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🧳 | Emirates Airlines sells in First Business Class to Europe Total business in the 22 yen range, etc.


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Emirates Airlines sells in First Business Class to Europe Total business in the 22 yen range, etc.

 
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Tickets purchased by March 3st come with multi-risk travel insurance to cover the new Coronavirus, and tickets purchased by September 31th guarantee flexible rebooking conditions. , The expiration date of the ticket has been extended to 9 years.
 

Emirates will hold a sale for First Business Class from February 2th to March 18rd ... → Continue reading

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Airline ticket

Airline ticketWhat is (Kouken)?Passenger planeOf boarding passes issued in connection with the carriage of passengers and their baggage[1].. Tickets include passenger tickets and baggage tickets[1].

Overview

Airline tickets to airlinersBoardingNecessary when doingticket(Of land transportationticketIs equivalent to)AirlinesBetween passengers and passengersShipping contractDocumentary evidence of[2].. The name of the person boarding, the flight segment, flight number, seat class, applicable fare amount, validity period, etc. are stated on the ticket. An airline ticket for connecting two or more airlines is called a joint transportation ticket.[2].

There are domestic tickets and international tickets, but international tickets areWarsaw ConventionAnd restrictions due to the Montreal Agreement[2].. In the case of passenger transportation tickets that are subject to the Warsaw Convention, it is necessary for the treaty to state the origin and destination, the place and date of issue, the planned place of departure, the name of the carrier and the passenger, and the contents of the carriage.[1].. In addition, an excerpt from the International Travel Conditions of Carriage must be included in the international ticket.[2].. On the other hand, domestic airline tickets are simpler than international airline tickets due to the restrictions of domestic law.[2].. A supplementary ticket may be used to enter the segment fare each time it is transported in a segment with fewer flights and fewer passengers.[2].

All seatsReserved seatDue to the characteristics of the aircraft (or non-reserved seats), the ticket should beBoarding procedureDoboarding passNeed to change to.

Check-in procedures for international flights arepassportAt the same time confirm the destination if necessaryCountry OfvisaCheck[3].. Although passports and visas are checked by the government and airlines do not have the right to examine them, they are checked by the airlines in order to prevent troubles with immigration procedures. The company will be fined[3].

Seat selection is performed after checking the airline ticket, but seat selection is important from the perspective of operational safety, such as preventing uneven loading.[4].. After seat selection, airline will issue boarding pass in exchange for flight coupon of ticket[4].. In the boarding pass, in addition to the items listed on the airline ticket, the seat number, boarding gate number, etc. are described. The domestic flight ticket is a combination of the flight ticket and the boarding pass.

Airline tickets and boarding passes are often confused because the words are similar, and recently there are also integrated types, but airline tickets in English are also called Air Tickets (Airline Tickets, Passenger Tickets) Is a security that represents the right to obtain the service of. In contrast, the boarding pass boarding pass It's a boarding pass.

Characteristics of airline tickets

TrainAs a general rule, unlike tickets for land transportation such as buses and busesSigning ceremonyAnd (for corporationsTicket Book(Some of them are anonymous) and cannot be used or changed by anyone other than the person listed on the ticket. In principle, it is not possible to change to a section other than the one described. If you have more than one ticket in one itinerary, you must use them in order and use them backwards (for example, using a ticket from "Tokyo to Osaka" for flights from "Osaka to Tokyo") Can not. However, in the case of a business ticket or a corporate ticket that has a ticket with a fare that can be changed to the reverse section or the reservation can be changedMulti airportExceptions are permitted in some cases, such as changing the departure and arrival airports within the set city. Tickets improperly obtained at online auctions (tickets obtained by the holder other than the person himself/herself or due to a fraudulent act with a credit card) are refused to board and cannot be refunded.[5].

Many airlines apply the rule that if one of multiple sections of the same itinerary is not boarded (), not only that section but all the remaining sections are invalid (Southwest AirlinesIs an exception, the return trip is valid even if you abandon the outbound round trip ticket). Whether or not the fare for the invalidated section is refunded depends on the ticket class (below).

