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🧳 | Shuzenji Onsen Hot Spring Corridor Kikuya opens villa and new building


Shuzenji Onsen Hot Spring Corridor Kikuya opens a villa and a new building

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There are various types of guest rooms, such as "Soseki-no-ma" where Natsume Soseki is rested, and "Ri-Kusaan" with a natural hot spring open-air bath. To do.

Kyoritsu Maintenance has opened 18 villas and 20 new buildings in Shuzenji Onsen Yu Corridor Kikuya.Shuzenji Onsen hot water ... → Continue reading


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Natural hot spring open-air bath

Natsume Soseki

Natsume Soseki(Natsume Soseki,1867May 2Keio3May 1〉- 1916Taisho5 years>May 12) IsJapan OfNovelist,critic,English literary,Poet..His real name is Natsume Kinnosuke.pseudonym of a haiku poetIs a stupid Buddha.MeijiFrom the endTaishoActive in the early daysModernJapanese literatureOne of the writers who stands at the top of.

The representative work is "I am a cat''Bocchan''Sanshiro''then''This''Light and dark"Such.As a literary master of the Meiji eraJapanese XNUMX Yen BanknoteThe lecture book "My Individualism" is also known.The meeting where the students gathered at Soseki's private residenceThursday partyWas called.

Edo OfUshigomeBabashitacho (currentlyTokyoShinjuku wardKikui Town) From.In collegeShiki MasaokaI met俳 句learn.Imperial University(LaterTokyo Imperial University, CurrentTokyo University) After graduating from the English departmentMatsuyamaEhime Prefectural Ordinary Junior High SchoolTeacher, in KumamotoFifth High SchoolAfter serving as a professorThe United KingdomStudy abroad at.BigUK OfCamden Ward,Lambeth WardI lived in.After returning to Japan, he taught English literature as a lecturer at the University of Tokyo, and his lecture record includes "Literature Theory."



Natsume Kinnosuke (later Soseki)1867May 2(Keio3May 1)Edo OfUshigomeBabashitaAtLordBorn as the youngest child (fifth son) of Mr. and Mrs. Chie.My father Naokatsu is from Ushigome in EdoTakadanobabaThe owner who ruled the area up to, handled public affairs, and most of theCivil actionHe had a great deal of power and a rich life, as he judged at the front door.[6]..However, it can be said that Chie, her mother, was ashamed of being "unfriendly" because she gave birth to many children at an older age, and it can be said that Kinnosuke was born as an unwanted child.

The name "Kinnosuke" was bornYang Metal Monkey DayThe baby born on this day will be a big thief.superstitionBecause there was, the character "gold" was put in to prevent evil.Also, around the age of 3Smallpox(smallpox), And the scars that were made at this time remained noticeable.

Kinnosuke's grandfather was a hobbyist who had a habit of wasting money, and even when he died, he was said to have died of alcohol, so the property of the Natsume family was tilted by Naoki.[7]..However, as a result of the efforts of his father, Naokatsu, the Natsume family was able to obtain a considerable fortune.However, at that timeMeiji RestorationIt was a period of turmoil later, and maybe the Natsume family was declining as a name, Kinnosuke soon after birthYotsuyaTo an old tool shop (one theory is a greengrocer)Foster childHowever, it is said that her sister, who saw her sleeping next to the item until midnight, felt pity and brought her back to her parents' house.

Kinnosuke then1868(MeijiFirst year) November, toAdopted childWas issued to.Shiobara was a man who served Naokatsu in the same way as a student, but it seemed that there was something to see, so Naokatsu married a woman named Yasushi, the same servant, and bought the stock of the Shinjuku village head. Hooray[8]..However, the Shiobara family became dissatisfied with the family when Masanosuke's female problem was discovered, and Kinnosuke returned to his foster home with his adoptive mother at the age of seven.For a while, Soseki thought that his parents were grandparents.Due to the divorce of his adoptive parents, Kinnosuke returned to his birthplace at the age of 7, but due to the conflict between his father and adoptive father, his return to the Natsume family was delayed until he was 9 years old.In this way, Soseki's childhood was full of ups and downs.Soseki is for this adoptive fatherAsahi ShimbunAfter joining the company, the relationship continues until his father's death, such as being indifferent to money.The relationship with adoptive parents was described in the later autobiographical novel "MichikusaIt is also the subject of.

1874(Meiji 7), Kotobuki Town, AsakusaToda SchoolAfter enrolling in the XNUMXth grade of lower elementary school, KinnosukeIchigaya SchoolThroughKinka Elementary SchoolHowever, it is said that the reason for moving to Kinka Elementary School was to enroll in Kinka Daiichi Junior High School. At the age of 12, Tokyo Prefecture Daiichi Junior High School Regular Department (Prefectural Ichichu, presentHibiya High School[Note 2]I enrolled inUniversity reserve gate(LaterDaiichi High School) I was enrolled in junior high school for about two years in order to enroll in a regular course that does not have English classes, which was essential for the examination, and to aspire to Chinese studies and literature.1881(MeijiDropped out in 14) and went to a private school for Chinese studiesNishogakusha(CurrentNishogakusha University).However, he hated being blamed by his eldest brother, and even after dropping out, he pretended to go all over with his lunch.It is pointed out that Chie, her real mother, died just before she dropped out of junior high school, and that the shock and admission to Nishogakusha might have been deeply connected inside Soseki.[9]..However, the eldest brother, DaisukeliteratureNishogakusha also dropped out in a year, partly because he objected to aspiring to.Daisuke is illUniversity South SchoolDropped out,Metropolitan Police DepartmentI was in charge of translation at, but in anticipation of my youngest brother, Kinnosuke, who was well-made, I was trying to fulfill my wish for the revival of the Natsume family by letting me go to college and get a better career.

One year later1883(Meiji 16), Kinnosuke studied English at Kanda Surugadai's English School.School building[Note 3]Enrolled in and made an outstanding appearance.

1884(Meiji 17), safely enrolled in the preparatory course of the university.Fortunately, on the day of the university entrance exam, my friend next to me gently told me the answer.The friend failed.Later, for boarding house friends during the university reserve gate eraMantetsuBecome presidentNakamuraThere is.Kinnosuke in the preparatory gate era was centered around those from the "established school", Yoshikoto Nakamura,Tatsuto Ota,Tomokuma Sato,Sagoro Hashimoto,Kojuro NakagawaTogether with them, they are organizing a "Tenjinkai".1886(Meiji 19), the university reserve gate was renamed to the first high school.That year, KinnosukeappendicitisSuffering from the problem, he failed to take the second-class preparatory exam and failed with Yoshikoto.After that, he became a self-supporting teacher at a private school such as Koto Gijuku.Since then, he has been studying hard and in most subjects.chiefMet.Especially English was outstanding[Note 4].

Encounter with Shiki Masaoka

1889(Meiji 22), Kinnosuke will have a great literary and human influence on Soseki as an alumni.Poet-Shiki MasaokaMeet.Shiki worked onChinese poetry,俳 句When the collection of books such as "Nanakusa Shu" was circulated among alumni, Kinnosuke wrote the criticism in Chinese at the end of the book, and full-scale friendship began.For the first time at this timeSosekiUse the issue.Soseki's name is"Jinsho』In the story"Soseki pillow style"(Pillow in the stone and soot flow), it is a strong defeat, an analogy of a stranger. "Soseki" has many ShikiPen nameIt was one of them, but Soseki later inherited it from Shiki.

September of the same year,Boshu(Boso Peninsula), The exchange gradually deepened, such as asking Shiki to criticize the travelogue "", which was written in Chinese.Shiki was surprised to see Soseki's excellent Chinese writing and poetry.Since then, Soseki has been studying abroad in England to interact with Shiki.1902It continues until Shiki died in (Meiji 35).

1890(Meiji 23), shortly after its foundingImperial University(LaterTokyo Imperial University) Enrolled in the English department.From around this timePessimism-Nervous breakdownIt is said that he began to fall into.Predecessor1887Bereavement of his eldest brother, Daisuke, in March of (Meiji 20).He died in June of the same year with his second brother.Immediately after1891In (Meiji 24), he died from the rise of his three older brothers and wives, and lost close relatives one after another.It is said that Soseki was in love with his career (Atsushi EtoTheory), he wrote dozens of phrases that deeply hurt his heart and made him feel for his career.

