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🧳 | Malaysia Airlines intends to retire Airbus A380 aircraft


Malaysia Airlines intends to retire Airbus A380

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CEO Izham Ismail revealed at an online press conference that he is considering early receipt of the Boeing 2024 MAX, which was planned for 737 and beyond, and is expected to return to profitability in 2023. It is said that it is.

Malaysia Airlines has announced that it intends to retire all Airbus A380 aircraft.Bloomberg and so on ... → Continue reading


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Boeing 737 MAX

Boeing 737 > Boeing 737 MAX

Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX

Boeing 737 MAX on display

Boeing 737 MAX on display

United States flagAmerican airlines
Canadian flagAir Canada
Flag of the People's Republic of ChinaChina Southern Airlines
な ど
  • First flight : 2016May 1[1]
  • Number of production: 389 aircraft (as of March 2019)[2]
  • Operation start : 2017August 5(Malindo Air)
  • Operational status:In operation
  • Unit cost: 737-7: USD 87.7M[3]
    737-8: USD 106.9M[3]
    737-9: USD 113.3M[3]

Boeing 737 MAX(Boeing 737 MAX, Boeing 737 Max)The United States of America OfaircraftManufacturerBoeingManufactured by the companyBoeing 7374th generation small sizejetPassenger plane.Lion Air Flight 610 crashとEthiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashWorldwide flight suspension due toFlight Problems with the Boeing 737 MAX), Production will be suspended in January 2020.[4], Boeing resumed production on May 5 of the same year in anticipation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) resumption of operations later this year.[5]..In November of the same year, the Federal Aviation Administration lifted the suspension of the Boeing 11 MAX.


currentBoeing 737NGIt is a passenger aircraft developed based on the 737NG for the purpose of replacing. It is installed in the 737NGCFM56The engine has good fuel economyLEAP-1BIn addition to replacing it with an engine, the design of the aircraft will also be modified.The first flight test aircraft rolled out on December 2015, 12[6],2016May 1Made the first flight to[1]..The first unit will be delivered in May 2017.[7].737'sIt will be 49 years after the first flight of.


For some time within Boeing787 DreamlinerThere was a plan to develop a blank-designed single-aisle aircraft to succeed the 737 as a passenger aircraft to be launched next. Lifted in 2006Yellowstone planThen.Boeing Y1Was called[8]..However, the development time is undecided, and the final decision was carried over to 2011.[9].

December 2010, rivalAirbusCompanyA320Equipped with a new engine with better fuel economyA320neoThelaunchdid.Received high praise from each airline, especiallyAir Asia,IndiGoReceived a large number of orders from[10][11][12]。A320neoの好調な滑り出しを受け、2011年8月30日、ボーイング取締役会では対抗馬としてボーイング737 MAX計画の立ち上げを決議した。 対エアバスA320従来型 (A320ceo) で16%、同A320neoに対しては4%の燃費向上を狙う[13]..Planned cruising range to be equal to or greater than the A320neo[14]..The first machine is2017Schedule of[13].

The lineup plans to replace the popular -737, -700, and -800 types in the 900NG series with the 737 MAX 7, MAX 8, MAX 9, and the MAX 10 with an even longer body length.[15][16]..The aircraft length and door layout will be the same as the current 737NG series.

Initially,American airlinesOther ordering companies were not announced, but as of November 2011, 11Lion airIt was announced that orders were being received from and, and at the time of the announcement, a total of 9 orders had already been received from nine airlines.[17][18].. September 2011, 12Southwest AirlinesIt was revealed that the 737 MAX will be put on the production line after receiving a large order from.Southwest AirlinesHas ordered 150 aircraft, and has an option contract for another 150 aircraft.[19].. As of December 2011, there are orders for 12 aircraft from 13 companies.[20][21].

Norway Air ShuttleThe company has 737 100 MAXs737'sWe have ordered 22 models and 320 A100neo aircraft (totaling $ 114 billion). This is the first order from a European airline for the 737 MAX series.[22][23].