In general, airline tickets to which a normal fare is applied have a purchase deadline, place of sale, valid period and valid flights, range of seats that can be selected (designated), number of sold seats, priority handling when vacant seats (waiting for cancellation), reservation change and refund ( Cancellation), when there are vacant senior seatsDouble booking(Double sales of the same seat)Involuntary upgradeAlthough the degree of freedom and preferential treatment regarding usage conditions is high, the degree of freedom of an airline ticket to which a discount fare is applied decreases in proportion to the degree of discount.

For example,United airlinesIn the case of, first class with no restrictions on changes and refunds,MileageIt is subdivided into 28 classes including privilege tickets,Economy classThere are no restrictions on changes or refunds, from "first stage" to "13th stage" for cheap group tickets that cannot be changed or refunded (travel companies only, not generally sold).[6].

Type of ticket

Domestic and international tickets

There are domestic tickets and international tickets, and international tickets areWarsaw ConventionAnd international treaties such as the Montreal Agreement[2].

Classification by type of air travel

The types of air travel for determining fares are mainly classified into the following five types.

One Way (OW)
Round Trip (RT)
In this case, the round trip means that the fare amount on the outward route and the return route are the same, and the routes are not always the same.
Circle Trip, CT
The lap in this case refers to the case where the fare on the outbound route and the fare on the inbound route are different.
Open jaw (Open Jaw, OJ)
In round-trip or round trip, it refers to a trip in which either or both of the departure place and the arrival place are different.
Round The World Trip, RTW
大西洋とThe Pacific OceanA trip that goes back to the place of departure either eastward or westward. A dedicated air fare is set. For more informationRound the World Ticketchecking ...

Purchasing an air ticket

Air ticket issuance

Airline tickets other than airlinesTravel clubBut tickets are issued. Where it was issued is printed on the face of the ticket. In case of normal fare, it is not always necessary to reserve a flight for purchase (open ticket can be issued), but for most discount tickets, a round trip flight must be booked before purchase (round trip FIX Obligation).

Ticketing at a travel agency is performed at a travel agency that has an agency contract with an airline for domestic flights. For international flights, the number of airlines and travel agencies is huge, soInternational Air Transport Association By (IATA) BSP (Billing Settlement Plan) "Bank centralized payment method" called.

In Japan,BSP JAPAN Airline tickets that are members of BSP JAPAN Tickets issued by a travel agency certified byMizuho BankThrough. This travel agency is called an IATA authorized agency.

In addition, some airlines outside JapanBSP JAPAN There are also cases where a ticket is outsourced by contracting directly with a Japanese travel agency without passing through. Both domestic and international flights are contracted and approved by designating stores, so even the same travel agency may or may not issue air tickets.

In recent years, with the spread of the Internet reservation system, ATB tickets are issued at the time of check-in at the airport described later, andElectronic ticketHas been switched toTravel agencySo paper tickets are gone.

When using Japan domestic flights,Travel agency,AirlinesMost of the time, you could check the seat availability and buy an airline ticket at a sales office in Japan.2002From aroundAirlines OfWebsiteAtインターネットReservations and payments are beginning to be expanded, and in this case, it is possible to use a "ticketless service" in which no air ticket is issued.

*Payment method in this case is partlyExpress BusSimilarly, pay the fare at the convenience store after booking, and use the certificate printed at the cashier as a substitute for the airline ticket,Credit cardIf you choose to pay, enter your reservation number at the airport counter or check-in machine on the day of boarding, or insert the credit card you used at the time of reservation/purchase into the check-in machine to board the airline ticket Often takes the form of receiving a ticket. It is a good idea to print the reservation screen just in case.

In the past, international airline tickets from Japan were mainly purchased at travel agencies and airline sales offices, but recently airlines, including major airlines, have been focusing on selling ticketless services for online reservations. Before the introduction of the ticketing fee, etc., the fee was set to be a little cheaper. Ticketless discount for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines2007May 9It was finished after the boarding and was abolished. It was applied to most fares that could be booked on the website, and even the discounted fares had an additional 2% discount applied.

Ticketing fees, etc.

In recent years, an increasing number of airlines collect ticketing fees when making reservations, changes, ticketing, etc. through manned channels such as airline city counters, airport counters, and call centers. in Japan,Japan Airlines, ANA earns a ticketing fee for international passengers when booking through the above (free for domestic flights). Even if it’s a domestic flight in Japan,Cheap airlineIn this case, reservation fees, payment fees, seat reservation fees, etc. are often collected. Many airlines around the world also collect fees.

