12
  17. ^ Public Relations Ajigasawa August 2020 Issue (PDF)
  18. ^ Winter coming-of-age ceremony canceled / postponed one after another / Aomori prefecture --WEB Tooku, delivered on December 2020, 12
  19. ^ Gathering of Hatachi (coming-of-age ceremony) --Yaizu City
  20. ^ a b c "List of survey results regarding "Coming-of-Age Day" in 30 (pdf) ”. Kanagawa (February 2018, 1). As of February 18, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
  21. ^ "30 Coming-of-Age Day event”. Sapporo City (April 2017, 12). As of January 12, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
  22. ^ a b "29 "Coming-of-Age Day" (pdf) ”. Osaka (February 2017, 12). As of February 20, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/10Browse.
  23. ^ a b "30 Coming-of-Age Day Memorial Event List (pdf) ”. Nagoya City (December 2017, 12). As of January 25, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/16Browse.
  24. ^ "Details of the coming-of-age ceremony venue, etc. in 30 (pdf) ”. Hamamatsu City (November 2017, 11). As of February 27, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
  25. ^ "29 2nd Social Education Committee Meeting (pdf) ”. Utsunomiya City Board of Education (November 2017, 11). As of February 13, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
  26. ^ a b "30 Ehime Prefecture Municipal Coming-of-Age Ceremony List (pdf) ”. Ehime (February 2017, 12). As of February 22, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/10Browse.
  27. ^ "30 Kitakyushu Coming-of-Age Ceremony Outline, Record of New Adult Committee Activities”. Kitakyushu City. As of January 2018, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/16Browse.
  28. ^ "Coming-of-age Mickey also appears at TDL in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture". Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Shimbun). (January 2018, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2018, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180116135933/https://mainichi.jp/articles/20180108/k00/00e/040/193000c 2018/1/16Browse. 
  29. ^ "Coming-of-age ceremony in Urayasu, at the first DisneySea". Sankei Shimbun (September 2020, 11). 2020/11/21Browse.
  30. ^ "30 Anjo City Coming-of-Age Ceremony”. Anjo City (June 2017, 6). As of February 30, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/10Browse.
  31. ^ "Narita coming-of-age ceremony”. Narita City (April 2017, 4). As of January 14, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/16Browse.
  32. ^ "We will hold a commemorative event for Coming-of-Age Day 30" (Press Release), Nagoya City, (December 2017, 12), Original archive as of January 25, 2018., https://web.archive.org/web/20180116113818/http://www.city.nagoya.jp/kodomoseishonen/page/0000100953.html 2018/1/16Browse. 
  33. ^ "30 Coming-of-Age Day commemorative event will be held (details)" (pdf) (Press Release), Nagoya City, (December 2017, 12), Original archive as of January 25, 2018., https://web.archive.org/web/20180116113957/http://www.city.nagoya.jp/kodomoseishonen/cmsfiles/contents/0000100/100953/171225H30seijinnohi_kinengyouji.pdf 2018/1/16Browse. 
  34. ^ "About holding of 2018 Shizuoka coming-of-age ceremony”. Shizuoka City. As of February 2018, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
  35. ^ "How to apply for the Coming-of-Age Day Ceremony in Kyoto”. Kyoto City. As of February 2018, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/2/12Browse.
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  37. ^ a b About the future “Adults Day” commemorative events (Proposal) (PDF) --September 2004, Yokohama City "Coming-of-Age Day" Commemorative Event Review Committee
  38. ^ "Recent new adults are serious? Ceremony attendance rate is on the rise-Nagoya" Asahi Shimbun, January 2010, 1, Aichi Prefecture edition
  39. ^ “New Year 20-year-old determination”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2013, 1). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/wakayama/news/20130103-OYT8T00651.htm 2013/1/7Browse. 
  40. ^ "Does the coming-of-age ceremony have to be done by the government?" A big reaction on the internet to the issue raised by Atsushi Tamura and others.. J-CAST News (Jay Cast). (November 2016, 1). https://www.j-cast.com/2016/01/12255334.html 2017/7/29Browse. 
  41. ^ "High-quality "mother's furisode" Popular with new adults ... Unique, small and modern”. Yomiuri Shimbun (created on January 2020, 1). 2020/1/13Browse.
  42. ^ “New adult can't wear sunny clothes and is confused. I can't contact the company in Yokohama”. NHK(July 2018, 1). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20180108/k10011281771000.html 2018/1/13Browse. 
  43. ^ Asahi Shimbun January 2018, 1 Morning edition 16st page headline "Furisode coming-of-age uniform?"
  44. ^ [News Q3] Coming-of-age ceremony When did you start furisode? Reservation was made 2 years ago."Asahi Shimbun" morning edition January 2018, 1 (social aspect)
  45. ^ Believe in rumors, don't pay for costumes Kitakyushu coming-of-age ceremony, filed one after another Sankei Shimbun March 2019, 5
  46. ^ Self-Defense Forces Miyagi Regional Cooperation Headquarters
  47. ^ Ehime) Missiles, cannons and tug of war Coming-of-age ceremony at the Ground Self-Defense Force Matsuyama stationAsahi Shimbun digital[Broken link]
  48. ^ Hokkaido) New adult members, tanks and tug of war Ground Self-Defense Force / Kita-Eniwa stationAsahi Shimbun digital[Broken link]
  49. ^ Self-Defense Forces Miyagi Regional Cooperation Headquarters
  50. ^ 3 Coming-of-Age Ceremony in Antarctica / January 1-Antarctic News: nikkansports.com[Broken link]
  51. ^ ""Who's the fault!?"(2009.1) DailyCyzoFrom the article
  52. ^ Coming-of-age ceremony for 48 of AKB20's best ever Minami Takahashi "Feel the passage of time"(2012.1 Oricon)
  53. ^ 1/2 When the coming-of-age ceremony is reached, let's talk with mother and daughter, various things. Let's buy it together, first bra.
  54. ^ Cabinet Secretariat. February 42, 2 Law No. 11 Imperial Coming-of-Age Ceremony,NDLJP:2951035/9, May 22, 5 Imperial Ordinance No. 2 Room Ordinance and Abolition of Attached Laws,NDLJP:2962601/1.
  55. ^ "If you're Japanese, you wouldn't look like this at a memorial monument in Hiroshima!". Record China(July 2013, 10). http://www.recordchina.co.jp/group.php?groupid=78093 2013/10/26Browse. 
  56. ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights(Survey year varies depending on adult age and country posted on the site) and interviews with embassies in Japan, etc.
  57. ^ "Kanklang], UNESCO Center for Asian Culture.
  58. ^ "Maxi disguise], UNESCO Center for Asian Culture.

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