Photo A special site established on the Fukaya Okawa Drama Museum website
A special site on the website of the Taiga Drama Museum A trip around "Fukaya no Ao" with Eri Murakawa, the sister of Eiichi Shibusawa
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Mr. Murakawa also introduces his impressions of eating Fukaya's soul food "Boiled Boutou" and tasting the sake "Seienkyo" with the Shibusawa gagô.
In the NHK Taiga drama "Seiten wo Tsuke" featuring Eiichi Shibusawa, a businessman closely related to Gunma Prefecture, Shibusawa's older sister ... → Continue reading
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- African AmericanA general term for traditional dishes.Details are given in this section.
- Dishes unique to the area.Local cuisine that is popular in the area..It is said to be a false expression, but it is widely used all over the world..
Soul food(English: Soul food) Southern United StatesでSlaveryBorn throughAfrican AmericanIt is a general term for traditional dishes. The name "soul food" has taken rootAfricaTo refer to things about AmericansSoul musicThe word "soul" ("soul") has come to be often used.1960 eraIt's about the middle.
The history of soul foodThe United States of America OfSlaveryIts roots are older than the history of the United States and slavery, dating back to the time ofAfrican continentCan be traced to.モロッコImported from AfricaTurnip,スペインImported fromcabbageHas also become an important crop for African-American food culture.
At the beginning of the 14th centurySlave tradeIs started,slaveThe alleged African food culture has changed in new places.Already at this time, crops native to AfricaAmerican statesIncluded in the food of slaves.Some of the crops native to Africa have become important crops in the Americas, including the southern United States.West Indies,BrazilContributed to the establishment of a food culture unique to the United States.For this reason, soul food is mainlyCajuncuisine,Creole food,Brazilian foodAnd share ingredients and African cooking methods.
African slaves and their descendants were forced to survive on the food available.I was eating in africaVegetablesInstead of the turnips given to slaves on the large plantationDandelion,BeetsLeaves are used,,Kale,Watercress,PokeweedNew materials such as these have also come to be used.Slave is abandoned on a large plantationpig's feet, Beef tongue, cow tail,HamHeel part (ham hook), Chitterlings (Dream Pork OfSmall intestine), Pork ears, pork cheeks, beefDouble stomach(Mino,Omasum,Hachinos,Abomasum) And the skin, devise a dish,onion,garlic,time,LaurierWas added to improve the flavor.More slaves are lacking in catching wild animalsproteinWas supplemented.1950 eraUntil then, African Americans living in rural areasraccoon,Virginia opossum,カ メ,RabbitI used to eat a lot.Livestock guts and greens are still typical ingredients for soul food.
When slaves began to work as cooks in the kitchen of the farmer's mansion, the slave's food culture continued to develop.Once you have the chicken, you can eat fried chicken and boil it.potatoSweet potatoes are now lined up next to.Apple,Peach,RaspberriesKind,Seeds and seeds,Cereals Thepudding,pieBecame.The remainingFishLoosen the bodyChicken eggs,Cornmeal(Coarsely groundcornPowder) orWheat flourIf you mix it with seasonings and put on clothesCroquet(croquette), Slightly old and hardBread TheBread puddingBecame.Vegetable broth is called pot likkerソ ー スI ate it or drank it as it was.
Civil WarAfter that, even after being released from slavery, the economic condition of many African-American families did not change significantly, and it was only possible to buy cheap parts and internal organs of meat.The southern African-American population was concentrated in rural areas, so vegetables were grown in the vegetable garden and self-sufficient, and animal proteins were fished, possums, hares, etc.Squirre,waterfowlEtc. were caught and replenished.As cooking oil to avoid wasting slaughter by-productslard,HetWas often used.
African AmericanemploymentSoul food also moved with people as they migrated from the scarce southern rural areas to the northern industrial areas.Cheap fried chicken and anywhere in big cities with a large African-American populationFried white fishYou can see a wide variety of soul food restaurants, from specialty restaurants to high-end restaurants..
It is very difficult to classify the southern food culture by race, as the common people in the South had to cook using ingredients that are easily available regardless of race, mainly for economic reasons. ..African AmericansAnglo-SaxonThey are more fond of offal dishes than Americans and tend to use more spices for spicy flavors, but in fact between soul food and traditional Caucasian home cooking in the South. There are more things in common than differences.