Also, after abolishing the sales fees paid by airlines to travel agencies (zero commission), many companies also collect the ticketing fees specified by the travel agencies when they make reservations and issue tickets.

Airfare/fare

When purchasing an air ticket, in addition to the air fare (except for free tickets and award tickets),consumption taxAnd immigration taxtaxPay. Also,Airport fee(Passenger service facility feeAnd so on), air insurance premiums, and special fuel surcharges (fuel surcharge) Or special aviation insurance charges may be required. However, taxes and fees are often incorporated into airfares.

For domestic flights in Japan, in addition to airfare,Tokyo International Airport(Haneda)[7],Chubu International Airport[8],Kitakyushu Airport[9]For flightsPassenger facility fee orPassenger handling facility usage fee (PFC / Passenger Facility Charge)Narita International Airport[10],KIXTerminal 2[11]For flightsPassenger service facility fee (PSFC / Passenger Service Facility Charge) is required (except for free tickets and award tickets). Japanese domestic airfares include consumption tax,Osaka International AirportOf (Itami)JetFlightsSpecial landing feeIs included.Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA)2011May 9Boarding minutes[12]More than airfareFuel special surcharge(Fuel surcharge) is required separately.American terrorist attacksUnder the influence of2001May 11From domestic flights introduced by major Japanese airlinesFlight insurance special charges The2006May 10It was abolished from boarding, and the equivalent amount was incorporated into the airfare.

Ticket validity

Validity period of ticket

The contents of the ticket will be validated by the validating stamp of the ticketing airline or its agent.[13].

For regular fare tickets, if there is no reservation for domestic flights in Japan, the expiration date is 90 days from the day after the ticket issuance. However, when discounted fares such as "early discount" and "special flights" are applied due to the liberalization of air fares, only that flight/seat will be valid.

In addition, the international fare ticket for international flights is valid for one year starting from the day after the ticket issuance in the case of ticketing without reservation (OPEN ticketing), but this also applies to the flight or seat when applying the discounted fare. It is valid only for a limited time, and the minimum and maximum number of days required for travel may be set. Some group and round-trip tickets may be valid for months or weeks[13].

Most cheap flights change bookings andStopover(Stopover. Stay in a city other than your destination for at least 24 hours),Open jaw(There are restrictions on one or both of the starting point and the arriving point)

For cheaper tickets,Direct flightsIt has been used for a while (when traveling from Japan to Europe,Seoul,Hong Kong,MoscowFor example, it takes more time than a normal direct flight, and the waiting time for transit may be extremely long.

Changes, etc.

The following are general treatments by airlines when they are caused by personal circumstances other than illness. If you booked/issued tickets at a travel agency,Travel agentas well as the Travel agent agentDetermined byClauseMay follow. Also bad weatherVolcanoeruption-EarthquakeIn case of force majeure or due to airline such as equipment failure, etc., the handling is different from the following, and it is often handled on a case-by-case basis.In this case, the airline that purchased the ticket or I would like to contact a travel agency (Example:Traffic paralysis due to eruption of Aiyafiyatra York in 2010,Boeing 787 battery problem,Flex traveler systemSuch).

Change

There are fare that can change reservation and fare that cannot change reservation. Even if the fare can change the reservationBooking change fee,Exchange issue feeMay be required. In addition, some airline tickets allow you to change the reservation only for the return flight even if you cannot change the reservation for the outbound flight.

For domestic flights of major Japanese airlines, you can change your reservation as often as you like before the departure time of the flight you plan to fly, as long as you have a ticket with a changeable reservation, and cancel your reservation (open ticket) You can also However, if the fare is different from the next flight, you will need to adjust the difference, additional charges will be collected for the shortfall, and excess will be refunded, and the PFC will be treated in the same way. As mentioned above, the name of an airline ticket cannot be changed, and some sectors cannot be changed. In addition, even if the ticket has a fare that cannot be changed, there are some tickets that can be changed only if there is a vacant seat at the departure airport before the reserved flight on the day of boarding.