The following year, he was selected as a scholarship studentJames DixonAt the request of the professor,Hojoki』Is translated into English.1892(25th year of Meiji),Draft evasionBecause I was a renterHokkaidoTransfer to[10]..From around May of the same yearTokyo College(CurrentWaseda University) And start earning tuition by himself.Soseki and ShikiWasedaShiki sometimes takes a walk around the area with him.essay"A drop of ink"What surprised me at this time was that Soseki didn't know that the rice in Hirao Eating Place was the fruit of this seedling." On July 7, he will take advantage of the university's summer holidays to embark on his first trip to the Kansai region with Shiki returning to Matsuyama.After passing through Shimbashi by night train, we arrived in Kyoto on the 7th and stayed for two nights. We left Shiki in Kobe on the 8th and arrived in Okayama on the 10th.In Okayama, he stayed at Kokatsu's parents' house, the wife of his second brother, Einosuke, for about a month.Meanwhile, on July 11, I received a letter from Shiki Matsuyama stating that he would drop out because he failed the year-end exam.Soseki wrote a letter urging him to change his mind that afternoon, adding the phrase, "If it sings, it's a full moon."After that, on August 1, he left Okayama and headed for Shiki Matsuyama.At Shiki's house, he was 7 years old at the time when he later invited Soseki to become a professional writer.Kyoko TakahamaMeet.Shiki1893(Meiji 26) Dropped out of university in March.

Study in England

1893(Meiji 26), Soseki graduated from Imperial UniversityHigher Normal SchoolEven though he became an English teacher, Japanese people began to feel uncomfortable learning English literature.The above-mentioned broken heart-like incident two years ago and the following year are discoveredtuberculosisAlso overlaps, extreme memory weakness強迫 観 念You will be able to get involved.afterwards,Kamakura OfRound TempleSoyen Shakuunder参禅Although treatment was attempted, no effect was obtained.

1895(Meiji 28), resigned from Higher Normal School to escape from TokyoTorao SugaEhime Prefectural Ordinary Junior High School (former Matsuyama Junior High School, nowMatsuyama East High School) As an English teacher.MatsuyamaIs Shiki's hometown, where he took a rest for about two months.Around this time, he devoted himself to haiku with Shiki and left behind numerous honorable mentions.During my assignmentFoolish BuddhaHowever, there was a time when Shiki Masaoka also stayed there for 52 days, so he participated in the haiku association "Shofukai" and held a haiku party.This is said to have influenced Soseki's literature later.

1896(Meiji 29), in Kumamoto CityFifth High School(Kumamoto UniversityAfter being assigned to an English teacher (predecessor of) (monthly salary of 100 yen), the eldest daughter of Shigekazu NakaneKagamiMarried, but in the third year Kyoko is unfamiliar with the environment and miscarriagehysteriaThe illness becomes severeShirakawaIt was not a smooth sailing couple's life, such as trying to invest in Ikawabuchi.Other than the family side, Soseki is also active in the podium and gains fame.

1898(31th year of Meiji),Torahiko TeradaStudents from Fifth High School have a haiku association with Soseki as their ally.ShiringinshaAnd teach haiku.The company produced many poets and influenced the poetry in Kyushu and Kumamoto.[11].

1900(Meiji 33) June,Ministry of EducationMore for studying English teaching methods (not for studying English literature)英国Study abroadIs ordered. Depart Japan on September 9[14]..the firstMinistry of EducationThere was a problem with the government-sponsored tuition fees, saying in the report to the report, "High prices, difficulty in living, study abroad expenses, and feelings of poverty."Meredith,DickensI read it carefully and caught it.For university lectures, the tuition fee is set as "Harahi listening value pear"University College LondonStop listening to English literature and appear in "Eijitsu Shohin"ShakespeareResearcher'sWilliam CraigAfter receiving a private professor from (William James Craig), he also worked on the study of "Literature Theory", but his discomfort with English literature research returned and he began to fall into memory weakness again. He said, "I'm thinking about the future of Japan on the third floor of the night boarding house ..." and changed the boarding house many times.During this stay in LondonTower of LondonThe essay "Rinatsuto" when I visited was written.

1901(Meiji 34), a chemistKikunae IkedaAfter living together for two months, he received a new stimulus and began to devote himself to research in a boarding house.As a result, exchanges with international students with whom I had been acquainted have become estranged, and I sent a blank report to the Ministry of Education to my home country.Doi BansuiAccording to the report, the female owner of the boarding house is worried about "amazing appearance, severe memory weakness".1902(Meiji 35) In MayYaichi HagaWhen they visited, there were rumors of "Natsume madness" in the Ministry of Education, probably because they said, "I want to return to the morning (return to Japan) early, I'm a little disappointed, let's talk to the Ministry of Education authorities." It flows.Soseki was ordered to return home in a hurry and was to leave London on December 12, the same year.For the ship when returning to JapanGermanyPsychiatrist who finished studying abroadKiichi SaitoI happened to be on board[15],PsychiatristSoseki's relatives, who knew that he was riding with him, said that SosekiMental illnessI was finally worried, even if I was suffering from[16].

On the other side of Soseki's last boarding house at that time,1984(Showa59 years)Ikuo TsunematsuThe "London Soseki Memorial Hall" was established by.Soseki's boarding house, people I met, books I read, etc. were exhibited and opened to the public, but in EnglandEuropean Union(EU) Closed at the end of September 2016 due to the move to leave[17]..At the strong request of Soseki fans, on May 2019, 5, in the southern suburbs of LondonSurreyA part of Tsunematsu's house in Tsunematsu was renovated and reopened.[18].

Road to a writer and joining Asahi Shimbun

1903(Meiji 36) Returned from studying in the UK on January 1[19].. October 3st in TokyoHongo WardKomagomeSendagiMoved to 57 town (currentBunkyo kuMukogaoka2-20-7,Sendagi StationAbout 10 minutes on foot.CurrentlyNippon Medical SchoolAlumni hall.There is a monument on the premises).At the end of the same month, he resigned as a professor at Fifth High School.In April of the same year, with the first high schoolTokyo Imperial University(Annual salary is 700 yen for high school and 800 yen for university).One high school chief at that time was a close friendKano TokichiMet[Note 5].

At the University of TokyoKoizumi YakumoAlthough he taught as a successor, Soseki's analytically hard lecture was unpopular with the lecture by his predecessor, Yakumo, who immediately wrapped the entire classroom in a poetic atmosphere and got drunk once he opened his mouth. Then, the Yakumo staying movement by the students took place, and the complaints were dismissed.Also, to the students in charge at the high school at that timeMisao FujimuraA few days after Soseki rebuked him for his bad attitude during a class,Kegon FallsThere is a rumor that not only the students of Ichiko and his colleagues but also the intellectuals who were shocked by the incident said, "Soseki killed Fujimura." It was decided to be.As a result of suffering from such reputational damage in the workplace, Soseki finally suffered from memory weakness, and he began to rampage with frequent tantrums during class and at home, increasing absenteeism and separation, and with his wife. Separated for about 2 months.1904In (Meiji 37), he regained some calm andMeiji UniversityAlso serves as an instructor (monthly salary of 30 yen).

At the end of the year, Kyoshi Takahama recommended her creation as part of the treatment for mental weakness, and she became a virgin work.I am a cat』Written.It was announced for the first time at Shiki's group "Yamakai" and gained popularity.1905(Meiji 38) January, "HototogisuWas published as a one-shot, but due to its popularity, I will write a sequel.Around this time, he began to aspire to live as a writer, and after that, he said, "Rinatsuto''Bocchan』And release works in quick succession, solidifying the position as a popular writer.Soseki's work had a strong element of low-lying hobby (coined by Soseki), who forgot about the world and tried to take a leisurely look at life, and was the mainstream at that time.NaturalismConflict withMarginWas called.

1906(Meiji 39), at Soseki's houseToyotaka Komiya,Suzuki Miyoshi,Morita SoheiHowever, as the fame as a writer increased, the number of visitors increased and it became a hindrance to work, so Suzuki set the weekly visit day as Thursday.Since anyone could come on this day, Soseki's study became a place like a salon where many students gathered and talked, and eventually "Thursday party(From October 1906, 10, according to a letter dated October 8, 10).

1907In February (Meiji 40), he resigned from all teaching professions.Ikebe SanzanJoined Asahi Shimbun (monthly salary 200 yen).At that time, he refused the invitation from Tokichi Kano, who was the first president of Kyoto Imperial University Literature University (equivalent to the current director of the Faculty of Literature), to become a professor of English literature, and began his career as a professional writer in earnest.In June of the same year, his first work as a professional writer, "Gubijinso』Started serialization.While writing, he suffers from neurasthenia.1908(Meiji 41) January 3Akiko Hiratsuka (Raicho Hiratsuka)TochigiShiobaraIn my heartThe subordinate who caused the attempted incidentMorita SoheiStruggle to clean up (Shiobara Incident).

1909(Meiji 42), Governor Manchuria Railway, who was a close friendNakamuraInvited byManchuria-KoreaTravel.The record of this trip will be serialized in the Asahi Shimbun as "Mankan Tokorodokoro".

