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🧳 | JAL Mileage Bank and Emirates Airlines First Class Awards are closed for reservations on September 9st


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JAL Mileage Bank accepts reservations for Emirates First Class awards on September 9st

 
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It is a private room type with a door, and a shower is installed on the Airbus A380.
 

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Private room type

Airbus A380

Airbus A380-800

United Arab Emirates flag Emirates Airlines
United Arab Emirates flag Etihad Airways
Singapore flag Singapore Airlines
Flag of the People's Republic of China China Southern Airlines
Republic of Korea flag Korean Air
Japanese flagAll Nippon Airways
  • First flight: 2005/4/27
  • Number of production: 251 aircraft (as of September 2020)
  • Start of production: 2002/1/24
  • Operation start: 2007/10/25
  • Operational status:In operation
  • Unit cost: US $ 4 million

Airbus A380(Airbus A380) IsEurope OfAirbusDeveloped and manufactured by the companyTurbo fan engineSuper large equipped with 4 shotsWide body machine..世界初の総2階建World's first total XNUMX storiesPassenger planeBut also[Note 1]As a passenger plane (number of passengers), it is the largest model in the world.Also, in the aircraftAn-225 MuriyaIt is the second largest in the world after. The A2 was a large aircraft called a "jumbo jet" at the time of its completion.Boeing 747In terms of the number of passengers, it became the world's largest and largest ever super-large aircraft.[Note 2].

Overview

Production started2002May 1It was because the prototype flew for the first time2005May 4[1]..また、型式証明の取得は2006年12月であったIn addition, the acquisition of type certification was in December XNUMX.[1]..It took 16 years from the initial concept to the first flight.As of the end of 10, 2015 years after the first flight,Airbus TheMiddle East,Southeast AsiaIt has won more than 300 orders, mainly in the region, and at this point it was announced that it had reached the break-even point for the A380 project as a whole and succeeded in turning the entire plan into the black.[Source required].

Aiming for a super giant machine with a total of two stories and 800 seats[1], A380 in early 1990A3XXDevelopment started as.一度に大量のA lot at oncepassengerBy transporting空港The main aim was to alleviate congestion, improve the economics of air transportation, and at the same time make it easier for airlines to make profits.[1]..エアバス社のほかにもBesides AirbusBoeingCompany andMcDonnell DouglasAs a next-generation large passenger aircraft Boeing 747-XMcDonnell Douglas MD-12However, development was frozen in both cases.この後、ボーイング社は総2階建のAfter this, Boeing became a two-story building.NLAAttempts were made to develop, but this was also discontinued.SukhoibyKR-860There was a plan.かつてOnceLockheedThe company also planned a two-story passenger plane, but it was finished at the conceptual stage.

The A380-800 has a total length of about 73 m, a total width of about 80 m, a maximum takeoff weight of 560 tons, and a cruising range of 15,400 km.[1]..The cruising speed is 1,050 km / h, the maximum speed is 1,185 km / h, and the cruising range is 15,200 km.Jet engineIt is,Engine Alliance GP7200OrRolls-Royce Trent 900To use.座席定員は、全席をSeat capacity is all seatsEconomy classIf you set it to, the maximum number will be 853.[1].

Due to the large size of the aircraft, the complicated electrical wiring with a total length of 500 km was not in time, so mass production was delayed by one and a half years from the original plan, October 1, 2007.Launch customerIsSingapore AirlinesThe first A380 was handed over to[1]..When Singapore Airlines introduces the A380,SydneyIncludingUK,Tokyo,North AmericaIt was put into service all over the world. 2020年現在で、シンガポール航空を含め、エミレーツ航空など15の航空会社がA380を保有しているAs of XNUMX, XNUMX airlines, including Singapore Airlines, including Emirates, own the AXNUMX.[Note 3]..In particular, Emirates has introduced an order of magnitude more A380s than other companies, and the number of aircraft in operation has easily exceeded 100, so it is the only salvation of the A380 that did not improve sales compared to other models. became.

As of September 380, a total of 2020 A9s have been produced, all of which are A251-380 types.Airbus also has an extended fuselage-800 type,Cargo typeWe have planned multiple variants such as, but none of them have been developed as of September 2020.

After 2018, the plans of each airline that was planning to introduce it were reviewed one after another, and on February 2019, 2, Airbus CEO Tom Enders will stop production of the A14 and will not deliver it after 380 Announced that"Airbus and Emirates reach agreement on A380 fleet, sign new widebody orders" (English). Airbus. 2019th of February 2Browse..

As of September 2020, there have been seven aircraft loss accidents or incidents with the A9, but no fatal accidents or total aircraft loss accidents.

Development history

Western giant machine development competition

By the end of the 1980s, there was a demand for a successor to the early Boeing 747.[2]..Airbus is an aircraft with a transportation capacity that can compete with the Boeing 747.1989からUHCA(Ultra High Capacity Aircraft) Work has begun to realize the concept.Boeing reacts sensitively to this,1991Announced three types of plans, including the 747 improved version, and started to prevent UHCA (for details)Background of the development of the Boeing 747-8(See)[3]..In response to this movement, Airbus is composed (at that time)Aerospatial,THE A,BAe,HOME4 companies in collaboration with Boeing1993In January, apart from UHCA, it announced the idea of ​​a large-scale transportation mechanism called VLCT (Very Large Commercial Transport).当初、ボーイングとエアバスによる市場調査では、1種類の機種があっても揃って成功する規模の市場は無いと判断されていたInitially, market research by Boeing and Airbus determined that even with two models, there was no market that would succeed together.[2]..しかしライバル同士の意見がかみ合わず、エアバスはHowever, the opinions of rivals did not fit, and Airbus1994June, UHCAA3XXVLCT was canceled after announcing that it had started the plan as (530 seats-570 seats 100 type and 630 seats-680 seats 200 type concept)[4].

Boeing countered this by announcing the 747-500X and 747-600X in the same year, showing its readiness to confront.[5](747X plan). 747X計画はさまざまに変遷する流動的なものであったが、その間にもボーイング社はエアバス社に対する露骨なThe XNUMXX project was mobile and mobile, while Boeing was explicit about Airbus.Negative campaignWe tried to reduce the image of A3XX (Sonic cruiserSee).But Airbus went ahead with the plan.

2000May 12, Airbus won orders for 62 aircraft, so A3XXA380Announced that it has entered development as[6]..Boeing postponed 747X plan the following year,Sonic cruiserAlthough we announced the plan,2003Freeze the plan and expand its development capacity to medium-sized machinesBoeing 787Focused on[7]..しかし、その後ボーイング社は、A380とHowever, after that, Boeing announced that it was an AXNUMX.777-300ER,A340-600Because it fills the gap747-400ER,747-8Started development of large machines such as model (plan name 747Advanced).

Schedule delays and orders

The first A380 is2005May 1Ceremony for completion was held at the head office factory in Toulouse[8].

On June 6, Airbus announced that it would "delay delivery by two to six months."The problems were insufficient strength of the main wings and overweight due to in-flight wiring.前者は直ちに改善されたが、後者の解決は困難であったThe former improved immediately, but the latter was difficult to resolve.[9].. The A380 has a maximum capacity of 853 seats, and the wires drawn individually are approximately 563km in total.[10]The connection and storage took longer than expected, and the wiring of the audio equipment placed in the seats as part of the service increased the weight more than expected, and it took time to respond.

As of the 18thAmerican International Group (AIG) Leasing DivisionInternational Lease Finance 16 including (International Lease Finance Corporation, ILFC)AirlinesHas ordered the A380, which has 27 aircraft.Freighter159 including[11]Climbed up.エアバス社AirbusCEONoel Foljar has expressed his hope of "selling 500 of these aircraft."

In the scheduleLaunch customer OfSingapore Airlines The2006Fourth Quarter-Received the first A4 at the end of the year,Qantas The2007January,Emirates Airlines The2008Earlier, the A380 was to be handed over. A380型機の最初の路線就航は2006年末のThe first AXNUMX will be in service at the end of XNUMXUKDepartureSingaporeviaSydneyTo Singapore Airlines, followed by Singapore Airlines from SingaporeHong KongviaSan FranciscoLine, from SingaporeNaritaviaLos Angelesline,Paris,FrankfurtA direct flight to was scheduled to enter service.Qantas also announced that it will launch the A380 on the Los Angeles-Sydney flight.By this time, Airbus had announced that it would deliver four aircraft a month.

But 2006May 6, Airbus announced that delivery will be delayed again by 6-7 months[12]..The reason is the delay in production, but it is said that it takes time to install the wiring in the machine in order to correspond to the interior specifications that differ for each customer.社内で使用しているUsed in-houseCADsoftCATIAHowever, while Germany and Spain used version 4, the change to version 5 in the UK and France caused problems in data sharing, and the cable length did not correspond to the design change.[13]..Regarding the number of delivery machines, 25 machines per year (planned)2009From 45 aircraft a year) to 2007 aircraft in 9, and 2008-5 aircraft smaller than planned after 9.This caused an even greater delay in receipt, worsening the airline's sentiment.Airbus has negotiated extensive compensation with affected airlines and sought to avoid airliner cancellations by offering cheaper leasing packages.また、引き渡し延期をめぐっては、エアバス親会社のAlso, regarding the postponement of delivery, the Airbus parent companyEADSIn addition to the plunge in shares, executives from both EADS and Airbus sold large numbers of shares before the announcement.insiderA problem has been discovered, former EADS CEO Noel Forger has been arrested, and 10 others have been accused by French authorities.

