Opening of a hotel where you can experience the culture of Osaka ... Experience meeting of shamisen and Kamigata Rakugo "You can enjoy the atmosphere of Osaka while staying at the hotel"
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In the lobby, you can experience shamisen and upper storytelling.
On April 4st, a new hotel will open in Umeda, Osaka, where you can experience the culture of Osaka.To Tsukkomi of Manzai …… → Continue reading
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Etymology of "Kamigata Rakugo"
Rakugo held above was called "Osaka Rakugo" or "Kyoto Rakugo",1932(7)May 7"Kamigata Rakugo" was used for the first time in the nineteenth issue of the published magazine "Kamigata".Kagetsutei GurimaruWrote in "Yose Dressing Room Encyclopedia".Currently, Kyoto rakugo is declining in the genealogy, so Osaka rakugo is called Kamigata rakugo.
Until the Edo period
Edo PeriodIn the middle of the term, in KyotoThe first Gorobee TsuyunoAnd OsakaThe first Hikohachi Yonezawa"Tsujibanashi" and "Tsujibanashi" who set up a stage on the side of the road and earned money by showing off their own storytelling.Light mouth"(Karukuchi) is considered to be the origin of rakugo.KanseiからcultureOverJoruriShibaya Shiba, who turned from a writer, and a storyteller who went down from Kyoto to Osaka and played a story in a company such as the Spirit, but emerged.Yasuke Matsuda, the second generation Yasuke Matsuda and "the ancestor of Katsura Ichimon"The first Katsura BunjiIt is known that the first Bunji opened a yose for the first time in Osaka and started a play story with voice and sound tools.Bunji is a disciple of the upper 3th generation, although the 4rd and 4th generations stand side by side in the east and west.Katsura BunshiDid not succeed Bunji, and since then Katsura Ichimon has stopped Fumie.The first Fumie gained popularity with "XNUMX stones" and the like, and the first Katsura Bunnosuke (later)2nd generation Shinzaemon Sorori), 2nd generation Katsura Bunto (later2nd Tsukitei Bunto), The first Katsura Bunshi (later the second Katsura Bunshi, later yearsKatsura Bunzaemon),The first Katsura Bun KeijiAlso popular and capable, it was called "Four Tenno".
It is a modern upward rakugo lined up with Katsura Ichimon, and it is the main schoolShofu-tei IchimonIs considered to be the ancestorMatsutomi Kutei ShochikuAlthough the details ofTempoからErnst & YoungIt was established at the time of, and became both Katsura and Shofu-tei.Tachikawa,Hayashiya (Hayashiya)4 denominations includingMeijiIt became the mainstream of Kamigata Rakugo until the period.Kamigata Hayashiya Ichimon is in EdoThe first Masazo HayashiyaIs a grand disciple ofThe first Shozo HayashiyaIs homeOkayamaStarting from sitting in Osaka, which is close toMeiji RestorationIt was the largest force until around the time, but eventually it was replaced by Katsura Ichimon.
In the Meiji era, the name of the second generation Fumie broke, and the second generation Fumie and others were the center of the story.Katsura school", Bunto, the second generation Bunkei (later)7th Katsura Bunji),The first Shofu-tei Fukumatsu,3th generation Shofutei MatsutsuruFlashy and cheerful "Sanyu faction"Is lined up.Although many other factions were formed and disappeared, the heyday was reached after the name of the 2th Bunji attack of the 7nd Bunji.During this time, in Osaka3rd generation Katsura Bunzo,The first Gorobee Tsuyuno,3rd generation Katsura Bun Keiji,2th Hayashiya Senmaru,The first Shijaku Katsura,The first Katsura ZakobaProduce masters such as.京都Then the second generation Sorori Shinzaemon,2nd generation Katsura Bunnosuke,The first Edataro KatsuraWas active.Also from TokyoThe first Tachibanano Madoka,2nd generation Sanyutei Enba,5th generation Okinaya horseThey emigrated and livened up the vaudeville.
From Taisho to early Showa
TaishoからShowaIn the early daysThe first Katsura Harudanji,2rd Katsura Mikisuke,3nd generation Sanyutei Enba,2nd generation Tachibana family Hanatachibana,The first Koharudanji KatsuraThey gained popularity, but soonYokoyama Entertainment-Hanabishi AchacoEmergingComicPopularity,Yoshimoto Kogyo ClubIt was sluggish due to the fixed number of seats, the acquisition of various factions, and the passing of signboard rakugoka.
Manzai created a new laugh that fits the times, such as Entatsu and Achako creating "Waseda-Keio" from a radio broadcast of college baseball.Rakugo is out of order due to internal conflict,Hayashi MasanosukeThe Yoshimoto Kogyo Club, including the above, was considered to have no commercial value, and enthusiasts left the old-fashioned arts.The first Harudanji was a production that utilized a new medium, a record, in addition to the absurdity that included fashion, and provided only a new laugh and gained many enthusiasts, which greatly influenced today's upward storytelling. The feeling of lonely struggle could not be forbidden, and it was thought that Harudanji's death gave the title to Manzai.
5th generation Shofutei Matsutsuru,4th Yonedanji KatsuraThey formed "Rakugoso" and made efforts to preserve and inherit the upper storytelling through the management of the rakugo story "Kamigata story listening party" and the publication of the magazine "Kamigata storytelling".
Wartime comic masters and comic talkersWarawashi CorpsAlthough they were dispatched to China by a consolation group such as, the rakugo performers who sit and perform are not called because they are terrible against soldiers, and they hold rakugo parties with wealthy people and geisha as guests in Kobe and Kyoto where there are relatively few air raids. It was well received.
