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🧳 | The secret hot spring in winter is the best power spot (XNUMX) Go to Yudanaka Onsenkyo to meet the snow monkey <Nagano Prefecture>


The secret hot spring in winter is the best power spot (XNUMX) Go to Yudanaka Onsenkyo to meet the snow monkey <Nagano Prefecture>

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Going further back, it is an open-air bath where Japanese macaques that you have seen in the photo take a bath.

The snow season has arrived.It looks like there will be a lot of snow this winter.Speaking of the secret hot springs of snow, Japanese macaques that warm up in hot springs ... → Continue reading


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Outdoor bath

Outdoor bath(Rotemburo) was installed outdoors or outdoorsroofOr no enclosurebathIs[1].Bath(Noburo),Outdoor bathAlso called (Notemburo)[Note 1].


The open-air bathSpabathingNoharaEveryday LifeCan also be said.Hot springTo a hot spring that was in a state likeBathtubIt is the beginning that is prepared.

Open-air baths in hot springs are very popular. Being able to take a bath while gazing at the scenery, having a feeling of openness when taking a bath, and in the bathroomheatThere are various factors such as the difficulty of hot flashes due to the absence of muddy water. So manyJapanese inn,Day trip bath facilityThen.UchiyuNot only that, it also has an open-air bath.

In recent years, not only traditional hot springs, but manySuper sentoThere are also outdoor baths installed in places such as.1980 eraUntil the beginning, Roman bathsJungle bathThe indoor baths represented byBubble economySince then, I have been acclaimed for having an open-air bath.

Incidentally,ceilingAnd MikatawallThere are some cases that are called "open-air baths" and some are called "half-open-air baths" even though there is a sense of blockage that is not much different from being indoors.

Open-air bath with number

Open-air bath with number(Rotenburobanzuke) isHot spring numberingIt is a kind of, and the open-air bath is famoushot springTheNumberingIt was done. Was created1981so,Fuyu NoguchiEdited by. In the outdoor bath numberingWest OfYokozuna TheYubara hot spring"Yuyu," the eastern YokozunaTakaragawa OnsenIs. A large open-air bath numbered monument is posted at Yubara Onsen.symbolIt has become.

Variant of open-air bath


As a management problem, particularly in a free-flowing hot spring where the source temperature is high, the temperature of the hot water greatly fluctuates depending on the weather conditions, so more detailed temperature management is required.

Also, alwaysLegionellaStrict hygiene control more than indoor bath is necessary because there is an opportunity to be polluted by[2].



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the case of the outdoor bath (field bath),Hot springIt does not mean that it naturally springs up, but it may also mean that the open-air bath has no walls or roofs.
  2. ^ As a "town development project" based on the ideas of young people at Yubara Onsen,1987Was started by.


  1. ^ Kotobank-Digital Daijisen (Sanseido)
  2. ^ National Living Health Sales Guidance Center"Control guidelines for the prevention of Legionella spp.Revised March 1999, read January 3, 2016.
  3. ^ Iceland Tourism and Culture Institute "A thorough guide to tourist spots Blue LagoonRead January 2016, 1.
  4. ^ 6/26 Open-air Bath Day Executive Committee Official Page(Yubara Town Ryokan Cooperative)

外部 リンク

Japanese macaque

Japanese macaque(Macaca fuscata) Is a primate classified in the genus Macaque of the family Cercopithecoides.


Japan(Honshu,Shikoku,KyusyuAnd the surrounding islands,Yakushima)[8].Tanegashima[5][4],IbarakiThen extinct[7].

The northernmost primate extant species, excluding humansShimokita Peninsula)[5][8].


Head-and-body length (Length) Male 53-60 cm, Female 47-55 cm[4]..Tail length male 7-11 cm, female 6-11 cm[8].WeightMale 6-18 kg, female 6-14 kg[8]..Populations in the mountains of the Tohoku and Chubu regions are larger than those in western Japan (for example, the Shiga Kogen population isYukishimaWeighs nearly twice as much as the population)[8]..Hair tends to be long and dense in cold climates and short and thin in warm climates.[5]..The back coat is reddish brown or brown, and the abdominal coat is gray.[5].. Seed namefuscataMeans "dark"[6].