In addition, 2006May 9Announced a delay in the delivery schedule for the third time by EADS.続くContinueMay 10"We have been informed by Airbus that the A380 project will be delayed by another 10 months and the aircraft will be delivered in August 2008," said Emirates Airlines, the largest ordering company.エミレーツ航空は同声明の中で「当社にとって極めて深刻な問題で(契約に関する)すべての選択肢を見直している」としていたが、その後8年Emirates said in the statement, "It's a very serious problem for us and we're reviewing all our options (on contracts)," but then in 2007.May 5The cancellation of the contract was avoided by receiving an additional order for 4 aircraft.その後、2007年Then in XNUMXMay 6Made inParis Air ShowIn, eight additional aircraft were ordered, and at the Dubai Air Show in November 8, an additional order for 2013 aircraft was decided, bringing the total to 11 aircraft, making it the largest customer of the aircraft.

2006May 11, Was planning to introduce a cargo typeFedexRevealed that the order was cancelled.次いで2007年Then in XNUMXMay 3Was planning to introduce a freight typeUnited parcel service (UPS) canceled the order because Airbus announced that it would prioritize the production of passenger aircraft as part of its reconstruction plan, fearing further delays in delivery (UPS later placed a new order for the B747-8F).Furthermore, ILFC, which had ordered both passenger and freight models, has also announced that it will cancel orders for freight models only and receive delivery for passenger models only.

At this point, Airbus lost all 80 freight-type orders, including options, and suspended freight-type development.旅客型の受注件数は基本設計から半世紀が経過し、大型化に限界があるボーイング747の発展形であるHalf a century has passed since the basic design of the number of passenger-type orders received, and it is a development of the Boeing XNUMX, which has a limit to its size.Boeing 747-8Although the number of orders has exceeded the number of orders received, the cargo type has fallen far behind the Boeing 747-8.[Note 4][Note 5][14][15].

Test flight

2005May 4ToFrance OfToulouseFirst flight in[16].

2006From November A11 MSN380 (Rolls-Royce Trent 900 typeEquipped with serial number 2: F-WXXL)空港 OfRunway,Taxiway, PBB (Passenger boarding bridge) Was tested and a world tour was conducted as part of the PR.The journey departs from Toulouse and goes around 4 cities in four parts, with the first flightSingapore(May 11),Republic of Korea, Seoul(May 11) Called at the port. 2回目にSecond timeHong Kong(May 11)WhenNarita(May 11 - May 11), The third timePeople's Republic of ChinaCentered onGuangzhou(May 11),Beijing,andShanghai(May 11) To fly. In the 4th timeJohannesburg, South Africa(May 11)South PolePassing over the skySydney, Australia(May 11) Called at the port.The Pacific OceanAcrossVancouver, CanadaAfter flying on (November 11th)North poleI passed over the sky and returned to Toulouse.

Due to the success of this flightMay 12ToEuropean Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) andUS Federal Aviation Administration Obtained (FAA) type certificate at the same time[17]..At this time, he pointed out that the FAA did not equip American aircraft with the fuel tank explosion prevention device required.There is no obligation to equip European aircraft, and Airbus insists that it has a different structure from American aircraft (Boeing aircraft) and does not need to equip it.However, FAA standards may apply when adopted by US airlines.

The aircraft will be on the A2007 MSN380 (manufacturer serial number 007: F-WWJB) as part of the "World Tour 7".2007May 6I came to Narita Airport again andMay 6Headed to Sydney.

Also, using the A380 MSN009 (manufacturer serial number 9: F-WWEA),Engine AllianceCompanyGP7000 engineA test flight was conducted to obtain the type certificate of the A380 equipped with. 2007年XNUMXMay 9Fromコロンビア Ofボ ゴ タWe made intermittent test flights to North America, South America, and the Middle East.May 10ToKansai airportCalled at the port and then returned to Toulouse[18]..The A380-861 equipped with this engine obtained type certification in December 2007.

Delivery and service

2007May 10After 30 months of testing since its maiden flight, the aircraft was handed over to its first destination, Singapore Airlines.[19].. same yearMay 10Singapore Airlines officials such as pilots and engineers boardAirbushead office(Toulouse) To Singapore.そして同年And the same yearMay 10Inaugurated as SQ380 flight between Singapore and Sydney.この初号便の座席はThe seat of this first flighteBaybyInternet auctionSold at, the proceeds are donated to charity.In addition, the "world's largest airliner currently in operation" has replaced the Boeing 747 with the A380.

As a result, the first delivery was delayed by a year and a half from the original schedule. 1年2007月末での受注数は11機であるが、一説によれば遅れに伴う補償費用や生産設備の稼働率低下、人海戦術に伴う人件費増大等によってエアバスは193億As of the end of November 60, the number of orders received was XNUMX, but according to one theory, Airbus received XNUMX billion due to compensation costs due to delays, a decrease in the operating rate of production equipment, and an increase in labor costs due to human wave tactics.EuroThe project cost has increased (about 1 trillion yen), and the euro's appreciation against the US dollar has led to the deterioration of the A380's profitable line from the initial 270 aircraft to about 420 aircraft.[20]Is said.

On November 2007, 11, AirbusSaudi ArabiaPrince'sAl WaleedAnnounced that it has signed a sales contract to purchase the A380 as a private aircraft. It has two dining rooms, a game room, a master bedroom, etc., and costs $ 2 million for the aircraft and $ 3 million for refurbishment.A missile defense system is also included.エアバス社では"The Flying Palace"(空飛ぶ宮殿)と呼んでいるAirbus calls it "The Flying Palace"[21]..This aircraft was originallyEtihad AirwaysIt has been revealed that it is the second flight test that was scheduled to be delivered to.

It seemed that the A380 had made a good start with the start of regular service by Singapore Airlines, but on May 2008, 5, Airbus readjusted its mass production plan and started Wave 13 (pre-mass production stage). Announced to revise the delivery plan in 1 (after the transition to mass production).As a result, it was confirmed that the rapid mass production planned in 2 became unattainable, and there was a slight delay in the transition to Wave 2006.This is because the work in Wave 2 took longer than expected.

As for the future outlook, Airbus announced on the same day as follows.

  • Number of planned A380 delivery machines
    • 2008: 13 aircraft → 12 aircraft (1 aircraft reduced)
    • 2009: 25 aircraft → 21 aircraft (4 aircraft reduced)

The number of delivery machines after this will be decided by discussions with customers in the future.After that, prior to the delivery of the first aircraft for Qantas and the 2008th aircraft manufactured in September 9, Airbus maintained 14 and 2008 aircraft delivered in 2009 and 12, and 21 to 2010 aircraft in 30. Announced that it will be between. On December 40, 2008, the 12th aircraft for Emirates Airlines in 30 was delivered.なお、2008年後半に顕在化したIn addition, it became apparent in the latter half of 12.World financial crisisTherefore, airline companies have requested Airbus to slow down the delivery pace, and in response to this, in May 2009, it was announced again that the number of deliveries during 5 will be reduced to 2009.

2008May 7The A380-861 was handed over to Emirates at the new Jürgen Thomas Delivery Center at Airbus' Hamburg facility. This is the sixth A380 to be delivered to an airline, and Emirates is the second airline to receive the A6, as all five have been delivered to Singapore Airlines.

The delivery machine first went into service on the Dubai-New York (John F. Kennedy) route on August 8, the same year.Other long-haul routes include London, Sydney, and Auckland, but the number of destinations is expected to increase as the number of aircraft increases in the future. In March 1, Emirates decided to withdraw the A2009 from the Dubai-New York (John F. Kennedy) route due to poor profitability and changed to the Boeing 3-380ER.

The aircraft was flying for training and training of crew and maintenance personnel between commercial operations, but in September of the same year, an electronic device trouble of unknown cause occurred and the flight work was interrupted.Commercial operations resumed on September 9, the same year.

2008May 9The A380-842 (total manufacturing unit 14) for the company was handed over to Qantas Australia, and arrived in Sydney on September 9, the same year.After about a month of proficiency training, the airline began commercial operations on the Melbourne-Los Angeles route on October 21, the same year.

2013May 3, The 100th A380 was handed over to Malaysia Airlines[22]..This is Malaysia Airlines' sixth aircraft.しかしながら6年2015月、同社は会社の業績不振の影響もあって近い将来にA5を放出することを示唆したHowever, in May 380, the company suggested that it would release the AXNUMX in the near future, partly due to the poor performance of the company.[23].. 2016年2月、同社CEOは、売却を延期し、少なくとも2018年まで同型機保有総数は現在の6機のまま据え置く、と述べたIn February XNUMX, the company's CEO said it would postpone the sale and keep the total number of aircraft owned by the same model at the current six until at least XNUMX.[24]..同年11月30日、A380型機を新たな航空会社に移管し、イスラム教のメッカ巡礼のためフライトを運航する計画を発表したOn November XNUMX, the same year, it announced plans to transfer the AXNUMX to a new airline and operate flights for the Islamic Mecca pilgrimage.[25].

On November 2017, 11, the company's 3th A100 (aircraft number: A380-EUV) was handed over to Emirates Airlines.[26][27]. In 2018(UAE)Since the 100th anniversary of the birth of the first President of Zayed, it is a special painting machine that depicts him in addition to the "100th A380" logo.

Main routes (as of June 2020)(Note) If the city names are the same, the airports are the same.