Great illness of Shuzenji

1910(Meiji 43) January, "Sanshiro''thenIs the third of the previous trilogy following ""gateIn the middle of writingStomach ulcerHe was admitted to Nagayo Gastrointestinal Hospital (Nagayo Gastrointestinal Hospital).In August of the same year, for medical treatmentMatsune Toyo CastleAt the recommendation ofIzu OfShuzenjiGo out toTranslocation medical treatmentTo do.However, he suffers from stomach disease, causing hematemesis of up to 800g, and falls into a critical condition of wandering between life and death.This is an incident called "Shuzenji's Great Disease".The experience of the temporary "death" at this time influenced the subsequent works.Soseki himself said, "Things to remember』, Mentions this time.Soseki in his last years had the ideal of "Noritenki I", but it is said that it may represent his feelings at that time. "Inside the glass door』, You can see the true feelings that are close to the real intention.

In October of the same year, his condition calmed down and he returned to Nagayo Hospital and was readmitted.After that, he suffers from diseases such as gastric ulcer many times.1911Immediately after giving a lecture in Kansai in August (Meiji 44), gastric ulcer recurred and he was admitted to Osaka Gastrointestinal Hospital in Osaka.After returning to TokyoI went to the hospital.1912(TaishoFirst year) September, reoperation for hemorrhoids.In December of the same year, "pedestrian』Also aborts writing for the first time due to illness.1913(Taisho 2) suffers from nerve weakness and gastric ulcer until around June.1914(Taisho 3) In September, he became ill with a fourth gastric ulcer.The work is humanEgoismIn pursuit of, it is called the late trilogy "Until the cluster pass''pedestrian''This』It will lead to.

1915In March (Taisho 4), he traveled to Kyoto, where he collapsed with a fifth gastric ulcer. From June, I looked back on the environment at the time of writing "I am a cat" and wrote "Michikusa] Has begun serialization.1916(Taisho 5)Diabetes mellitusI am also troubled.That yearTakashi TatsunoAfter attending the wedding ceremonyMay 12, Caused internal bleeding, "Light and darkDied at home while writing (49 years and 10 months).The last word was, "Pour water over here, I'm in trouble if I die," he shouted while opening his sleepwear.However, when the fourth daughter, Aiko, started crying and her wife, Kyoko, warned her, Soseki soothed her and said, "It's okay, you can cry anymore." Ru[Note 6].

The day after his death, the body was in the dissection room of the University of Tokyo School of Medicine.NagayomatarouDissected by.It was removed at that timebrainstomachWas donated.The brain is still immersed in ethanolTokyo UniversityIt is kept in the medical school.It weighed 1,425 grams.The name of the priest is Soseki Soseki of the Literature Institute.The graveyardTokyoToshima wardMinamiikebukuro OfZoshigaya Cemetery(Type 1 No. 14 No. 1 side No. 3).

1984(ShowaFrom 59 years)2004(HeiseiPublished until 16 years)Bank of Japan notesD XNUMX yen ticketThe portrait was adopted.


  • 1867(Keio3 years)May 1 --Edo Ushigome Babashitacho (currentlyTokyoShinjuku wardBorn in Kikuicho) as the fifth son of his father, Naokatsu Natsume, and his mother, Chie.The Natsume family has been around for generationsLordHowever, due to the decline in family luck at that time, he was sent to a foster child at an antique shop in Yotsuya shortly after birth, but he was immediately taken back.
  • 1868(Meiji11st year) November-ShinjukuLord・ Adopted by Masanosuke Shiobara and gave his surname Shiobara.
  • 1869(2th year of Meiji)- Adoptive father・ Masanosuke moved to Asakusa Mima-cho as a senior citizen of Asakusa.
  • 1870(3th year of Meiji)- vaccinationBased onSmallpoxSickness, leaving scars on the face[Note 7].. The scars were so conspicuous that they were made into the counting song "Ichi Natsume Onigawara".
  • 1874(Meiji 7) --The adoptive father, Masanosuke, and the adoptive mother, Yasushi, became discordant and were temporarily taken over by the birthplace of Kikuicho.Asakusa Kotobuki Town Toda School Lower Elementary School XNUMXth grade (later Taito Ward Seika Elementary School. CurrentlyTaito Ward Kuramae Elementary School) Enrolled in.
  • 1876(Meiji 9) --The adoptive mother was separated from the Shiobara family and moved to the birthplace with the adoptive mother while still enrolled in the Shiobara family.Ichigaya Yanagimachi Ichigaya School (currentlyShinjuku Ward Aijitsu Elementary School) Transferred to.
  • 1884(Meiji 17) --On the second floor of Shinfukuji Temple in Koishikawa GokurakusuiSagoro HashimotoAnd boarding house.self cateringWhile livingSchool buildingGo to school.
  • 1885(18th year of Meiji)- Nakamura,Sagoro HashimotoAbout 10 people and boarding house at Suetomiya in Sarugakucho.
  • 1886(Meiji 19) February- peritonitisforFailure..This failure was a turning point, until graduation laterchiefThrough.Became a teacher of Yoshikoto Nakamura and Honjo Koto Gijuku, and moved to the dormitory of the cram school.
  • 1887(Meiji 20) --The eldest brother, Daisuke, died in March and the second elder brother, Einosuke, died of lung disease in June.acuteTrachomaSuffering from and going home.The first mountain climbing in Mt. Fuji in the summer.
  • 1888(21th year of Meiji)
    • January --Returned from the Shiobara family and returned to Natsume's surname.
    • July-Graduated from the first high school preparatory course.
    • September --- Decided to major in English literature and enrolled in a part of the main course.
  • 1889(22th year of Meiji)
    • 1 month - Shiki MasaokaFriendship with.
    • May-Written a critique of Shiki's "Nanakusa Shu" and used the pseudonym "Soseki" for the first time.
  • 1890(23th year of Meiji)
  • 1903(36th year of Meiji)
    • April-Became a lecturer at the First High School and concurrently serves as a lecturer at the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Imperial University.
    • October-Birth of the third daughter, Eiko.水彩画I started writing well.
  • 1904(Meiji 37) April --- Also serves as a lecturer at Meiji University.
  • 1905(Meiji 38) January-"I am a cat] To [Hototogisu(Serialized intermittently until August of the following year).
    • December-The birth of Aiko, the fourth daughter.
  • 1906(Meiji 39) January-"Bocchan] To [HototogisuAnnounced in.
  • 1907(40th year of Meiji)
    • May - "NobunWas announced in "Lesser Cuckoo".
    • April-Resigned from any teaching professionAsahi ShimbunJoined the company.Begins his career as a professional writer.
    • June-The birth of Junichi, the eldest son. "Gubijinso] To [Asahi Shimbun』Serialized (-October).
    • September-Moved to 9 Wasedaminami-cho, Ushigome-ku.[22]
  • 1908(41th year of Meiji)
    • January "Digger" (-April), June "Buncho", July "Yume Toya" (-August), September "Sanshiro" (-December) are serialized in "Asahi Shimbun".
    • December-Birth of Shinroku, the second son.
  • 1909(Meiji 42) March-Such an incident continued until November, when my adoptive father gave me money.
  • 1910(43th year of Meiji)
    • March-The birth of the fifth daughter, Hinako.
    • 6 month - Stomach ulcerforUchisaiwaichoAdmitted to Nagayo Gastrointestinal Hospital.
    • August-for medical treatmentShuzenji OnsenTransferred to.On the night of the 24th of the same month, he had a large hematemesis and was temporarily in critical condition.
    • October-Admitted to Nagayo Hospital.
  • 1911(44th year of Meiji)
    • May 2 - Ministry of EducationfromDoctor of LiteratureDecline the award[23].
    • August-I went to Akashi, Wakayama, Sakai, and Osaka for a lecture hosted by Asahi Shimbun, and was admitted to Yukawa Gastrointestinal Hospital after a recurrence of gastric ulcer in Osaka.
    • May 11 --Fifth daughter, Hinako, sudden death of unknown cause.Later, it became a distant cause of Soseki's corpse dissection.
  • 1913(Taisho2 years)
    • January-terribleneurosisRecurred.
    • March-Recurrent gastric ulcer. I was ill at home until late May.From HokkaidoTokyoTransfer to again.
  • 1914(Taisho 3)
    • May - "ThisWas serialized in "Asahi Shimbun" (-August).
    • November-"My Individualism"Gakushuin SujinkaiLecture at.
  • 1915(Taisho 4)
  • 1916(Taisho 5)
    • January --Relocated to Yoshikoto Nakamura of Yugahara Amanoya for the treatment of rheumatism.
    • May - "Light and darkWas serialized in "Asahi Shimbun" (-August).
    • May 12 --Death due to gastric ulcer before 7 pm.Commandments・ Bibliographic Institute Kodo Soseki Householder.
  • 1984(Showa 59) June- Thousand-yen billThe portrait is adopted.


Work list

The copyright of the work has already disappeared and it is in the public domain.