Naked face and buttocks, red[4].

The cubs are densely covered with hair, but the density decreases as they grow.[5]..Males develop canines[5].


This species was originally described as a Japanese macaque[5][6].. laterM. speciosusWronglyStump-tailed monkeyIt is said to be a scientific name that refers to[6], Listed later as the scientific name corresponding to this speciesMacaca fuscataCame to be mainly used[5]..The lien isM. speciosusTo prevent confusion of what is inM. speciosusProposal to invalidate was made in 1967 and in 1970International Council for Animal NomenclatureBy the power ofM. fuscataIs used as the scientific name of this species[5][6].

This species of fossil has been found in the strata since the Middle Pleistocene.As the oldest fossilMine CityA fossil tooth that seems to belong to this species has been found in[5][10]..This fossilStegodon orientalis,Naumann ElephantIt is the oldest fossil of the same period as Stegodon orientalis, but on the other hand, these are deposits in the crevices of limestone (because Stegodon orientalis and Naumann elephant are said to be of different ages) May be a fossil of[10].SodegauraThere is an example of a fossil that seems to be the humerus of this species accompanied by Naumann elephant.[10].

Within the genuspenisFrom the form of the glansRhesus monkey,Cynomolgus monkey,Taiwan macaquePresumed to be closely related tofascicularisForm a group[5]..The closest relative is the rhesus monkey, which is estimated to have diverged 500,000 years ago.[7].

It is estimated that the subspecies and subspecies Yakushima macaque diverged 170,000-180,000 years ago.[7]..In the molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, it is divided into two main lines, mainly in the Kinki region and the Chugoku region.

Macaca fuscata fuscata (Gray, 1870) Japanese macaques, Japanese macaques, Japanese macaques[6]
Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu[8]
Macaca fuscata yakui Kuroda, 1940 Yakushima macaque, Yakushima macaque, Yakushima macaque[6]
Long hair[5], The coat is dark brown[4][7]..Small skull[5]..The orbits are vertically long and the width between the orbits is narrower[5].


Evergreen broad-leaved forest,Deciduous forestInhabit[4]..Active on the surface and on trees[4].DiurnalBut[4], In a snowy area, it is not active during the daytime during a snowstorm[7]..The flock is 1-80square kilometerLiving within the range of action[8]..The home range tends to be narrower in evergreen broad-leaved forests and wider in deciduous broad-leaved forests.[4][8], 1 --1.4 per laurel forestHaBut in deciduous forests, 1-9 hectares per animal[5]..Live in groups of more than 100 to 50 or more (subspecies Yakushima monkeys are about XNUMX or less) containing multiple opposite sexes[4]..The herd is a matrilineal population, and it is estimated that males are independent of the herd born 3-8 years old and enter another nearby herd or travel long distances.[5]..It is presumed that the relationship with other herds varies from region to region.HakusanThere is a report that the population of the group may be mixed when the groups avoid each other.[7].

mainlyfruitEat but plant leaves,flower,seed,mushroom,egg,昆虫And so on[5]..There is a report that 192 kinds of food were eaten in Arashiyama, Kyoto Prefecture.[5][7]..The subspecies Yakushima macaqueカ エ ル,LizardThere is also an example of eating[5]..The Shimokita Peninsula population is bark when food is scarce,Seaweed,shellfishAnd so on.Flowers and young leaves in spring, summer漿果, Eat fruits and seeds from spring to winter[7]..As a predatorBear hawkCan be mentioned[11].

As an example of a carnivorous report, in 2015, a young grouse was observed preying on a young grouse in the Northern Alps.[12].

