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🧳 | Cebu Pacific Air, sale on 3 routes from Japan to Manila From 2,800 yen one way


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Cebu Pacific Air, Japan-Manila 3 routes on sale from 2,800 yen one way

 
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Cebu Pacific Air operates six Japanese routes with Airbus A6s and Airbus A320s.
 

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Airbus A330

Airbus A330

Turkish Airlines Airbus A330-300

Turkish AirlinesAirbus A330-300

Airbus A330 (Airbus A330) IsEurope OfAirbusDeveloped and manufactured by the companyWide bodyTwin firejetPassenger planeIs.Originally developed as a large passenger aircraft for medium- and short-haul routes, a derivative type with enhanced cruising power was added later, and it came into service on long-haul routes.

Airbus A300Extended torsoWide body machineSo, two shots under the main wing with a low wing arrangementTurbo fan engineEquip.TailIs a low-wing arrangement,Landing gearIs the front wheel arrangement. In addition to the passenger-type A330-330 and A200-330 and cargo-type A300-330F, the A200 series is versatile for military use.Aerial refueling-Transport aircraftIsDO NOT MRTTIn addition, the engine was replaced with a new modelAirbus A330neoIs also under development.Aircraft dimensions and performance depend on each model, but on the A330-200 / -300 / -200F in service,Cruise speed TheMach0.82, total length from 58.82 to 63.69Meters, Overall width 60.30 meters,Maximum takeoff weightIs 184TFrom 242 tons, the number of seats is about 253 to 440. On the A330Fly by wireSystem orGlass cockpitWas introduced and the flight control system was shared with Airbus aircraft.Mutual crew qualificationIs recognized.

The first A330 series to be developed was the A330-300.1987For long-distance 4-engine aircraftAirbus A340At the same time, official development was decided.The simultaneous parallel development of the twin-engine A330 and the four-engine A4 was a rare initiative in the history of aviation technology, and both aircraft were maximized in common except for engine-related aircraft. A340-3301994ToYale AnterreFirst service by.The next developed A330-200 is the A330's short-body, long-distance type.1995Formal development was decided in1997To(English editionFirst service by. The A330-200F is a cargo-only type based on the A330-200.2007Formal development was decided in2010ToEtihad AirwaysThe first delivery was made to the cargo department of.Replace the engine with a new modelAirbus A330neoThe series is2014The development plan was officially announced in 2018, and the route started service in XNUMX.

As of July 2015, 7 A1,095s are in service on civil aviation routes.Looking at the operators by region, about 330% of the totalAsia-Middle East-OceaniaOperated by local airlines, among othersChugokuThe number of aircraft operated by airlines in Japan accounts for about 1%.SubsequentlyEurope-ロシアLarge number of aircraft operated by regional airlines, followed byNorth America-South Americaarea,AfricaThe order is by region. As of March 2019, there were three A3 fatalities and 330 people were killed. A3 was involvedhijackTwo cases have occurred and one has died.

In this section, the following are Airbus passenger planes andBoeingFor passenger aircraft made, the company name is omitted and only alphanumeric characters are used.For example, "A300" for "Airbus A300" and "747" for "Boeing 747".

History

Development background

米 国To compete with other aircraft manufacturersEuropeAircraft manufacturer1970Established a corporate alliance "Airbus Industry" in December[5]..Airbus put the sales of its first product, the twin-engine wide-body aircraft A300, on track and examined the next product.[6]..Among the product candidates at this time, there was an aircraft plan called "A330B300" (hereinafter, B9), which is the source of the A9.[6].. Plan B9 extends the fuselage of A300 andDouglasDC-10,LockheedL-1011It was a twin-engine medium-range aircraft that aimed to break into the market[6].. In addition to the B9 plan, multiple aircraft plans are being considered, including the A300B300 (hereafter B10) plan, which is a shortened fuselage of the A10, and the long-range A4B300 (hereafter B11) plan, which has four engines. Ta[6]..However, Airbus at that time did not have the funds and personnel to develop multiple models at the same time, and based on the results of market research, the next product was narrowed down to the B10 plan.[6][7].1978Airbus officially named the B10 plan A310 and officially started development, and the B9 and B11 plans were postponed indefinitely.[6][7].

1980When it comes to, Airbus is a single-aisle aircraft named "SA" (Single Aisle).Narrow body machine) Was researched[8]..At the same time, the plan name of the wide-body aircraft was given "TA" (Twin Aisle), which means two aisles, and the B2 plan was renamed TA9 and the B9 plan was renamed TA11.[6].1982 OfFarnborough AirshowThe development concept of TA9, TA11, and the newly added TA12 was announced at the venue.[9].. The TA9, TA11, and TA12 proposals have been changed several times, but they are generally as follows.[9][10][11][12].

  • TA9 --A medium-range twin-engine aircraft with an extended fuselage of the A300 and more than 320 seats.
  • TA11 --The body is shorter than TA9 and has about 230 seats, 10,000.KilometersA long-range four-engine aircraft with the above cruising power.
  • TA12 --Same body length and number of seats as TA11, from TA11Cruising distanceAlthough it is short, it is a long-range aircraft with a twin engine.

But around this timeSecond oil crisisAnd the commercial aircraft market was shrinking due to the recession[9]..Airbus1984SA plan in MarchA320While officially starting development under the name, the decision to develop the TA plan was postponed.[13][9]..There were two types of twin-engine development plans, TA9 and TA12, but the TA2 plan was withdrawn in the mid-1980s.[14].. The TA9 plan has been improved along with the TA11 plan and is common to the A320.Fly by wireIt was planned to introduce the system and install a side stick type cockpit like the A320.[14].

Inside Airbus, discussions were held on whether to develop the twin-engine TA9 or the four-engine TA4 first.[15]..Assuming the same conditions such as takeoff weight, the twin-engine aircraft should be equipped with a stronger engine than the four-engine aircraft.[16][17][Annotation 1]..Also, due to regulations created in an era when engines were unreliable, twin-engine aircraft could only fly on routes with airfields that could land within 1 minutes if one engine stopped.[18], Three- and four-engine aircraft were used on medium- and long-haul offshore routes with few alternative airfields.[19]..However, twin-engine aircraft have the advantages of a simpler airframe system, less maintenance effort, and lower operating costs than four-engine aircraft.[20][15]..As the reliability and performance of engines have improved, there is a growing need to operate low-cost twin-engine aircraft on offshore routes.1985IsETOPSRequirements were established to allow long-distance operation of twin-engine aircraft called[18]..However, with ETOPS at that time, the degree of freedom in route setting and operation was still limited, and it took time to obtain certification.[18][11][21].North AmericaAirlines preferred twin-engine aircraft, which is cost-effective, while having long-haul offshore routesAsiaAirlines needed four-engine aircraft without restrictions like twin-engine aircraft, and the opinions of European airlines were divided between the two.[15][22].

As the aviation industry's opinions were divided into twin-engine and four-engine aircraft, Airbus turned to the simultaneous development of TA4 and TA9.[15][22]..In order to reduce the total development cost, the components of both machines were designed to be shared as much as possible (details of the design process will be described later).[15][22][23].. The prospect of simultaneous development of two machines is set,1986In January, Airbus named TA1 and TA9 A11 and A330, respectively.[15].. While the A340 consisted of two models, the short-body A340-200 and the long-body A340-300, at this point the A2 was only developed as one model.[2].. The names of the A330 and A340 were originally reversed.Airbus was planning to develop the TA11 first, and because it was a new model following the A320, the TA11 was the A330 and the TA9 was the A340.[15][22]..However, when the 4-engine aircraft was A3 "3" 0 and the twin-engine aircraft was A3 "4" 0, it was pointed out that the customer would mistake both aircraft, and the 4-engine aircraft was changed to the A340.[15][22].

The first order for the A330 was1987In MarchFrance OfYale AnterreWas from[15]..By June of that year, a total of 6 airlines had ordered 10 A330s and 41 A340s.[23][24]..Airbus is expected to receive enough orders to proceed with development.Paris Air ShowOn June 1987, 6, the official development of the A5 and A330 was decided.[10][15]..Both aircraft were decided to be developed at the same time as sister aircraft, but based on the results of market research, the development work of the A340 was preceded.[17][10].

Design process

The fuselage of the A330 was the same as the A340-300 in both cross section and length.[25][26]..The cross section of the fuselage is designed as a wide-body aircraft derived from the A300, and the seating arrangement of the cabin and the underfloor cargo compartment where LD-3 air cargo containers can be mounted side by side have been inherited from the A300.[27]..In addition, both machines have a common tail, and the main wings are structurally the same except for the engine mounting part, so the system andcockpitWas standardized except for the engine[28][17].. Simultaneous parallel development of four-engine and twin-engine aircraft has become a rare initiative in the history of aviation technology.[17]..Let's rewind a bit and take a closer look at the A330's design process.