Medium / feature novel

  • I am a cat(January 1905-August 1, "Hototogisu" / October 1906-May 8, Okura Bookstore / Hattori Bookstore)
  • Bocchan(April 1906, "Hototogisu" / 4, "Quail basket" published by Shunyodou)
  • Grass pillow(Recorded in "New Novel" / "Quail Basket" in September 1906)
  • 200th day(October 1906, recorded in "Chuokoron" / "Quail Basket")
  • Nobun(January 1907, "Hototogisu" / 1, "Kusaai" published by Shunyodou)
  • Gubijinso(June 1907-October, Asahi Shimbun, January 6, Shunyo-do)
  • Pit husband(January 1908-April, recorded in "Asahi Shimbun" / "Kusaai")
  • Sanshiro(September 1908-December, Asahi Shimbun / May 9, Shunyo-do)
  • then(September 1909-December, Asahi Shimbun / May 6, Shunyo-do)
  • gate(June 1910-October, Asahi Shimbun, January 3, Shunyo-do)
  • Until the cluster pass(June 1912-October, Asahi Shimbun, January 1, Shunyo-do)
  • pedestrian(December 1912-November 12, Asahi Shimbun, January 1913, Okura Shoten)
  • This(April 1914-August, Asahi Shimbun, September 4, Iwanami Shoten)
  • Michikusa(April 1915-August, Asahi Shimbun, September 6, Iwanami Shoten)
  • Light and dark(April 1916-August, Asahi Shimbun, September 5, Iwanami Shoten)

Short stories / small stories

  • Rinatsuto(January 1905, "Teikoku Bungaku" / 1, "Senkushu" published by Okura Bookstore and Hattori Bookstore)
  • (April 1905, "Lesser Cuckoo" / "Senkushu")
  • Sora sound of koto(Recorded in "Seven People" / "Senkyoshu" in July 1905)
  • One night(September 1905, recorded in "Chuokoron-Shin" / "Senkyoshu")
  • Kairo-ko(Kairokou) (September 1905, recorded in "Chuo Koron" / "Senkushu")
  • Hobby inheritance(Recorded in "Teikoku Bungaku" / "Senkyoshu" in January 1906)
  • Java sparrow(June 1908, "Osaka Asahi" / 6, "Four Editions" published by Shunyodou)
  • Ten Nights of Dreams(July 1908-August, "Asahi Shimbun" / "Four Volumes" recorded)
  • Eijitsu Shohin(July 1909-August, "Asahi Shimbun" / "Four Volumes" recorded)

Critique, essay, lecture, etc.

  • Literary theory (May 1907, Okura bookstore, Hattori bookstore)
  • Literary criticism (March 1909, Shunyo-do)
  • The development of modern Japan(1911, Wakayama Prefectural Assembly Building / November 1911, recorded in "Asahi Lecture Collection" published by Asahi Shimbun Joint Stock Company)
  • My individualism (1914).In addition, there are "Doraku and occupation", "Content and form", and "Literature and morality".
  • Carlyle Museum (1905, recorded in "Gakutetsu" / "Senkyoshu")
  • Mankan Tokorodokoro (October 1909-December, "Asahi Shimbun" / "Four Volumes" recorded)
Collection of phrases and poems
  • Soseki Haiku Collection (November 1917, Iwanami Shoten)
  • Soseki Poetry Collection Inscription (June 1919, Iwanami Shoten)
  • Service line (May 1904, "Teikoku Bungaku" Vol. 5, No. 10)
  • I am a cat in total darkness
    • A parody of my own "I am a cat"[Note 8].

Complete works

  • Soseki Complete Works (1993-1999, Iwanami Shoten, 28 volumes, separate volume 1). New edition from December 2016
    1. I am a cat
    2. Rinatsuto and others, Bocchan
    3. Kusamakura, XNUMX days, Nobun
    4. Gubijinso
    5. Miner Sanshiro
    6. Then ・ Gate
    7. Until the cluster pass
    8. pedestrian
    9. Heart
    10. Michikusa
    11. Light and dark
    12. Sketch
    13. English literature research
    14. Literary theory
    15. Literary criticism
    16. Criticism and others
    17. Haiku / poetry
    18. Chinese poetry
    19. On the diary / fragment
    20. Diary / Fragment below
    21. Note
    22. On the letter
    23. In the letter
    24. Below the letter
    25. Separate volume
    26. In the separate volume
    27. Separate volume
    28. Total index
      1. Soseki words and deeds
  • Complete Works of Soseki Literature (1982-1983, Shueisha, 10 volumes)
  • Natsume Soseki Complete Works (1987-1988,Chikuma paperback, All 10 volume)
    • Old edition "Natsume Soseki Complete Works Chikuma Complete Works" (Chikuma Shobo, All 10 volumes, separate volume 1)
  • Soseki Shimbun Novel Reprint Complete Works(1999,Yumani Shobo, All 11 volume)
  • Soseki Soseki Magazine Novel Reprint Complete Works(2001,Yumani Shobo, All 5 volume)
  • Soseki criticism / lecture reprint complete works(2002,Yumani Shobo, All 8 volume)

Visualized work


Natsume familyEdo PeriodToLordStatusTradesmanHowever, his ancestors were samurai,MikawaMatsudaira(Tokugawa) Of vassalsYoshinobu NatsumeThe great-grandson of.Soseki's descendants include many celebrities who have made a name for themselves in writing and music.

The birth dates of the children are as follows.

  • May 32-The birth of the eldest daughter, Brush.
  • January 34-The birth of Tsuneko, the second daughter.
  • November 36-Eiko Mitsume was born.
  • 38th year of Meiji (1905)?Moon-The birth of Aiko Fourth Girl.
  • June 40-Birth of Junichi, the eldest son.
  • December 41-Birth of Shinroku Natsume, the second son.
  • March 43-Birth of Hinako Gome (died at the age of 1910).

Natsume family

Natsume familyGenealogy(Natsume family tree (samurai family tree)) According to the ancestors of several generations agoTakeda familyTo serveKai countryYatsushiro-gunI received Natsume-eup, and a few generations laterKatsuyori TakedaHas fallenKoshuMoved to Iwatsuki-eup, Saitama-gun, Musashi, and then hid in Ushigo-mura, Toshima-gun, Musashi.SquireIt became.1702(Genroku15 years) In April of the lunar calendar, was appointed as the village head[26].

“” Which still exists in Shinjuku WardNatsume slopeWas named by Soseki's father, Naokatsu. The monument of the birthplace also faces the slope.

Family crest(Fixed patternIt was also Naokatsu that the town name was changed to Kikui-cho because) is "Kikui ni Kiku".[Note 9]..Soseki's own family crest is "Kikubishi".This is thought to be used as a proof of the branch family because Soseki is not the eldest son (usually the head family and the branch family use different family crests).

  • His father, Naokatsu, and his mother, Chie, have five sons and one daughter, and Soseki is the fifth son.Chie is Naokatsu後妻And in Shinjuku called IzubashiProstituteIt was the daughter of a shop. According to page 3 of "Natsume Soseki and Op. 11", "The prostitute was not regarded as a very lowly profession at that time, but was regarded as a kind of social gathering place. The family lived separately from the store and enjoyed entertainment.tea ceremonyAnd spend timeHobbiesI was living a typical life.However, Naokatsu still took into consideration the public body.So Chie's sister's wife, ShibaSatsuma DomainIn and outcarbonWholesalerAs my sistermarriageHowever, it is ostensibly called a locksmith in Yotsuya Otsukacho.PawnshopI had decided to marry him.Therefore, Soseki seems to have assumed that his mother's parents' house was a pawn shop for the rest of his life.There is a second daughter (half-sister) between Naokatsu and her ex-wife.
  • As a grandson of his third brother, Wasaburo (), he is an entertainment production manager.VISA cardI want to play the role of Soseki in CF[27][28][29].
  • Asahi Shimbun employee ("" to another grandson of his third brother, Wasaburo ()Weekly AsahiDeputy Editor-in-Chief, "Asahi camera"Editor-in-chief,"Books』Editor-in-chief," art book "editor-in-chief, etc.)[30].
  • Wife- Natsume KyokoBetween 2 men and 5 women.
    • His second daughter, Tsuneko, has written "The Shadow".
    • The fourth daughter, Aiko,Seida TsudaIt is a model of the girl statue.
    • The fifth daughter, Hinako, died at the age of one.ThatNavelThe string was discovered,Tohoku UniversityIs buying[31].

Eldest son

  • Eldest son- Junichi Natsume(violinist)
  • Grandson- Fusanosuke Natsume(Manga critic / essayist, Junichi's eldest son)
  • Great Son-(Writer / Editor, Fusanosuke's eldest son)

Eldest daughter

Second son

Suzuki Teiji
Natsume Kyoko
Natsume Soseki
Shinroku Natsume
Junichi Natsume
(Eldest daughter, brush)
Yuzuru Matsuoka
Eldest daughter)
Eldest daughter)
Fusanosuke Natsume
Mariko Hando
Kazutoshi Hanfuji
Yoko Matsuoka
Natsume alone

The student

Soseki's students include not only writers but also scholars, educators, and cultural figures from various fields.By them, Soseki's influence extended to a wide range of cultural areas and formed standard values ​​among intellectuals from the late Taisho era to the early Showa era.Therefore,Jun Tosaka"Soseki culture" was established at this time[33]And the group of students who became the source of itHonda AkiraBySoseki MountainsIs named[34]..Became a painter of his subordinatesSeida Tsuda"Soseki Yamabo and his disciples"[35]Is famous as a painting depicting their appearance, and the following features can be seen.