The breeding style is embryo.Mating mainly from autumn to winter[5][4][7].. Gestation period is 161-186 days[7]..Females other than this timeEstrusRarely estrusMenstruationRare (even with menstruation)Anovulation menstruation)[5]..Give birth to one (rarely two) cubs once a year from spring to summer[4]..Birth intervals are 2-3 years[4], May be longer depending on nutritional status[8].. Breastfeeding period is 11-18 months[7]..Females sexually mature 5-7 years after birth[4][8]..Lifespan in the wild is mainly 25 years or less (high mortality rate of cubs)[4]On the other hand, in the fed population, there are individuals who are estimated to survive for 30 years or more and cases who gave birth at the age of 26 years.[7].

Cultural behavior

YukishimaThe behavior of washing and eating sweet potatoes in seawater has been reported in the population of[5][8]..Others in the flock also appeared to imitate it.Some individuals wash with seawater and soak in seawater each time they eat to season them.[5]..It has been confirmed that some individuals hold the wheat sprinkled on the beach and throw it into the seawater, picking up the wheat grains washed by the waves and eating them.[5]..Relatively young individuals tend to perform these behaviors, and similar behaviors are centered around individuals who have grown up and are related to the individual.[5]..On the other hand, there is an opinion that it is necessary to carefully consider whether such behavior is "propagation by imitation" or "it is stimulated by seeing the behavior of other individuals, and as a result, the same behavior is performed by trial and error".[5].

These behaviors are of monkeysCulturalReceived attention as an action, even for animalscultureIt was a precursor to the theory of admitting.By the way, the name of the young female who first washed the potatoes was named potatoes.This episode was also introduced in a junior high school national language textbook.Although this culture of "immersing food in seawater" began with young female monkeys, its transmission follows a hierarchy, first with young male monkeys, then with older female monkeys, and finally with boss monkeys.Like human society, bosses are said to be unable to easily imitate the culture originated by young female monkeys in order to maintain authority.[Source required].

It is recorded that monkeys on Kojima ate fish four times before the 1980s, and two times when they took what was washed up on the beach and ate it.[13]..But I haven't caught and eaten live fish[13].

Social structure

Previously, the social structure of the herd was a "concentric double structure" in which the boss monkey with strong leadership, the females and children surrounding it, and other males were located in the periphery and were not allowed to enter the center. Was explained.The name "boss monkey" was later changed to "leader".

The social structure of Japanese macaques was thought to be as follows.

  • The herd consists of adult males and females, and children and adolescents.There are detached colanders that do not enter the herd, but most are young or adult males.
  • The individuals in the flock are ranked according to the strength of the force among all the individuals, and are linear as a whole.Rank systemhave.There is an action called "mounting" in which the higher ranks are turned to the bottom and the higher ranks ride from behind, which confirms the ranks and at the same time avoids conflicts.The farther the ranking is, the less this action is taken.
  • It is not just a ranking system, but there are classes, and each has its own position in the flock.
  • The leader is one-several adult males, located in the center of the herd, around which females and babies, and outside of which young males.
  • The leader protects the flock from foreign enemies and intervenes and mediates conflicts within the flock.
  • Males are in the center of the flock with females when they are young, but when they are young, they go out of the flock and some leave the flock as colanders.
  • Young males gradually become leaders as they move up in the flock and become sub-leaders (also known as boss apprentices), but with the consent of the female group to become bosses and enter the center of the flock. I need.
  • The female is in the center of the herd for life.There is a ranking, but there is no clear class.

But,Kosei IzawaThe existence of boss monkeys was not found in studies such as the wild group living in Hakusan by et al., And the group is said to be a group supported by "friendship".The fact that there are "bosses" and "fixed rankings" in the flock is likely to indicate the monopoly of food by human feeding (fixed place, time, amount of tame by feeding sweet potatoes, soybeans, etc.). The view is that it is under special conditions.He also said that the expression "ranking system" as if there was an "institutional" thing in the monkey society should be reconsidered.