The A330's main wing is a newly designed one, and the basic structure is shared with the A340's main wing.[29].. On the A330 and A340Maximum takeoff weightAssuming that they are the same, the four-engine A4 has a smaller load on the base of the main wing due to the distributed engine weight, which allows for more strength, so only the long-distance A340 has a fuel tank on the fuselage. And the central leg (Landing gear), And the strength required for the main wings of both aircraft was adjusted to be almost equal.[29][30]. Also,ComputerStrength calculation and aerodynamic design usingWind tunnelBy combining experimentsAirfoil, Wing thickness ratio[Annotation 2], The mounting angle, etc. were carefully examined, and the main wings were standardized except for the engine mounting part.[29][30].. The A330's engine was installed at the location of the A340's second and third engines (the engine at the base of the main wing).[28].

The tail wings are the same on the A330 and A340,Vertical tailMost of the A310's were diverted,Horizontal stabilizerIs newly designed[32][33][34].. Like the A310, a fuel tank was installed inside the horizontal stabilizer, and a system was also installed to control the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft by moving fuel between the tanks on the main and tail wings.[27].

The flight control system of the A330 used the same system as the A340.[35]..This system is an improved version of the system that Airbus put into practical use on the A320.[36], Fly-by-wire system was introduced on all control surface[35]..The cockpit has the same basic design as the A320, with six sides.CRTSo-called displaying various information on the displayGlass cockpitAnd traditionalControl stickIt is the same as A320 to use the side stick instead of[37].. The A330's cockpit layout is virtually the same as that of the A340, except for the number of engine throttle levers.[36].

Except for the number of engines and the associated emergency response, the A330 and A340 maneuvers are basically the same,Mutual crew qualificationA qualification system called (Cross Crew Qualification, CCQ) was approved.[36]..This is a system in which pilots with one of the flight qualifications can obtain the other flight qualification in a short period of training, and in particular, the conversion training from A340 to A330 was set to one day.[36][38]..In addition, CCQ was applied even with the A320 family, which basically has the same cockpit layout.[36].

For the A330 engineGeneral Electric(Hereafter, GE),Pratt & Whitney(P & W), Inc.Rolls-Royce(Less than,Rr) The selection system from the company's products was adopted[39].. GE's engine was taken over from the A300CF6-80From the series, P & WPW4000series,RrFrom the companyTrent 700The equipment specifications of the series have been set[39].

Production and testing

The production of the A330 has the same international division of labor as the previous Airbus aircraft, and the parts are shared and manufactured in each participating country, and the final assembly is in France.ToulouseMade in[40]..The A330 and A340 have extremely high commonality in production, and both aircraft were assembled on the same line.[40]..A new facility for assembling the A330 / A340 was built in Toulouse, and robots were introduced as part of the final assembly process.[34].

The A340 was the first to manufacture and test the prototype.[36].1991The completion ceremony for the first A10 was held on October 4, and at that time the final assembly of the A340 prototype had begun.[36].

The first A330 is1992Completed on October 10th and made its maiden flight on November 14nd[2]..Initially, three A330s were used in flight tests, all equipped with CF3 engines.[2].1993On October 10, the first type certificate of the A21 was announced by the Joint Aviation Authorities of Europe (JAA) and the United States.Federal Aviation AdministrationIssued at the same time by (Federal Aviation Administration, FAA)[2][41][42].. The first delivery of the A1993 to Air Inter at the end of December 12[2].

After that, the first machine was replaced with a Trent 700 engine.1994First flight on January 1st, and obtained type certification for the engine-equipped model on December 31, 1994.[43].. Regarding the PW4000 engine specifications, the first aircraft made its maiden flight on October 1993, 10, and obtained the type certificate of the engine equipped type on June 14, 1994.[43].. The first PW4000-equipped aircraft crashed during a test flight on June 6, shortly after obtaining type certification, killing all seven on board.[43](Airbus Industry Flight 129 crash).This was the first crash on an A330[44].

Start of service

January 1994, 1, Air InterParis - MarseilleInaugurated A330 on the line[2]..Since the company was an airline specializing in domestic flights in France, the A330 was in service only on land routes at this time.[2].. April 1994,アイルランド OfAeringusWill make the A330 the first offshore routeDublin - ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIn service on the line[2].

Airbus was considering selling four A4s for long-haul routes and A340s for medium- and short-haul routes, but due to demand for the A330s to enter service on offshore routes, it also proceeded with the acquisition of ETOPS certification for the A330s.[43].. On April 1994, 4, ETOPS was approved for GE CF29 engine equipment specifications, with a flight distance of up to 6 minutes from the alternative airfield.1995Expanded to 2 minutes on February 6th[45]..Also, with a P & W engineRrFor engine equipment specifications, 1995 minutes and 1996 minutes of ETOPS were approved from 120 to 180.[45].

By July 1995, the A7 had 330 aircraft in operation, in addition to Air Inter and Aer Lingus.LTU International Airlines,Cathay Pasific Airlines,Malaysia Airlines,Thai Airways,Hong Kong Dragon AirlinesIntroduced in[46].

Development of A330-200

Sales of the A330 were down after collecting a bunch of orders in the late 1980s.[47]..Airlines were looking for twin-engine aircraft with long range performance[48]..In addition, the sister aircraft, the A340, was in service on the route in March 1993, but after that, the maximum takeoff weight was gradually increased and the cruising range performance was enhanced.[49]..Airbus has begun studying a derivative model that has an intermediate cruising capacity between the A330 and A340, with an increased cruising capacity by increasing the fuel load instead of shortening the fuselage of the A330 to reduce its capacity.[28][47]..The aircraft was named A330-200 and was officially developed on November 1995, 11.[28][48].. With the development of the A330-200, the previous A330 was called the A330-300.[28].. The A330-200 first received an order in early 1996 from a leasing company.International Lease FinanceIt was from the company (hereinafter, ILFC)[47].

The fuselage of the A330-200 has been shortened by 330 frames in total before and after the main wing from that of the A300-10.[28]..The shortening of the fuselage shortens the distance from the center of gravity of the aircraft to the vertical stabilizer, and to compensate for this, the height direction of the vertical stabilizer has been expanded on the A330-200.[28][48].. Like the A330-200's heavier version, the A340-300 has reinforced wings to increase maximum takeoff weight and a fuel tank in the center of the fuselage.[47], Engine changed to thrust increase type[50]..With these changes, the cruising range has increased from 11,853 to 12,223 kilometers (6,400 to 6,600 nautical miles).[48].. GE on the A330-200Rr, P & W's engines can be selected[43].

The first A330-200 is equipped with GE's CF6 engine.1997First flight on August 8th[43]..Also, on December 12, the same year, the first aircraft equipped with P & W's PW4 engine flew for the first time.[43].1998On March 3, the first A31-6 type certificate was issued simultaneously by JAA, FAA, and Canadian aviation authorities for CF330 engine-equipped models.[43][48]..After that, the first 330-200 engine started from CF6RrA test flight was conducted to obtain the type certification of the Trent 700 equipped type by replacing it with the company's Trent 700.[43].

The first delivery of the 330-200 was in April 1997, a Canadian charter flight specialist.(English edition(Ownership of the aircraft is ILFC)[48]..The aircraft at this time was a GE engine-equipped aircraft[51]..The following year, 1998, P & W engine specificationsAustrian AirlinesWhat,1999In 2 monthRrMade in Canada as a leased machine from ILFC with engine specificationsAir transatWas first delivered to[51].

A330-200 in service

The A1997-5 was first launched by Canada 3000 in May 330.[51].. As of November 1999Swiss airlineBeginning withSabena Belgian Airlines,Emirates Airlines,Gulf Air,Korean Air,TAM AirlinesForty-six A14-46s were operated by 330 airlines, including, and were also launched on routes that cross the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.[52]..The average flight time per flight was 330 to 300 hours on the A1.7-3.5, compared to 330 to 200 hours on the A3.5-8, which was close to the A340.[53].

As a problem at the beginning of the introduction of the A330-200, it was sometimes difficult to handle the aircraft on narrow runways due to the limitation of the turning angle of the front landing gear, and the main landing gearshock absorberIt was pointed out that there was an oil leak from Airbus, and Airbus took measures such as reviewing the angle range.[52][54]..The lighting to illuminate the tail logo has also been redesigned to accommodate the larger vertical stabilizer.[55].

The A330-200 was also approved for ETOPS, and on April 1998, 4, GE's CF27 engine-equipped aircraft was first approved for 6 minutes of ETOPS, and by the first half of 180, it was made by P & W.Rr180 minutes of ETOPS was recognized even with the engine equipment specifications made by[45].