In addition, the following writers are also considered to be Soseki's subordinates.

In addition, the following scholars, educators, and cultural figures were also studying under Soseki.

Soseki did not have a teacher-apprentice relationship with them in the sense of training his successor.A large proportion of the students were students when Soseki was a teacher, but most of them were on Thursday's visit day (so-called ""Thursday partyA young man who came mainly as a guest, and was strongly inspired by his interaction with Soseki, and came to call his subordinate.However, Soseki is discussing with them almost on an equal footing even at the Thursday party.Tokuda autumn voiceI studiedOzaki autumn leavesIn comparison, "In the case of Mr. Soseki, the situation is a little different, and it is not a strict teacher-apprentice relationship.[36]..Jiro Abe, one of his students, also stated as follows.

"If a young student means a person who has officially signed a teacher-apprenticeship with the teacher, I would like to say that the teacher had no student at all. There are many young people around the teacher. As seniors and juniors, there was an unparalleled familiarity between the teacher and these people in today's Japanese literary world. At the same time, these people are teachers. However, they were not particularly simplistic people to follow the path .... The teacher, with his generous heart, met the young man who naturally gathered at the gate and talked with him. I just took care of it, and sometimes I was taken care of by it. To become a so-called teacher's student, I longed for Yui-sensei's wind and became a guest of the house on Thursday. There is. The relationship between the teacher and the so-called students is only this meaning at first. (Omitted) Since the teacher was always a person who values ​​independence, do not force his opinion on the so-called students. This was rarely seen. In fact, there was a fierce disagreement between the teacher and the so-called students. "[37]

In addition, Jiro Abe's list of Soseki's subordinates includes the Shirakabaha school.Warrior alley,Naoya ShigaIs also included,Takeshi NagaoAlso make them de facto disciples[38] ..They had a policy of not having seniors or teachers in the literary world, and although they did not call themselves Soseki, they admitted that they had the most respect for Soseki in the literary world at that time, and Soseki also gave them. I was looking at it.There is also a view that distinguishes them from the above-mentioned students and says that they were not "direct students".[39]However, Soseki himself did not have such a sense of division.

Among the students, Miekichi Suzuki, Toyotaka Komiya, Sohei Morita, and Yoshishige Abe have a particularly strong degree of familiarity with Soseki, and since they were divided mainly by the Thursday party, they are called "Four Tennos under Soseki."Among them, Toyotaka Komiya is said to have been loved most by Soseki, and he was sometimes ridiculed as "the priest of Soseki Shrine" because he tried to make it authoritative even after Soseki died.Fifth High SchoolTorahiko Terada, who has had a deep relationship of trust with Soseki since the times, is treated exceptionally even among his students, and is often called the most disciple.[40]..On the other hand, Yaeko Nogami had never attended the Thursday party and met Soseki only a few times.Shigeki Senuma, Shohei OokaHas been described as "the most orthodox successor to Soseki"[41]..There is also the view that among the diverse characteristics of Soseki literature, "anti-naturalistic literary tradition was inherited by Ryunosuke Akutagawa, ethics by Naoya Shiga, and romance by Hyakken Uchida."[42]..Among these writers, Akutagawa is the most popular in general, and in terms of academics, Jiro Abe, Yoshishige Abe, and Tetsuro Watsuji led the Taisho liberal arts and had a great influence on prewar academia.Jun TosakaCalls these four people "representatives of Soseki culture"[43]..Shigeo Iwanami is the greatest contributor to the spread of "Soseki culture" in the publishing industry.

In addition, Soseki also uses the Asahi Shimbun as a place to bring out the up-and-coming enthusiasts, and he wrote to Morita Sohei and Naka Kansuke, who were unknown as writers.Soot (Novel)''Spoon of silverWas serialized, and it became their success.In 3, the same consideration was given to requesting Naoya Shiga, who had only published short stories, to serialize the feature films after "Kokoro".In response, Shiga worked on writing a feature film, but he declined because he was worried about writing, and Soseki asked Saneatsu Mushanokoji and Yaeko Nogami to fill in the gap.The "death" announced by Samurai Koji at that time was the first work in which he earned a large amount of money.[44].. (However, Shiga did not give up writing the feature film, although he was worried about writing it, and finally completed it in 12. This is his only feature film "Dark path』).In 42, Soseki founded the "Asahi Feuilleton" as a place for criticism, and had Morita Sohei and Komiya Toyotaka take charge of editing.Therefore, these two people, Jiro Abe, Yoshishige Abe and others argued for anti-naturalism and attracted attention, but criticism that the paper was privatized occurred in the Asahi Shimbun, and it was abolished in 1909.

In the early summer of 4, a woman named Misao Tsusue visited Soseki's house from Nagoya, but Soseki did not appreciate her literary talent and said, "It is better to continue living with local parents." I recommended.She often attended Thursday meetings after that, but on October 1915, 4, she committed suicide by jumping in Kasumigaura, two days later.Current newsAn article "A new woman's entry into the water, learned from Natsume Soseki's gate, and has a reputation for talent" was published along with Soseki's discourse (later found to be attempted).[45]..For Soseki, it was nothing more than a visitor, but the media considers it to be a student, and it supports the character of "a so-called student" in Abe Jiro's words.


View of Asia

Soseki described as follows in the article of the essay "Mankan Tokorodokoro" published in the "Tokyo Asahi Shimbun" dated October 1909, 42 (Meiji 10).[46].

What impressed me about this trip was the fact that the Japanese are enterprising and that even though they are poor households, they will develop to the extent that they are worth it, and the spirit of the management.Looking at the history of Manchuria, I feel that Japanese people are reliable people.Therefore, wherever I go, my shoulders are wide and I feel good.Contrary toChinese,KoreanI feel very sorry to see.Fortunately, I was born in Japan and thought it was a match.

— Full Korean civilization

8 days later on October 10thIto Hirobumi Harbin StationAfter being assassinated inManshu Nichi-Nichi ShimbunThe essay "Hanman feeling(Bottom) ”, Soseki describes as follows:[47][48].

Another thing I felt during the tour was that I was fortunate enough to realize that I was born in Japan.InlandWhile I was in the middle of my life, the people who were as merciful as the Japanese had to be squeezed all the time by the thought that there were no other people in the world, but when I went from Manchuria to Korea, my compatriots I witnessed the fact that he was active in various fields of the civilization business and became a great superior, and I was deeply impressed with the impression that the Japanese are also a very reliable race.At the same time, I wasn't born to Chinese or Koreans, so I thought it was good.My compatriots, who put them in front of them and deal with them with the enthusiasm of the winner, must be truly the darlings of fate.

— Hanman feeling

"Kanmanshokan" is an essay excavated in 2013, but it is a comparative literary writer.Yuuhiro Hirakawa"Soseki isColonyPerhaps because he had a strong desire to compete with Britain in the empire, he directly affirmed Japan's colonization project and celebrated the activities of Japanese overseas.Annexation of Japan and South KoreaSuspectedTadashi Ishiguro,Ueda SatoshiIt does not show such political wisdom.To be honest, he wrote, "I was fortunate enough to realize that I was born in Japan" and "I thought I was good because I wasn't born in China or Koreans." "Well," there may be problems, but anyway, I was able to develop as a member of the Japanese Empire. "[49][50].

Reaction to the assassination of Hirobumi Ito

1909 (42th year of Meiji)May 11In the article of Soseki's essay "Kanmanshokan (above)" published in the attached "Manshu Nichi-Nichi Shimbun"Assassination of Hirobumi ItoHe said, "I thought I'd write something to Manshu Nichihi after a long absence last night, and while writing a brush, I admitted a few lines, and Mr. Ito said.HarbinIt is said that it was shot inOutsidersCame.Harbin is the place where I went to see the sights (Kebu) ahead of me, and the Plattform, which is said to have been a public sniper, was actually the place where I pressed the back of my shoes a month ago. In addition to the fact that it is a rare change, I received a strong stimulus from the association of the place. "[51]He wrote, "Political outsiders like me (...) are not qualified to report, so I will keep it at an extremely mediocre letter length (only)." Impressions are spelled out.


Soseki and illness

Soseki tends to get sick as he gets older.tuberculosis,Trachoma,Nervous breakdown,,Diabetes mellitusWas fatalStomach ulcerUntil then, he had many illnesses. In addition to works that directly mention one's own illness, such as "Inside the Glass Door," Dr. Saya, who is "I am a cat," has a weak stomach, and "Meikaku" begins in the scene of hemorrhoid diagnosis. In the novel, there is a depiction of his own illness. There are also many illness-themed phrases, such as "Autumn breeze and a cracked stomach bag."