  • Singapore Airlines-Departure:Singapore
  • Lufthansa - Point of departure:Frankfurt
  • Emirates-Departure:Dubai
    • Destination: LondonManchester・ Paris ・ Zurich ・ Frankfurt ・ Dusseldorf ・ Munich ・ Madrid ・ Barcelona ・ Amsterdam ・ Rome ・ Milan ・ Sydney ・ Brisbane ・ Melbourne ・ Perth ・ Beijing ・ Shanghai ・ Hong Kong ・ Osaka / Kansai ・ Narita ・Toronto・ San Francisco ・ Los Angeles ・ New York ・ Dallas ・ Houston ・ Bangkok ・ Kuala Lumpur ・ Singapore ・ Seoul ・Jeddah・ Kuwait Mumbai Mauritius
    • Destinations beyond: Sydney- Auckland・ Bangkok ――Hong Kong ・ Brisbane ――Akland Melbourne ――Aakland
  • Qantas-Departure:Sydney-Melbourne
    • Destination: (Sydney, Melbourne)-London, Los Angeles, Dallas
    • Destinations beyond: (Sydney, Melbourne) -Dubai-London
  • Korean Air - Point of departure:Seoul
    • Destination: Los Angeles, New YorkAtlanta・ Paris / Hong Kong
  • China Southern Airlines --Departure: BeijingGuangzhou
  • Malaysia Airlines - Point of departure:Kuala Lumpur
    • Destination: London / Sydney
  • Thai Airways - Point of departure:Bangkok
  • British Airways - Point of departure:UK
    • Destinations: Los Angeles, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Washington, Singapore
  • Asiana Airlines --Departure: Seoul
    • Destinations: Los Angeles, New York, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Narita
  • Qatar Airways --Departure: Doha
    • Destination: London, Paris, Bangkok
  • Etihad Airways --Departure: Abu Dhabi
    • Destination: London
  • ANA --Departure: Narita

Service to Japan

JapanThe route is2008May 5It was the first time Singapore Airlines began operating on the Singapore-Tokyo / Narita route.だが、悪天候によりBut due to bad weatherChubu International AirportAvoid landing (Divert), And then arrived at Narita about 4 hours later.The day was the 30th anniversary of the opening of Narita Airport.

After that,2010May 6From the arrival flight, Lufthansa has not boarded Narita since returning to the Haneda line in March 2014, and has virtually withdrawn as of January 3) on the Frankfurt-Tokyo / Narita line.2011May 6More Korean AirSeoul/Incheon --Tokyo / Narita Line (Outbound: KE701[Note 7]・復路:702便)でそれぞれ運航開始。・ Return flight: Flight XNUMX).同年same yearMay 7Singapore Airlines is Singapore-Tokyo / Narita- Los AngelesStarted operation on the line instead of the Boeing 777-300ERDistant rightIt went into service for the first time on this flight.2012The Emirates Airlines entered service on the Dubai-Tokyo / Narita route from July 7, and the A1 departed for the first time at Narita Airport's Terminal 2 Building (gate 380), but on May 66, 2013, the A5 The service has ended.And in 31 (?), It went into service again.

On the other hand, 2010May 9Air France started operations on the Paris-Tokyo / Narita route from the arrival flight, but in 2014May 5The equipment was changed to the Boeing 777-300ER.大韓航空もデイリー運航から曜日限定運航に切り替え、2012年4月以降は全便他機材に切り替えたが、2012年Korean Air also switched from daily operations to day-only operations, and after April XNUMX, switched to all flights and other aircraft, but in XNUMXMay 10から2013May 3Until then, the A380 has been revived (outbound: KE705, inbound: 706, but may be operated by other aircraft).

2012 on Singapore AirlinesMay 8 - May 8In commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Osaka's service, it operated on the Singapore-Osaka / Kansai (outbound route: SQ618, return route: SQ619 flight) route.KIXThe A380 was the first regular passenger flight to enter service.なお、当路線では2013年・2014年にも8月中旬In addition, on this route, in XNUMX and XNUMX, mid-August[28][29][30][31]Operates in.Also,2014May 8-May 8To commemorate the 25th anniversary of Nagoya's service, the Singapore-Nagoya / Chubu (outbound: SQ672 / return: SQ671) route also operated, and the A380 was the first regular passenger flight to enter service at Chubu International Airport.[32][33].

Thai Airways International 2013May 1From Bangkok-Started operation on the Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: TG676, inbound: TG677).さらに同年The same yearMay 12From, the morning departure flight on the Tokyo / Narita line has also been changed to the A380 (outward route: TG641 flight, return route: TG640 flight), and the Bangkok-Osaka / Kansai line (outbound route: TG622, return route: TG623 flight) has also started.2015I changed the aircraft to B5-747 from May and operated it,2016May 5Re-introduced from October 10th[34], It became B2017-1 around January 747[Source required], As of September 2017, the A9 operates evening flights departing from Narita and its return flights, and evening flights departing from Kansai International Airport and its return flights.[35].

Asiana Airlines 2014May 6From Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita Line (outbound: OZ102, return: OZ101), same yearMay 7From Seoul / Incheon-Osaka / Kansai Line (outbound: OZ112, inbound: OZ111), same yearMay 8Was temporarily put in[36][37]..そして、2016年10月30日から11月9日の間、ソウル/仁川 - 東京/成田線(往路:OZ102・復路:OZ101便)で期間限定投入され、2年ぶりに日本に同社のA380が飛来したThen, from October XNUMXth to November XNUMXth, XNUMX, the company's AXNUMX will be launched in Japan for the first time in two years on the Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: OZXNUMX, inbound: OZXNUMX). Came in[38].. 2017年10月29日から2018年3月24日まで、再度ソウル/仁川 - 東京/成田線(往路:OZ102・復路:OZ101便)にA380を投入しているFrom October XNUMX, XNUMX to March XNUMX, XNUMX, the AXNUMX has been launched again on the Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: OZXNUMX, inbound: OZXNUMX).[39].

2016 due to changes in Singapore Airlines route plansMay 10With this, the A11 service on the Los Angeles-Tokyo / Narita-Singapore route (SQ12 / 380) has ended.[40]..The line became B777-300ER from the next day, but there is no announcement that the Tokyo / Narita line-Singapore line (SQ637 / 638) will become A380.The company also has a Haneda line, so it is highly likely that the A380 has virtually withdrawn from the Tokyo / Narita line.この後、大阪/関西線については同年12月4日から2017年始にかけて期間限定で運用されているAfter this, the Osaka / Kansai Line will be in operation for a limited time from December XNUMXth to the beginning of XNUMX.[41].

Malaysia Airlines introduced the A380, which is used only on the London route, to the Narita route for a limited time from August to September 2017, and operated it on the Tokyo / Narita route-Kuala Lumpur route (MH8 / 9).[42]..In addition, the final match will be held on December 2015, 12 and December 14, 20.FIFA Club World Cup 2015To participate inFC BarcelonaThe Barcelona-Tokyo / Narita direct charter flight with (European representative) players and supporters became the A380 as a result of the club's leaders sticking to the large number of VIP seats, and the logo of Malaysia Airlines' sixth aircraft and the 6th A380 in total. It was an entry machine[43][44].

As mentioned above, there were many airlines that were active in entering Japan at the time of the first service of this aircraft, but as of March 2017, there are airlines that will withdraw or switch from daily to seasonal or limited time. It is increasing.しかし、エミレーツ航空が3年2017月3日からドバイ - 東京/成田線にA26を再就航させHowever, Emirates will relaunch the A380 on the Dubai-Tokyo / Narita route from March XNUMX, XNUMX.[45], The number of foreign-affiliated A380s that regularly enter Japan is two, including Thai Airways International.

Trends of Japanese airlines

Since Japan had introduced the most Boeing 380s in the world, which are called large passenger planes like the A747,Japan AirlinesAndAll Nippon AirwaysWas said to have the potential to introduce the A380. 2010年10月、羽田にデモフライトした際、エアバス側の意向でAt the intention of Airbus during the demo flight to Haneda in October XNUMXNew Chitose AirportA conformance test was also conducted at.

Sky mark

Sky markは国際線参入の一環として2010年11月8日に同機の購入について基本合意し、2011年2月17日に6機(うち2機はオプション)の購入契約を正式に締結した。この正式契約成立により、日本の航空会社として初めてエアバスA380が導入され、同時に日本籍で初めてエアバス社製・四発ワイドボディ機が登録されることになり、契約通りに進めば2014年に2機を導入する予定であり[46][47][48]In addition to launching flights to London, Frankfurt and New York, it has announced plans to introduce nine additional aircraft after 2018.[49]..A test flight of the aircraft painted in Skymark color was also conducted, but when the Skymark side offered to change the contract due to the deterioration of management, the Airbus side refused and the purchase contract broke down.購入キャンセルについて交渉中であることが明らかにされたIt was revealed that negotiations were underway regarding purchase cancellation[50][51].

2014May 7, Fuel costs soared due to yen depreciation in the first half of 2014Cheap airline Due to the rise of (LCC) and other factors, the management fell into the red, and Skymark asked Airbus to postpone the introduction of two aircraft and cancel the contract for four aircraft.Then, Airbus demanded Skymark to join "under the umbrella of a major airline", and if it refused and canceled the contract, "penaltyWill be chargedBloombergIs reported[52]did.これを受けてスカイマークは「当社の経営の主体性を揺るがすような主張は受け入れられない」とする声明を発表したが、この声明を受けたエアバス側は「スカイマークとの協議および同社の機体に対する姿勢を受け」て契約協議の終了を通知In response to this, Skymark issued a statement stating that "claims that would shake the independence of our management are unacceptable," but Airbus, which received this statement, said, "Consultation with Skymark and its attitude toward the aircraft. Received "and notified the end of contract consultation[53][54]In addition, the maximum amount of 700 billion yen is stated as "holding relief measures for all rights and infringement of rights".penaltyWas charged[55].