Development of cargo type and military type

Around 2000, Airbus became DC-10,MD-11, L-1011 and other wide-body aircraft, and started research on new cargo types, aiming for successor demand for cargo-only aircraft developed.[56].2001In June, we announced a plan to utilize the design of the A6 and proceeded with work to finalize the aircraft specifications.[56].IndiaIn addition to Flyington Freighters, an emerging shipping company, orders for a total of 32 aircraft have been received from aircraft leasing companies Geggenheim Aviation Partners and Intrepid Aviation.[57],2007On January 1, it was decided to officially develop the A17-330F, which will be a cargo-only aircraft based on the A200-330.[56].

The A330-200F basically uses the same aircraft frame as the A330-200, with the addition of a large cargo door and strengthening of the floor so that cargo can be loaded on the main deck (the part where the passenger seats on the upper half of the aircraft are provided). In addition to being done, passenger equipment was removed[56][58]..In addition, the base A330-200 has a shorter front landing gear than the main landing gear, and the nose is slightly lowered on the ground, but the A330-200F, which loads cargo on the main deck, lowers the front landing gear mounting position. Corrected ground posture[58]..As a result, the wheels and pedestals protrude when the front legs are retracted, so an overhang was added to the underside of the nose to accommodate them.[59][60]..The engine isRrSpecifications equipped with Trent 700 from P & W and PW4000 from P & W have been set respectively.[56].. The first A330-200F is equipped with a PW4000 engine.2009First flight on November 11th and started test flight[61][57].. The second A330-200F is equipped with a Trent 2 engine and2010First flight on January 1th and put into test flight[61][57]..Most of the approximately 200-hour test flight was carried out by the first aircraft.[57], May 2010, 4European Aviation Safety AgencyObtained (EASA) type certificate[62].. Delivery of the A330-200F was scheduled to begin in late 2009, but the schedule was extended during development, during which time the freight market collapsed.[57]..The order of delivery was changed, and on August 2010, 8, the first delivery was made to Etihad Crystal Cargo, the air cargo division of Etihad Airways.[62][57][64].

Multipurpose based on the A330-200 when the A330-200F was developedAerial refueling-Transport aircraft(MRTT: Multi-Role Tanker Transport) was also developed[65].. On November 2004, 12Australian Air ForceOf 5DO NOT MRTTConclude a contract to place an order[66], The first flight took place on June 2007, 6[67], Official operation started on June 2011, 6[68].. In 2008,US Air ForceAs the next aerial refueling aircraftKC 45However, the selection work returned to the beginning after the U.S. Board of Audit approved the protest from Boeing.[69].. In February 2011, the U.S. Air Force767Based onKC 46Was decided to be adopted, and KC-45 was eventually rejected.[69].

To extend the cruising range

Orders for the A330-200 / -300 were strong[70].. Boeing becomes a new twin-engine medium-sized aircraft in April 2004787Orders for the A330 continued to grow even after the decision to develop the A2006, and in December 12, Airbus itself launched a new twin-engine aircraft.A350 XWBHowever, the number of orders for the A350 continues to increase by the time the delivery of the A330 XWB begins.[70].. Both the A330 and A350 XWB were twin-engine wide-body aircraft that seemed to compete for the market, but they were separated from the A350 XWB for long-haul and the low-priced A330 for medium- and short-haul aircraft.[70].

The scope of ETOPS approval for the A330 has been gradually expanded, and in 2009 EASA approved an ETOPS limit of 330 minutes for all types of A240s.[71].. The A330 became the world's first 240-minute ETOPS licensed model[56].

On November 2012, 11, Airbus announced an improved version of the A29-330 / -200, each with a maximum takeoff weight of 300 tonnes, with further enhancements in cruising and capacity.[72]..In addition to minor improvements in aerodynamic performance and engine, this improved version also includes the first central wing fuel tank on the A330-300 as an option.[73][70]。これにより、A330-300は最大離陸重量235トンの既存仕様より500海里(約930キロメートル)、A330-200では同238トンの既存機より350海里(648キロメートル)延長される[70]..The first 242 ton spec is the A330-300.2015First flight on January 1[74]In July of the same yearDelta AirlinesThe first delivery was made to[75][73].

Development of A330P2F

2012February, Airbus and Singapore(English editionIt was announced that the company and EFW, a joint venture between the two companies, will jointly launch an A330 passenger-type to freight-type refurbishment project.[76][77]..The repair targets are both A330-200 and A330-300, and it was named A330P2F (P2F means Passenger-to-freighter, from passenger plane to freighter).[77][78]..The renovation work is in GermanyDresdenHeld at EFW's facility in[79].. The A330-300P330F, which is a modification of the A300-2, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) from EASA in November 2017 and in December 11.Launch customerIsDHL ExpressFirst delivered to[79].. The A330-200P330F, which is based on the A200-2, acquired the STC from EASA in July 2018 and was launched by the launch customer in August.Egypt AirWas first delivered to[80].

Development of the A330 Regional

In September 2013, Airbus announced the "A9-330 Regional" as a derivative of the A300-330 that specializes in short-haul routes by reducing its weight.[70][81]..This model aims to reduce operating costs by reducing the cruising range and maximum takeoff weight, and is proposed as an aircraft suitable for domestic and regional routes in China, India, and the Middle East, where aviation demand is increasing due to population growth. Ta[82].. At the Paris Air Show held in June 2015SaudiaOfficial development was decided by ordering 20 aircraft, and the first aircraft was handed over to the company in August 2016.[82].

Development of A330neo

On the other hand,A320 familyThe possibility of next-generation adoption of a new engine has also been addressed.[83].2014At a briefing for aviation reporters in June, Airbus expressed a negative view on the development of this model because of the labor involved in engine replacement and the smaller market size and unprofitability of single-aisle aircraft.[83]. However, on May 7 of the same yearFarnborough AirshowAtRrIt will be an advanced type that adopted the new engine "Torrent 7000" made byAirbus A330neo (new engine oAnnounced the development of ption)[84][85][86][87].. The main wings of the A330neo are similar to the A350 XWBWingletIn addition to expanding the wingspan from the conventional 60.3 meters to 64 meters,PylonEtc. have also been improved and aerodynamic performance has been strengthened[84][88].. ..In addition, the cockpit system and in-flight entertainment system will be replaced with the new model.[84]..The interior of the guest room is also a new model based on that of A350 XWB[88].

A330neoは2タイプで構成され、A330-200と同サイズのモデルがA330-800neo、A330-300と同サイズのモデルがA330-900neoと名付けられた[89]..The cruising range is 330 nautical miles (about 800 kilometers) for the A7500-13,900 and 330 nautical miles (900 kilometers) for the A6550-12,130.[89]..During the Farnborough AirshowAirAsia XBesides, it is a major aircraft leasing company(English edition,(English edition,TICReceived orders for a total of 121 memorandums from[85]. Also,Hawaiian AirlinesSome airlines replaced the ordered A350 XWB with an A330neo, such as[90][91].. In 2016, Airbus announced a policy to discontinue development of the A350-350, which is a short body type of the A800 XWB, and propose the A350neo, which is similar in size to the A800-330.[92].

Of the two A330neo models, the A2-330 was developed first and made its maiden flight on October 900, 2017.[88]..After that, we conducted a test flight on three test airplanes and obtained type certification from EASA on September 3, 2018.[88]..The first delivery was on November 2th, two months later.TAP PortugalThe route was put into service during the same year.[93][94]..In addition, on December 12, we obtained a type certificate from the FAA.[95].

During this time, orders for the A330-800 went to zero due to Hawaiian Airlines canceling orders in February 2018.[96]..However, the first A330-800 is in production, and Airbus continued to develop and sell it in October 2018.Kuwait AirlinesReceived an order for 8 aircraft from[97]..The first flight of the A11-6 was successful on November 330, the same year.[98].

With the announcement of the A330neo, the conventional A330 will be replaced by the "A330ceo" (current engine option) may be called[87].

Features of the aircraft

This section basically describes the A330ceo (A330-200 and A330-300). For the A330neo, see "Airbus A330neoSee.

Shape/Structure

The A330 is a wide-body aircraft with two aisles in the cabin, with its main wings in the low wing position.MonoplaneAnd under the main wingTurbo fan engine2 shots. Horizontal stabilizerIs placed on the lower wing and on the tail of the fuselageAuxiliary power unitAsGas turbine engineIs built in[39][99].Landing gearThe arrangement of is front wheel type[39].. The first model of the A330, the A330-300, was designed to maximize commonality with its sister A340.[23][17]..In the long-range A330-200, which was developed later, the fuselage was shortened, the vertical stabilizer was enlarged, and the tank was added to the center wing.[100][101].