In addition, since monkeys do not inhabit Western countries, so-calledDeveloped countriesJapan and Japanese macaques, where wild monkeys live in Japan, have been given special attention.About Japanese macaques in English Snow Monkey It is called because monkeys were considered tropical animals.

Relationship with human

1947Damage to crops (monkey damage) caused by this species has increased mainly since the 1970s due to subsequent exclusion from hunting animals and the decline of rural areas.[8]..Kojima, one of the natural monuments described belowTakasaki Mountain,Gagyuzan,Mino, Shimokita Peninsula was fed, but as the population increased, monkey damage including direct damage to humans in the surrounding area has also occurred.[9]..Therefore, measures such as feeding amount restrictions, installation of electric fences, and catch-up work are being promoted.[9]..It may be exterminated as a harmful bird and beast[9],1996The number of exterminations in Japan is estimated to be about 10,000.[8].

1952ToKyoto UniversityByYukishimaWas fed for the purpose of ecological research in[9].

There are concerns about the effects of deforestation of broad-leaved forests, destruction of habitats by planting coniferous trees, and extermination as vermin.[8]..Formosan macaques derived from individuals who escaped from tourist facilities in Wakayama Prefecture have been established for decades (confirmed in the 1970s), and in 1998, erythrocyte enzymes were found in Nakatsu Village (currently Hidakagawa Town).ElectrophoresisThe lawMitochondrial DNA OfNucleotide sequenceA hybrid with this species was confirmed by inspection by[14]..Even in Aomori Prefecture, Towada City from the 1950s to 1971, and thereafterNoheji TownAmong the breeding individuals of Formosan macaques that had been released in 2004 (all heads were removed in XNUMX)Oma TownIt was found that there was a male of this species that was released with a transmitter attached, and two hybrids (one of which is said to have been a hybrid of the mother) were found by the same inspection.[15]..In 1995 on the Boso PeninsulaTateyama CityAnd Shirahama Town (currently:Minamiboso), A group of macaques was discovered, and in 2003, molecular phylogenetic estimation of mitochondrial DNA revealed that they were rhesus monkeys. From 2002 to 2004, molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted in Tateyama City, Shirahama Town, and Ichikawa City. A total of 9 hybrids of this species and rhesus monkeys were confirmed.[16]..Eight of them were found in Tateyama City and Minamiboso City, so it is thought that they were born by female rhesus monkeys due to the addition of males of this species to the rhesus monkey population, but they were discovered in Ichikawa City in 8. It has been suggested that the individuals produced are hybrids produced by females of this species.[16].Takatoyama Nature ZooIn a total of 2016 heads surveyed in 164, 57 were crossbred.[17] Listed in Washington Annex II in 1977 in primate units[2].. in Japan1934ToYukishimaIs "Kojima monkey habitat",1953Takasakiyama is the "monkey habitat of Takasakiyama",1956Gagyuzan,Mt. TakagoThe hills centered around Mt. Minoo and Mt. Minoo are "Monkey habitat of Mt. Gagyuzan", "Monkey habitat of Mt.1970The populations of the northwestern and southwestern parts of the Shimokita Peninsula and their habitats are known as "monkeys and monkey habitats on the Shimokita Peninsula".Natural treasureIs specified in[9].

M. f. fuscata Hondozaru
LEAST CONCERN (IUCN Red List Ver. 3.1 (2001))[3]
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Northern Tohoku / Kitakami Mountains Hondozaru
Overfishing until the ban on hunting in 1947 drastically reduced the population of the Tohoku region, and until 1998 it was listed on the Red List as "Hondozaru in the Tohoku region".[18]..The population of the Tohoku region is expanding and the population is recovering, but the Kitakami MountainsMt. GoyozanThere is a small isolated population in Japan, and it is said that there is a herd whose current situation is unknown even in the northern part of the Ou Mountains.[18]..There are concerns about the effects of deforestation, planting of coniferous trees such as Japanese cedar and larch, and vegetation modification by sika deer.[18].. Mt. Goyozan and its southern quasi-plains are designated as prefectural natural parks[18].. The population of Mt. Goyozan in 2008 is estimated to be 4 in 73 herds.[18].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[18]
Mt. Kinka Hondozaru
There are concerns about the effects of vegetation modification by sika deer.[18]。生息地はに指定されている。1967年における生息数は群れ1つで約70頭、1983年における生息数は群れ5つで270頭(1983 - 1984年の冬季に約180頭まで減少)、1994年における生息数は群れ6つで約300匹、2003 - 2005年における生息数は156頭、2007年における生息数は群れにいない個体も含めて259頭と推定されている[18].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[18]
M. f. yakui Yakushima macaque
LEAST CONCERN (IUCN Red List Ver. 3.1 (2001))[3]
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