Soul food record
Soul food recipes and recipes were often orally handed down because it was illegal for slaves to learn to read and write in many slave states.The world's first soul food cookbook1881"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cuisine" by Abby Fisher, published inWhat Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking).1891Published "Delicious Food" (Good Things to Eat) Author Rufus Estes is a former slavePullman OfEmployeewas.However, most African-American cookbooks written around the same time were lost without widespread distribution.
20st centuryFrom the middle of the year, books on soul food and African-American food culture written by African-Americans have been actively published.1970First edition of Vatamei Grosvenor (Vertamae Grosvenor), "Vibration Cooking, or Gee Chi's Daughter's Travels" (Vibration Cooking, or the Travel Notes of a Geechee Girl) IsSouth carolinaGee Chi in the low country region of the eastGalaThe emphasis is on intuition (titled "vibration") rather than rigorously weighing and cooking ingredients, and devising dishes with the ingredients at hand. He has succeeded in grasping the essence of traditional African-American cooking.Oyster,crab, Fresh vegetables,RiceGrosvenor's work, which uses abundantly available low-country ingredients such as sweet potatoes in recipes, has become a bestseller.
In African-American homespublic holidayThe importance of sharing food with everyone has been valued.For this reason, African-American cookbooks often share the common theme of family importance and cooking for a gathering place. "BlackNational Conference by Women "(National Council of Negro Women, NCNW) and other community service organizations, social welfare organizations, and churches have often edited cookbooks to fund activities and charities. The first cookbook published by NCNW1958"American Black History Cookbook" (The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro). NCNW1990 eraWhen you enter, "Black Family Reunion Cuisine" (The Black Family Reunion Cookbook ,1993), "Celebrating Mothers' Kitchen: Precious Memories and Delicious Recipes" (Celebrating Our Mothers' Kitchens: Treasured Memories and Tested Recipes,1994), "Mother's African Dining Table: Chronicle of Life" (Mother Africa's Table: A Chronicle of Celebration, 1998), published one after another cookbooks containing recipes collected from African-American celebrities, and recently reprinted the 1958 "History Cookbook".FamousSouthern foodResearcher and chef Edna Lewis (Edna Lewis) Is1972から2003In my hometownVirginiaPublished a book that incorporates Freetown memories into Southern cooking recipes.Edna Lewis's masterpiece is1976"Taste of country food" (A Taste of Country Cooking(Alfred A. Khnopff).
Chicago-based Real Men Charities has culinary philanthropy and educational activities across the United States.CelebrityAt the annual funding event "Real Men Cook" held in 15 locations across the United States, African-American men will gather to showcase their special recipes, both creative and traditional.This event is held every year under the slogan "Every day is Family Day When Real Men Cook."Juneteenth) WhenFather's DayIt will be held at about the same time.2004Real Men Charities are part of some citiesGroceriesIn the storesweet potato OfPound CakeSell the mix,2005"Real Men Cook: Living Events and Recipes" (Real Men Cook: Rites, Rituals and Recipes for Living) Was issued.of the eventincomeAnd the sales of the products will be used for various activities of Real Men Charities.
Soul food and health
Soul food, which was developed as a dish for people who lived in rural areas, could not afford it economically, and had to engage in hard physical labor, has many simple and hearty dishes, and pork and its by-products are common. Has been used.For fried foodcholesterolLard andTrans fatty acidsA lot ofshorteningIs often used.Older cookbooks often have a different balance of fat and sugar than modern recipes.For this reason, soul food has an unhealthy image (see "Soul food in pop culture" below).
However, many modern Americans, not just African Americans, live a very unhealthy life due to the combination of excessive intake of cholesterol- and trans-fatty acid-rich foods and lack of exercise.obesity,High blood pressure,Cardiovascular systemdisease,Diabetes mellitusな どAdult diseaseAre more likely to develop the disease and are at higher risk of dying earlier than those with a healthy lifestyle.Ingestion of trans fatty acidsHeart diseaseIt is also known to increase the risk of.For this reason, it has become a fried food in recent years among African Americans.Salad oilOr use less fat than pigs instead of pigsTurkeySome people even used smoked food.However, there are concerns that incorporating non-traditional recipes and ingredients into soul food may undermine the traditional culture of African Americans..