For the fuselage cross section of the A330, the perfect circular cross section with a diameter of 300 meters (5.64 inches) developed for the A222 is used as it is.[102]..The total length is 330 meters for the A200-58.82 and 330 meters for the A300-63.69.[103].

The main wing of the A330 istaperAt the tip of the wing with a swept wing withWingletHave[39].Wing plane shapeThe main parameters of are shown in Table 1, and compared to the 747-200,WingspanIs almost the same, but the wing area is about two-thirds, and the aspect ratio[Annotation 3]Is a big wing[29].. WingAirfoilIs basically thick in the first half and thin in the second half, but it changes continuously from the base on the fuselage side to the tip of the wing.[29]..Especially in the outer wing, it has a wing-shaped feature called rear loading that can generate lift even in the latter half of the wing.[29][104]..Looking at the wing thickness ratio, which is the maximum wing thickness divided by the chord length for the main wing, it changes continuously and finely, and the average value is 12.8%.[29].

Table 1: Main specifications of the wing plane
Wingspan (m)Wing area (m2)Receding angle (degrees) on the 1/4 chord
A330-200 / -30060.30361.630
Source: (Hamada 2013a, p. 96)

Of the main wingHigh lift deviceThe layout is 7 slats on the leading edge and 2 flaps on the trailing edge.[105]..The slats are tapered toward the wing tip, and the drive system is divided into one on the fuselage side and the remaining six.[105]..The flap is a single-piece, relatively simple Fowler-type flap.[105]..Divided into two on the wing tip side of the trailing edgeAileronIs placed and does not have high-speed ailerons on the inner side[105].Fly by wireWith the introduction of the aileron, in addition to its original role, it plays the role of a flap during takeoff and landing, and the ground after landing.SpoilerControlled to also play the role of[30]..There are 6 spoilers,Air brakeIn addition to having a role as a ground spoiler, the outer 5 piecesrollAlso used for maneuvering[106].

A330Horizontal stabilizerIs the same as that of the A340 1st generation (A340-200 / -300) and is newly designed for the A330 / A340.[27]..Movable horizontal stabilizer and oneElevatorConsists of and has a wingspan of 19.4 meters[107][108]..A fuel tank is provided inside the horizontal stabilizer, and a system that moves fuel to and from the main wing tank and controls the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft is installed.[27][33]..This system is similar to the one put into practical use on the A310, and can suppress the trim drag generated when maintaining the aircraft attitude.[33][27].

Vertical tailThe A330-300 used basically the same tail as the A310, with some reinforcement, but the same production jig was used.[27]..Vertical stabilizer and oneRudderConsists of[107], Height is 8.3 meters[108].. On the A330-200, the vertical stabilizer and rudder were expanded to a height of 8.8 meters, which was later changed to 9.3 meters.[50][108].

As for the landing gear, the front legs are located at the nose and the main landing gears are located at the bases of the left and right main wings.[108].. Common to all A330 series, the main landing gear is a 4-wheel type and the front landing gear is a 2-wheel type.[108]..The main landing gear is newly designed for the A330 / A340[109]..For aircraft with a long fuselage length, there is a limit to the raising angle so that the rear fuselage does not come into contact with the ground during takeoff, but the larger the raising angle, the better the takeoff performance.[109]..Therefore, Airbus has developed a main landing gear called a locking bogey.[109]..This main landing gear uses a combination of bogie wheels and struts to lift only the front wheels and bring the rear wheels to the runway as much as possible, which allows the aircraft to have a large raised angle.[109].. The front legs of the A330 / A340 were diverted from those of the A300 / A310, but this caused the lengths of the front and main landing gears to differ, and the nose was slightly lowered on the ground.[28]..In the cargo-only A330-200F, the mounting position of the front legs has been changed to keep the ground position horizontal (see the "A330-200F" section below).

The main wing structure of the A330 is basicallyAluminum alloyMade of aluminum alloy is also used for the fuselage longitudinal material and outer panel.[29][110]..Also, for the composite materials used on the A330,Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced plastic (AFRP), glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) are mentioned, and the main parts of use are as follows.[111][112].

  • CFRP: Wing blade fairing (cover that smoothly connects the surface of the wing and the fuselage), main blade blade, track railFairing, Winglets, engineCowling,Rudder,Elevator, Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, landing gear storage door
  • AFRP: NoseRadome
  • GFRP: Leading edge of vertical stabilizer and trailing edge of fixing part

Flight system

The flight control system of the A330 is based on the fly-by-wire flight control system of the A320 and has been improved.[36][113][35]..The cockpit layout follows that of the A320 and is virtually the same as the sister A340, except for the engine throttle lever.[36]..The pilots required for flightCaptainCopilotTwo people[114].

Six color displays are placed in the cockpit of the A330, so-calledGlass cockpitHas been[36].. When the A330 was introduced, a cathode ray tube was used for the display, but when the second generation of the A340, the A2-340 / -500, was developed.Liquid crystal display (LCD) has been adopted, and the A330-200 / -300 can now be equipped with an LCD as an option.[115].

There is no control stick in front of the cockpit, and it is operated by the side stick on the window side of each cockpit.[116].. In the A330 flight control system, the pilot has a side stickRudder pedalThe information that you operated is input to the flight control computer.[36]..The command value calculated by the flight control computer is transmitted to each rotor blade by an electric signal, and the rotor blade is driven by the hydraulic actuator.[36]..Even during pilot maneuvering, the computer controls each blade after calculating that the load and speed applied to the aircraft do not exceed the permissible value or stall.[36][35].

For Airbus aircraft with a common cockpit layout and systemMutual crew qualification(CCQ) system is set, from small A330 to large A340 including sister aircraft of A320 / AXNUMXA380Up to, pilots who are qualified to operate any model can acquire qualifications for other models through short-term conversion training.[117][36].. The CCQ conversion training period is one day for A340 to A330 and three days for A1 to A330.[38].. It is said that the reason why the training period from A340 to A330 is longer than the training period from A330 to A340 is that it is a shift from twin-engine to four-engine system and more learning is required.[38].

Guest room/freight room

Since the A330 uses the same fuselage cross section as the A300, the seating arrangement is basically the same as the A300, and two aisles are arranged in the cabin.[27][118]..The standard seating arrangement isEconomy classIn 2-4-2 8Abreast, 2-3-2 7 Abrest in Business Class, 2-2-2 6 Abrest in First Class[27][118]..Designed to flexibly arrange seats and galleys according to airline requirements[50], Depending on the airline, the seat spacing may be reduced to 3-3-3 9 abrest,Sky markIn some cases, all seats are 2-3-2, 7 abrest.[27][118]..The door arrangement of the guest room is symmetrical, and there is one set of doors for getting on and off at the front, rear, and front of the main wing.[119]..The A340-200 / -300 / -500 has one emergency exit on the left and right behind the main wing, and the A1-340 has one emergency exit on the left and right on the main wing.[119].

The A330's original interior features the latest equipment of the time, including vacuum toilets and equipment for the physically challenged, with the same overhead bins on the left, right and center seats as the A340's first generation. ing[50]..In addition, the conversation data system in the cabin between occupants has been digitized.[120].. The A330 has been in production for over 20 years, during which time interior improvements have been made, with new aircraft featuring LED lighting and overhead bins that have expanded volume and reduced pressure.[118].

The underfloor cargo compartment is divided into two front and rear compartments with the main wing in between, and two LD-2 air cargo containers can be mounted in parallel in each compartment.[121][122]..In addition, a section for bulk cargo is provided at the rear end.[122]..In addition, the A340 has a passenger restroom and a restroom for passengers that can be installed in the underfloor cargo compartment, but the A330 can also be equipped if necessary.[38]..The cargo compartment door is on the starboard side, with large outward-opening doors in the front and rear cargo compartments and small inward-opening doors in the bulk cargo compartment.[119].

Relationship with the A340

As mentioned in the "History" section, the first generation of the A330-300 and A340 (A1-340 / -200) was decided to be officially developed at the same time as sister aircraft, and the components of both aircraft were shared as much as possible.The fuselage cross section is the same between the two aircraft, and the tail is also common, including the tail.[28][17]..The main wings are structurally the same except for the engine mounting part, and are aerodynamically exactly the same.[123][105].. The A330 engine is installed at the position corresponding to the inner wing side engine (340nd and 2rd engines) of the A3.[28]..The leading edge of the main wing of the engine mounting part has no slats and is a fixed leading edge, and the A340 has two fixed parts on one side and the A2 has one fixed part.[28]..Also, the landing gear is the same except that the central leg is added to the fuselage in the A340.[27][28]..The flight control system and cockpit are basically the same, the difference is related to the engine, the A340 has four engine throttle levers, and the A4 has two.[9][124].