In Japan, in units of the genus Macaque (genus Macaque),Specific animal(Excluding rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, and formosan macaques designated as specific alien organisms)[19].

The birthplace of Japanese primatology is "Takasakiyama Nature ZooThere isTakasaki MountainAlso known as (Oita Prefecture)[20][Note 1].

Japanese macaque in culture


Japanese"(I.e."(Saru)" was originally used to refer to Japanese macaques.Also known as "Masura], And is widely used in waka poems.Minakata KumagusuAccording to the Sanskrit, is this derived from Sanskrit?[21].

There is a squealing sound in the mountains of the awkwardness.Oshikochi,Old and modern Wakashu ⑲ Miscellaneous body # 1067)

Also popularly "エテIt is also called "public", but this is a kind ofAbominationSo, it is said that the origin is that the monkey avoided leading to "leaving" and called it "good".[22]..The south was onceKumano RiverWhen he got off the boat, the boatman called the monkey "Yaen" and "Etekichi" and never mentioned the name "monkey".[21].

on the other hand,Japanese sequelKakimoto Ason Saru, the poet'sSarumaru Dayu,Kenshin UesugiChildhood name "Sarumatsu",Maeda ToshinoriSome Japanese names have "monkey", such as the childhood name "monkey", but according to the south, this is an old monkey.totemIt is said that it is a remnant of many families[21].

Japanese macaque as a mountain god

Monkeys are ancientMountain GodWas said to be[Note 2][24]..Unlike other beasts, monkeys are deformed and reduced, and therefore it was natural for them to be the messenger of the mountain god, or the god itself.[24].

According to the South, feeding monkeys to prevent them from being devastated has made them aware that they are the guardian deities of the fields.[24].. AlsoHiyoshi faithIs probably related to the worship of the sun, as the name implies, and the monkey that makes a noise at sunrise was thought to be the messenger of the sun god.[21][24]. Teiri NakamuraAccording to the report, the fact that the monkey god has an indigenous origin in Japan is not limited to Hiyoshi-affiliated companies.AsamaIt is clear from the fact that it is linked to the Yamanokami faith in various places[24]However, such a monkey belief as a mountain god probably got along with the Indian folk god that flowed in with Buddhism, and "Hiyoshi" and "Koshin""Mao Kannon""Saruta HikoIt is said that the belief of Japanese people in posterity has been shaped as it spreads while acquiring "signboards" associated with monkeys such as "".[24]..According to Minamigatani again, it is a folk religion peculiar to Japan.Koshin faithThe main deity enshrined inAomen KongoIsRamayanaThe main character of the narrative, RamaVishnuIs a transformation of Japan, and the three monkeys often depicted at the feet of Shomen Kongo, the so-called "see, say, hear"Three wise monkeysServed RamaHanumanIs nothing but a transformation of[21][24]..However, of course, the three wise monkeys that appear in Japanese beliefs are undoubtedly short-tailed Japanese macaques.

Horse and monkey, monkey towing

Since ancient times, there has been a tradition in Japan that monkeys are guardians of horses.For example, there was a custom to make monkeys dance in the stables at daimyo mansions, saying that "monkeys prevent horse diseases".[25]However, these monkey dances are their livelihoodMonkey towing(AfterMonkey turning) IsKunio YanagitaAccording to the report, the "horse doctor" was originally also a living business.[24].