Showa 30's after the Pacific War
Pacific WarImmediately after the end, there were no fixed seats,2rd generation Katsura Harudanji TheYoshimoto KogyoDue to the contract problem with Keihanshin, he could not speak in urban areas including Keihanshin, and he was in a state of organizing a performing arts group himself and going around the countryside..1947,Shochiku OfMatsujiro ShiraiIs OsakaMinamiMovie theater "Ebashi ShochikuWas changed to a theater, where the 5th generation Matsuzuru, the 4th generation Yonedanji Katsura, the 2nd generation Hanatachibana, and the 2nd generation Harudanji (the problem with Yoshimoto was solved at the end of 1945).) Rally..On the other hand, the young second generation Efukutei Mitsuzuru (later) who appeared at the Ebihashi Shochiku rookie party ("Enomatsu Sunday party")6th generation Shofutei Matsutsuru)・3rd Katsura rice morning・ 2nd generation Koharu Katsura (later3rd generation Katsura Harudanji) ・ 2nd generation Katsura Ayame (later5th generation Katsura Fumie)・3rd generation Yonenosuke KatsuraEt al. Formed a group called "Twitter" in 1948.
The 5th generation Matsuzuru and the comic talkerTamba family KurimaruFrom the feud with Kyoto, in March 1948New Kyogoku"FukiWith the opening of the event, Kurimaru invited the 2nd generation Harudanji, the 4th generation Yonedanji Katsura, and the 4th generation Yonedanji Katsura.4th generation Katsura Fumie-Ento Tachibanano-It ’s like a sentence house-Tachibana family KoentaAfter passing through Ebashi ShochikuNaniwa Shinsei Sanyu SchoolBecame a split state to form..However, due to the attitude of Kurimaru, a series of secessionists gradually came from the Naniwa Shinsei Sanyu faction, and in April 1949, the Kansai Performing Arts Association was formed in the form of arbitration by the "Twitter party", and the division was about. Converged in one year.
However, there are still few well-known veteran storytellers,Katsura Harusuke"I have ten storytellers in the dressing room right now, but if I die one by one a year, there will be no rakugo anymore...Harusuke himself was in the fall of 1948, the 5th generation Matsuzuru in 1950, and the 4th generation Yonedanji Katsura.2nd generation Tachibana family HanatachibanaIn 1951, the second generation Hayashiya Somemaru passed away in 2, the second generation Haru Keiji passed away in 1952, and when the second generation Haru Keiji died, the writer'sJunichiro Tanizaki"The Osaka rakugo is over," he wrote in the newspaper.
In this situation, I was away from rakugo3th Hayashiya SenmaruReturned in November 1952 (named Somemaru in August 11)..Also in February 1952Kobayashi Ichizo"Takarazuka Young Rakugo" was launched with the support of, Young rakugoka who gathered at the "Twitter party" participated.Young rakugoka also participate in study sessions and are the first generationEnto Tachibanano,3rd generation Shofu-tei Fukumatsu,Unosuke Katsura,4rd generation Katsura Bun Keiji, The first generationKatsura Nanten,Katsura Buncho, 2th generationSansakumon SaburoHe worked energetically, begging an old man who was almost retired to teach a storyteller.Among the elders, Ento has by far the largest number of performances, and he tried to inherit the classic rakugo by actively practicing Kamigata and Tokyo rakugoka, and returned to Takaza in his later years.1972Until his death in (47), he left the upper story of the Meiji era to the end.Of tokyo8th Katsura Bunraku,3rd generation Sanyutei Kinma,2nd generation Kobunji Katsura,2nd generation Sanyutei HyakushoThese rakugoka also helped in the reconstruction of Kamigata Rakugo, and Kobunji Katsura and Hyakusei, who were born in Osaka, made great achievements such as introducing Kamigata Rakugo to the audience in Tokyo.
1951(26)May 9ToNew Japan BroadcastingOpened and commercial broadcasting became a trend,NHKIn order to enhance the content, each broadcasting station, including the above, focused on "upper rakugo as a creative work" and "rakugoka as a celebrity", sponsored a rakugo party linked to the program, and with a rakugoka as an exclusive entertainer. I made a contract.With this tideThe first Morino FukuroThey raised their name and brought benefits to the upper storytelling world. With NHKAsahi BroadcastingIs particularly aggressive, NHKShinsaibashi OfHitachi HallHeld the "Kamigata Rakugo no Kai" in collaboration with the "Broadcasting Performing Arts Festival" based in Asahi Broadcasting Corporation.Meeting to listen to Kamigata Rakugo, And later "ABC Young RequestTo ""Midnight vaudevilleWas set up and the program of "Kamigata Rakugo Kikukai" was broadcast.
1956ToHasegawa KonobuIs a novel that adapted the life of the first Harudanji KatsuraKatsura HarudanjiThe movie "The life of an interesting man in the world"(directed by:Kimura Keigo,starring:Morishige Hisaya) Is published.This movie supported the name of the 3rd generation Harudanji, which will be described later.In addition,4th generation Katsura Fukudanji,2rd Katsura spring butterflyIs an opportunity to apply for a rakugokaIt brought about a certain influence.
1957In (32), the 3rd generation Somemaru became the first chairmanKamigata Rakugo AssociationIs formed..Under the chairman, the 2nd generation Mitsuzuru, the 3rd generation U.S.A., the 2nd generation Katsura Fukudanji (named by Katsura Koharu in 1950), and the 3rd generation Katsura Kofumie (named by Katsura Ayame in 1952) became the secretary, and Somemaru. And the four secretaries together, "Upward Rakugo Five MenWas called.