Comparing the A330 and A340 models, the A330-300 and A340-300 have the same fuselage length, the only difference being related to the number of engines.[28].. Both the A330-200 and A340-200 were developed as short-body types, but the A330-200 has a shorter body length.[100]The total length is 330 meters for the A200-58.82 and 340 meters for the A200-59.40.[125]..Another difference is that the height of the vertical stabilizer has been increased on the A330-200.[50].. In the A340-2 / -340, which is the second generation of the A500, the main wings and tail wings have been expanded and the fuselage length has also been extended.[126], Has less in common with the A1 than the first generation.

Airbus has positioned the four-engine A4 for long-haul routes and the twin-engine A340 for medium- and short-haul routes.[43]..In fact, the A340-200 and A340-300's first flights were transatlantic flights between Europe and the United States, and the A330's first flights were French domestic flights.[2]..After that, the extended cruising range A330-200 was developed, and the range of operation of the A330 by ETOPS was gradually expanded, and the A330 is now in service on long-haul routes.[71].. Both A330 and A340 are still available after deliveryMaximum takeoff weightAlthough options have been developed that raise the range, the cruising capacity and capacity are gradually improving.[127]Comparing the standard number of seats and cruising range based on the data as of 2004, the short distance is A13,000 and the long distance is A330 with a boundary of about 340 kilometers.[128][129].

Series composition

The A330 series can be broadly divided into A330ceo and A330neo, and this section describes the A330ceo. For the A330neo, see "Airbus A330neo"checking.

The A330ceo series includes passenger-type A330-200 and A330-300, cargo-type A330-200F, and passenger-type to freight-type A330P2F as civilian aircraft.In addition, it is versatile as a military aircraftAerial refueling-Transport aircraft OfDO NOT MRTTThere is.In addition, the A330-200 (A330-700), a special freighter developed based on the AXNUMX-XNUMX.Beluga XL) (See the page for details).

In the A330ceo, in addition to distinguishing between passenger type and freight type, the model name is subdivided according to the equipped engine (Table 2).In addition, specifications are set in which the maximum takeoff weight differs according to the maximum takeoff thrust of each engine.For exampleJapan's national airportThen, depending on the maximum takeoff weight and noise levelLanding feeIs set[130], The maximum takeoff weight specification can be selected according to the route conditions of the airline operating the A330.[131].

Table 2: List of model names and equipped engines
ModelengineType certification acquisition
A330-201GE CF6-80E1A22002th of February 10
A330-202GE CF6-80E1A4 / CF6-80E1A4 / B1998th of February 3
A330-203GE CF6-80E1A32001th of February 11
A330-223P & W PW4168A / PW4168-1D / PW41701998th of February 7
A330-223FP & W PW4170 / PW4168A / PW4168A-1D2010th of February 4
A330-243RR Trent 772B-60 / Trent 772C-601999th of February 1
A330-243FRR Trent 772B-602010th of February 4
A330-301GE CF6-80E1A21993th of February 10
A330-302GE CF6-80E1A4 / CF6-80E1A4 / B2004th of February 5
A330-303GE CF6-80E1A32004th of February 5
A330-321P & W PW4164 / PW4164-1D1994th of February 6
A330-322P & W PW4168 / PW4168-1D1994th of February 6
A330-323P & W PW4168A / PW4168A-1D / PW41701999th of February 4
A330-341RR Trent 768-601994th of February 12
A330-342RR Trent 772-601994th of February 12
A330-343RR Trent 867-60 / Trent 772B-60 / Trent 772C-601999th of February 9

A330-200

The A330-200 is a long-range A330, officially developed in 1995 and first launched by Canada 1997 in 3000.[100][51].. In the A330-200, the fuselage of the A330-300 is shortened to reduce the weight of the aircraft, and the fuel load is increased to enhance the cruising power.[132][133]..The fuselage is shortened by 330 frames in front of the main wing and 300 frames in the rear from that of the A6-4.[133]..Since the distance from the center of gravity of the fuselage to the vertical stabilizer is shortened due to the shortening of the fuselage, the height direction of the vertical stabilizer and rudder is expanded to compensate for this.[132]..By adding a fuel tank to the central wing, the fuel load is 130,090 liters, an increase of 330 percent compared to the A300-40.[133][134]..The engine is GE's CF6-80 series,RrYou can choose from Trent 700 series from P & W and PW4000 series from P & W.[133]..The standard number of seats is 3 in the case of 253 classes, and the cruising range in this case is 7,250 nautical miles (about 13,400 kilometers).[133]..If the seating composition is 2 classes, the standard number of seats is 293.[133]..Maximum takeoff weight varies from 192 to 242 tonnes depending on specifications[135].

A330-300

The A330-300 was the first model to be developed in the A330 series, officially decided to be developed in 1987, and first launched by Air Inter in 1994.[136][2]..Developed as a model with increased capacity for medium- and short-distance routes[136].. The components of the A330-300 and its sister model, the A340-300, are shared as much as possible to reduce development and production costs.[23][28][136]..The cockpit, fuselage, wing, tail including tail, system, and landing gear are common between the two aircraft, the only difference being the number of engines.[23][28][136]..The engine is the same as the A330-200, GE's CF6-80 series,RrYou can choose from Trent 700 series from P & W and PW4000 series from P & W.[133]..The standard number of seats is 3 in the 295-class configuration, 2 in the 335-class configuration, and 398 in the mono-class layout.[136]..In addition, up to 3 seats can be installed if the mono class is set to 3-3-9 440 abrest.[136]..The maximum takeoff weight is 330 to 300 tons, with multiple specifications for the A184-242.[137]..The type with a maximum takeoff weight of 242 tons has been partially improved by incorporating the technology developed in the A350 XWB.[74]In addition, the first central wing fuel tank on the A330-300 has been adopted as an option.[138].

The A330-300 has a lightweight type specialized for short-distance routes and is called the "A330-300 Regional".[82]..Developed for domestic and regional routes in regions with growing air traffic demand, such as China, India and the Middle East[82]..The normal A330-300 has a cruising range of over 1 kilometers, but the A330-300 regional limits this to about 5,000 kilometers.[82]..The maximum takeoff weight is limited to 200 tons.[82]..This will reduce operating costs by 26 percent.[82].

A330-200F

A pure cargo type developed and newly produced based on the A330-200.[60][56](See the next section for modified aircraft from the passenger type),A300-600FConsidered to be the successor[57]..The floor has been strengthened so that cargo can be loaded on the main deck, and a cargo door with a width of 3.69 meters is provided on the left side in front of the fuselage.[60][58]..The floor of the main deck is equipped with rollers for moving cargo and pallets.[58]..However, in order to simplify the system and reduce the price of the aircraft, Airbus does not have a powered luggage movement system on board, and cargo must be moved manually.[58]..A cargo owner is provided between the cargo compartment and the cockpit, and an aisle is provided to allow access between the cockpit, cargo owner, and cargo compartment.[58]..However, passenger facilities such as guest room windows have been removed.[58]..The engine is set to Trent 700 series and PW4000 series[139].

The main deck can accommodate up to 2.43 3.17 x 96 m (125 x 22 inch) pallets, in which case the total cargo volume of the main deck is 336.Cubic meterBecome[58]..The maximum height of pallet cargo is 2.24 meters (96 inches)[58]..Cargo can be loaded in the underfloor cargo compartment as well as the passenger type.[58].. The A330-200F carries 64 tons of cargo as standard and has a cruising range of 4,000 nautical miles (about 7,400 kilometers).[58].. With a specification that can carry 69 tons, the cruising range is 3,200 nautical miles (about 5,900 kilometers).[58].

Above (Shape/StructureAs shown in), the passenger type of the A330 has a shorter front landing gear than the main landing gear, so the nose is slightly lowered on the ground.[58]..This is not a big problem for passenger type, but for cargo type, it is desirable that the floor of the main deck is horizontal for loading cargo on the main deck.[58]..Since designing a new landing gear is costly and time consuming, Airbus adjusts its ground attitude by lowering the mounting position of the front legs of the A330-200F.[58]..As a result, the wheels and pedestals protrude when the front legs are retracted, so an overhang is provided on the underside of the nose to accommodate them.[59][60].

The first A330-200FRrAircraft equipped with a made engine, first flight in 2009, 2010European Aviation Safety AgencyObtained type certification from (EASA) and first handed it over to Etihad Crystal Cargo on August 8, the same year.[62].

A330P2F

It is a freighter modified from the passenger type of the A330, and the name P2F means "Passenger-to-freighter" (from passenger plane to freighter).[76]。改修対象はA330-200とA330-300の両型式であり、それぞれA330-200P2F、A330-300P2Fと呼ばれる[76].. The A330-300P2F has a maximum payload (cargo loading capacity) of 61 tons and a maximum cruising range of 3650 nautical miles (about 6,760 kilometers) under those conditions.[79].. The A330-200P2F has a maximum payload of 65 tons and a maximum cruising range of 4000 nautical miles (about 7400 kilometers).[76].. The first aircraft to become the A330-300P2F was in December 2017.Launch customerIsDHL ExpressDelivered to[79].. The first A330-200P2F aircraft was launched by the customer in August 2018.Egypt AirDelivered to[80].