In 2013 for Japanese airlinesSky markAfter 2018737'sIt was clear that it would introduce the 737 MAX as a successor to the aircraft.[24]..After that, there was no concrete movement due to the bankruptcy of the company, but in April 2018 it was revealed that it is considering a 4-seat class aircraft with more seats than the current 737-800. did. We are considering either 200MAX or A737neo[25].. Also,Japan AirlinesIs a subsidiary ofJapan Transocean Air (JTA) が737-400の後継機として737-800を2016年から導入しているが、JTAとボーイングとの契約にはボーイング737-800からボーイング737 MAX 8に調達機材を一部変更することが可能な条項が含まれていた。調達機材の変更が可能だったのは導入予定の12機のうち後半の6機が対象となっていたが、2019年3月までに12機全てがボーイング737-800で引き渡された。[26][27].

On the other hand,All Nippon Airways(All Nippon Airways) will be the next major compact modelAirbus A321neo,A320neoI have ordered a considerable number ofMitsubishi SpaceJetPartly due to the delay in delivery, additional orders for the 320-321 and the introduction of leases were underway even during the introduction of the A737neo and A800neo.Furthermore, from January 2020, it was a group company of All Nippon Airways.Vanilla airHas transferred three A320ceo aircraft operated by ANA to ANA. ANA's holding company in January 3ANA Holdings (ANAHD) decided to introduce 737MAX at the board of directors,Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashThe contract that was scheduled to be concluded between ANA HD and Boeing in the spring of the same year has been shelved.At the ANA HD press conference in December of the same year, the 12 MAX was "almost close to ordering".[28].


Improved fuel economy

For the winglets, we have adopted a combination of three types of winglets: composite winglets, wingtip fences, and raked winglets (called split simital winglets), and the 3-10% fuel already announced. Plans to add another 12% improvement in fuel efficiency to the improvement in consumption rate[29][30]..Since winglets are structurally at high risk of being damaged in airport taxiways, Boeing will allow them to fly safely even if they are damaged.[31].


During 2011CFM InternationalJet engineLEAP-1BI was busy selecting the fan diameter.Two proposals, 66.1 in (168 cm) and 68.1 in (173 cm), were considered, in order to secure a clearance of 2 in (16.9 cm) or more between the ground and the engine regardless of which one is adopted.Landing gear(Landing gear) needs to be extended.According to the company's CEO Jim Aalborg, the larger the fan diameter, the better the fuel economy, but the more air resistance and weight, so the aircraft needs to be redesigned.[32].

Both candidates are adopted in the current 737NG seriesCFM56-7BIt is longer than the fan diameter of 61.8 in (157 cm).Also, in order to suppress noise, a wavy notch is made at the trailing edge of the engine nacelle (Chevron) Is adopted.This method is already 787747'sProven in. The LEAP-1B engine can be selected with the standard model LEAP-X engine (78 in (198 cm) fan) of the LEAP series and the A320neo.Pratt & WhitneyCompany enginePW1100GBecause it is smaller than (80.7 in (205 cm) fan)Bypass ratioIs small,Fuel consumption rateHowever, it is small and lightweight, and air resistance can be suppressed.

The 66.1 in (168 cm) fan can improve fuel consumption by 737 to 56% compared to the CFM7-10B engine installed in the current 12NG series.According to industry sources, the design of external parts that create the rear part of the fuselage and natural laminar flow, and new innovations such as the composite laminar flow vertical stabilizer are under consideration.[33].

It was announced in November 68.1 that the engine fan diameter would be 173 in (2011 cm). As the engine is larger than the 11NG series, the height of the front wheels is raised by 737in (8cm) to maintain the clearance between the ground and the engine.[34]..The final draft of the aircraft design is scheduled to be completed by 2013[35].. On May 2012, 5, it was announced that the fan diameter would be further increased to 17 in (69.4 cm).We plan to downsize the core by increasing the size of the fan.These fine adjustments will continue until the final design announcement in mid-176.[36].

Flight deck and flight control

Fly by wireWe are planning to expand the adoption of, but according to Aalborg, the change is limited,SpoilerIncorporates fly-by-wire only in[35].

  • Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS)
A new feature added to the 737MAX series that improves the maneuverability of the aircraft and when the angle of attack is large or the nose is in an extremely upward position.Horizontal stabilizerA function that automatically adjusts.Flight tests are conducted during the type certification process, and it is explained that MCAS does not perform aircraft control operations during normal flight.[37].
When installing the LEAP-737 engine used in the 1 MAX, the engine nacelle was moved upward and forward to ensure clearance with the ground.It was pointed out that the 737MAX has the characteristics of an aircraft that tends to pitch up at a large angle of attack due to the movement of the engine mounting position. MCAS was adopted to correct this aircraft characteristic, and at a large angle of attack.Horizontal stabilizerTo lower the nose.The aircraft has two elevation sensors, but the conventional 2MAX was designed to control the horizontal stabilizer in response to one of the elevation sensors.This specification has been changed to refer to both by software modification, and a warning is issued when there is a difference in the sensor value.

It is believed that a series of 737 MAX crashes are associated with a malfunction in this system.[38]..From multiple pilots prior to the crash of Ethiopian Airlines' 737 MAX aircraftFAAIt was reported that the nose was lowered, which is peculiar to MCAS, and it became uncontrollable.[39].Lion Air Flight 610 crashとEthiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashJust before the crash, the 737 MAX was in a state where the horizontal stabilizer was cut all the way down the nose.

Boeing said there was no problem with the safety of the aircraft, but said that it would fix the software by April 2019[40].. On April 4, Boeing admitted that the cause of the two crashes was "both were malfunctions of the control system."[41].

Room interior

The interior of the guest room will be adopted as standard.The luggage rack is installed on the ceilingLight emitting diodeLighting using (LED).This follows the interior of the 737 like the current 787NG series.[42][43].


Production of 737 MAX, fuselageKansasWichitaAnd the final assembly isState of Washington OfBoeing Renton FactoryDone in[44]..Four flight test aircraft will be manufactured.

The final assembly of the 737 MAX 8 flight test first aircraft code "N8701Q", serial number (MSN) "42554", and line number "5602" began on August 2015, 8.[44], Rolled out on December 12th[6], First flight on January 2016, 1.Adjacent to Renton Factory on maiden flight(English edition)9:46 (Eastern Standard Time) Take offSeattleAfter flying over the sky, at 12:33King County International AirportLanded at (Boeing Field).The flight time was 2 hours and 47 minutes, the maximum altitude was 25,000 ft (about 7620 m), and the maximum airspeed was 250 knots (about 463 km / h).[1].

The second aircraft code "N2L", serial number (MSN) "8702", and line number "36989" are designed in simple paint and are based on white in order to shorten the period from the completion of final assembly to the test flight. A wavy line using Boeing's corporate color blue is drawn, and "5668 MAX 737" is painted on the fuselage with a thin silver glitter and a flight test is conducted.[45].

It was reported that Boeing announced on December 2019, 12 (local time) that it would stop production of the flagship aircraft 16 MAX, which caused two crashes, in January 2.[46].

On May 2020, 5, Boeing announced that it has resumed production of the 27 MAX.[47].

Line up

UK in July 2016Funborough International Air ShowRice ordered 737 MAX 7 atSouthwest Airlines(SWA / WN) and additionWestjetAt the request of (WJA / WS), it was announced that the following design changes will be made to the 737 MAX 7.[48].

  • 737'sEquivalent overall length extended by 80 cm (30 inches) at the front of the wing and 120 cm (46 inches) at the rear of the wing, for a total of 190 cm (76 inches)
  • Increase the number of seats in 2 rows and 12 seats, and add emergency exits on the main wings
  • Change wing and landing gear to 737 MAX 8

これに伴い、最大離陸重量は737-700の15万5000ポンド(約70.3トン)から17万7000ポンド(約80.3トン)に引き上げられ、最大着陸重量は12万8000ポンド(約58.1トン)から14万5600ポンド(約66.0トン)に、無燃料重量は12万500ポンド(約54.7トン)から13万8700ポンド(約62.9トン)となった。航続距離は3350海里(約6204キロ)から565海里(約1046キロ)伸びた3915海里(約7250キロ)となり、ライバルであるA319neoIt exceeded 3495 nautical miles (about 6470 km).