Yanagita also said, "厩猿It introduces a custom called "(Mayazaru)".This is a custom found in the Tohoku region, where monkey skulls, hands, or picture cards are displayed on the horse in hopes of the health of horses (and cows), safe delivery, and fire protection of the horse.[26]..According to Yanagita, this is a very old tradition, originally a real monkey tied to a shackle.[27]..The custom of keeping monkeys in the yard is old.Songs to Make the DustAnd 'Old and modern book collectionThere is also an example[27]Also, similar customs were found in China and Thailand.[27].

Popular culture and Japanese macaques

Since Japanese macaques were relatively familiar creatures, they often appear in popular culture. "靱猿』(Utsubozaru) is a Kyogen song, with fur靫It is a famous performance in which a daimyo who wants a monkey to make a monkey, a monkey tow, and a monkey who plays a child role appear, but the monkey himself plays the leading role.There is also a song like "Kyogen" in Kyogen. "Momotaro''Battle for the monkeyThe monkey also plays an important role in famous narratives such as.In addition, monkey designs have been used in various ways, such as senryu's funny poems and motifs for everyday items.

I wonder if the monkey's butt tree is dead

The so-called "do not see, say, hear" (bad things)Three wise monkeysIs closely related to Koshin, as mentioned above, but originallyArgumentTeachingsTendai sectIs the doctrine of the monkey associated with monkeys in Japan? Jingoro leftTell the workNikko Toshogu ShrineThe relief of the three wise monkeys is well known all over the world, and the motif of the three wise monkeys is now being seen all over the world.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For Takasakiyama, see "Takasakiyama Monkey" (Junichiro Itani 1954, ISBN 9784062919777 ).
  2. ^ The southern part is the former Wakayama prefecture in "Southern essay"Ryujin VillageGives an example seen in[23].