A330P2F is for Airbus and Singapore(English editionIt is a joint venture between the company and EFW, a joint venture between the two companies.[76][77].. ST Aerospace is in charge of technical aspects such as cargo type refurbishment technology and certification from licensing authorities, and EFW is in charge of marketing.[76]..In addition, the repair work will be carried out at the EFW facility.[79].

DO NOT MRTT

DO NOT MRTT (Multi-Role Tanker Transport) is a multi-purpose aerial refueling and transport aircraft manufactured based on the A330-200.[65].. Equipped with A330 MRTTAerial refuelingThree types of systems have been proposed[66]In addition to being able to equip the left and right under the wings and the tail of the fuselage with a probe-and-drag refueling system, the fuselage can be equipped with a flying boom refueling system named Airbus Military Aerial Refueling Boom System (ARBS).[65][140]..Furthermore, if equipped with a flying boom type refueling receptacle, you will be able to receive aerial refueling yourself.[140].. In addition to aerial refueling, the A330 MRTT is equipped with equipment capable of personnel transportation, freight transportation, and medical rescue.[68].. Since the A330 MRTT can carry 111 tons of fuel in the main wing, there is no need to add a fuel tank inside the fuselage, and the capacity of personnel and cargo is almost the same as the base A330-200.[141][68].

Operational status and characteristics

The number of A330s in operation has continued to increase since the start of service.[142]According to statistics as of July 2018, 7 commercial airlines operate 120 A1,265s.[1]..The breakdown by model is 330 for the A200-536, 330 for the A300-699, and 330 for the A200-30F.[1].

Table 3 shows the number of operating companies and operating machines by region.A little less than half of the total, 604 aircraft are operated by airlines in the Asia-Oceania region, and in particular, more than 150 aircraft are operated by Chinese airlines.[1].

Table 3: Number of operating companies and operating machines as of 2018[1]
RegionNumber of investment companiesNumber of operating machines
Asia / Oceania41604
Europe41331
Americas16166
Middle East10122
Africa1242
Total1201265

According to the statistics of July 2018, the airline with the largest number of operating aircraft isTurkish AirlinesIt operates 54 passenger-type aircraft and 9 cargo-type aircraft, for a total of 63 aircraft.[1]..The major asset management companies (number of operating aircraft in parentheses) are listed by region in Asia.Air China (59),China Eastern Airlines (48),China Southern Airlines (48),Cathay Pasific Airlines (34),Korean Air (29), in the Middle EastSaudia (38),Qatar Airways (29), in North AmericaDelta Airlines (42),Hawaiian Airlines (27),American airlines (24) etc.[1]..In other regions, EuropeanAeroflot Russian Airlines (22), in OceaniaQantas (28), AfricaSouth African Airways (11), in South AmericaAerolíneas Argentinas (10) etc. are the main operating companies[1].

In 2014 for Japanese airlinesSky markIntroduced the A330-300, but stopped operating seven and a half months after it went into service.[143][144]..Skymark received the first two aircraft on February 2014, 2, and began service on domestic flights in Japan from June 28, 2.[143]..However, in January 2015, SkymarkCivil Rehabilitation LawThe A6, which had received a total of 330 aircraft, was canceled on January 1 in order to unify the operating aircraft and aim to reduce operating costs due to bankruptcy after applying for the application of.[143][144][145].

As for the military type, as of 2018, 330 A26 MRTTs are in operation.[146]..The breakdown is 9 in the UK,AustraliaSaudi Arabia6 each,United Arab Emirates3 aircraft, France and Singapore 1 each[146].

Number of orders/delivery

According to 2018 statistics, a total of 132 aircraft have been ordered from 1,707 customers and 1,390 have been delivered.[147].

Table 4: Orders received/delivered each year (cancellations are subtracted from the initial ordering year)[147]
YearsTotal20172016201520142013201220112010
Orders17072510615617056689588
delivery139067661031081081018787
Years2009200820072006200520042003200220012000
Orders4810214794635446245293
delivery76726862564731423543
Years1999199819971996199519941993199219911990
Orders222357449011419
delivery442314103091000
Years19891988
Orders373
delivery00

Major accidents / incidents

As of March 2019, A3 was involvedAviation accidentAnd 38 cases have been reported[148]..There were seven total loss accidents, three of which were fatal accidents, killing a total of 7 people.[148].

The first fatal accident on the A330 was on June 1994, 6.ToulouseOccurred in the suburbs[2][149]..An Airbus-owned A1-330, which was undergoing a flight test with one engine stopped, crashed shortly after takeoff, killing all seven passengers.[2][43](Airbus Industry Flight 129 crash).After the accident, Airbus advised the A330 operator to turn off autopilot if the engine stopped at low speeds.[150].

The second fatal accident on the A330 and the first fatal accident during commercial operation occurred on June 2, 2009.Air France Flight 447 crashIs[44].Rio de JaneiroAn A330-200 flying from Paris to Paris crashed over the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 passengers and crew.[152]..The death toll from this accident is the highest of any A330 accident.[149], The largest in Air France history[153]..In the final report by the French authorities, the cause of the accident wasPitot tubeIt was alleged that the freezing of the aircraft made it impossible to obtain the correct speed display, and that the pilot's subsequent actions were not appropriate.[152].

On May 2010, 5, in LibyaTripoli International AirportAnd from Johannesburg, South AfricaAfriqiyah AirwaysThe A330-200 crashed just before landing.Of the 104 passengers and crew, 8 died, excluding one 1-year-old boy.[154]..Libyan authorities investigated that the cause of the accident was a lack of pilot coordination[155](Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771 crashSee).This accident was on an A330Air France Flight 447 crashThis is the second most deadly accident after.

There were three incidents on the A330 that caused the aircraft to malfunction during the flight, although there were no deaths.

August 2001, 8,Air transatA330-200カナダ OfTorontoからPortugal OfLisbonA fuel leak occurred while flying over the Atlantic Ocean toward Gliding, and then all engines stopped due to lack of fuel and glide.AzoresTerceira Island OfLajes Air Force BaseDiverted to an emergency landing (Air Transat Flight 236 Glide).It is said that the fuel pipe cracked due to the wrong piping parts being used in the engine replacement performed before the accident, leading to fuel leakage.[156][157].

On January 2008, 10,QantasA330-300SingaporeからAustralia OfPerthWhile flying toward, the sudden change in altitude caused serious injuries to the passengers and crew thrown into the cabin.Western Australia Of(English editionDiverted to an air force base nearQantas Flight 72 plunge accident[158]..According to the investigation after the accident, the cause of the accident(English edition It was alleged that a device called (ADIRU) was defective and the flight control computer was unable to address the resulting problems.[159].

On January 2010, 4,Indonesia OfSurabayaからHong KongWas heading forCathay Pasific AirlinesThe A330-300 is landing at a speed of 177 km / h or more faster than the normal landing speed because the left and right engine outputs are out of control (Cathay Pacific Flight 780 Accident)[160].

In addition,2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,BeijingからTokyo International AirportWas going toAir ChinaA330-343X aircraft (B-5958)Beijing Capital International AirportThe cargo compartment burned and was wrecked[161]..No one was injured.

A330 is involved in two hijackings[148].

August 2000, 5,フィリピン OfDavaoからManilaWas heading forPhilippine AirlinesThe A330 was hijacked by an armed man.After stealing money on board, the man jumped off with a handmade parachute from an altitude of about 1,800 meters, but eyewitness testimony said the parachute did not open and the criminal was found dead the next day.[162][163]((English edition[164].

August 2000, 10,ベルギー Ofブ リ ュ ッ セ ルからコ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル OfAbidjanWas heading forSabena Belgian AirlinesWas hijacked by a manスペイン Ofマ ラ ガThe criminal was subdued by the Spanish police after landing in[165].

On January 2009, 12,Northwest AirlinesAs a flight Netherlands OfAmsterdamFrom usaDetroitAn attempted blast occurred on the A330-300, which was flying toward.A Nigerian man tried to blow up an explosive hidden in his underwear just before landing, but it was overwhelmed by passengers and crew (Delta Aircraft Bombing Terrorist Attempt Case[Annotation 4][166][167][168].

In addition, on March 2000, 3,BeijingDepartureKuala LumpurMalaysia Airlines A330-300 bound for corrosive chemicals due to false declarationOxalyl chlorideIs loaded,Kuala Lumpur International AirportA drug leak was discovered after arriving at.The fuselage was seriously damaged by the chemicals and the aircraft was discarded.[169][170].