Refund

When refunding, on domestic flights of major Japanese airlinesCancellation feeとRefund chargeThe remaining amount deducted will be refunded. For international tickets, if you only charge the cancellation fee or refund fee, whichever is higher, or if it is a combined fee, some tickets cannot be refunded, so please check the refund rules for each fare. I want to make a wish. Also some cheap airlinesMiles-Point,CouponThere are also airlines that offer refunds with in-kind benefits.

The refund fee for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines is 400 yen + consumption tax. HoweverFuji Dream Airlines,Hokkaido Air SystemThere is no refund fee.

Cancellation fees for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines are not refundable by the departure time of the booked flight, but not after refunding the ticket purchased with a fare with a changeable reservation (normal fare, round-trip discount, etc.) Will incur a prescribed cancellation fee. In addition, in the case of refunding a ticket purchased with a fare that cannot be rebooked, cancellation charges are often incurred both before and after the departure time, even if the fare is the same for different airlines these days. Increasing numbers of cases have completely different refund policies.

Credit cardIf you purchase an airline ticket in, you will be refunded through the credit card company, but other than that, it depends on the airline's regulations, the place of payment, and the payment method.accountTransferIn many cases, refunds can only be made at the airline's airport counter or branch. In many cases, refund costs such as transfer fees and transportation expenses are to be borne by the user. In addition, such as travel ticketsgift cardDepending on the payment method, refund may not be possible.

Please note that the refund period is often predetermined.Japanese yenEven if you bought the ticket atUnited States dollar,Localcurrency, The airline is registeredCountryIt may be refunded in the currency of.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Yoshikata Yamanobe"Aviation Industry" Education Company, 1977, p. 265.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 90.
  4. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 91.
  5. ^ Please be careful about fraudulent ticket salesJapan Airlines August 2018, 8
  6. ^ United Airlines Fare Chart
  7. ^ Changes to domestic terminal passenger handling facility usage charges - Japan Airport Building
  8. ^ Passenger facility fee - Chubu International Airport (company)
  9. ^ Passenger handling facility usage fee - Kitakyushu Air Terminal
  10. ^ Passenger service facility fee (PSFC)/Security service facility fee (PSSC) - Narita International Airport (company)
  11. ^ Passenger Service Facility Charge (PSFC)/Passenger Security Service Charge (PSSC) - New Kansai International Airport
  12. ^ About setting of special fuel surcharge (PDF) - Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA) Announcements/Press Releases 2011May 6
  13. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 73.

Related item


New coronavirus

New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important.[1][2][3][4].

In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in.

(Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,(English edition)Is prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia[1][2][3][4].

Virus type

The following viruses were called new coronaviruses before their official names were given.

Types of new coronaviruses that are pathogenic to humans
Formal nameOther namesSusceptible host[† 1]First discovery location (discovery year)Infection
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2][5][6]2019-Ncov

SARS virus 2

Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)

Bat,Scale armorChugoku-Wuhan(2019)New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3][4][7]
MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]Middle east virus

MERS virus

Camel flu virus

camel,BatSaudi Arabia-Jeddah(2012)Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)[8]
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)New Haven Virus[9]A mouseHong Kong (2005)Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]SARS virusChinese cabbage,BatChugoku-Foshan(2002)Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  1. ^ (English edition)May not be succeeded.
  2. ^ a b This virus is not a different speciesSARS-related coronavirusIs considered to be one of the stocks of.
  3. ^ Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia,Wuhan pneumoniaThere is a syndrome.
  4. ^ (English edition),(English edition)Including stocks of.

All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.

Etymology

Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOIt complies with the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by.[10] [11] [12]

Historically, pathogens have often been named after location, individuals, or specific species, but these practices are no longer endorsed by WHO.[10] [11] [12]

The permanent official names of viruses and diseases are, respectively.ICTVとWHO OfInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD)Is determined by.

Detailed explanation

footnote

  1. ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
  2. ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
  3. ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
  4. ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  5. ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362 .
  7. ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
  8. ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
  9. ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
  10. ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
  11. ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
  12. ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301. https://www.jmir.org/2020/5/e19301/. 
  13. ^ Host jump capability may not persist
  14. ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
  15. ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
  16. ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013

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