On the other hand, among the typical plant-based materials of soul food, there are many known as excellent health foods.Colored GreensVitamin A,Vitamin B6,Vitamin C,manganese,iron,Omega-3 fatty acids,calcium,Folic acid,Dietary fiberContains a lotGreen and yellow vegetablesAndOvarian cancer,Breast cancerVarious to preventPhytochemicalsincluding.beansKinds and rice are inexpensive sources of cholesterol-free protein, with beansbrown riceEspecially with vitaminsmineral, Rich in dietary fiber.Sweet potatoesBeta caroteneIt is rich in minerals and trace amounts of minerals, and is effective in preventing diabetes.In recent years, when eating sweet potatoes by animal experimentsBlood glucose levelIs stable,Insulin resistanceIt became clear that it has the effect of relieving.
Soul food food and ingredients
Some soul food dishes and ingredients have something in common with the food culture of other ethnic groups and some are unique to soul food.There are also regional differences in soul food.
- Dream Pork
- Chitterlings (chitterlings) Or chitlins: Prepared pig intestines.After simmering slowlyvinegar,chili sauceIt is often eaten with a batter, but sometimes it is boiled and then battered and fried.
- Cracklins (cracklins): Deep-fried pork skin and fat.GreasyA kind of.Often added to cornbread dough.
- Fat back (fatback): Lots of fatSaltedPork back meat.mainlyVegetables OfStewsUsed to add flavor to.
- Ham hook (It comes out when making ham by smoking the hind legs of a pigHockPart): VegetablesbeansUsed to add flavor to simmered dishes.
- Porkheadcheese (Hoghead cheese): Pork nose, lips, ears, etc. are chopped and stewed, and the boiled pork is cooled and hardened. Also called "sousemeat" or simply "south".
- Pork jaw meat, cheek meat: Slice and stew with chitterlings.
- Pig's trotters: Simmer slowly like chitterlings and eat with vinegar and chili sauce.Also pickled in vinegar.
- Spareribs: Pork ribs are the most common, but beef ribs are also eaten.It features a fairly sweet sauce.
- Country fried steak (country fried steak):Wheat flourI put on a batter and fried itbeef..Usually whitegravyServe with.Because the cooking method is similar to fried chicken, it is also known as "Chicken fried steakIt came to be called.If the gravy is cream, it's a country fried steak, otherwise it's a chicken fried steak.
- Beef neck bone (with meat): Make a stewed dish.
- Beef tail soup
- meatloaf: Generally served with brown gravy.
- Black-eyed beans (black-eyed pea):CowpeaA kind of.Besides making stewed dishes,RiceWhen cooked with "Hoppin John" (hoppin'john).
- Cabbage: vinegar,saltStew with ham hook or fat bag.Nowadays instead of fat backTurkey,chickenSmoked products have also come to be used.
- Green vegetables: colored green,Mustard, Turnip leaves, etc.Stew with ham hook.Deep southThen colored green,Upland SouthThen turnip leaves are preferred.
- Lima beans
- Green beans:Tomatoと豚 肉And simmer.
- Red bean
- Mashed potatoes:With butterevaporated milkTo make.
- Okra: Sprinkle with cornmeal and fry or tomato,corn,onion,Red pepperStew with.
- Succotash (succotash) :originallyNorth American NativesCooking.For corn, tomatoes and butter beansバ タ ーA dish that has been simmered with
- Sweet potatoes: Some are white and some are orange.Boil and slice into slicessugar,cinnamon,nutmeg, Butter ormargarineIn additionovenThe dish baked incandyCalled "Do Yam" (in the United StatesYamAnd sweet potatoes are often confused).Sweet potato pie made from boiled and pureed sweet potatoespumpkin pieVery similar to.
- Pokeweed: Eat young stems and leaves.It is toxic, so boil it 3 times before using it.According to Edna Lewis aboveSpinachIt tastes like.
Because the hot and humid southern United States is more suitable for growing corn than wheat, corn bread has developed.
- Biscuit :butter,jam, Sogam (Sorghum) Orsugar cane OfsyrupIn addition to eating with gravy, soak the broth of side dishes in biscuits and eat.