  1. ^ Appendices I, II and III (valid from 26 November 2019)<https://cites.org/eng> (downroad 15/04/2020)
  2. ^ a b UNEP (2020). Macaca fuscata. The Species + Website. Nairobi, Kenya. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.speciesplus.net. (downroad 15/04/2020)
  3. ^ a b c Watanabe, K. & Tokita, K. 2008. Macaca fuscataThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12552A3355997. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12552A3355997.enDownloaded on 15 April 2020.
    Watanabe, K. 2008. Macaca fuscata fuscataThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39909A10282194. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39909A10282194.enDownloaded on 15 April 2020.
    Watanabe, K. 2008. Macaca fuscata yakuiThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12565A3360100. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12565A3360100.enDownloaded on 15 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Nobuo Ishii "Japanese macaques" "Japanese mammals [revised 2nd edition]", supervised by Hisashi Abe, Tokai University Press, 2008, pp. 66-67.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Mitsuru Aimi, Yukio Takahata "Series Japanese Mammals Details Japanese Mammals 18 Japanese Macaques"Mammalian Science," Vol. 33, No. 2, Japan Mammalian Society, 1994, pp. 141-157.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mitsuo Iwamoto "Classification name of monkey (Part 1: Macaque)"Primate Research," Vol. 1, No. 1, Primate Research Institute, 1987, pp. 45-54.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Shigeo Uehara "Japanese Macaque" "Animal Encyclopedia 3 Primates" Junichiro Itani Supervised by DW McDonald's,平凡 社, 1986, pp. 98-105.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Kunio Watanabe "Japanese Macaque" "Animal World Heritage Red Data Animals 1 Eurasia, North America" ​​by Hideo Obara, Masanori Uramoto, Hidetoshi Ota, Masafumi Matsui,Kodansha, 2000, 139 pages.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Mutsuo Kato, Makoto Numata, Kagetaka Watanabe, Masanori Hata, "Natural Monuments of Japan",Kodansha, 1995, pp. 716-720.
  10. ^ a b c Mitsuru Aimi "The oldest Japanese macaque fossil"Mammalian Science" Vol. 18, No. 2, The Mammal Society of Japan,2002, Pages 239-245.
  11. ^ Tomohiko Iida "Predation of Japanese macaques by mountain hawk-eagle"Journal of the Ornithological Society of Japan, Vol. 47, No. 3, The Ornithological Society of Japan, pp. 125-127.
  12. ^ “The moment of predation on Japanese macaques and grouse, confirmed by researchers for the first time”. Asahi Shimbun digital(November 2015, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 5.. http://web.archive.org/web/20160506053807/http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH804WG7H80UOOB00F.html 2015/9/1Browse. [Source invalid][Broken link]
  13. ^ a b Taizo Shima"Human history of fish eating from Africa to the Japanese archipelago"NHK Publishing, 2020, pp.21-22 (quoted from Kunio Watanabe's "Fish: A new addition to the diet of Koshima monkeys" "Folima Primatol" vol.52, 1989, pp.124-131)
  14. ^ Yoshi Kawamoto, Kei Shirai, Shinichi Araki, Kyoko Maeno "Case of mixed race of Japanese macaque and Formosan macaque in Wakayama prefecture"Primate Research," Vol. 15, No. 1, Primate Research Institute, 1999, pp. 53-59.
  15. ^ Yoshi Kawamoto, Sakie Kawamoto, Shizuka Kawai "Crossbreeding of Formosan macaques and Japanese macaques on the Shimokita Peninsula"Primate Research," Vol. 21, No. 1, Primate Research Institute, 2005, pp. 11-18.
  16. ^ a b Yoshi Kawamoto, Akira Hagiwara, Keigo Aizawa "Crossbreeding of Japanese macaques and rhesus monkeys on the Boso Peninsula"Primate Research," Vol. 20, No. 2, Primate Research Institute, 2004, pp. 89-95.
  17. ^ Yoshifumi Kawamoto, Sakie Kawamoto, Yuzuru Hamada, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Yoji Naoi, Akira Hagiwara, Daisuke Shiratori, Kei Shirai, Yoshifumi Sugiura, Yasuhiro Go, Masashi Tatsumoto, Hironaga Kaoru, Shinichi Hayama, Tamaki MaruhashiConcerns about crossbreeding of rhesus monkeys at Takagoyama Natural Zoo on the Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture, and expansion of crosses to areas designated as natural monuments"Primate Research," Vol. 33, No. 2, Primate Research Institute, 2017, pp. 67-67.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nobuo Ishii "Hondozaru in the Kitakami and Kitakami Mountains" "Hondozaru in Kinkasan" "Red Data Book 2014-Japan's Endangered Wildlife-1 Mammals" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Stocks CompanyGyosei,2014, Pages 103-105.
  19. ^ Specific animal list (animal protection and proper management) (Ministry of the Environment・ Used on April 2020, 4)
  20. ^ Stopping the name of "boss monkey" and changing to "α male" Oita / Takasakiyama February 2004, 2 Asahi Shimbun.[Source invalid]
  21. ^ a b c d e Minakata Kumagusu. “Twelve Zodiac Legends about Monkeys”. Aozora Bunko. 2019/3/18Browse.
  22. ^ "Kojien 5th Edition" Iwanami Shoten. "Good"
  23. ^ Southern part of the book-National Diet Library Digital Collection
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Teiri Nakamura "Japanese Animal Folklore" Kaimeisha, 1987. Pages 9-14
  25. ^ "Kojien 5th Edition" Iwanami Shoten. "Monkey show"
  26. ^ Tamihiko Nakamura. “Tohoku region monkey worship”. As of May 2015, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/3/18Browse., Tamihiko Nakamura. “Guardian deity of cows and horses-Faith of monkeys-”. As of May 2015, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/3/18Browse.
  27. ^ a b c Kunio Yanagita "Yamashima Mintanshu" 1914.


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