1959In (Showa 34), the 3rd generation Katsura Harudanji,1962In (Showa 37), the 6th generation Shokakutei Matsuzuru and the great name were revived one after another.The second generation Koharudanji Katsura, who started at about the same time as these two,2nd generation Shofukutei Matsunosuke,3rd generation Katsura BungaSomemaru Hayashiya, the third generation of the same generation as them, while getting started before the war3rd generation Hayashiya Somegoro, Introductory group in the first half of the Showa 30's4th generation Katsura Bunko,3rd generation Beishi Katsura,Tsukitei good morningThe number of mid-career employees has increased as they have the ability.
From the 40s to the end of the Showa period
In the 40's of the Showa era, the disciples that Matsuzuru, U.S.A., Harudanji, and Beichou Katsura, the third generation, had been actively taking, emerged against the backdrop of the television era and the late-night broadcasting boom.Kachou,Shofutei Nizuru, Katsura Bunshi (current6th generation Katsura Fumie),Shoufutei Tsurumitsu,2rd Katsura spring butterfly,Shofuitei, Katsura Asamaru (current2nd generation Katsura Zakoba) Etc. get attention.In particular, Nitsuru gained popularity for his laughter rakugo, which was conscious of the first Katsura Harudanji.1972In (47), he was sought after by regular TV and radio programs, and suddenly became a stardom.Matsuzuru et al.'S Masters have accepted the advancement of young people into the media as the best way to get widespread recognition of Kamigata Rakugo, and as a result, the number of beginners has increased, and in that sense, Nitsuru's achievements are great.
It was around this time that the radio-based vaudeville broadcast became more centered on upper rakugo than traditional comic storytelling and Tokyo rakugo.1971(Showa 46) In October, Asahi Broadcasting Corporation commemorated the 10th anniversary of the opening of the station.1080 minutes RakugoIs held.A total of 7 seats from 1 am to 56 pm (Talk(Including one seat) was broadcast live.OtherRadio Osaka"XNUMX selections of onward rakugo",FM Osaka"Upper FM Yose" etc. cultivated many fans, mainly young people.
-In the direction1966Starting with the "US-North Korea Spot Show" (Showa 41), solo performances have been held in the large hall, and in particular, the US-North Korea has been holding solo performances and Ichimonkai with the follow-up of its popularity as a broadcasting talent. ..Fumie also held a solo performance in Tosaka with the fans who gathered at "Kinshi Katsura no Kai".At that time, the number of fans of Kamigata Rakugo was increasing in Tokyo, mainly university students, and eventually this movement spread nationwide.From around this time, the evaluation of Matsuzuru, U.S.A., Harudanji, and Fumie increased, and eventually they said, "The Four Tennos of Kamigata RakugoWill be called.
Along with the popularity of rakugo, before the war, amateur rakugo circles called "Tenguren" were born one after another, but the "Rakugo Study Group" consisting of university students was the most active.From here, many talented people pass through the professional gates and support the current Kamigatara storytelling world.
1986(61), the 6th generation Matsuzuru, who has been the driving force behind the postwar upward storytelling, passes away.Before and after2nd generation Katsura EsakuHas emerged, so-called "Manzai boomDespite being in the midst of "Laughter King", it became so popular that it was later called "Laughter King".At this point, Kamigata Rakugo has finished its reconstruction period and is heading for the next era.
Even in the Heisei era, public interest in so-called "comedy (art)" such as rakugo and comics did not decline, but after the "MANZAI boom", the main stage of comedy shifted from vaudeville to the broadcasting media.On the other hand, the number of entertainment programs has decreased, and leading rakugoka have been appointed to variety shows one after another.As a result, the rakugoka said,ComedianUnder the abstract name, it became borderless at the audience / viewer level with comic storytellers, comic storytellers, and comedians, and the opportunity to show the uniqueness of rakugo narrowed.Although there are many people who want comedians as broadcast talents (actually comics, comics, and tales, but they rarely have the opportunity to show off their original arts in the broadcast media), those who specifically enter the world of rakugo. Is less than in the 40s.
This is the same phenomenon in both east and west, but in the case of Kamigata Rakugo, the influence of the early death of the second generation Shijaku Katsura in 1999 (Heisei 11) is also significant.The charismatic and popular Shijaku Katsura hole was not easily filled.Also, Shofu-tei Matsuba (posthumous recognition)7th generation Shofutei Matsutsuru),2nd generation Katsura Utanosuke,Kimaru Katsura,4rd generation Hayashiya Somegoro,Yoshinori KatsuraThe world of rakugoka born after the war, who had been longing for the future, was also hurt.Under such circumstances, "Shofukutei Tsurubin et al.Six people meetingActivities and4rd generation Katsura BungaClassic excavation work by3rd generation Katsura Koharu Keiji,Kakusho TsuruhaThere are also new movements such as overseas performances (puppet rakugo).
In addition, there is an example in which an entertainer who was originally active on television as a comedian or comedian starts a new rakugo story in an attempt to develop his own new art in the saturated state of the entertainer.Most of them just like rakugo as one of the arts, but Kunimasa Yamazaki (Tsukitei Hosho), Those who join the association and start rakugo in earnest, go one step further, Seihei Goto (Tsukitei Taiyu) And Watanabe bell (Katsura Sando), Some people are starting to abandon their traditional careers and choose the path of rakugoka.
Since 2004, exchanges with Tokyo have become closer. As of 2008, the number of Kamigata Rakugoka who participated in the "Daiginza Rakugoka Festival" sponsored by the "Rokujin no Kai" reached 114, and while the friendship between East and West Rakugoka deepened.Fukagawa Edo Museum,Oedo Nihobashi-tei,National Engei Hall,Yoshimoto Asakusa KazukiRakugo enthusiasts in Tokyo are also accepting Rakugo, as the number of Rakugo performers appearing in major theaters such as. further,Shoufutei TsurumitsulikeRakugo Art AssociationThere are also those who join the group and take disciples in Tokyo to popularize Kamigata Rakugo.