  • DO NOT MAX: 737-700, 737-700ER successor
  • DO NOT MAX: 737'sSuccessor
  • DO NOT MAX: LCC majorRyanairIn addition to the conventional emergency exit on the main wing, an emergency door was installed at the rear of the center of the fuselage in order to meet the emergency exit requirements with the 737-seat specification of the proposed 8 MAX 200 (similar emergency exit door arrangement is 737-900ER). Expect demand for LCCs on some aircraft (which is being implemented on some aircraft).
  • DO NOT MAX: 737-900ER successor
  • DO NOT MAX: 737 MAX 9 fuselage extension. It will be a rival of the A321neo.


Boeing 737 MAX specifications
Seat pitch高効率仕様:29 in (74 cm)、エコノミークラス:31–32 in (79–81 cm)、ファーストクラス:36 in (91 cm)
Number of seats [49]126 (8F + 118J)[50]~ 170+162 (12F + 150Y)[50]~ Up to 200178 (12F + 168Y)[50]~ Up to 220188 ~ 230
Torso diameter3.76 m
Width35.92 m / 117 ft 10 in
Height[49]12.3 m / 40 ft 4 in
Length33.7 m → 35.59 m
/ 110 ft 5 in → 116 ft 9 in
39.5 m / 129 ft 8 in42.2 m / 138 ft 4 in43.8 m / 143 ft 8 in
Maximum takeoff weight[49]72,350 kg → 80,286 kg
/ 159,900 lb → 177,000 lb
82,190 kg / 181,200 lb88,310 kg / 194,700 lbUndecided
Maximum landing weight61,462 kg → 66,043 kg
/ 135,500 lb → 145,600 lb
69,309 kg / 152,800 lb74,344 kg / 163,900 lbUndecided
Fuel-free weight58,332 kg → 62,913 kg
/ 128,600 lb → 138,700 lb
65,952 kg / 145,400 lb70,987 kg / 156,500 lbUndecided
Cargo capacity27.1m31,543 ft3 / 43.7 m31,814 ft3 / 51.74 m355.5m3
Cruising range (2 classes)[49]3,350 nmi (3,855 mi; 6,204 km)
→ 3,850 nmi (4,431 mi; 7,130 km)
3,515 nmi (4,045 mi; 6,510 km)
MAX 200: 2,700 nmi (3,107 mi; 5,000 km)[51]
3,515 nmi (4,045 mi; 6,510 km)
(Equipped with one auxiliary tank)
(Equipped with one auxiliary tank)
Fuel capacity6,853 gallon / 25,941 liters27,891 liter
Engine (× 2)CFM International LEAP-1B
Thrust (× 2)Up to 28,000 lbf (125 kN)[52]
Cruise speedMach 0.79 (522 mph, 842 km / h)[Needs verification]
Fan diameter69 inches (175 cm)[52]

Source: 737 MAX Airport Compatibility Brochure,[50] except specific reference.

Accident / malfunction

Although delivery began in 2017, two crashes occurred in quick succession immediately after the start of operation, killing a total of 2 people.As a result, the Boeing 346 MAX series was discontinued in January 737.[53][54][55].