However, with the prospect of selling the aircraft that was planned to be sold to Skymark to another airline, the policy is to agree to reduce it to at least 2014 billion yen in October 10.Asahi ShimbunIs reported[56]..その後、スカイマーク側の経営不振による資金不足もあり、2014年12月の時点でスカイマークとの契約が解除された機体がまだ他社に納入されていないことが会員制写真投稿サイトのAfter that, due to lack of funds due to poor management on the Skymark side, as of December XNUMX, the aircraft whose contract with Skymark was canceled has not yet been delivered to other companies.Airliners.netHas been confirmed in[57]..また違約金交渉が最終合意された事実はないが、12月19日になってエアバス側が英国商事裁判所に対して訴訟の準備を開始したことが報道され、スカイマーク広報もこれを追認したIn addition, although there is no fact that the penalty negotiations were finally agreed, it was reported that the Airbus side began preparing for the proceedings against the British Commercial Court on December XNUMX, and Skymark spokesman confirmed this.[58]..スカイマーク向けに製造された2機は、2016年にエミレーツ航空へ売却されたTwo aircraft manufactured for Skymark were sold to Emirates in XNUMX[59][60].

All Nippon Airways

All Nippon AirwaysInitially, about the pros and cons of introducing the A3802008I was planning to come to a conclusion within, but in December 2008Deterioration of the world economyReceived, "Boeing 747-8At the same time, the introduction plan for large aircraft will be temporarily frozen. "The reason was due to the global financial recession, and it was said that "the new large aircraft review committee will not be abolished but will be restarted at the right time."

Although there has been no progress for a while, on March 2014, 3, the company decided to order five models of equipment at the same time.Of the five models ordered, in addition to the existing Boeing 27-5ER as a large aircraft,Boeing 777-9Will be newly added[61].. In addition to the fact that there was no progress in introducing the Boeing 2014 even though all Boeing 3s were retired from the company on March 31, 747, "one new large aircraft" was selected as 1-777.

2016ANA parent company in JanuaryANA HoldingsHowever, when three A380s are introducedNihon Keizai ShimbunMore reported[62][63]..この機体は新規発注機材であるThis aircraft is a newly ordered equipment[64]..At that time, it was scheduled to be delivered around 2018, and it was reported that it will be launched on All Nippon Airways' Hawaii route, and if successful, it may lead to additional orders.[65].

On January 2016, 1, ANA Holdings officially announced that it would introduce three A29s.After that, a special paint design and the nickname "FLYING HONU" (Flying Honu, flying)ウ ミ ガ メ(Meaning) was decided[66][67][68].. The first aircraft was received on March 2019, 3, and on May 21, 1, the aircraft began operating on the Narita-Honolulu route three times a week.In addition, it received Unit 5 in the first quarter of 24 and went into service on July 3, 2019.There are 1 seats, the largest number of paid seats in Japan, on the 2nd floor.first class8 seats,business class56 seats,Premium economy73 seatsEconomy classAll classes except are introduced.

But in 2020New coronavirus infectionDue to the impact of the above, all aircraft were suspended, and the final aircraft, Unit 3, was not picked up due to the large deficit of All Nippon Airways and was left in the Airbus factory.

Origin of the name

According to the original naming convention, it was supposed to follow A340 and A350, but this model suddenly became A380.The reason is as follows.

  • Because the standard seats of 340 seats, which is twice the standard seats of 300 seats of the A227-2, have been changed from "550" of 340 to "40" which is a multiple.[2].
  • To emphasize that the cruising range has been improved to 8,000 miles (about 12,800 km)

Aircraft

shape

The A380 has low wings and a receding angle.Wing, Normal formatTail, Main wingPylonGeneral jets such as engines mounted onPassenger planeHas the same characteristics as.The upper part of the Boeing 747 has only a two-story bulge, but the A2 has a total of two floors, so there are no steps.

As an option by the airline, an external camera can be attached to the apex of the front edge of the vertical stabilizer, and the in-flight monitor displays images from a height of 24 m.

At Airbus, there are final assembly plants for each part of the aircraft from assembly plants in each country.Toulouse,HamburgUntilAirbus BelugaHowever, the A380's fuselage section and main wings are too large to be stowed, so it is transported by ship and land.The volume of the cargo compartment was expanded as a successor to the Beluga whale.Airbus Beluga XLCan not be installed in (up to A350).

Guest room

The maximum width of the first floor (main deck) of the two-story guest room is 2 m, which is 1 cm wider than the maximum width of the main deck guest room of the Boeing 6.58-747.また上部デッキの客室最大幅は400mでエアバス社の従来のワイドボディ機の客室最大幅45.7mよりわずかに広いIn addition, the maximum cabin width of the upper deck is 5.92 m, which is slightly wider than the maximum cabin width of 5.62 m for Airbus' conventional wide-body aircraft.[69]..ボーイング747と違い2階席も通路が2つあるUnlike the Boeing XNUMX, there are two aisles on the second floor.[Note 8].

Store / service equipment

Airbus takes advantage of the size of its guest roomsLounge,waterfall,bar,Duty free shop,shower roomIt is also possible to provide such as, actuallyEmirates Airlines Thefirst classA shower room for users was set up.しかし、飛行中は不測のBut unforeseen during the flightTurbulenceIt is not desirable for passengers to be constantly standing to minimize the risk of injury or death to the aircraft.[Note 9]..作ったとしてもすぐに廃れるだろうという意見もあるが、エミレーツ航空はThere is an opinion that even if it is made, it will soon be obsolete, but Emirates AirlinesBurj Al ArabandPalm JumeirahWe have introduced a bar with the decoration of.

The use of customer service facilities was also considered during the development of the Boeing 747, and although lounges were realized by some airlines, they were subsequently abolished in order to increase the number of seats.

Number of seats

The total area of ​​the cabin is about 747 times that of the B400-1.5, and the number of seats isFirst-Business-EconomyThe standard seat specification, which consists of three classes, is also about 3 times.エアバスでは「従来の大型機と比べて同じ座席仕様でありながら、1.3人当たりの占有面積が広くなる」を同機のセールスポイントとしているThe selling point of Airbus is that "although it has the same seating specifications as the conventional large aircraft, it occupies a larger area per person."[Note 10].Etihad AirwaysSo, taking advantage of this, by installing a bed for each seat instead of using one aisle, we have introduced a class "Residence" that is even higher than the normal first class.

Since the cabin of the seat has a total of two floors, straight and spiral stairs are provided at the front (near the L2 / R1 door of the main deck) and the rear of the cabin, respectively, and the front stairs are for adults. There is a range where two people can easily pass each other.なお、1年に最前部階段の位置を従来のメインデッキのL2/R2017ドア付近からL1/R1ドア付近への設計変更が可能になることが発表されたIn 2, it was announced that the position of the front stairs could be changed from the vicinity of the L2 / RXNUMX door of the conventional main deck to the vicinity of the LXNUMX / RXNUMX door.[70]..As an example, it will be possible to increase the number of seats from 4 seats in 497 classes to 78 seats, an increase of 575 seats.更に2018年4月には、新造機だけでなく既存機にも適用可能な「キャビン・フレックス」オプションが導入されたFurthermore, in April XNUMX, the "Cabin Flex" option was introduced, which can be applied not only to new machines but also to existing machines.[71]..This will allow up to 2 seats in Premium Economy and 3 seats in Business Class by not functioning Door 11 on the 7nd floor.

This is an unprecedented number of seats in the private passenger sector.例としてAs an exampleAle AustralIs a mono-class (economy class only) specification with a total of 840 seats, and there was a plan to break the record as the world's largest number of paid seats, but the order was canceled[72].. 2クラス仕様では2015年11月4日にエミレーツ航空が中距離2クラス仕様・615席(ビジネス58席・エコノミー席557席)を受領した事で、2クラス仕様における世界最多有償座席数であったIn the XNUMX-class specification, Emirates Airlines received XNUMX seats in the medium-distance XNUMX-class specification (XNUMX business seats and XNUMX economy seats) on November XNUMX, XNUMX, which was the largest number of paid seats in the world in the XNUMX-class specification.ANA OfBoeing 747-400D (all aircraft retired as of March 2014, 3)It surpassed 569 seats and set a new record. As of July 2016, it has the largest number of paid seats in the world in two classes and the world's first paid 7 seats.標準座席仕様では、2年600月2011日まで、エールフランスが12席With standard seat specifications, Air France will have 12 seats until December 538, XNUMX.[Note 11]As, it was offered for a fee. It is the first 3 seats in the 500-class specification and sets the record for the largest number of paid seats in the world.

Since the latter half of the 2000s, there are airlines that have introduced higher-grade economy class (premium economy, etc.) and made it a 4-class specification, but Air France has 2018 seats as of 516.[Note 12]As a paid offer.この仕様においても初の500席台であり、当時世界最多有償座席数の記録を更新していたが、2019年3月20日にEven with this specification, it was the first XNUMX seats, and at that time it was breaking the record of the world's largest number of paid seats, but on March XNUMX, XNUMXAll Nippon AirwaysWith 520 seats (8 first seats, 56 business seats, 73 premium economy seats, 383 economy seats), the number of paid seats in 4 classes was the highest in the world.