I couldn't drink alcohol, but despite my weak stomachbeef steak,Chinese cuisineI liked greasy meals such as[Note 12]..LargeSweet toothSo, it was a valuable item at that time during medical treatmentice creamFinally, he ordered a commercial ice cream maker without his family's permission and had a big quarrel with his wife.Started to go around at that timejamHe also liked it, licking it almost every day and being stopped by a doctor.[Note 13].

Frequent flatulence due to weak stomach, but the sound brokeShojiBecause it was just like the sound of the wind blowing on the ground, it became a "shoji".Pay offI have made and used it.

Also, SosekismallpoxI have (smallpox) and my appearanceInferiorityWas holding.However, at that time, photographers often made corrections, and the remaining photographs do not show the traces of "scarring" that Soseki was concerned about.

Psychiatric research subject

Soseki has a memory weaknessdepressionOrschizophreniaIs said to have suffered from[Note 14][52]..This was a member of the elite class at the time, and was the highest grade.IntelliHowever, how it influences Soseki's life and works is what psychiatrists say.PsychobiographyIt is the subject of the above research, and several academic papers on this subject have actually been published.

Soseki and Ogai

As an unwanted youngest childEdoSoseki, who was born in the house of the village head of the town and had a miserable boyhood, is rebellious (CountryIn response to the attitude of rebelling againstTsuwano ClanDoctorRaised by the expectations and affection of the whole family from early on as the eldest son ofMori OgaiUntil deathImperial Japanese ArmyThere is a contrast that he has held the post of national bureaucracy including, and continued to be a human being on the government side.Natsume Soseki says "Margin", Ogai Mori saidParnassianWas called.

However, on the other hand, both of them saidNaturalist literature"Attitude" is wide regardless of the east or west of the ocean while maintaining a clear distance.knowledgeWithliteratureAdvance activities and distortModernizationInValuesEven in the mainstream of Japan, we firmly look at our own recognition and are suitable for the subsequent literary generation.影響Was given.

In addition, Sendagi's mansion, where Ogai spent about a year from 1890 and wrote "Bunzukahi", was where Soseki, who later returned from London, lived for about three years from 1, "I am a cat." It was also the place where I wrote, but now the house isAichiInuyama OfMuseum Meiji VillageRelocated and preserved in[53].


"Soseki in his later years changed his mind after a major illness at Shuzenji," a commentary made by many later critics and researchers.In addition, the phrase "Noritenki I" is widely known as Soseki's own words that express this feeling, and "Kojien] Is also introduced.However, the word "Noritenki I" was not left by Soseki himself in the text, but was written by his disciples, and its meaning is not always clear.

In this regard,Toyotaka KomiyaIt is necessary to scrutinize what he wrote, especially "Natsume Soseki" (1938).[Note 15].

Searching for an academic advisor when studying abroad

British missionary living in KumamotoGrace knotIt is in his diary that he has become friends with his mother and also consults on a traveling ship.[Source required].

Wordplay and coined words

For Soseki's work, change the order,Japanese alphabetな どWordplayYou can see the heavy use of.There are spellings that are different from the commonly used kanji and coined words that have no evidence of being used before Soseki.Currently, there are many general terms such as "romantic" and "many" below,Kanji testOften used as an advanced question.

An example
  • Simple (easy)
  • Laughter (joke)
  • Yagama noisy
  • Outrageous (terrible)
  • Roman
  • Lots (lots)
  • Moon average (Tsukinami)[54]University of Tokyo Reserve GateAlumni of the timesShiki MasaokaBecause the old school called the haiku held on the first day of every month "Monthly Haiku".In turn, it has become established as the meaning of "ordinary and uninteresting".
  • Anbai[55]Usually, it is written as "Shioume" or "Draft".ATOKSuch asword processorEven if it is converted with, it does not appear as a candidate.
  • Retsushiki[56]Usually "violently".In the first place, the source "miner" is usually written as "miner".

It is said that there are some that have become established as a general usage, such as "Rabbit Weapon" (anyway).However, in the days when Soseki lived, many of the letters that are no longer used are used. For example, it is very common to write "bucket" as "horse butt" at that time, and "simple" is the military at that time. Soseki's unique Ateji and wordplay, such as terms, cannot be determined without checking all the materials before Soseki.

It is said that "metabolism," "reflex," "unconsciousness," "value," "electric power," and "stiff shoulders" are coined words of Soseki, but in reality there are examples that are older than Soseki.As an example, Soseki said, "Stiff shouldersThere is a theory that it was made from the end of the 18th century (late Edo period).kabuki,comic bookAn example can be seen in.Although no word that can be academically said to be "Soseki's coined word" has been confirmed, "Romantic" is mentioned in "Education and Literature" in "I made it because there is no appropriate translation." I put it as a principle. "[Note 16].

Chinese poetry

Made by JapaneseChinese poetryInsideFlatEven if it matchesChineseAtToneSome of them are not conscious of it, so it may be difficult to make them excellent Chinese poetry when examined in Chinese.However, Soseki's Chinese poetry is beautiful even if it is examined in Chinese.[57]And,2006In (17), a book with a CD called "Natsume Soseki Han Poetry Selection in Chinese" (Kobunsha) was published.

As a pioneering research book on Soseki's Chinese poetry,Kojiro Yoshikawa"Soseki Poetry" (1967(Showa 42))[58], This was a deep knowledge of SosekiZenIt is said that there are deficiencies such as no annotations regarding the terminology of ("Weekly Reader" Hiroshi Katsumata).Prior to that,1946(Showa 21), son-in-law'sYuzuru MatsuokaIs "Soseki's Chinese Poetry"[Note 17]Is published.2008(Heisei20 years) of the writerYoshikichi FuruiBy "Soseki's Chinese Poetry"[59]Was announced[Note 18]..As annotated from a Zen point of viewRigyō Iida"New translation Soseki poetry collection"[60]There is.Besides, Toshio Wada "Chinese poetry of Soseki"[61]There is. January 2016, 1Nimatsugakusha UniversityAnnounced that it purchased Soseki's handwritten Chinese poetry folding screen from an antiquarian bookstore.The folding screen is folded in two and one pair is 2m1 in length and 1cm in width.As for the content, the scenes of spring, summer, autumn and winter were selected from "Zenrinkushu".[62].


Soseki Yamabo in Wasedaminami-cho was destroyed by air raids during World War II, but most of the autographed materials such as books and diaries were mostly written by Toyotaka Komiya.Tohoku UniversityIt has been moved to the attached library and has been spared from burning.At Tohoku University, it is open to researchers as the "Natsume Soseki Library".In recent years, manuscript paper has deteriorated, so in 2019 we will raise funds to save it as a digital archive.Cloud FundingProcured in[63].

Kanagawa Museum of Modern LiteratureHas released the images of the calligraphy and seals provided by the bereaved family as the "Web version of Natsume Soseki Digital Literature Museum".

Evaluation outside Japan

Compared to its immense fame in JapanWesternAlthough it is not so well known inEnglish-speaking countriesHas translated some of the major works and has earned a certain reputation.

  • 1960 eraTo the BritishAlan TurneyEnglish translation of "Kusamakura" by "The Three Cornered World" Was published.this isカナダPianist'sGlenn GouldBecame a favorite reader, and in his later years he read a part of it on a radio program himself.[64].
  • The United States of AmericaOf criticsSusan SontagIn "Posthumous Life Machado de Asis" (collected in "Writing, About Roland Barthes"), Soseki said, "Another versatile genius whose view of world literature centered on Europe has pushed to the edge. , Natsume Soseki. "
  • The United KingdomCritic2005Translation of "Rinatsuto" "The Tower of London" Was published by SosekiShakespeare,ゲ ー テSoseki is hardly recognized in Europe and the United States such as the United Kingdom after being evaluated as a world-class literary master along withYasunari Kawabata,Mishima YukioIt is said that this is because Soseki does not perceive such "Japaneseness".However, according to Flanagan, Soseki is not only a representative of "Japanese literature", but a world literature that explores the universality of human beings and the mind, and although it is not currently recognized as such, Shakespeare is worldwide. It was the one who got the evaluationLessingAnd Goethe etc.German RomanticsI praise it while quoting that it is largely due to[65].
  • American Comparative LiteratureJay Rubin(Jay Rubin) English translation "Sanshiro A Novel"(University of TorontoA critique of self-writing attached to the publishing office) "SANSHIRO AND SOSEKI: A Critical Essay" IsSanshiro』\ The theory is comprehensive and excellent.Rubin's stance of rigorously quoting and translating the text of Soseki's complete works makes us feel that Soseki is joining the ranks of world literature.Rubin also translates "Digger" into English.