  • 2018May 10 - JakartaImmediately after takeoffLion airFlight 610 (B737MAX 8, aircraft code PK-LQP),JavaCrashed offshore.All 189 crew and passengers died,Boeing 737It was the worst number of fatalities in an accident on a model aircraft.Following this accident, on November 2018, 11 (Japan time)US Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) is necessary for controlling the aerial attitude of an airplane.AOAHe pointed out that the information input from the "sensor" may have been incorrect, and for about 250 aircraft in operation.Emergency improvement reportIssued[56].
  • 2019May 3 - Addis AbabaTook offEthiopian AirlinesFlight 302 (B737MAX 8, aircraft code ET-AVJ) disappeared from the radar 6 minutes later.The aircraft crashed on level ground, resulting in a catastrophe that killed all 157 crew and passengers.[57].
  • October 2019, 3- New York TimesPointed out that a malfunction in the stall prevention system could be the cause of the Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines accident.The article introduces how to search for flights using the equipment, and it can be said that the model should be avoided for self-defense.[58].
  • October 2019, 3- Civil Aviation Administration of ChinaFollowing the Ethiopian Airlines accident,China Southern Airlines,China Eastern AirlinesAll airlines in China, including, have suspended operations on Boeing 737 MAX8 aircraft.[59].
  • March 2019, 3-European Union (EU) European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) also announced that it will ban the same type of aircraft in European airspace.[60].
  • October 2019, 3- Indonesia OfFlag carrierIsGaruda IndonesiaOrdered 737 8MAX50s before the Ethiopian Airlines accident, one of which had already been delivered, but took steps to cancel all orders for the remaining 1.
  • April 2019, 4-FAA explained that it will set up a review organization "Joint Authorities Technical Review" to "ensure the safety of Boeing 4 MAX", Chairman of the Japan Transport Safety Board (NTSB) Chaired by Christopher Hart, who has experience in serving as "Specialties from the FAA, NASA, and Australian, Japanese, Chinese, Canadian, Haku, European, Indonesian, Singapore, and UAE aviation authorities. Home team[61]Was composed of[62].
  • April 2019, 4-Boeing issued a statement admitting that the cause of the two crashes was "both were malfunctions of the control system."[41]..It is more likely that the failure to shut down the malfunctioning system led to the crash.
  • October 2019, 4- Our aircraft was involved in a crashEthiopian AirlinesAnnounced that it plans to cancel orders for all 4 aircraft, except for the four already delivered (excluding accident aircraft).
  • October 2019, 4- India OfJet Airways BankruptcyAs a result, all the 225 aircraft that had been ordered were canceled, and all eight aircraft that had already been delivered were also sold.
  • October 2019, 5- BoeingRegarding the stall warning device, which has been pointed out as a possible cause of a crashFlight 610 crashIn 1, a year before, it turned out that he was already aware of the flaw.[63]..In addition, on October 10, FAA (USA) pointed out that the Maneuverability Improvement System (MCAS) may not work well before it was approved for operation.Federal Aviation Administration) Was also found to have made a false report[64].
  • October 2019, 10-CEO Muillenberg apologizes for "we made a mistake" at a parliamentary hearing[65]Resigned on December 12, the same year[66].
  • In April 2021, delivery was suspended due to a problem with the electrical system.[67].

Main operators

As of 2019 year 3 month[68]

737 MAX 8 type

737 MAX 9 type

Order status

The cumulative number of orders for the MAX series reached 2014 on May 5, 20, and as of June 2,000, orders for 2020 have been received.[69].

Boeing 737 MAX Yearly orders and deliveries (as of June 2020)
Orders737 MAX4559-353%-93%720759530409861668908150
Total4559-353% -93% 720759531409861668908150
deliveryDO NOT MAX -------
DO NOT MAX 74------
DO NOT MAX -------
DO NOT MAX-------

Large orders (mainly orders for 100 or more airlines)

In addition, we receive orders mainly from leasing companies and LCCs.

AirlinesTotal number20122011
Lion air201[70]201-
Norway Air Shuttle100[71]100-
Southwest Airlines150[72]-150
Grand total451301150

Source: Boeing[21][23]


[How to use footnotes]
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  5. ^ US Boeing resumes production of "737MAX" for the first time in 5 months
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  24. ^ Skymark Boeing 737 MAX introduction policy decided
  25. ^ Skymark President Ichie "Possible 200 seats" Selection of successor, emphasis on operation rather than fuel efficiency
  26. ^ JTA decides to introduce Boeing 737-800 aircraft Japan Transocean Air dated March 2014, 3
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  38. ^ The latest system "MCAS" is the leading cause of the continuous crash of "737MAX"
  39. ^ A problem with the 737MAX, pilots had pointed out to authorities months before the crash
  40. ^ Boeing, software update to improve safety on small jet 737 MAX. Provided by April
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  56. ^ Emergency improvement report to Boeing 737 MAX, US authorities suffered a crash
  57. ^ Ethiopian Airlines flight bound for Nairobi crashes with 157 on board
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