Cockpit

The cockpit and crew rest area are located in front of the two-story cabin, and are located on the mezzanine floor, which is slightly higher than the first floor between the first floor called the main deck and the second floor called the upper deck. Are[Note 13]..This is designed with consideration for ensuring visibility and compatibility with other Airbus aircraft.

The cockpit has five seats, including spare seats. Control devices are arranged around the two seats, the captain's seat on the front left and the sub-driver's seat on the right, so that two passengers can operate.操縦室後半には間隔を開けて5つまたは2つの座席が備わっているThe second half of the cockpit has two or three seats spaced apart[Note 14].

This unit is an LCD (Liquid crystal display) Was usedGlass cockpitIs equipped with.ただし、エアバス社の従来のグラスコックピットと違う点は、一辺8インチの正方形のLCD6面から、縦8インチ横6インチの縦長のLCDが8面へと増えたことであるHowever, what is different from Airbus' conventional glass cockpit is that the number of vertically long LCDs, which are XNUMX inches long and XNUMX inches wide, has increased from XNUMX square LCDs on each side to XNUMX inches.[73]This makes it possible to reduce the number of documents brought into the cockpit.操舵形態は同社ではThe steering form is the companyAirbus A320Has been adopted sinceSide stickIt is a method.

engine

You can choose one from the engines manufactured by the two companies.これらはいずれも主翼下面にパイロンを介して左右に2つずつ合計1基が取りつけられる高バイパス比All of these have a high bypass ratio where a total of 2 units can be attached to the underside of the main wing via pylon, 4 on each side.Turbo fan engineIs. 1つはOne isRolls-Royce HoldingsMadeTrent 900, The other isEngine Alliance(GE-P & WMade by a joint venture)GP7270Is.トレント 900はA380が初飛行した時のエンジンであり、最初は数多く販売されたが、その後GP7200の販売も伸びてきており、トレント 900の発注と肩を並べるまでになっているThe Trent XNUMX was the engine when the AXNUMX first flew, and was sold in large numbers at first, but sales of the GPXNUMX have also increased since then, and it is now on par with the order for the Trent XNUMX.[Note 15]..The Rolls-Royce Trent 380 series is represented by the A900-380X, and the Engine Alliance GP84 series is represented by the A7200-380X by engine manufacturer.

At the time of landing gliding, four engines such as the Boeing 747 have all four engines.Reverse injection deviceHowever, the A380 uses only the two inner 2nd and 3rd engines.The reverse operating lever in the cockpit is also only for the 2nd and 2rd engines.At the beginning of the plan, the A3 had sufficient braking performance, so there was no plan to adopt a thrust reverser.重量軽減と信頼性向上のため、逆噴射装置では民間機では初となる電気で作動するETRAS (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System) を採用しているIn order to reduce weight and improve reliability, the thrust reverser uses ETRAS (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System), which is the first in a civilian aircraft to operate with electricity.[74].

Achieves low noise and low carbon dioxide emissions, and has the strictest operational regulations in the worldLondon Heathrow AirportBut it can be operated 24 hours a day.このことから広告では「環境にやさしい飛行機」であることを売りにしているFor this reason, the advertisement sells that it is an "environmentally friendly airplane."[Note 16].

タ イ ヤ

Support the giantLanding gear Ofタ イ ヤは、ノーズギア2本、ボディギア12本(6輪ボギー×2)、ウイングギア8本(4輪ボギー×2)の計22本である。なお、ボーイング747のタイヤはノーズギア2本、ボディギア8本、ウイングギア8本の計18本、ボーイング777ではノーズギア2本、ボディギア12本の計14本である。

  • Tires are manufactured byBridgestoneIs[75]..初号機にはブリヂストンのタイヤが採用されたBridgestone tires were used for the first machine[76]. Also,Emirates AirlinesFor equipment forMichelinWas reported to manufacture tires[77].

Airport correspondence

Air traffic controlThen.Backward turbulenceWhen determining the flight interval in consideration ofMaximum takeoff weightWe usually treat over £ 300,000 (136t) as heavy.[78]However, with the advent of the A380, a new Super category was established.[79]..For this reason, it requires more space than conventional large jet aircraft such as the 747 when waiting for landing in the air or taking off and gliding, which is a bottleneck in improving the efficiency of airport utilization.

International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) has set a new airfield grade "Code F" for new large aircraft such as the A380, and has set detailed standards for the development of basic facilities such as runways and taxiways.それまではUntil thenBoeing 747-400Code E, which assumes a large jet aircraft such as a model aircraft, was the highest rank.

At passenger handling facilities, due to the characteristics of the new aircraft, which has a total of two floors, when boarding an aircraft using a fixed gatePBBThe operation of (passenger boarding bridge: boarding bridge) is a major issue.エアバス社によれば、現在世界の空港で広く採用されている、1機あたり2本のPBBで十分対応可能であるが、メインデッキ2本使用で140分、アッパーデッキ、メインデッキ各1本、計2本使用で90分のターンアラウンド(便間作業)タイムを設定しているAccording to Airbus, two PBBs per aircraft, which are currently widely used at airports around the world, are sufficient, but using two main decks takes XNUMX minutes, one upper deck and one main deck. A XNUMX-minute turnaround (inter-flight work) time is set using a total of two.[80]..If a total of three PBBs, one upper deck and two main decks, can be used, the time required for getting on and off and the work time such as cleaning the cabin will be shortened, further improving passenger convenience.このほか、ゲートラウンジの拡張や、駐機中の航空機に電気や空調を供給するIn addition, the gate lounge will be expanded and electricity and air conditioning will be supplied to parked aircraft.(English edition(GPU) capacity needs to be improved[Note 17].

Japanese airportThen,Narita International Airportが2020年時点で第1ターミナルビルの15番・26番・45番・46番・54番、第2ターミナルビルの66番、96番が対応している。Tokyo International Airport(Haneda Airport) corresponds to Spot 3 of Terminal 107 (However, due to the problem of wake turbulence during the busy daytime, regular entryMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs not approved, but it is expected to be operated urgently by alternative landing when Narita Airport is closed.[81].. Detail isHaneda Airport slotsSee).KIXApplies to Terminal 1 international flights 11 and 31[Note 18].Capital AreaOther than that, as of November 2014Chubu International Airport,New Chitose Airport (only for international terminals)[Note 19]Is an operational airport.

Sydney International AirportIn order to support the A380, measures such as solidifying the ground and reducing the boarding bridge were taken.As a result, spot operation was barely reached, and there were scenes in which other aircraft waited for the spot to open.

In addition,Brazil2014 FIFA World CupIs expected to increase in demand for Air France during the tournamentSao Paulo International AirportThe aircraft was planned to be put into service, but when the Brazilian government aviation authorities investigated the airport in advance, it is possible that some of the above-mentioned airfield grade code F regulations were not met, and there is a prospect of renovation work. Since it is not possible, the authorities have announced a policy of not permitting the service of the same type of aircraft to the airport during the tournament (repair after the tournament).[82], Some airports cannot handle it sufficiently.

If the number of airlines ordering the A380 (other passenger planes with a total of 2nd floor seats) increases, it can be expected that the facilities on the airport side will be renovated. Since it is not possible to spend money on repairs, it is not possible to carry out repairs for this machine.CountryIt remains at the representative international airports and the main hub airports for international flights. Since the introduction of the A380, fuel-efficient twin-engine medium-sized aircraft have become the mainstream, and Boeing has become the A380.777-300ERDeveloped to fill the gap747-8Even so, it was so sluggish that there were no orders, and in February 2019, it announced the discontinuation of production of the A2.

生産中止になったことから、今後A380の運用の増加が見込めず、運航効率の良い中小型機やA380のような3クラス500席級の4発エンジン大型機ではなく、B777やA350のような3クラス300~400席級の大型機がトレンドとなっている航空情勢下で、A380を凌駕する超大型旅客機が登場する可能性は極めて低いため、空港側が新たにA380のような超大型機に対応できるように改修する可能性も極めて低い。

Participation of Japanese companies

380 Japanese companies are participating in the production of the A21[83].

2002Underfloor in AprilVertical tailAs a member in charge ofToho Tenax,Jamco,Sumitomo Metal Industries,Toray4 companies entered, in JuneMitsubishi Heavy Industries(Front and rear cargo doors),SUBARU(Vertical tail front edge / tip, fairing),Japanese plane(Horizontal stabilizerEnd), in OctoberShinmeiwa Industry,Yokohama Rubber,NikkisoBut,2003In 2 monthYokogawa,Casio calculator,Makino Milling MachineBut in JuneBridgestone,Mitsubishi RayonDecided to participate.とくに日本のEspecially in JapanCarbon fiberThe technology is focused on and is often used in major parts such as frames.

Derived type

The A380 is a derivative of several types (FreighterI was also planning to develop a mold, long-distance type, etc.2021Since it was decided to discontinue production, only one type, the A380-800, which is a basic passenger specification type, was operated as an actual aircraft.

A380-800 type machine

It is a basic passenger specification, and Singapore Airlines started commercial flight on October 2007, 10.

List of model names and equipped engines
ModelengineType certification acquisition
A380-841RR Trent 970-84 / 970B-842006th of February 12
A380-842RR Trent 972-84 / 972B-842006th of February 12
A380-861EA GP72702007th of February 12

For the time being, we will sell and deliver only this type,

  • Reduction of aircraft weight
  • AvionicsImprovement (newly developedA350A design that enhances commonality with is expected)
  • More efficient engine installation (also considering the newly developed Trent XWB equipment for the A350)
  • Extension of cruising range by increasing maximum takeoff weight

A gradual performance improvement program is also being considered.The first-stage production machine incorporating these improvements is expected to be delivered from around 2012.この機体はThis aircraftAirbusSimilar to the company's new engine replacement program, the A380A320neo and A321neoIt will be added to a series of "neo series" such as, and will be a new model that has been improved as "A380neo".2016ToUAEEmirates has announced the "A380neo" improvement mechanism, and the company is ready to order additional avionics-based improved aircraft even if the engine is not replaced.