Chugoku-Taiwan- South KoreaWell known, many worksChinese,KoreanTranslated into.In Chinese-speaking countriesZhou ZuorenIt has been loved by many readers since it was introduced by.Soseki's works have been popular in Korea for a long time,1990 eraSince then, it has become particularly popular and has become known as the "Soseki boom."

Discriminatory expression problem in the work

"In the potato" in "Digger"Tadashi"(Meaning the lowest among potatoes) was regarded as a problem, and Kadokawa Shoten made this word a hidden word, but because it was described as" a derogatory term for people in special villages "in the note at the end of the book. On the contrary, it became a problem and was denounced by the Buraku Liberation League in early 1981.[66]..This sword is also inscribed as "Imochu ヽ ヽ" in "Natsume Soseki Complete Works 4" (Chikuma Bunko).

In addition, in March 1994, "Ambassador" in "Bocchan" (School janitor) IsNHK-FM broadcastingI had a problem with the reading time, and after reading aloud the sentence such as "That's why I'm a junior high school ambassador", the announcer made an excuse after the reading.[67]..However, in "I am a cat" from April 1994, "Blindness(Blind""(Bikko, Etc. became a problem, and these words were skipped and read aloud.[67].

Also, Soseki1913から1914OverBanshuSakakoshiA person who claims to be Nono gave me a can of tea and praised the picture of Mt. Fuji.Yoshishi AkoI was asked to write a haiku about[68]..Then Iwasaki repeated the persistent request, "If you don't write, return the tea."[68]..Soseki was amazed at Iwasaki's words and deeds and said, "What is it?JewishBut I don't think there's anything wrong with this, "he asked a man near Banshu to investigate Iwasaki's hometown.Then, the answer was "Sakoshi is a place where there are all the unsealed houses in Banshu."[69][70].

Currently, since the author is a deceased person and a literary work, it is often posted as it is, acknowledging that these are discriminatory terms.Such treatment is often the same for other deceased writers.[Note 19]..In addition, Soseki also has the phrase "Pity to marry to Etadera and the end of the year."[71].

Appointment of a famous illustrator

In the 1980s,Kadokawa BunkoIs popular at the time on the cover of Soseki's series of worksIllustratormanga artist OfWatase SeizoHas been appointed.

Shueisha libraryThen, from 2007, a project to write down the cover illustration of a work that is considered to be a timeless masterpiece by a popular cartoonist has attracted a lot of attention in the sales promotion activity "Natsuichi Fair".HeiseiIt became an opportunity for young people in the world to come into contact with the work[72]..In this project, in 2008,DEATH NOTEI was in charge of drawing such asKen ObataBut"HeartWas appointed as the cover picture of[72].. Also in 2011Higashimura AkikoBut"Bocchan』Cover picture[73],Ryu FujisakiBut"Ten Nights of Dreams-Grass pillow』I'm drawing the cover picture[74][73].

The moon is beautiful

An anecdote that when Soseki was an English teacher, a student translated "I love you." As "I love you." Soseki taught him to romantically translate "The moon is beautiful." There is.However, there is no such story left in Soseki's writings and records, and there is no literature or record that he heard it from Soseki or someone close to him.[75].

A similar story also existed in the late 1970s, where "the moon is very blue."[76]· "The moon is so blue'[77]Is said to have been translated[78] ..The authority is unknown[79], Since it is an anecdote that began to be told around the 1970s, this was a creation by posterity, and now it isurban legendIt is said that[75].

The person who played Natsume Soseki

TV drama

A work depicting Soseki Natsume


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Soseki on a 2003-yen bill with a mourning badge-biography and proof" (Kasama Shoin XNUMX) ISBN-978 4305702548) Says that it is September 9th.
  2. ^ At that time, it was also called Hitotsubashi Junior High School or Hitotsubashi Normal Junior High School, taking the name of the place where the school was located.
  3. ^ CurrentSeiritsu GakuenUnrelated to
  4. ^ Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFromJames MurdochHe was loved by me and was invited to the teacher's house outside the classroom to teach me, "Mr. Murdoch is my teacher .... It's okay if the English people are just like that."Masatsuna NomaI write in a letter to the address and write a testimonial in Murdoch's "History of Japan" (Yuuhiro Hirakawa"Mr. Soseki's Master Murdoch"Kodansha Academic Library 1884).
  5. ^ In a letter to Kano, he wrote, "I felt that the Englishman was stupid while traveling abroad and came back. I still don't know what the Japanese say to imitate the Englishman." ing.
  6. ^ According to Shinroku Natsume's "Father Soseki and its Surroundings", it is as follows.

    The last words of my father who suddenly opened his eyes

    "I want to eat something"
     It was an urgent desire for an appetite that was still unsatisfactory during this period.So, I was immediately given a spoonful of wine at the doctor's discretion,

     My father tasted his last hope in this spoonful of wine and closed his eyes quietly.

  7. ^ He had smallpox there.When I heard it loud, it was said that the smallpox caused the smallpox.He rolled around in the dark sardines.I was disgusted with my flesh and screamed. > "Michikusa" (39)
  8. ^ Kenichiro MogiCollection. "another sky』(Nippon TV) Shown on July 2009, 7. It seems that he bought it for 3 million yen.
  9. ^ There is a description related to "Inside the glass door".
  10. ^ Yoko Matsuoka McClainSon (US citizen) named Soseki the middle name of his son (that is, Soseki's grandson).
  11. ^ Hiroshi KikuchiHe announced "Father Natsume Soseki" (Bungeishunjusha) because he had a close friendship with him.
  12. ^ Whenever the students gather, they surround the sukiyaki.I like sweets such as yokan, soup powder, and cakes, and my favorite was homemade ice cream.He said he was drinking a large amount of chicken soup because of his weak stomach.For some reason, there were many bird gifts.It seems that he once enjoyed the goose cooking at his acquaintance's house with shamo, ducks, mountain birds, pheasants, etc. (Ichiro Kawauchi "Licking Soseki, Jam"Shincho Bunko
  13. ^ There is a description in "I am-" that I licked 1 cans a month.
  14. ^ The doctor insists on the "Soseki non-psychotic theory".The basis of Soseki's theory of mental illness is the medical certificate of nerve weakness issued when he resigned from Fifth High School in Kumamoto, the description of Soseki's words and actions drawn in the recollection of his wife, Kyoko Natsume, "Soseki no Shihide". In the same book, of the Department of Psychosis, University of TokyoShuzo KureHowever, there is a description that Soseki was diagnosed and Kyoko was told that Soseki was ill, but Wu, who also wrote the medical certificate submitted to Goko to resign, is from Torao Suga, who is close to Soseki. A close friend and a family doctor of the Natsume family,Amako ShiroI was also close.It is claimed that the words that Wu persuaded Kyoko, who had returned to her parents' house at that time, at the request of her, had changed to the memory that Soseki was a mentally ill person in Kyoko. He argues that Soseki's psychobiography, which merely cites the description of Soseki's Thoughts, is not academic. "Soseki's Spiritual World" Kenjiro Matsumoto (Author) Kongo Publishing (1981/01) ISBN 4772401377
  15. ^ Hiroshi Yamashita,Toyotaka Komiya's "Natsume Soseki" seen through the first school galleySee.
  16. ^ The earliest example used by Soseki before this was "At the same time, it was a time when Scott's Romantics existed for comics" (Nobun, Chapter 11, January 1907).In the next year's lecture, "The Attitude of the Creator," the terms "romanticism" and "romanticism" are often used.
  17. ^ The first edition is Jujiya Bookstore.41 (Showa XNUMX)1966),Asahi ShimbunReissued in a new edition.
  18. ^ For example, it is said that there is a problem such as not considering the rhyme problem at all.[Source required].
  19. ^ See the end of the novel paperback edition by Soseki Natsume et al.