On September 2006, 9, the Kami-Rakugo Association announced the first post-war special seat for Kami-Rakugo.Tenman Tenjin Shichotei(See below) was opened, and as it was introduced nationwide as one of the tourist attractions in Osaka, the number of visitors has continued to exceed the initial expectations.In addition, it depicts the half-life of an upper female rakugoka, which was broadcast from October 2007 to March of the following year.NHKContinuous tv novel"Dust and dust"Has gained enthusiastic popularity mainly in the Kansai region, and some generations have become interested in rakugo by watching the drama.Appeared as a brother of the main character in the dramaKatsura YoshiyaRakugo has always been a big hit since its broadcast.
Large that has been cut off for a long time since 2007SignatureAnd famous names are attacked one after another and revived. In 2007, Katsura Utashi was a master's name.3nd generation Katsura Utanosuke,2008The third generation Katsura Komaicho is the first in half a century5th Yonedanji Katsura,2009Haruna Kondo3rd Katsura spring butterflyIn 2010Shofu-tei Kotsuru 6 generationEfukutei Ezuru,Katsura branchIs the 5th generationKatsura Bunzo,Katsura TomaruIs the 4th generationKatsura ShiodaiAnd Tomaru's disciples are the 4th generationBeishi Katsura・ 2th generationTaizo KatsuraNamed. Even after 2011Katsura KogoroIs the 2th generationKatsura Nanten,Tsukitei HachitenIs the 7th generationTsukitei BuntoIn 2012, Katsura Saegusa was the 6th generation of the Katsura Ichimon Soke family.Katsura BunshiWas named.However, there are criticisms from the 4th generation Bunga Katsura about this tendency...The rakugo storyteller who was called the "Four Tenno" after the war was the third generation Katsura Harudanji.2016All of them entered the demon register because they died in.2018Harunosuke Katsura4rd generation Katsura HarudanjiNamed, Following the 6th generation Katsura Bunshi, it became the form that inherited the name of "Four Tenno".
Difference from Edo Rakugo
mainlyKamigata dialectTo useKinki areaIt is also a point that foreigners have a hard time getting the idea.Depending on the characters in the storytellerKyoto language,Osaka dialectEtc. are used properly.In recent years, dialects derived from one's hometown (Wakayama dialectThere are also rakugoka who play in).
In Edo RakugoAboveThere are many people who speak these words (eg, "Mikami Sake Tokuri", "Kinmeitake", "Sanjuseki", "Gion Matsuri"), but in Kamigata RakugoEdo languageDoes not appear much. "" And "Edo rough goodsIt is about.Before the war, due to differences in language and art style, Kamigata Rakugo was not accepted by the Tokyo audience, but after the war.MediaWith the development of Osaka, the language of Osaka permeated Tokyo, and with the efforts of the second generation Katsura Kobunji, the second generation Sanyutei Hyakusho, and other upper storytellers in Tokyo, and the activities of the aforementioned "Kamigata Rakugo no Shitenno", it can be heard actively in Tokyo. It became like.
For classic rakugo,3th generation Yanagiya KoMany byAboveThe storyteller was transplanted to Tokyo, and on the contrary, some storytellers were transplanted upward from Tokyo.Therefore, even if the content is the same, the titles of Kamigata Rakugo and Edo (Tokyo) Rakugo are different.Scary bunThere are also stories with different contents, such as ".However, this is not the case for the storytellers that have only one side, after the Pacific War, when East-West exchanges have progressed.
- Edo → Upper: "Vinegar tofu"(Upper"Dust and dust"),""(same"Sakuranomiya"),"Anti-soul incense"(same"Takao"),""(same"Arbitration of thieves"),"Kara eggplant store political talk"(same"Nanjingya political talk"Or" Nankin political talk "),"Shibahama"(Same as" ") etc.
- Upper → Edo: "Camel","Second decoction, "" ("" In Tokyo), "Cat calamity","Upstairs"," ","Immobility","Takasago","vegetables","Mandarin orange shop"(same"Pumpkin shop"),"Toki Udon"(same"Tokisoba"),"Thirty stones","Poor cherry blossom viewing"(same"Nagaya cherry blossom viewing"),"Child praise","Beef praise","Eight scenes of hell(Same as "Hell Tour"), "Inn"(same"The inn's defeat"),"Takatsu's wealth"(same"Inn wealth"),"Irritated Atago pilgrimage(Same as "Hori no Uchi"), "Koike's dog"(same""),"Kikue Buddhist altar"(same""),"Kengesha Chaya"(Same as" ")," "(Same as" "),"Rent a house"(same"Koubei Koubei"),"Standing incense(Same as ""), "" (same as "" ""), "Takakura fox"(same"Prince fox"),"Hundred people"(same"Mt. Ooyama pilgrimage"),"bed","Soon son","Scary bun","Kagekiyo","Kasago","Three sheets"," ","Hundred years"Such.
- Above only: "Ikeda's Ino buying","Winter play","Heibei"," ","Hurray Dobashi","Arima piss","Tinker","Honnoji Temple","Nozaki pilgrimage","Saigyo Koga Waterfall","Edo rough goods","",""Such.
- Edo only: "Sanken Nagaya","Golden rice cake","Carpenter research, "", "", "Gonin Mawashi"Such.
"Travel story", which is the center of Kamigata Rakugo, is divided into four parts: "East trip", "West trip", "South trip", and "North trip".Rakugoka who are new to the story are taught "the beginning" as a familiarity depending on the family, but there are also stories that require considerable skill, such as "XNUMX stones" in "East Journey".
- East trip: Main subject "Ise Sangu Kanno Bustle". "Initiation", "Nimai-ya","Seven Degree Fox","Light work"," ","Lucky sake, "", "" ""Hump Benkei","Thirty stones, Etc.Ise ShrineThe theme is the journey of worship.