2015It was reported that they were considering ordering two aircraft in June.United airlinesIncluding, the number of airlines that have introduced the A380-800 is 14 worldwide.この発注が実現に至った場合、ユナイテッド航空がIf this order is fulfilled, United Airlines willThe United States of AmericaThis is the first order for the A380-800 aircraft as an airline company.アジアではIn AsiaRepublic of SingaporeFlag carrierSingapore AirlinesBut for the entire A380 seriesLaunch customerReceived the first machine asSingaporeIn addition to being active on routes from Europe to the United States and Oceania, it also has the largest number of aircraft in the Asian region.その他にOtherThai AirwaysEtc., with a special regular flight for each prosperous seasonJapan OfNarita International AirportWe have a regular commuter pass.

Currently, Emirates is the largest customer of the A380-800.20163In JapanSky markWe have a contract to purchase two additional aircraft to take over the equipment that was in the process of being manufactured.

A380plus type machine (planned)

The first type announced to start development research as an advanced type of the basic type -800 type. An efficiency-enhancing model of the A2017-6, which was announced at the Paris Air Show 18 on June 2017, 380 (local time).At the same air show, a concept model (existing A800-380 with a large winglet described later attached as a mockup) was exhibited, improving efficiency and economy compared to the basic model, and making the winglet larger in appearance. However, the wing tip has been changed to a shape that divides into upper and lower parts (800 m above, 3.5 m below, and 1.2 m above and below).Other wing and aerodynamic reviews are also underway, with fuel consumption expected to be reduced by up to 4.7%.In addition, by reviewing the stairs to the second floor seats, crew rests, sidewalls, etc., the cabin has been optimized so that it can increase up to 4 seats compared to the basic type (Airbus "Cabin enablers"). (Called)[86]..Specifically, the standard number of seats on the A380-800 is 4 in 497 classes, but it can be increased to 575 by introducing "Cabin enablers".In addition, the maximum takeoff weight will be increased to 578 tons, and the cruising range will be extended by 300 nm (555.6 km).If the maximum number of seats is increased to 78, the cruising range will be 380 nm, which is the same as that of the A800-8200.In addition, Airbus says it can extend maintenance intervals to reduce maintenance costs.開発が正式決定すれば初のA380発展型となるが、同年11月に最大顧客のエミレーツ航空が提案を受け入れなかったことが明らかになっているIf the development is officially decided, it will be the first AXNUMX development type, but in November of the same year it was revealed that Emirates Airlines, the largest customer, did not accept the proposal.[87].. With the company's announcement of discontinuation of production on February 2019, 2, it is expected to end with a plan without reaching development.

A380-800F aircraft (development suspended)

A freighter type has also been proposed to cargo airlines.The freighter type is said to have little merit because it cannot carry heavy objects, and Boeing explained that the 380F and 777-747F have less loss than the A8F.

Although the cargo volume is large only for the world's largest passenger and freighter, the cargo capacity is small for the size of the aircraft, long cargo cannot be loaded because the nose part does not open, and it cannot be loaded on the second floor without a dedicated loader. There are many disadvantages compared to the 2 freight type, which is a rival for high-speed freight transportation. Not only will it not be possible to do what the 747 freight type can do, but it will also have to prepare new equipment that was not necessary for the 747 freight type, so it is significantly inferior in economic efficiency and is not attracting attention as a freighter.

In fact, Emirates has ordered the A380 as a passenger plane, but the freighter has ordered the 747-8F.In addition, FedEx, UPS, and ILFC, which handle relatively light cargo, ordered the A380-800F, but because the passenger type caused delivery delays many times, FedEx canceled the order first due to concerns about delivery delays for the cargo type as well. Then, in March 2007, UPS (ordered 3-2016F in 747) and ILFC canceled.As a result, Airbus lost all orders for freighters, and as of June 8, there were no actual aircraft, including testing aircraft, and development of freighters was suspended.Development was scheduled to resume once the company that placed the order came out, but with the company's announcement of the end of production on February 2017, 6, it is expected that the plan will end without reaching development.

Cargo refurbishment by Lufthansa Technik

2020In 5 monthNew coronavirus infectionPassenger demand is decreasing and freight demand is increasing due to the influence ofLufthansaRemodeling and maintenance of aircraft at a subsidiary ofLufthansa TechnikWas requested to refurbish the A380 passenger type for cargo[88][89]..顧客(航空会社)名は明らかにされなかったが、後にThe customer (airline) name was not revealed, but laterPortugal OfHi flyFormer Singapore Airlines leased A380 aircraft (Aircraft symbol9H-MIP) was the target of this modification, multiple media reports[90][91].

To cope with the influence of COVID-19, we have already loaded cargo on passenger plane seats.[92], There are cases where the seat itself is removed and cargo is loaded.[93]..しかし、ルフトハンザ・テクニークによれば、この改修は単に座席の撤去に留まるものではないというBut according to Lufthansa Technik, the refurbishment goes beyond simply removing seats.[88].

However, it is reported that cargo doors will not be installed, and it is necessary to use narrow passenger doors when loading cargo.また、2階部分の床板が貨物の重量を想定していないため、貨物機としては問題が多いとの指摘もあるIn addition, it has been pointed out that there are many problems as a freighter because the floorboards on the second floor do not assume the weight of cargo.[88].

2020年5月19日、ハイフライ・マルタのA380機体記号9H-MIPが5/14~18にかけてポルトガルのベージャ空軍基地から中国の天津、ドミニカのラス・アメリカス空港を経由し世界一周運用で運航された事が発表され、COVID-19対応で中国からドミニカへ約15tの医療用物資を輸送したとされ[94]Later, it was announced that the A380 was a partially removed aircraft.[95]..In November of the same year, due to the COVID-11 epidemic, the passenger charter business → freight charter business was changed to the aircraft specifications, but it was announced that it would be returned at the end of the same year due to the decrease in demand for super-large aircraft.[96].

Plan-only derived type

None of the following variants have an ordering airline. With the company's announcement of discontinuation of production on February 2019, 2, it is expected to end with a plan without reaching development.

  • A380-700 (A380 shortened fuselage type)
  • A380-800C (combi type with a part of the main deck as the cargo compartment, 397 seats-454 seats)
  • A380-800R (A380-800 long-haul aircraft, proposed for ultra-long-haul routes such as British Airways, Qantas and Singapore Airlines)
  • A380-800S (Short-distance type of A380-800)
  • A380-900 (Extended fuselage of the A380. Standard seating configuration with 3 seats in 656 classes. Emirates and Virgin Atlantic are reportedly interested)
  • A380-900S (Short-distance type of A380-900)
  • A380neo (There is a report that it is considering engine replacement as a successor to the A380, and the president of Emirates Airlines is interested in it in December 2014.[97]

To the end of production

As mentioned above, the A380 is too large and the routes that are profitable are limited, and in addition to the sluggish orders for large four-engine aircraft due to the increase in size and performance improvement of twin-engine aircraft, 4/2014 If we have not been able to win any new orders from airlines for the second consecutive year (only leasing companies have been able to win orders) and this trend will continue in the future.2018Also suggested that production could be discontinued[98].. 2016年7月12日には、2018年以降の生産ペースを年27機から12機へ大幅に引き下げると発表したOn July XNUMX, XNUMX, it announced that it would significantly reduce the production pace after XNUMX from XNUMX aircraft to XNUMX aircraft a year.[99].

But,2016In May, it was reported that Emirates, the world's largest A5 operator and operating 380 A104-380 aircraft as the major ultra-large aircraft on international flights connecting all over the world, is ready to place additional orders. It was. Reuters CommunicationsIs EmiratesCEO"The total number of orders will be" 200 or more fixed orders "", and Airbus has already announced the entire plan.SurplusAlong with further boosting the A380 project, which has been announced to be achieved, the production system for total double-decker machinery will be improved.2020 eraIt was decided to continue until.

On the other hand, the development of the "A380neo" with a completely redesigned engine is also in view, and it was expected that it would be decided in the near future.[100].

As part of the development of the new generation type as described above, the development survey of "A2017plus" was announced in June 6. The A380plus is equipped with a new large winglet that can reduce fuel consumption by up to 380%, and has improved aerodynamic performance by improving the main wings. When combined with the cabin improvements announced in April 4, it will be compared to the existing A2017. The company announced that it could reduce the cost per seat by 4%.

The A380plus has increased its maximum takeoff weight to 578 tons, and announced that it can transport up to 8,200 more people with the same cruising range of 80 nautical miles, or extend the cruising range by 300 nautical miles.[101].

In addition, Singapore Airlines, which has relatively quick aircraft renewal since 2017, has started replacing some aircraft, and received the remaining 5 aircraft with new in-flight specifications and returned the 5 aircraft in operation to the leasing company, and the rest We plan to upgrade our 14 aircraft to new in-flight specifications and finally operate with 19 new in-flight specifications.[102]..リース会社は2018年までにシンガポール航空からの退役機の引受先を探していたが交渉は難航しており、少なくとも2機が今後Leasing companies were looking for an underwriter for retired aircraft from Singapore Airlines by XNUMX, but negotiations have been difficult and at least two will be in the futureParts removalExpected to be dismantled for[103].