In addition, there have been incidents in which the parked A330 was destroyed by being involved in the attacks and battles of armed groups. July 2001, 7,Sri Lanka OfBandaranaike International AirportIs an armed forceTamil Elam Liberation TigerWas attacked by and was parkedSriLankan Airlinesの2機のA330-200と1機のA340-300が破壊された。また同じく駐機中だった1機のA340-300と2機のA320も損害を受けた[171][172](Bandaranaike International Airport Attack Case). In July 2014,(I.e. OfTripoli International AirportAircraft parked at the airport were destroyed by battles between armed groups that occurred in the vicinity.[173], In thisLibyan AirlinesReported to include multiple A330s[174][175].

Main specifications

Table 5: Main specifications of each model
A330-200A330-200FA330-300
Number of flight crew2 people
Standard number of seats (3 classes)253 seatN/A295 seat
Standard number of seats (2 classes)293 seatN/A335 seat
Maximum number of seats375 seat† 1(406 seats† 2[176]N/A375 seat† 1(440 seats† 2[177]
Cargo compartment volume† 3132.4 m3[178]469.2 m3[179]158.4 m3[180]
Length58.82 m58.82 m[181]63.69 m
Width60.30 m
Height17.39 m16.88 m[182]16.83 m
Main wing area361.6 m2
Torso diameter5.64 m[183]
Cabin width5.28 m[183]
Cabin length45.0 m[183]50.35 m[183]40.8 m[183]
Maximum fuel-free weight (MZFW)168,000 - 170,000 kg[135]173,000 - 178,000 kg[135]164,000 - 175,000[137]
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)192,000 - 242,000 kg[135]227,000 - 233,000 kg[135]184,000 - 242,000 kg[137]
Maximum landing weight180,000 - 182,000 kg[135]182,000 - 187,000 kg[184]174,000 - 187,000 kg[137]
Takeoff runway† 42,220 m[185]N/A2,500 m[185]
Cruise speedMach0.82[185]
Maximum operating speedMach 0.86[183]
Cruising distance† 513,400 km[186]7,400 km[182]11,300 km[187]
Engine (× 2)GE CF6-80E1
P & W PW4000
RR Trent 700[183]
P & W PW4000
RR Trent 700[183]
GE CF6-80E1
P & W PW4000
RR Trent 700[183]
Thrust (× 2)303 - 316 kN[186]302 --320 kN[182]303 --320 kN[187]
  • Source: Unless otherwise stated, (Aoki 2014, Pp. 108, 261).
  • † 1 When arranging 3 type A emergency exits and 1 type 1 emergency exit.
  • † 2 When equipped with 4 Type A emergency exits.
  • † 3 Effective volume when LD-3 cargo containers are installed in the front and rear cargo compartments and the option to add containers to the bulk cargo compartment is not adopted. The A330-200F is the value obtained by adding the effective volume when a 96-inch x 125-inch cargo pallet is mounted on the main deck.
  • † 4 Standard sea level,International standard atmosphereValue in.
  • † 5 A330-200F is the maximum value, A330-200 / -300 is the value for typical Airbus boarding.

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[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Since the number of engines is halved in a twin-engine aircraft, it is not just a matter of mounting an engine with twice the thrust.Passenger aircraft are required to be able to take off safely with the remaining engines even if one engine stops during takeoff.Therefore, a twin-engine engine is required to have enough thrust to take off with only one engine, and in the case of a four-engine engine, it is sufficient if three engines can generate takeoff thrust.Assuming that the thrust required for takeoff and ascent is T, the thrusts required for one twin-engine and four-engine engine are T and T / 2, respectively.As a result, the twin-engine (1T) is 1 times the four-engine (4T / 3) when compared in terms of total thrust.[16][17].
  2. ^ Maximum wing thickness divided by chord length[31]
  3. ^ Aspect ratio is a value obtained by dividing the square of the wing width by the area and indicating the slenderness ratio of the wing.[188].
  4. ^ At that time, Northwest Airlines was a subsidiary of Delta Air Lines

Source

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References

Book

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "AIRBUS JET STORY" Ikaros Publishing, 2010.ISBN 978-4-86320-277-1. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Passenger Airliner Yearbook 2014-2015" Ikaros Publishing, 2014.ISBN 978-4-86320-820-9. 
  • The Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, "19 Edition of the World Aerospace Industry," The Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, 2007.ISSN 09101535. 
  • Japan Aircraft Development Association, "29 Civil Aviation Data Collection" Japan Aircraft Development Association, 2018. 
  • Kenichi Lee, "Airplane Design Method," Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., 2011.ISBN 978-4-339-04619-9. 
  • Obert, Ed (2009) (English), Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft, ISBN 978-1-58603-970-7 

Papers, journal articles, etc.

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "A330 / A340 Series" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Passenger Airliner Model Series; Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Icarus MOOK>, 2003, pp. 66-82.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
*Yoshitomo Aoki "A340 Program From its Planning to Birth and Development" Airline, Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 16-17, 2012a.ISSN 0285-3035. 
*Yoshitomo Aoki "A340 Technical Long-range four-engine aircraft full of advanced technology" "Airline" Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 18-19, 2012b.ISSN 0285-3035. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "2014 Airbus Innovation Days, where" Judgment of Emirates "raised the topic of the venue," "Koku-Fan," Vol. 63, No. 9, Bunrindo, pp. 74-79, 2014b.ISSN 0450-6650. 
  • Konan Aze "AIRBUS JET CATALOGUE" "Airline" Vol. 30, No. 8, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 48-63, 2010.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Konan Aze "Airbus A330 Study" "Airline" Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 68-69, 2014a.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Konan Aze, "Airbus A330 Study-A330 Cabin," Airline, Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 80-81, 2014b.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Konan Aze "Airbus A330 Study-A330 Cockpit" Airline, Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 82-83, 2014c.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Konan Aze "Airbus A330 Study-Final Assembly Line for A330" Airline, Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 84-85, 2014d.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Sho Tobita "Airbus A330 Research-A330-300 A330-200 A330-200F Type Explanation" "Airline" Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 70-75, 2014.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Kazuhiro Hamada "JET AIRLINER TECHNICAL ANALYSIS --AIRBUS A330 / A340 (PART1)" "Airline" Vol. 33, No. 9, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 92-97, 2013a.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Kazuhiro Hamada "JET AIRLINER TECHNICAL ANALYSIS --AIRBUS A330 / A340 (PART2)" "Airline" Vol. 33, No. 10, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 92-97, 2013b.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Akio Yamazaki, "A330 / A340--The Coming Frontal Showdown," Aviation Information, Vol. 59, No. 9, pp. 72-77, 2009.ISSN 04506669. 
  • Fuminori Yamazaki, "New Developments in Aircraft Technology in the American Commercial Aircraft Industry," Ritsumeikan Business Administration, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 217-244, 2009.ISSN 04852206. NOT 110007530635. 
  • "Airbus A330 Research-Customers of the A330," Airline, Vol. 34, No. 5, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 76-79, 2014.ISSN 02853035. 
  • Beauclair, Nicole (2002), “Airbus technology key”, Interavia 57 (666): 16-18, ISSN 14233215 
  • Brière, Dominique; Traverse, Pascal (1993), “AIRBUS A320 / A330 / A340 electrical flight controls --A family of fault-tolerant systems” (English), Digest of Papers FTCS-23. The Twenty-Third International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing (IEEE): 616-623, two:10.1109 / FTCS.1993.627364 
  • Pandey, BK (2014), “Unmatched Force Multiplier” (English), SP's Aviation (New Delhi: Athena Information Solutions Pvt. Ltd) (4): 22-25 
  • Thomas, Geoff (1992), “New Airbus Industrie'Airliners on Course for Long-Haul Era.” (English) (DjVu), ICAO Journal (International Civil Aviation Organization) 47 (1): 4-7, ISSN 10148876 
  • “A330 MRTT (MULTI ROLE TANKER TRANSPORT)”, NATO's Nations and Partners for Peace 2: 172-173, (2007), ISSN 15669009 
  • “Multi-Mission Capabilities” (English), SP's Aviation (New Delhi: Athena Information Solutions Pvt. Ltd) (4): 38-39, (2012) 

Online resources

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Cebu Pacific Air

Cebu Pacific Air (Cebu PacificBritish: Cebu Pacific Air) Isフィリピン OfCebu Island,ManilaTheBaseToCheap airline.

Overview

Cebu Airlines is headed by John GokongweiJG Summit HoldingsIs a company owned by and has entered the domestic market after the deregulation of the Philippine government.2011Currently in the PhilippinesPhilippine AirlinesMaximum pull outAirlinesOf the "JG Summit Holdings" run by the Gokongwei familysubsidiaryIs. The Gokongwei family is a Chinese-Filipino millionaire based in the Philippines.