- West trip: "", "Hyogo ship("Hyogo shark fin fascination").Kotohira ShrineThe theme is worship.
- South trip: "Kishu flying leg'
- North trip: "Ikeda's Ino buying'
For other travel stories, "Travel in the dark"Eight scenes of hell, "" ("Ryugukai Ryu no Miyako") for a trip on the seabed, "" for a trip to the sky, and "" ("Flatulence of an adult on an island tour") for a trip to a foreign country. You can see a flashy production using a flatulence.
Along with Rakugo (Rakugo in a narrow sense), it forms the axis of Edo Rakugo.love story(Humanity in a narrow sense.TalkClose toSageThere is no. "Peony lantern","Sentence","Shinkei Kasanegafuchi”, Etc.) can be said to not exist in Kamigata Rakugo."It is said to be included in humanity in a broad sense.Standing incense, "Zakohachi", "Daimaruya uproar"Etc. is a rakugo storyteller.However, there are exceptions such as "Oni Azami" that do not have sage (BailPorted from, etc.).Regarding this difference, "Joruri had established a solid position in the upper part, so it was less necessary for Rakugo to take charge of humanity," said Katsura U.S.A.
In the present age when East-West exchanges are advancing, there are rakugo storytellers who dictate human emotions with an upward wind, so the principle that "there is no human emotions above (less)" is breaking down, but overall, the upper performances are dropped. Is the center.
For Kabuki-themed rakugo
1. How to perform Kabuki plays as they are: "Kagamiyama", "Honnoji", "Jiraiya", "Tsunachi"
Sage: When ordinary sage is used, and after the curtain is over, "Hey, it's the best in Japan. It's the best in Japan." "No. I'm a Japanese drugstore in Nihonbashi XNUMX-chome, I thought I'd advertise the store here. Hey, the best in Japan!" Then the young man in the hut came and said, "This is the best in Japan." There is a pattern of screaming, "I'm sorry at the drugstore," "Hey," "Hey, here," "What's wrong with you!"
2. How to change from ordinary rakugo to a play: "Konbu Maki play", "Tako play", "Kuracho-juku", "Pawn shop play", "Foot-up", "Seventh stage" Most of them are
Sage: Here it is a normal sage.
It is divided into two types.
The production of the play story in Edo changes from the middle of the humanity story, and the costume is pulled out and a writing split is provided in the background, but such a production is not used in the upper part.He was good at the first Katsura Bunga in the Meiji era, the first Koharudanji Katsura in the Showa era, and Kobunji Katsura who moved to Tokyo. In particular, method 1) is extinct.However, after the first Keiji Koharu turned into a dancer as Hanayagi Rokudai, NHK recorded some stories as images to hand down the arts, and now Katsura Beichou and others are based on it, such as "Honnoji". We are trying to revive "Sotten Play".
Some in the Showa eraNew RakugoWas made in the rakugo world of east and westSubstitute(Also known as "Amanuensis"), Beichou Katsura, 3rd generation "", 3rd generationHayashiya SomegoroWork "",Junichi MitaWork "Mameda", Etc. are in the category of classics, and some of the performances are also performed in Tokyo.Currently,Mitsue Katsura (currently, 6th generation Fumie)("Wife's trip", "Sea bream", "Golf before dawn”, Etc.)Creative RakugoIt is made actively under the name of. Sadao OsadaIt is also characteristic that there are full-time rakugo writers like Ichimon.2nd generation Shofukutei MatsunosukeIs "Koji Akashi", 4th generationKatsura BunkoWas working on a new work under the name of "Aoi Rodtake".
The characters in the story are Kiroku, Seihachi, Osaki, Genbei, the landlord, a doctor (often named "Akakabe Shuan"), and the old man in Uemachi.
Kiroku (both Kii-san and Kii-san) plays the role of "stupid", which is equivalent to "Yotarou" in Edo. Is often used), which is different from "Yotarou".As for his personality, Yotaro is often set as a natural idiot, but somehow he is awakened. (→ ""Kiroku and SeihachiSee also)
Kumagoro and Hachigoro, who often appear in Edo Rakugo, play the roles of Kiroku and Seihachi in the upper part.The names of Kumagoro and Hachigoro appear above "Camel"Heavenly ghost", "Brain heavenly bear Goro" (also known as "Yataketa's bear Goro" in "Camel"), "Hachigoro shavedThere is even "Hachigoro" in.In addition, the carpenter's builder, who appears in the Edo Rakugo "Sanken Nagaya", appears above as a helper (Tettai) Matabei.
In productions placed after the Meiji era, when the time setting is not specified or the common people are allowed to give their surnames, a general surname may appear after the real name of the rakugoka who is related to the performer (for example). "Takeuchi-san" for the 6th generation Matsuzuru Ichimon, "Ohashi-san" and "Okamoto-san" for the Hayashiya Ichimon).
- A small desk placed in front of the performer.Think of it as a writing desk, bathtub, futon, or floor.However, there are some rakugoka who do not use it depending on the story they perform, and some rakugoka who rarely use it (such as the 3rd generation Katsura Harudanji, the 2nd generation Katsura Shijaku, and Katsura Saegusa).
- Small time signature
- smallBeat tree..It is usually placed on the lectern, and when it rings, it has a small time signature with the left hand and hits the lectern.It is used as a rakugo storyteller, or to change the atmosphere.It is also used to signal behind the scenes that make sound effects such as the sound of musical accompaniment and bells on the sleeves of the stage.In a strange placeCreative RakugoOn a computermouseExample of using it as if it wereKatsura Bunchin· "Heart love cyber").
- Knee hiding
- A small tsuitate that hides the performer's knees.
Normally, the above three points are used as a set, and when carrying them in and out of the stage, put a knee cover on the lectern.