Due to the possibility of additional orders from Emirates Airlines, it was decided to continue production for the time being, but in 2019, the direction of the clouds began to become suspicious.[104]..This is because it was reported that Emirates is considering switching to the downsized A20 family, A350neo, etc. for some or all of the 330 aircraft ordered most recently.

In February 2019, Qantas Australia canceled eight aircraft awaiting receipt.[105]..Private airlines still have deliveries to ANA other than Emirates, but as of February 2019, there were almost no orders from other than Emirates. On February 2, 2019, Emirates Airlines, which was the line of trust, canceled 2 of the order backlogs,A330-900 40 aircraft,A350-900 Announced to place an alternative order for 30 aircraft[106]Finally, Airbus announced that it will discontinue production of the A380 in 2021.[107]..As a result, production of the A380 will be discontinued with only one type of passenger basic type 800, and derivative types such as the A1plus and A380-380F that Airbus envisioned in the future will remain as planned without being developed. It is expected to end.

The total net orders are expected to be 2019 as of March 3 (orders from commercial airlines: 251 aircraft, orders from other companies: none).エアバス社は、B251(主にAirbus is a B747 (mainlyBoeing 747-400) We were planning to receive orders for 700-750 aircraft by becoming the flagship of the world's airlines to replace the type aircraft, but if there are no new orders from the above orders, the number of orders will be significantly lower than planned.[Note 20]..If there are no new orders and production ends, there will be no orders from airlines in North America, South America and the continent of Africa.However, looking at the world aviation situation, in the 21st century, the crude oil price soared and the infrastructure development progressed not only in developed countries but also in developing countries and it became huge, etc., so the rival Boeing is more than the B747. The B777 / B787, the company's A380 / A330 rather than the A350, and even airlines in developed countries have indicated their intention to shift to twin-engine aircraft rather than four-engine aircraft, and some have indicated their intention to downsize. Airlines (eg Air France are expected to retire by 2022)[108]), There was a release plan.In 2020,Impact of COVID-XNUMXAnnounces that Air France will retire ahead of schedule from 2022, when it was originally scheduled to retire.[109], And Emirates is also considering retiring some A380s[110]In addition, the unreceived A380 has also begun negotiations with Airbus in the direction of cancellation.[111]..If the two airlines are retired as announced and negotiations are concluded, it is possible that production will end earlier than originally planned in 2.In this way, in 2021, coupled with the worldwide infection of the new coronavirus that began in February, all airlines around the world were forced to suspend operations.In that connection, even the largest airlines, such as the A2020's largest operator, Emirates, have begun plans to release, and other A2 operators around the world are also planning to retire (eg Lufthansa, Qatar Airways, etc.). As shown, each airline is gradually becoming twin-engined and downsizing (mainly B380-380ER / -777X / 300X, A8-9 / -350), and the possibility of obtaining new orders is extremely high. The situation is low.その中で欧米No.900規模を誇るエールフランスが当初の予定(1000年)から前倒しして1月2022日をもって全機退役、そして奇しくも時期同じくしてエミレーツ航空向けの最終号機となる機首と前部胴体がトゥールーズへ運ばれたAmong them, Air France, which boasts the No. 6 scale in Europe and the United States, retired all aircraft on June 26, ahead of the original schedule (XNUMX), and strangely at the same time, the nose will be the final aircraft for Emirates Airlines. The front fuselage was carried to Toulouse[112].. The MSN (serial number) is 272, and once the aircraft is delivered, it will put an end to the 16-year production of the A380 from the rollout (if a new airline comes out). except for). In September 2020, the assembly of the final aircraft was completed, and the aircraft production was completed with this.In the future, engine installation, ground tests, flight tests, and delivery will be carried out.

Specifications (A380-800 series)

Specifications

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.89 (approx. 1,090 km / h, 589 kt)
  • Cruising speed: Mach 0.85 (approx. 1,041 km / h, 562 kt)
  • Cruising distance: 15,200 km (8,200 nautical miles)
  • * Cruising altitude: 13,100 m (43,000 ft)
  • Takeoff runway
    • Trent 970: M 2,990
    • GP 7270: M 3,030
  • Landing run distance: M 2,100


Notice. The explanation of the unit used isWikiProject Aviation / Physical Unitto see the available categories of products and services.

Operational status

All of the following A380-800 (production is passenger type only, as of 2020)[113][114]

AirlinesYear of operationFixed order quantity[Note 21]Number of deliveriesNumber of operationsengineRemarks
Singapore flag Singapore Airlines2007242419Trent 900Introduced 2017 unreceived aircraft from December 12, replaced existing 5 aircraft Completed in July 5
5 out of 2 retired aircraft disassembled and discarded, 2 other aircraft waiting for maintenance, 1 remaining aircraft leased by other companies
COVID-19Expected to retire 7 more aircraft due to fashion
United Arab Emirates flag Emirates Airlines2008123115GP7200 (90)
Trent 900 (33)
Skymark order manufacturing 2 aircraft in operation, 2019 unreceived aircraft canceled in February 2
Consideration of retirement ahead of schedule due to COVID-19 epidemic[115], Not received 8 machines in production and assembly[116]
Started retirement of some aged machines[117]And cargo operation[118]
Australian flag Qantas20081212Trent 900January 2019 Canceled 1 unreceived aircraft, all aircraft waiting for maintenance in the US due to COVID-8 epidemic
French flag Air France20091010All aircraft retiredGP7200Announced to retire by 2019 on July 7, 31[119]
On May 2020, 5, the COVID-20 epidemic announced the end of A19 operation ahead of schedule.[120][121]
Retired on June 6, the same year with the last flight[122]
German flag Lufthansa20101414Trent 900Scheduled to sell 2022 aircraft from 6 (advanced due to COVID-19 epidemic)[123]
The remaining 8 aircraft are also suspended and re-launch is undecided[124]
Due to carbon dioxide emissions, the remaining 8 aircraft are expected to shift to fuel-efficient models within a few years.[125].
Flag of the People's Republic of China China Southern Airlines2011555Trent 900
Republic of Korea flag Korean Air2011101010GP7200Waiting for maintenance in Incheon
Malaysia flag Malaysia Airlines201266Trent 900Subsidiary operation review
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thai Airways201266Trent 900Bankruptcy on May 2020, 5 due to COVID-20 epidemic
British flag British Airways2013121212Trent 900Waiting for maintenance at various airports in Europe
Republic of Korea flag Asiana Airlines2014666Trent 900Waiting for maintenance in Incheon, some irregular sightseeing flight operation[126]
United Arab Emirates flag Etihad Airways2014101010GP7200Waiting for maintenance at Abu Dhabi Airport
Qatar flag Qatar Airways2014101010GP7200Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, all aircraft will be suspended until 2022 and will be gradually retired from 2024.
Malta flag Hi fly Malta2018Return due to lease maturityTrent 900Former Singapore Airlines: 9V-SKC / A380 Mass Production Unit 6
Airbus intervenes and leases to European charter company Highfly Group via German leasing company[127]
After that, some seats were removed and repaired to the emergency cargo specifications, but due to the COVID-19 epidemic, they were returned with the lease deadline at the end of 2020.[128]
Japanese flag All Nippon Airways2019332Trent 900Narita-Honolulu route dedicated equipment (COVID-19 operation suspended due to fashion, and third aircraft postponed to Japan)
Total251242   

Canceled customer

Including A380-800F (freighter type) (as of 2019)

Accident / breakdown / incident

 As of 2021, there have been no aircraft loss accidents or accidents involving death or injury.

  • 2009May 8,Singapore AirlinesThe A380 took off from Hong Kong International Airport 17 hours later due to a breakdown shortly before takeoff.
  • 2009May 9,Singapore AirlinesA380Paris OfCharles De Gaulle International Airport2 hours and 45 minutes after takeoff, he returned to Paris due to an engine (Trent 900) failure.
  • 2010May 11,QantasA380-842 aircraft (aircraft code VH-OQA) is flying from Singapore to Sydney, and the second engine inside the left wing is partially damaged.Singapore Changi International AirportDiverted to.A total of 440 passengers, 29 passengers and 469 crew members, and residents of a private house hit directly by engine debris were not injured.At this time, about half of each of the fuel system and the brake system failed, fuel could not be dumped in the air, and the brakes were in an inadequate state.The cause was that oil leaked from a pipe that broke due to metal fatigue caused by an engine manufacturing error and exploded into flames.In response to this accident, all six aircraft, including the accident aircraft that the company was operating at that time, were temporarily suspended.[130].
In addition,Singapore AirlinesThe operation of all 11 aircraft owned by the company was postponed.エンジンを供給するロールス・ロイス社とエアバス社の要請によるものであるAt the request of Rolls-Royce and Airbus, which supply engines.[131]..翌11月5日、シンガポール航空の保有分11機に関しては、全機が安全であることが確認され、同社分に関しては運航が再開されたOn November XNUMX, the following day, it was confirmed that all of Singapore Airlines' XNUMX aircraft were safe, and the company's operations were resumed.[132].
On the other hand, on November 11th,LufthansaHowever, due to this accident, the flight from Narita to Frankfurt on the same day was canceled due to engine inspection.[133]..カンタス航空の保有分に関しては、安全点検を受け問題の有無を確認したRegarding Qantas' holdings, we underwent a safety inspection and confirmed whether there were any problems.[134]..同年11月27日から運航再開となったThe service resumed on November XNUMX of the same year.[135].
  • On December 2014, 12, I started heading for the runway for takeoff.Korean AirThe company's vice president who was on flight 86 (aircraft number HL7627) as a first-class passengerCho HyonaHowever, after complaining about the response of the flight attendants, he returned the aircraft to the boarding gate and disembarked the in-flight service manager.It is often referred to as a "nut return" for a short time because it uttered abusive words and turned back (ramp return) triggered by nuts.
  • 2017May 9,ParisFrom to Los AngelesAir FranceFlight 66, A380-861 (aircraft code F-HPJE) on the Atlantic OceanGreenland4 shots flying over the westEngine AllianceCompanyGP7270Of the engines, the 4th engine on the right wing exploded, and the remaining 3 engines continued to fly for about an hour.カナダEastern(English editionDiverted at 15:42 (GMT).同機には24人の乗組員と496人の乗客が乗っていたが、怪我人などはなかったThe aircraft had XNUMX crew members and XNUMX passengers, but no one was injured.[138][139][140]..エールフランスは代替着陸した乗客輸送のためAir France for alternative landed passenger transportBoeing 777-300ERModel machine (own machine: aircraft code F-GZNO: passenger capacity 472 people), separatelyBoeing 737We also dispatched and transported mold machines (lease charter machines)[141]。事故機は2017年12月6日までに現地にて第4エンジンを換装し、4基のエンジンでAF371V便としてパリへ空輸され、2018年1月15日から営業運航便AF990便パリ発ヨハネスブルグ行きで運用復帰している[142][143].