Cebu Air, Inc., which operates Cebu Pacific Air,1988May 8Was established in1991The legislation approved by Cebu Airlines was approved by Congress.1996May 3The first flight was operated. After the accident in February 1998 (described later), the operation was suspended for a while under the direction of the government, but the operation was resumed the following month.

at firstMetro Manila,Metro cebu,DavaoThe number of flights per day was 24,2001At the end, it has grown into a company that operates 18 flights a day to 80 locations in the Philippines.2000 eraHas entered into Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia with permission to enter international routes. The first international flight2001May 11The flight was to Hong Kong.

Due to subsequent expansion, in addition to domestic flights in the Philippines,Indonesia,Malaysia,Singaporeな どSoutheast AsiaNot only countries,Taiwan, South Koreaな どNortheast asiaWe are operating in 50 cities centering on the major cities of.2008May 11In OsakaKIXAnd entered service in Japan for the first time.

From 2014Nagoya OfChubu International AirportCebu Pacific Airlines will have direct routes to all three major metropolitan areas of Japan.

on the other hand,EUFrom March 2010, 3, with all other Philippine airlines, saying that there is a problem with the safety confirmation system of the Philippine aviation authorities.No entry into the EUMeasures have been added, and the company had no prospect of opening a route until around April 2014.[1].. But on April 4thUS Federal Aviation AdministrationHas raised the Philippine safety standards from Category 2 to Category 1 because it meets the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) safety standards.[2]EU Updates Airline Safety List On April 4th, Cebu Pacific Air Following Philippine Airlines Has Been Removed From Prohibition List[3].

2014May 1ToSingaporeof"Tiger air] And a strategic alliance will be implemented. With regard to the route networks of both companies, it has become possible to make reservations, sales, and connections with each other through an interline tie-up, and by expanding the network, convenience has increased. In addition, Tiger AirTigerair Philippines40% of the shares of "," and made Tigerair Philippines a wholly owned subsidiary. In addition, Tiger Air Philippines continued to operate for the time being using the "Tiger Air" brand, but in 100CebgoChanged the brand name to[4].

August 2015, 8 in ManilaNinoy Aquino International AirportIs planned to change the terminal used in[5].

On March 2016, 3, we announced new uniforms for flight attendants to commemorate the company's 1th anniversary. The new uniform will be worn according to the 20 summer schedule on March 2016, 3.

Owned equipment

As of 2018 year 4 month[6][7]

Services

The company has announced a typical cheap airline policy, spending money on equipment, maintenance, reservation system and other hard aspects, free food and drink, free checked luggage, paper tickets,Mileage programIt is said that the price will be reflected as "LiteFARE" for the air ticket price instead of implementing it.[8]

In-flight mealThere is a charge for alcohol and alcohol, but the menus are replaced quickly, and some menus may not be available depending on the flight.In-flight magazineThere is a "Smile", which also serves as an in-flight sales catalog.US dollar,Philippine pesoYou can pay with, but basically you can only make changes in Philippine pesos. Checking the weight of baggage is strict, and carry-on baggage is free of charge up to 7kg, but if you exceed it even a little, an excess charge will be incurred, so refilling work at the airport counter is often necessary and check-in often takes time. Most of the equipment used is state-of-the-art aircraft such as the Airbus A320 and ATR72, but the spacing between seats is not wide and there are no facilities such as personal monitors. However, some A319 models can listen to music by bringing in earphones. On international flights, there are broadcasts (recordings) in the language of the country, but the conversation with the crew is basically in English. Also, depending on the flight, when the flight attendant says "show me game" (show me), we will implement a game-like service so that the person who shows it the earliest can receive the item. ing.[9]

2010 year 10 month,Lady Gagaof"Just dance), the pilot conducted safety guidance before takeoff while dancing and gained a great reputation[10].

Service route

Domestic flights

Luzon
Manila (Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3) : Main hub
Busuanga (Busuanga Airport
Kawayan (Cauayan Airport
Clerk(Clark International Airport
Lawag (Laoag International Airport
Legazpi (Legaspi Airport
Naga (Naga Airport
Puerto Princesa (Puerto Princesa International Airport
San Jose (San Jose Airport
Tuguegarao (Tuguegarao Airport
Villak (Virac Airport
Visayas
Cebu (Mactan Cebu International Airport : Hub
Bacolod (Bacolod-Siray International Airport
Caticlan/Boracay (Godofredo P. Ramos Airport
Dumaguete (Sibulan Airport
Iloilo (Iloilo International Airport
Kalibo (Kalibo International Airport
Lohas (Roxas Airport
Tacloban (Tacloban airport
Tagbilaran (Tagbilaran Airport
Masbate[11]
Mindanao
Davao (Davao International Airport : Hub
Butuan (Bankasi Airport
Cagayan de Oro (Lumbia Airport
Kotabato (Awang Airport
Dipolog (Dipolog Airport
General Santos (General Santos International Airport
Ozamis (Labo Airport
Pagadian (Pagadian Airport
Shargao (Sayak Airport
Surigao (Surigao Airport
Taui Taui (Sanga-Sanga Airport
Zamboanga (Zamboanga International Airport

International flights

East Asia

Japanese flag Japan
Tokyo/Narita,Osaka/Kansai,Nagoya/Chubu,Fukuoka(January 2016 service)
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea
Seoul/Incheon,Busan
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku
Shanghai/Pudong,Guangzhou
Hong Kong flag Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Macau flag Macau
Macau
Republic of China flag Taiwan
Taipei/Taoyuan

Southeast Asia

 Indonesia
Jakarta,Denpasar
Singapore flag Singapore
Singapore
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand
Bangkok/Suvarnabhumi,プ ー ケ ッ ト[12][13]
Malaysia flag Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur,Kota Kinabalu
 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
Hanoi,Ho Chi Minh City
Brunei flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
Bandar Seri Begawan

Oceania

Australian flag Australia
Sydney

Middle East

United Arab Emirates flag United Arab Emirates
Dubai
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia
Riyadh,Dammam
Kuwait flag クウェート
クウェート

Accident, trouble, etc.

  • February 1998, 2-Manila (via Tacloban) to Cagaya de Oro / Flight 2 / DC-387-9 / RP-C32
ManilaNinoy Aquino International AirportFrom central PhilippinesTaclobanVia southern PhilippinesMindanaoNorthern cityCagayan de OroTo Flight 387DC-9-32(RP-C1507) crashed into the mountains about 11km north-northeast from the airport during landing approach to the final destination, Cagayan de Oro Airport, around 50am. It was a catastrophe that killed all 104 passengers and crew[14].
  • June 2013, 6-Manila to Davao / Flight 2 / A971-320 / RP-C214
When landing at Davao Airport, he left the runway and the front wheels plunged into the grassland beside the runway. After that, the aircraft stopped and the wheels were damaged, but 165 passengers and 6 crew members were all alive and there were no injuries. At the time of the accident, visibility was poor due to thunderstorms, and flight crew members reported to the authorities that "the lights from the runway could not be clearly seen even when the altitude was lowered." Misunderstood as a line light, and forced landing due to bad weather is said to be the cause of the accident[15].

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footnote

  1. ^ “European Union: All Philippine and Sudanese airlines are prohibited from entering the region”Bloomberg. (March 2010, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 7.. https://archive.is/7aDS 
  2. ^ Press Release – FAA Announces the Republic of the Philippines' Aviation Safety Rating April 9, 2014 Contact: Alison Duquette or Les Dorr Phone: (202) 267-3883
  3. ^ “Aviation: Commission updates the European safety list” (English). Brussels: European Union. (April 2014, 4). http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-415_en.htm 
  4. ^ “Tiger Air and Cebu Pacific Announce Strategic Alliance”. FlyTeam. (January 2014, 1). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/30605 
  5. ^ CEB Advisory-Manila Terminal Changes Cebu Pacific Air
  6. ^ Cebu Pacific Airlines fleet details -AirFleets.net
  7. ^ CEBU Pacific Air Fleet Details and History Planespptters.net
  8. ^ LiteFare Cebu Pacific Air
  9. ^ Cebu Pacific Airlines (Philippines) reviews, reputation and impressions Cheap Airline LCC Institute [Source invalid]
  10. ^ "Safe Dance" at Lady Gaga - CNN
  11. ^ “Cebu Pacific Airlines enters service on Cebu/Masbate”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 6). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/22727 
  12. ^ “Cebu Pacific Airlines Enters Manila/Phuket Line from August”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 5). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/22663 
  13. ^ “Cebu Pacific to Manila/Phuket route”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 8). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/25564 
  14. ^ Cebu Pacific Air 387- Accident description Aviation Safety Network
  15. ^ Cebu Pacific Air 971- Accident description

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