I wrote the name of the performer, which is commonly used todayFamous villaAnd the table on which it is heldMekuri TheMeijiUntil the timesDashiWas used only in the upper yose until the early Showa period.
It is also different from Edo Rakugo in that it includes a musical accompaniment as a production during the oral performance.This musical accompanimentFittingsCall.
For example, when the performer says, "I'm coming to Shinmachi. That cheerful thing" ("Three pieces of contract"), a musical accompaniment in the dressing room plays the shamisen and sings a song to express a gorgeous Yukaku.On the other hand, when the characters walk on a lonely night road in "Futanari" or "Bancho Sarayashi", the shamisen is played quietly to express a lonely scene.
As mentioned above, it is often used to describe the scene, but in "Nozaki pilgrimage" etc., it is used for onomatopoeia such as the movement of a boat. In "Rakugo" such as "Paper scrap shop" and "Tsuji Zou Chaya", it becomes a type of interaction with the performer. In plays such as "Tako Shibai," "Pawn Shop," and "Honnoji," KabukiUnderground musicBecomes
Bunchin Katsura sometimes uses the mechanical sound of a computer, which is also a variation of the fitting.
The musical accompaniment player is also called "Shimoza" or "Hetari", and is composed of a shamisen player and a drum player and a flute player.The shamisen player is a full-time player, but the music player is often a young rakugoka.Shamisen players faced difficulties in succession after the war,Intangible cultural property for which measures such as record making should be takenHe was the holder of "Kamigata Rakugo Shimoza Music"Hayashiya TomiAfter the death of (the wife of the second generation Hayashiya Somemaru), he was in danger of surviving, but the third generation Katsura Beichou featured it in his program "Asahi Family Warotei" (Asahi Television Broadcasting).4th Hayashiya SenmaruThe number has gradually increased due to the activities of younger generations, and as of December 2006, the number of members of the Kamigatara Rakugo Association alone is 12.As a typical modern shamisen playerEika Utsumi,Shiyo Katsura(Wife of the second generation Shijaku), Kazume Hayashiya (5th Hayashiya KozomeWife of,3rd generation Katsura AyameSister) and others.
True hit system TheTaishoOnce abolished in the times, after the warKamigata Rakugo AssociationWas revived as a secret internal rule, but it became famous and innocent due to the upward rakugo boom in the 40s.
With the opening of Temma Tenjin Hanjotei, Saegusa Katsura (currently Katsura Bunshi 6th), the chairman of the Kamigatara Rakugo Association, proposed a plan to revive the true hitting system, but many dissented opinions abandoned it.
Currently, the incense board (internal rules of the Kamigata Rakugo Association) exists as an alternative to the true hit system, with Nakaza (corresponding to the second Edo Rakugo) for more than 5 years of art history and the same rank as true hit for more than 15 years. It is divided into A, B, and C ranks.Therefore, when a word such as "undercard" is usually used in Kamigata Rakugo, it is often used as a word to indicate the turn.The order is as follows.
- Undercard(Zenza): Some young people are studying.It also handles chores such as returning famous villas and cushions.originally,BuddhismIt is derived from the fact that when a high-ranking monk preached, the monk who spoke before the turn was called the "maeza".
- The second,The third(Hereafter, the fourth ... will continue as appropriate)
- Medium bird: Refers to the performer just before entering (breaking).
- Fog: Also called "Kaburitsuki", "Tsukami", or "Kuitsuki" in Edo Rakugo.
- Shibari: Also known as "in front of the knee" in Edo.ColorSuch.From the meaning of binding the customer who started.
- Motale: Also known as "knees".
- bird: Also known as "chief".The person in charge of the meeting. From the meaning of "taking sales", "taking the truth of the box office" and so on.
- Expulsion: Also known as "barashi".Until the exiting guest is released, he will appear in the role of connecting with a light storyteller.Rare now.
The payment for the vaudeville was prepaid for Rakugo in Edo, while it was postpaid for Rakugo..
Membership of professional institutions
Rakugoka in Tokyo are generallyRakugo Association,Rakugo Art AssociationAlthough it is color-coded by the organization to which it belongs, the upper storytellers are based on the postwar history.Yoshimoto Kogyo,Shochiku entertainment,US morning officeAffiliation such asEntertainment officeIt is color coded by.As shown below, each office is basically subscribed in units of one gate, but it belongs to a different office than the majority of one gate (Nikaku Shofukutei, Tsukitei Kachou, etc.)Shofutei ShoboEtc.) or set up a private office (Shofutei Fukusho,4th generation Tachibana family ChitachibanaThere are also rakugoka who are active as freelancers.Born in KansaiRakugo Tachikawa styleIntroduced toBunto Tatekawa,Unsui TatekawaPlays Kamigata Rakugo.
- U.S.A. Office-Beichou Katsura 3rdU.S. morning(Excluding Tsukitei Ichimon and Jakujaku)
- Shochiku Geino-6th ShokakuteiMatsuzuru Ichimon(Excluding Nitsuru Ichimon, Tsurusho Master and Disciple, Shota, etc.), 3rd generation KatsuraHarudanji Ichimon, Morino Fukuro Ichimon
- Yoshimoto Kogyo-5th KatsuraFumie Ichimon,Somemaru Hayashiya, Part of the 6th Matsuzuru Ichimon (Shofukutei Nitsuru Ichimon, Shofukutei Tsurusho Ichimon, Shofukutei Shota), Tsukitei Happo Ichimon, 2nd Shofukutei Matsunosuke Ichimon
- Gorobee Tsuyuno Office-Second generationGorobee Tsuyuno Ichimon
But the majority of rakugokaKamigata Rakugo AssociationHe is a member of Temma Tenjin Hanjotei and appeared in "Hikohachi FestivalWe are cooperating beyond the framework of the office in participating in the event.For this reason, the "wall between affiliated entertainment agencies", which is often seen in other upward performances such as comics and tales, and sometimes becomes a bottleneck in the formation of performers on TV programs, is by no means inexhaustible in the rakugo world. Not so expensive, but not so expensive.