- Corn bread (cornbread):Cornmeal, Mix water and saltBaking powderInflated in, baked in an oven, etc.cakeOf windBreadSo, for flavor picklingbaconFat is often used.
- Hocake (hoecake): A type of cornbread.Cornmeal,salt,WedTo make a loose dough, mixA frying panFried in.Agriculture:WorkerIt has this name because it used to be a shovel or hoe that was heated on a bonfire and then baked and eaten.
- "Hot water (wata)" cornbread: Cornbread made by deep-fried cornmeal in hot water.
- Hash Puppy: Cornmeal dough mixed with chopped onions, rolled and fried.
- Johnny Cake (jonnycake): Of cornmealPancake..Usually served with butter and eaten with salt.
- Milk and bread: Crush the cornbread into a cup,ButtermilkとsugarIs added.Also known as "poor cup dessert" ("po'folks' dessert-in-a-glass").
- Sweet bread
- Chow Chow (chow-chow):Okra, Dry pickles made by chopping corn, cabbage, capsicum, immature tomatoes, etc.Place it on simmered black-eyed beans or add a small amount to the dish.
- Grits (grits): Made from corn that has been treated with alkali, dried and ground.Porridge..Also known as "Hominy Grits" (""hominy grits ").breakfastBesides eating it, it is also used as a side dish for fish and meat dishes.
- Hot sauce : Cayenne pepper, Vinegar, salt,GarlicSpicy sauce made from such.Serve with chitterlings, fried chicken and fried fish.
- Macaroni and cheese
- Made from rice and cornvanillaFlavoredpudding
- US: Mainly in the Southern United StatesIndica riceHas been cultivated.It is often eaten with stewed red beans and black-eyed beans.
- Sweet tea (sweet tea) :cheapOrange peco(mainlyLipton, Tetley (Tetley) Or Luzian (Luzianne) Boiled, sweetened with sugar and cooled.Instead of boiling, the tea leaves are placed in cold water and placed in the sun, and the tea extracted is called "sun tea".
Cultural representation of soul food
Soul food has often been the subject of parody in American pop culture, as it has been associated with racial prejudice as well as negative images of unhealth and poverty in American society.African-American brothers are the main charactersTelevision Animation"Boon docks』\ First seasonEpisode XNUMXSo soul food destroys the municipalitydrugIs being compared with.Trying to open a soul food restaurantgrandfatherAgainst the heroHuey FreemanDisagrees, saying, "Don't give this to anyone. This ... calls for death."Another TV anime "Family Guy"We will continue to pretend to prefer pig's trotters because it confuses whites," said the chairman of the African-American Society of Quahog.
On the other hand, a work made by African-American staff for African-American audiences depicts the importance and nostalgia of eating soul food on important occasions such as holidays.
- movies"Soul food"(1997) is a black middle class story set in Chicago.It was widely acclaimed for presenting a new and positive image of African-American culture, soul food as a bond between family, community and history.
- Drama "Soul Food" (English edition) (June 2000, 6-May 28, 2004) is a drama series that was aired in the golden frame on Wednesday night based on the 5 movie and recorded a big hit. The unprecedented blockbuster long-term drama of 26 episodes in 1997 seasons is now"The price of Empire success"Up to, African Americans became the first blockbuster drama of the main cast.
- Huges, Marvalene H. Soul, Black Women, and Food. Ed. Carole Counihan and Penny van Esterik. New York: Routledge, 1997.
- ^ Digital Daijisen
- ^ The Korea Herald Article
- ^ Cafe Old Vienna, a German-Austrian dish in the United States, describes German regional cuisine as traditional German Soul Food.
- ^ "The glitz and biscuits are delicious!Southern American cuisine to taste in Atlanta”. Www.travel.co.jp. 2019th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Jonsson, Patrick (February 2006, 2). “Backstory: Southern discomfort food". The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Publishing Society. 2006th of February 11Browse.
- ^ Collard Greens
- ^ Sweet potatoes
- David Walker Rapton African American Cookbook Collection (English)
- Glory Foods website, which handles soul food ingredients
- Real Men Charities website (English)
- Smokey Robinson Foods website, which handles soul food ingredients
- Soul Food Online (English)
- Soul Food LinguistBarry PopikUsage of "soul food" in the 1960s by.