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🧳 | Iki Kotsu, difficult to operate due to corona infection


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Iki Kotsu, difficult to operate due to corona infection, all flights will be suspended on the 8th

 
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Since it was revealed that one driver was infected with the new coronavirus on the 7th, it became difficult to operate the route bus by conducting an antibody test for the route bus driver.
 

Iki Kotsu, which operates a fixed-route bus on Iki Island in Nagasaki Prefecture, has one driver infected with the new coronavirus and operates for inspection ... → Continue reading

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Immunological test

Immunological test(Immunity is coming,British: immunoassay) IsantigenOrantibodyUsing the reaction ofserum,PeeIt is a biochemical test that measures the concentration of a substance contained in a biological liquid such as.

History

In the 1950sInsulinFor the purpose of measuringRadioimmunoassayThere was a history of using (RIA),RadioisotopeIt was one of the factors that hindered the spread due to severe restrictions on the installation and management of equipment.[1][2]. afterwards,酵素The method of using as a sign was devised and became widespread. In the 2000sSurface plasmon resonanceResearch to apply[3]..Previously, it was not possible to test without a well-equipped laboratory, but with the increase in the development of labels for specific antigens and technological development,Antigen-antibody reactionAppliedPregnancy testThe number of products that can be quickly tested by individuals is increasing.

Principle of test

AntibodyAntigen-antibody reactionTo a specific molecule (specimen) contained in the sample solution (sample)antigen) Is recognized and combined.Conversely, an antigen may be used for the purpose of detecting the presence of an antibody contained in a sample solution.Molecules bound in immunoassayColor,fluorescence,ChemiluminescenceDetect and visualize by applying such as.Various labels are used in immunoassays and initiallyRadioisotopeWas used, but it was a factor that hindered its widespread use for the reasons mentioned above.酵素And otherChemical substanceThe method of using is widespread.specificウ イ ル ス,Bacteria,toxinSince a unique label corresponding to each is required for the detection of such as, it is necessary to prepare an appropriate label according to them.

Detection limit

Efforts to lower the detection limit have been ongoing for many years.Although the method using radioactive isotopes is highly sensitive, it has not become widespread due to the reasons mentioned above, but it uses enzymes to make fluorescent dyes and chemiluminescence.Silver halideAmplification with (silver salt) has been attempted and is becoming widespread.[4][5]..High sensitivity when testing using luminescenceCooled CCDA camera may be used.fluorescence,LuminousLike antibody-antigen reactionPhotonThe method tested by is used because it has relatively less noise than other methods and tends to increase sensitivity.

Antigens / antibodies used

Monoclonal antibodyIs a single of a particular moleculeAntigen determinantSince it has the property of binding only to, this property makes it extremely unlikely that the presence of other substances will confuse the results, and highly specific and accurate tests can be performed.The selected antibody has a high affinity for the antigen, and if the antigen is present, a very high proportion of the antigen will bind to the antibody.

An immunological assay can measure the presence of either an antigen or an antibody.For exampleInfectionIf it detectsPathogenThe presence of antibodies against is measured.InsulinlikehormoneInsulin behaves as an antigen for the measurement of.

Quantitative study

For numerical results, the reaction of the liquid is measured by comparison with a standard of known concentration.This is usually on the graphStandard curveIt is possible to quantify the substance by investigating the position on the standard curve where the unknown substance reacts.

Antigens or antibodies are quantified in a variety of ways.The most common of these is labeling either the antigen or the antibody.For signs酵素(Enzyme-labeled immunological assay (Enzyme Immunoassay, EIA), Iodine-125 (125I)Radioimmunoassay (Radioimmunoassay, RIA)RadioisotopeOrfluorescenceCompounds are used.In addition, agglutination method, turbidimetric method, turbidity measurement method,Western blottingThere is.

Competitive and non-competitive tests

Immunoassays can be performed competitively or non-competitively, with respect to homogeneous and heterogeneous subjects.

Competitive immunoassays compete with labeled antigens when antigens in unknown samples bind to antibodies.The amount of labeled antigen that binds to the antibody is measured.In this method, the reaction is carried out at a ratio opposite to the antigen concentration in the unknown sample.That is, if the amount of antigen in the unknown sample is small, it does not compete with the labeled antigen so much, so that the amount of labeled antigen detected is large and the reaction is strong.

The non-competitive immunoassay method, which is also called a sandwich method, is a method in which an antigen in an unknown sample binds to an antibody, and a labeled antibody binds to the antigen.The amount of labeled antibody bound to the antigen is measured.Unlike competitive immunoassays, non-competitive immunoassays are directly proportional to the amount of antigen and response.This is because if the antigen is not present in the unknown sample, the labeled antibody does not bind and is not detected.

Types

Classification by competition and non-competition

Competitive test
Non-competitive test

Classification by sign (label)

  • Magnetic immunoassay
  • Enzyme antibody method
  • Unlabeled immunoassay
  • Nanoparticle immunoassay
  • Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA)
  • Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA method)

Other

application

The immunological test isHuman immunodeficiency virusInfectionIt plays a particularly important role in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases.

footnote

  1. ^ Berson, Solomon A., et al. "Insulin-I 131 metabolism in human subjects: demonstration of insulin binding globulin in the circulation of insulin treated subjects." The Journal of clinical investigation 35.2 (1956): 170-190.
  2. ^ Berson, Solomon A., and Rosalyn S. Yalow. "Quantitative aspects of the reaction between insulin and insulin-binding antibody." The Journal of clinical investigation 38.11 (1959): 1996-2016.
  3. ^ "Immunological measurement method (PDF)". 2020th of February 9Browse.
  4. ^ "Achieves high-sensitivity detection of viruses, etc. by applying silver salt amplification technology for photo development". 2020th of February 9Browse.
  5. ^ "Development of highly sensitive influenza diagnostics using silver amplification technology (PDF)". 2020th of February 9Browse.

Related item

Translated from

en: Immunoassay


 

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