There is a rakugoka group separate from the Kamigatara Rakugo Association.This is the 6rd generation who withdrew from the Kamigatara Rakugo Association due to a feud with the 3th Tenno (especially the XNUMXth generation Matsuzuru).Hayashiya SomezoWas established by.Due to the aging of Somezo, he has been inactive, and since his death in 2012, the group has virtually disappeared.
In addition, there is an organization for general upper performing arts, and many rakugoka also belong to it. As of December 2006, the chairman is the fourth generation of a rakugo artist.Katsura Fuuji.
From the Meiji era to the early Showa era
Osaka city from the Meiji era to the early Showa period, especially MinamiHozenji TempleIn the surrounding area, on the north side, it was a symbol of the Sanyu faction.Koumeitei(Formerly known as "Imaka's seat" and "Izumikuma's seat". Later acquired by Yoshimoto Kogyo and "Nishi Kagetsutei"), "Nanchi" was a symbol of the Katsura school on the south side.Kanazawa-tei"(Similarly after the acquisition of Yoshimoto," Nanchi Kazuki ") existed and competed.
OtherKitaKitashinchi"Eirakukan" (also "Kitashinchi Kagetsu Club" after the acquisition of Yoshimoto), etc.Uehonmachi,Horie,Matsuya Town,(I.e.,Matsushima,Osaka Tenmangu ShrineThere were more than a dozen rakugo-specialized fixed seats in the neighborhood, but as Yoshimoto gradually acquired them, starting with Tenmangu's "Second Bungeikan" (also "" after the acquisition of Yoshimoto), it gradually became a manzai center. It shifted to the contents of the box office.
During the Pacific War, vaudeville performances were only held for about four hours a day due to the consolation to the battlefield and the aging of rakugoka.Missing entertainers from Tokyo YoshimotoYanagiya Kingoro,Yanagiya MikimatsuEtc. were called in and the box office was not held.However, due to the intensification of the war, some were closed and the remaining vaudeville seatsOsaka air raidReturned to ashes.
After the Pacific War
1947, To MinamiEbashi Shochiku"(Commonly known as" Enomatsu ") opens.After that, the successor of Enomatsu, "Sennichim TheaterOrShochiku entertainmentOf the systemSquare seat"Performance" (Dotonbori) "Shinkatsuki"(new world),Yoshimoto KogyoOf the systemNamba Kagetsu""Umeda Kagetsu"TohoIn the systemKay production"A lot of comedians appearedTop hot theater, In Kyoto and ShinkyogokuFuki""Kyoraku Theater""Kyoto Kagetsu, KobeHyogo StationBefore "Yose Palace",New opening"Kobe Shochikuza" and other venues opened in Japan, but all of them were mixed theaters with Mansai, and it was hard to say that they were regular seats for rakugo.
The Kamigatara Rakugo Association, which was concerned that the absence of a fixed seat specializing in rakugo would lead to the destruction of Kamigatara, was led by the chairman, Shokakutei Matsuzuru.South wardMillennium TownShimanouchi Church of the Japanese Christian ChurchBorrow1972(47)2From the 5th of the month "Shimanouchi vaudevilleIs held.It was positioned as a fixed seat beyond the boundaries of entertainment agencies and broadcasting stations (at that time, some well-known rakugoka had an exclusive contract with the broadcasting station), but due to the circumstances of the venue, it collapsed in just two years. It ends up.
After that, "Shimanouchi Yosei" changed venues.1974(49) Brother sewing machine building (Shinsaibashi) in April, bowling alley in the basement of Senba Center Building in December of the same year,1975(Showa 50) In MarchDaiei Kyobashi storeIt was shortened to the box office on the 3rd of the month.This "Shimanouchi Kyobashi Daiei-tei" has been around for about 9 years.1984(59) Moved to the restaurant "Temporary" in Tataya-cho, Minami-ku in April and returned to "Shimanouchi", but three years later, "Temporary" was closed due to building renovation.1987In (62), he moved to CB College in Shinsaibashi, and finally became a box office on the 1st of the month.1993(5)Tennoji OfIsshinji TheaterAfter moving to1996(8)Wach upperMoved to the lesson room with the opening.2005The venue was moved to Wach Hall in (17).With the closing of Wach Hall2011(23)Sennichimae OfTORII HALLIt moved to, and it is still going on on the 1st of the month.See belowKobe Shinkaichi / KirakukanUntil the opening of the museum, the Kamigata Rakugo Kyokai positioned Shimanouchi Yose as the two wheels of the association-sponsored Yose along with Tenman Tenjin Shigesho-tei.
1999From (11)2000Until (12), the Kamigatara Rakugo Association, along with the Nankyoku Best Friends Association, worked with the Agency for Cultural Affairs to seek the establishment of a national theater in Osaka similar to Tokyo.As a result, nowNational Bunraku TheaterIt bears fruit as an "upper performance special event" held in odd-numbered months in a small hall, but it is only held six times a year, and it is far from being called a fixed seat.
After that, the concept of specialized fixed seats emerged and disappeared, but when the Kamigatara Rakugo Association entered the Katsura Saegusa system, it became concrete.2006(18)May 9"Tenman Tenjin ShichoteiOpened on the north side of the precincts of Osaka Temmangu. Thirty-two years after "Shimanouchi Yose" left Shimanouchi Church, and 32 years after the bombing of Osaka, the rakugo-specialized seats were revived in both name and reality.Furthermore, on July 61, 2018, as a fixed seat next to Temma Tenjin Hanjotei,Kobe CityToKobe Shinkaichi / KirakukanOpened.