  1. ^ a b http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11917438jViewed: 10 October 10.
  2. ^ a b SNACViewed: 9 October 10; Notation: Natsume Sōseki.
  3. ^ a b Find a GraveViewed: 9 October 10; Notation: Soseki Natsume; Find a Grave: 2017.
  4. ^ a b Internet Speculative Fiction DatabaseViewed: 9 October 10; Notation: Soseki Natsume; ISFDB Author Identifier: 2017.
  5. ^ Blockhouse EncyclopediaNotation name: Sōseki Natsume.
  6. ^ "Natsume Soseki and Works 3", page 9
  7. ^ "Natsume Soseki and Works 3", page 9
  8. ^ "Natsume Soseki and Works 3", page 13
  9. ^ Junichiro Sako"Natsume Soseki and Nishogakusha", "Nishogakusha 1977 Year History", 289, pp. 291-XNUMX.
  10. ^ I heard that Soseki Natsume was transferred to Hokkaido to escape military service. Is there a book about that? | Reference collaboration database
  11. ^ a b Kumamoto Nichinichi Shimbun compilation "Kumamoto Prefectural Encyclopedia"Kumamoto Nichi-Nichi Shimbun, 1982, page 418
  12. ^ a b "Natsume Soseki and Toyama Sanryo". History side storyKyushu Gakuin 100th Anniversary Historical Materials and Information Center. 2018th of February 9Browse.
  13. ^ Hara Takeshi 2009, p. 6.
  14. ^ March 33, 9, "Government Bulletin" No. 11.National Diet Library Digital Collection Koma 5159"◯ Gakuji ◯ Foreign students from the Ministry of Education, Tokyo Imperial University, Department of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yaichi Haga, First High School, Teisuke Fujishiro, XNUMXth High School, Natsume Kinnosuke, last XNUMX Nikkei Mo Desseri (Ministry of Education) "
  15. ^ [1]Shigeta Saito "Red brick" "Medical art" October 57 issue Mokichi Saito 10th anniversary of birth Reprinted on the website of Tsuboi Clinic (1 Kanda Izumicho, Chiyoda-ku), viewed on November 23, 11
  16. ^ Shigeta Saito "Third generation psychiatrist" Chuko Shinsho Published in 46
  17. ^ "London Soseki Memorial Hall" closed in September Due to Brexit, ahead of schedule
  18. ^ "Soseki Memorial Hall Reopens in London, His Majesty the Emperor's Bookkeeping, etc. Published"Asahi Shimbun Digital (April 2019, 5) Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  19. ^ March 36, 1, "Government Bulletin" No. 28.National Diet Library Digital Collection Koma 5869"◯ Gakuji ◯ International Student Yucho Seri (Ministry of Education)"
  20. ^ "Monument of registered domicile" Iwanai Town homepage
  21. ^ "Natsume Soseki and his works" p. 41
  22. ^ "Soseki Yamabo: Shinjuku Ward". www.city.shinjuku.lg.jp. 2020th of February 11Browse.
  23. ^ Document of decline posted"Returning Doctoral Title" Tokyo Asahi Shimbun February 1911, 2 "Newspaper Collection Meiji Edition Year History. 24th 卷"(National Diet Library Modern Digital Library)
  24. ^ "Official gazetteNo. 3963, "Investiture and Resignation," June 1896, 9.
  25. ^ "Gazette" No. 4885 "Ordinance and Decree" March 1899, 10.
  26. ^ "Natsume Soseki and Works 3", page 9
  27. ^ Sian International Co., Ltd.
  28. ^ Visa TV commercial
  29. ^ Fusanosuke Natsume's "de"? November 2008, 11
  30. ^ Hideo Tsunoda "Miyu Girl's Eyes" (New Review) P.93
  31. ^ Kyodo News September 2002, 12
  32. ^ Matsuoka brush"Japanese Name Dictionary"
  33. ^ "Soseki culture" in modern times ("Japan as a part of the world" Hakuyosha, 1937)
  34. ^ Akira Honda "Soseki Mountains" ("Shincho" 43 (5), May 1946) This paper was requested by the editor of "Shincho" to be written under the title "Soseki Mountains", so strictly speaking. Is the name of the editor.
  35. ^ Seifu Tsuda "Soseki and the Ten Disciples" Unsodo 1974
  36. ^ "As I Remember (22) Master and Disciple and the Tomo Party" ("Complete Works of Shusei Tokuda", Vol. 2001, XNUMX, Yagi Shoten).In the case of autumn leaves, the character of the apprenticeship was strong, such as having the students take turns to take turns at the front door of their home or to make a substitute work.
  37. ^ "About Natsume-sensei" ("Jiro Abe Complete Works", Volume 13, 1962, Kadokawa Shoten)
  38. ^ "Soseki Mountains" Master and Disciple Love "that laid the foundation of modern Japan" (Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 2018)
  39. ^ Tetsuo Nagata "Shirakabaha Study Approaching Soseki", Kochi University Academic Research Report Humanities 17 (10), March 1969, Kochi University
  40. ^ "Soseki Mountains" Master and Disciple Love "that laid the foundation of modern Japan" (Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 2018)
  41. ^ Akiko Sasaki Yaeko Nogami's teacher Soseki's experience Liberal arts and education Common subject research exchange magazine 5 2005 Aichi University of Education
  42. ^ "Japanese Literature Natsume Soseki (32)" Appendix 1966 "About Soseki Mountains" (Chuokoron-sha, September 9)
  43. ^ "Soseki culture" in modern times ("Japan as a part of the world" Hakuyosha, 1937)
  44. ^ "Complete Works of Mushanokoji" Volume 9 "Postscript" (1955, Shinchosha)
  45. ^ Takeshi Nagao"Soseki Mountains" Master and Disciple Love "that laid the foundation of modern Japan" Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 2018
  46. ^ 1993 Edition Complete Works Vol. 25 "Postscript"
  47. ^ Excavation of Soseki's complete works unrecorded essay writer So Kurokawa wrote a novel 1/2 "Sankei Shimbun(January 2013, 1). Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  48. ^ Natsume Soseki "Kanmanshokan" (excerpt) "Sankei Shimbun" (January 2013, 1). Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  49. ^ Born in Japan, I'm glad I was a comparative cultural historian, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo, Sukehiro Hirakawa 1/4 "Sankei Shimbun" (January 2013, 4). Retrieved May 3, 2013.
  50. ^ Born in Japan, I'm glad I was a comparative cultural historian, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo, Sukehiro Hirakawa 2/4 "Sankei Shimbun" (January 2013, 4). Retrieved May 3, 2013.
  51. ^ Natsume Soseki "Kanmanshokan" (excerpt) "Sankei Shimbun" (January 2013, 1). Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  52. ^ "Genius" p.164 Otoya Miyagi Iwanami Shinsho (blue version 621)ISBN 4004120705
  53. ^ Ogai Mori / Natsume Soseki House --Museum Meiji Mura, viewed January 2020, 1.
  54. ^ "I am a cat"Kadokawa BunkoEdition 50 pages
  55. ^ "pedestrian"Kadokawa BunkoEdition 326 pages
  56. ^ "Pit husband"Kadokawa BunkoEdition 80 pages
  57. ^ Hitotsubashi University・ (Jing, Hui) et al.
  58. ^ "Soseki Poetry"Iwanami Shinsho, 1967 (Showa 42).Iwanami libraryNew edition published in.
  59. ^ Iwanami ShotenPublication
  60. ^ "New Translation Soseki Poetry Collection" Kashiwa Shobo,1994(6)
  61. ^ "Soseki's Chinese Poetry" (Bungeishunju / Bungeishunju Library (Bunko), 2016 (28))
  62. ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun』January 2016, 1 26 pages.
  63. ^ Soseki's autograph for posterity!Soseki Bunko Digital Archive Project (Tohoku University Library 2019/11/05 released) - Readyfor
  64. ^ See "Kusamakura Variations-Natsume Soseki and Glenn Gould" and "Soseki and Gould-8 People's" Kusamakura "Concert"
  65. ^ "World literature superstar Natsume Soseki』Kodansha International, 2007
  66. ^ Shigeru Egami"Reviewing Discriminatory Terms" p.81
  67. ^ a b Shigeru Egami"Reviewing Discriminatory Terms" p.124
  68. ^ a b Natsume Soseki "Inside My Glass Doors"
  69. ^ "Soseki Yamabo Roundtable" "Echo" No. 1, April 1914.
  70. ^ Hitoshi Nomachi, Kafu Nagai and the Village Problem, Liberta Publishing, 2012, pp. 74-77.
  71. ^ Complete collection of 1935 edition "Phrase manuscript sent to Shiki Masaoka Part XNUMX December XNUMXth night"
  72. ^ a b "Timeless masterpiece x popular cartoonist! "BLEACH" author draws the cover of "Hell Weird"". ORICON NEWS. ORICON (September 2009, 6). 2018th of February 3Browse.
  73. ^ a b "Akiko Higashimura draws the cover of Natsume Soseki's "Botchan"". Comic Natalie.Natasha Co., Ltd. (February 2011, 6). 2018th of February 3Browse.
  74. ^ "Shueisha: Illustration drawn by a popular cartoonist on the cover of a masterpiece paperback". MANTAN WEB. MANTAN (September 2011, 6). 2018th of February 3Browse.
  75. ^ a b Koki Kawashima"140-character literary masters" Shumei University Press 2020
  76. ^ Yushi Odashima "Shakespeare at a Coffee Shop" Shobunsha, 1978, p. 236
  77. ^ Aritsune Toyota "You can't be a science fiction writer either" Tokuma Shoten, 1979
  78. ^ Niguruta ""The moon is beautiful, you can die" verification"Niguruta's storeroom"
  79. ^ Gifu Prefectural Library "Is there any literature that is the basis for Natsume Soseki's translation of "I love you" as "the moon is beautiful"?"Reference Collaborative Database" National Diet Library, October 2014, 10


1 part ISBN 4106001268, 2nd part ISBN 4106001276, 3nd part ISBN 410600447X, 4nd part ISBN 4106005050, 5nd part ISBN 4106005751, Left a few times (due to the death of the author) and was incomplete.

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