Competitor model

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ AirbusThe company uses the term "total two-story" to differentiate it from the Boeing 2, which has the same two-story seats (part of the front is two-story).In English, Boeing describes the 747 as "Double Deck" and Airbus describes the A2 as "All Double Deck."
  2. ^ As a passenger aircraft with a longer "total length" than the A380 (73.0 m)Boeing 747-8(76.3 m),Boeing 777-300 (73.9 m),A340-600There is (75.3 m).
  3. ^ 15 out of 1 companies (Hi fly Malta) Is a lease from Singapore Airlines.
  4. ^ The A380 also has a door that opens when storing a large nose gear at the bottom of the nose (see the Airbus color image above, by the way, the 747 has a set of nose gear devices slightly behind the nose, and the cockpit is on the second floor and at the tip of the nose. The fact that the nose cargo door mechanism cannot be adopted on the nose because it is located away from the part is also a cause of the difference.
  5. ^ The difference in mechanism is that the A380 was developed as a "passenger plane", while the 747 was (correctly) developed as a "military transport plane" (as a result, it was diverted to a commercial airliner).From the viewpoint of usability, the maximum loading size of 2 is larger, including the surface other than the length due to the girder that supports the second floor.
  6. ^ For the first time, the A380 went into service on its domestic flight.
  7. ^ The flight number was KE380 only for the first outbound flight.
  8. ^ If you compare the scale of the aircraft to other passenger aircraftBoeing 777-300On (1st floor seat)Airbus A340It is the size with (2nd floor seats) added.
  9. ^ The airline requires passengers to wear seat belts at all times during the flight, installing and operating standing equipment, and if there is an accident, it may be disadvantageous when the airline is held liable in a lawsuit. There is sex.
  10. ^ In some reports, it was stated that "the number of seats is about twice that of the current 747, 2 seats are possible", but the 800 seats of the 747 are the standard number of seats for the 400-class specification. Since the 3 seats on the A380 are standard seats in monoclass specifications only in economy class, it is unfair to compare these numbers.Airbus does not use the expression "double" like this.
  11. ^ With the transition from 3 class specifications to 4 class specifications (507 seats → 2018 seats as of 516. First 9 seats, business 80 seats, premium economy 38 seats, economy 380 seats → 2018 seats as of 389) December 2011 After 12th March, Lufthansa German Airlines had the largest number of 13 seats (526 first seats, 8 business seats, 98 economy seats), but as of 420, the company also has 2018 seats in 4 classes (509 first seats, 8 business seats).・ Premium economy 78 seats ・ Economy 52 seats) As of 371, 2018 seats of Emirates Airlines and Qatar Airlines (Emirates Airlines first 517 seats ・ Business 14 seats ・ Economy 76 seats. Qatar Airlines first 427 seats ・Business 8 seats, economy 48 seats) is the largest number of paid seats in 461 classes.
  12. ^ 2011年12月12日までは、3クラス538席と混在していたが、2011年12月13日以降はこの4クラス仕様(当時は507席)に完全移行した。
  13. ^ There is a small staircase to go up to the cockpit from the first floor seats.
  14. ^ The pilot's crew rest area is just behind the cockpit, with the main and sub-electronics rooms between the leg storage and the cockpit and on the upper floors of the front staircase.
  15. ^ 2008Four test machines on February 2stTrent 900To one of the enginesGTLUsing fuel, includingThe United Kingdom Of(English editionFrom France (en) Has been successful for about 3 hours of test flight.
  16. ^ At the 2008 Singapore Airlines Show, the aircraft was painted "Greener.Cleaner.Quieter.Smarter" and appealed during acrobatics.
  17. ^ Most of the world's international airports can handle the boarding and alighting of Boeing 747-400s, but they are larger than this and require airport renovation.As one of them, since the number of seats on the second floor is the same as that of wide-body passenger aircraft, there is a renovation to increase the number of boarding bridges at airport facilities to two on the first floor and one on the second floor.The Boeing 2 also has two floors in front, but the number of seats on the second floor is not so large, so two seats on the first floor are used. Passengers on the 1nd floor use the entrance on the 2st floor, so the overall boarding / alighting time is relatively long.In addition, passengers who have difficulty or cannot walk alone or passengers accompanied by infants are not allowed to use the second floor seats that require climbing stairs due to safety considerations.In addition, a corresponding gate will be installed in the terminal building.
  18. ^ New Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. Public Relations Group (October 2014, 10). “The A380 upper deck compatible boarding bridge is now in service for the first time at Kansai Airport! <News release (PDF)". New Kansai International AirportCo., Ltd. 2020th of February 12Browse.
  19. ^ Unlike Narita, Haneda, and Kansai airports, these two airports do not have a three-port boarding gate that connects directly to the upper deck, but a two-port boarding system from the normal main deck.Therefore, passengers using the second floor seats use the front stairs for the front seats and the rearmost stairs for the rear seats.
  20. ^ This tendency is the same for the rival B747, and the B2006-747 launched in 8 will be discontinued from the backlog of orders for the B747-8F.2022Is expected to be discontinued.
  21. ^ Firm Orders
  22. ^ The country's largest and public holding company, run by Prince Al-Waleed of Saudi Arabia.
  23. ^ Aircraft leasing company.

Source

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  24. ^ Malaysia Airlines postpones sale of A2 aircraft for at least two years = CEO --Reuters (February 2016, 2)
  25. ^ Malaysia Airlines Utilizes Airbus A380 for Mecca Pilgrimage New Airlines Established --Tricy (December 2016, 12)
  26. ^ Emirates welcomes 100th A380 to its fleet
  27. ^ Emirates welcomes 100th A380 to its fleet
  28. ^ Scheduled for 2013th-11th in 17 and 2014th-9th in 17.
  29. ^ Singapore Airlines Kansai-Singapore Airlines A380 aircraft will continue to operate this year New Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. Dated April 2013, 4
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  38. ^ Asiana Airlines launches A10 on Narita / Incheon route from October 30th to November 11th
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  40. ^ Singapore Airlines rejuvenates flight 777 via Narita from A380
  41. ^ Singapore Airlines launches A12 on Kansai Line from December 4th to New Year holidays
  42. ^ [August-September 2017 only] Malaysia Airlines' Airbus A8 goes into service on the Tokyo Narita / Seoul Incheon route for a limited time!
  43. ^ Malaysia Airlines to Narita A380 FC Barcelona flight to Japan -Aviation Wire (April 2015, 12)
  44. ^ Balsa super VIP treatment visits Japan, hundreds of millions of yen for round trip by arranging charter aircraft -Sponichianex (August 2015, 12)
  45. ^ Emirates returns to Narita A380 for the first time in 3 years and 9 months Aviation Wire March 2017, 3 Retrieved March 26, 2017
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  54. ^ Airbus, Skymark purchase contract cancellation-President Nishikubo does not give up Bloomberg, viewed July 2014, 7.
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  56. ^ Skymark agrees on a penalty of 200 billion yen with Airbus
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  63. ^ ANA decides to introduce A380 2018 aircraft manufactured for Skymark in 3 --FlyTeam (delivered at 2016:01, 01/09/25)
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  70. ^ Airbus, A380 new guest room option 575 seats by changing stairs -Bloomberg October 2017, 4
  71. ^ Launched Cabin Flex for the A380 --Airbus April 2018, 4 (viewed April 10, 2018)
  72. ^ a b European Airbus loses orders for 840-seater "canned flying sardines" -Bloomberg October 2016, 4
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  74. ^ Hispano-Suiza and Honeywell Electrical thrust reverser actuation system (ETRAS®)http://www.hispano-suiza-sa.com/spip.php?rubrique48&lang=en
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References

Related item

外部 リンク

  • Airbus (official website)(English)[Ref name: official]
    • "Airbus Air in Japan". Official websiteAirbus Japan Co., Ltd. 2020th of February 12Browse.[Ref name: official-ja]
    • "A380". 2020th of February 12Browse.(English)[Ref name: official-A380]

 

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