In addition, although it is not a pure rakugo specialty seat, at one point it is "Namba Grand Hanatsuki""Tsutenkaku TheaterSuch asTheaterHowever, a rakugo program was incorporated, and rakugo artists belonging to Yoshimoto Kogyo and Shochiku Geino sometimes held solo performances and study sessions.Also,2020At the "TORII Yose" held on the 3st of every month at the TORII HALL 1 days ago, which closed in March,US morning officeMany rakugoka affiliations appeared.
After that, with the success of Temma Tenjin Hanjotei, the entertainment side became more motivated to review rakugo, and in 2008, only rakugo artists began to perform regularly at Namba Grand Kagetsu.In addition, Yoshimoto Kogyo said "Umeda KagetsuFrom Monday to Friday only during the daytime (from 12:30)Flower flower vaudevilleThe program was composed mainly of young people belonging to Yoshimoto and freelancers. After the closing of "Umeda Kagetsu", you will find "Namba Grand Kagetsu" in "Namba Grand Kagetsu".Yoshimoto ∞ Hall OsakaIt was held every Saturday.
While the revival of rakugo fixed seats has not been realized easily, community-based study sessions and independent performances have been actively held since the 40s.This is the so-called "community vaudeville", from August 1972 (Showa 47) to August 8 (1992).3rd generation Yonenosuke Katsura"Iwata Yose" (Higashi-Osaka City), which was presided over by
Today, it started in July 1974 (Showa 49).Asahido Nanryo"Sakai Otabi Yose" (Sakai City, suspended in March 2005, but revived at a different location. Lecture and Rakugo no Kai) and "Tanabe Yose" (Osaka City, Osaka City)Bunta Katsura"Motomachi Yose Koi Yasutei" (Kobe City, caretakerHarukoma Katsura), "" (Kyoto CityHigashiyama Ward, KatsuraU.S. morningPresided over) "" (Amagasaki City, presided over by Katsura Beichou Katsura), "Kyoto Citizens' Yose" (Kyoto City), and many other activities have been carried out, and they are actively engaged in activities as a place for the spread of Kamigata Rakugo and the training of performers.
- ^ Later turned to danceHanayagi YoshibeiBecomes
- ^ Kawamoto and Osada 2002, pp. 49 --50.
- ^ Kawamoto and Osada 2002, pp. 142 --143.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 91 --92.
- ^ 5th generation Matsuzuru no Ko
- ^ The second generation Harudanji's child
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 101 --109.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 114 --116.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 117 --119.
- ^ Toda 2014, p. 69.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 168 --170.
- ^ Toda 2014, p. 152.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 202 --203.
- ^ Toda 2014, p. 214.
- ^ Toda 2014, p. 251.
- ^ Toda 2014, pp. 194 --195.
- ^ Toda 2014, p. 197.
- ^ Later2nd generation Gorobee Tsuyuno
- ^ "Yomiuri ShimbunEvening edition August 2008, 8
- ^ From the postscript of "Bunko Katsura Diary: The Trouble of Young Hunger Ether" (Aogabusa)
- ^ "Katsura Harudanji, 85 years old = Rakugoka". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2016, 1) 2018th of February 11Browse.
- ^ "The XNUMXth generation" Katsura Haru Danji "is announced". Sankei News WESTSangyo Keizai Shimbun. (November 2018, 2) 2018th of February 11Browse.
- ^ Why is Osaka called "the sanctuary of laughter"?The history of laughter seen in Yoshimoto Kogyo
- Sadao Osada"Rakugo Sakana-Rakugo Supplementary Reader" Hirofumi Publishing, 1996,ISBN-4 87520-201-6
- Kagetsutei GurimaruHen "Yose dressing room encyclopedia" Toho Publishing,2003,ISBN 4885918650(Reprint of a book published by Kurimaru under his real name in 1960)
- Toshie Kawamoto, "The Second Generation, Katsura Haru Danji's Art and People," Sadao Osada],Blue frog, February 2002.
- Beichou Katsura "Rakugo and I"文藝 春秋〈Bunshun library>,1986,ISBN-4 16-741301-9
- Beichou Katsura 3rd generation "Katsura Beichou Katsura"Iwanami Shoten,2004
- Fumie Katsura, 5th generation "Ankeraso Night Story" Aogabusa,1996,ISBN-4 7905-0285-6
- Beichou Katsura 3rd generationRyutaro Kamioka(Author)Toda Manabu(Planning and composition) "Showa Kami Mansai talked by U.S.A. and Ueoka"Asahi Shimbun,2000,ISBN-4 02-257522-0
- 6rd generation Sanyutei Ensho,Kazuo SekiyamaSupervised by "Ensho Classic Rakugo"Shueisha<Shueisha library＞,1979
- Manabu Toda "Sixth Efukutei Matsuzuru Story"Iwanami Shoten, February 2004.ISBN 4-00-002586-4.
- Manabu Toda, "Postwar History of Kamigata Rakugo," Iwanami Shoten, July 2014.
- Temma Tenjin Shigesho-tei, Kamigata Rakugo Kyokai (ed.), Yamadari Yoko (Author) "Kamigata Rakugoka Directory Plus Kamigatara"Publishing culture, 2006,ISBN-4 88338-351-2
- Susumu Yamamoto "History of Illustrated Rakugo"Kawade Shobo Shinsha,2006,ISBN-4 309-76079-1
- FAQ --Articles on the official website of the Kamigata Rakugo Association
- NIKKEI NET I'm Yoneji Katsura, a storyteller in Kyoto. - NIKKEI NETOf which2003May 6Article
- Superior house
- List of rakugo artists
- Hikohachi Festival
- Dust and dust
- Rakugo Museum
- Category: Rakugo performance