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🧳 | XNUMX prefectures around the torch relay [May XNUMX-] XNUMX routes, famous places and sightseeing spots in Saga prefecture


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XNUMX prefectures around the torch relay [May XNUMX-] XNUMX routes, famous places and sightseeing spots in Saga prefecture

 
If you write the contents roughly
[Saga's obfuscated place name] Kakomachi, Otonabun, Sayano Motomachi ... How many can you read?
 

At the Tokyo 2020 Olympic torch relay, the torch that was inherited in Athens, the capital of Greece, visited 47 prefectures ... → Continue reading

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Obfuscation place name

Obfuscation place name(Nandokuchimei) is difficult to read because it does not read normally.Place nameThat.

JapaneseMainly inJapan OfPlace nameOut of漢字Does not read normally (Obfuscated kanjiA place name that is difficult to read because of).

Reasons for difficulty in reading[1]It is,

  • Notation (spelling,Text) Is different from the general reading (eg,Miyoshi City·Hiroshima)
  • Notation that is not commonly used (complex spelling andCommon kanjiIf you are using a kanji other than (eg,Sosa・ Chiba)
  • If it is easy to misread (eg,Mine City·Yamaguchi Prefecture)

Etc., but it is clearDefinitionNot[1].

Of the many linguistic expressions, it is said that only Japanese has many obfuscated words (in Japan, the "obfuscated place name dictionary" containing only obfuscated place names is published), which is the same.Kanji areaIt has becomeChugoku,Korean PeninsulaBut most use only one reading for one kanji[2].

Overview

In general,Natural languageIn, there is no one-to-one correspondence between pronunciation (reading) and notation (spelling, kanji).IdeographThere are regular notations corresponding to pronunciation as well as languages ​​that usePhonetic charactersEven in languages ​​that use, the pronunciation and notation of words may actually differ.If such a dissociation is significant regardless of whether it is an ideographic character or a phonetic character, it is difficult for a person who does not know the reading of the word in advance to read the word accurately.

Place nameIn the case of, the place name is deeply rooted in the history and culture of the place, and it does not really matter whether or not it is "difficult to read" no matter what notation is understood by the local people.HoweverTransportationExpansion of people's range of action due to the development ofMass mediaWith the spread of, obfuscated place names have been born.That is, depending on the region, the same spelling or kanji may be read differently, or the same sound may be spelled or written differently.dialectThe sound changes depending on the historyKanji other than common kanjiIs an example of guessing.

Japanese obfuscated place name

Examples that tend to be obfuscated place names

When lesser-known characters are used

The characters in this case are almost漢字Limited to manyCommon kanjiIt is a place name that includes outside kanji.Including kanji other than the common kanji means that it cannot be read only by the knowledge acquired in compulsory education, and even if it is the original reading of the kanji, it may be an obfuscated place name.There are quite a few place names that actually use Chinese characters that are used very infrequently, and these are obfuscated place names for many Japanese.However, there are many kanji that are recognized by a relatively large number of Japanese people, even if they are not common kanji, and simply using kanji other than common kanji is not an obfuscated place name.

When the reading of characters is different from the general reading

An example of reading that is not in the usual sound lesson

There are many place names that have not been established as a syllabary for the common kanji, even if they are written only in the common kanji.It can be said that the name of the place is difficult to read even if it includes such a reading, but in reality, there are many readings that are recognized by a relatively large number of the general public.An example is given below (a special reading that often exists only in a specific area is described in another section).dialect,Clerical error,misreadingIs also included in this case[1].

  • "Door" = "he" "be"
  • "Raw" = "O" "Fu" "Bu" "Yu" (including the one in which "Yu" is made into a yoon) "Nyu" "Nari"
  • "Water" = "Mi" "Minna" "Uzu"
  • "Sea" = "Mi"
  • "Sand" = "Sago"
  • "Stone" = "Iwa" "Shi"
  • "Gate" = "to"
  • "Rice" = "Good" "I"
  • "Castle" = "ki"
  • "Department" = "he" "be"
  • "Side" = "he" "pot"
  • "God" = "Kou" "Go" "Kan"
  • "Kan" = "vertical" "date" "tachi"
  • "Role" = "To"
  • "Valley" = "Yatsu" "Yachi" "Ya" (* There are "Gaya" and "Gai" as connection (suffix) forms)
  • "Another" = "Be"
  • "Upper" = "Kan" "Kou"
  • "Gen" = "Kuro"
  • "River" = "Kou"
  • "Fertilizer" = "I"
  • "Hisashi" = "ku"
  • "Minute" = "was"
  • "Deer" = "ka" "ga"
  • "City" = "Chimata"
  • "New" = "Ara" "Nyu"
  • "Three" = "Yes" "Mitsu"
  • "Sai" = "Sai" "Zaki"
  • "Su" = "Zo"
  • "Thick" = "Ah" (Sokuon; not two-tone "Atsu")
  • "Sawa" = "sa"
  • "Small" = "small"
Example of changing sound lessons

There may be "no", "ga", etc. between normal sound lessons (example: ""Amagasaki"=" Amagasaki ","Kakamigahara"=" Kagamigara ","Ichinomiya"=" Ichinomiya ","Shimonoseki"=" Shimonoseki ").There are many cases of obfuscation due to lack of some of the usual sound lessons or changes in reading (eg, ""Owase"=" Let's go ","Kanoya"=" Kanoya ","Yaizu= "Yaizu",Kumochi = "Kumochi").

An example where notation and reading are originally unrelated

As a notation of a place name, not the place name itself, butPillow,name of poem,aliasMay be used[1](Example: "Asuka"=" Asuka ","Yamato"=" Yamato ","Uzumasa"=" Uzumasa ","Eighteen girls"=" Sakari "," Susukino "="Susukino'[3]).

An example of applying kanji to a place name other than Japanese

See belowRyukyu,AinuBesides, there are a fewEnglishThere are also place names with kanji applied to such as (Example: "Smith Island”=“Smithrattan").

However, it is not always difficult to read, and there are many place names that are usually read by applying simple kanji.

An example of reading differently from a well-known word

"Hikoyama(Hikoyama, Hiko-san) ","Hachiman(Hachiman, Yawata, Yawata) "," Meito (Meito,Myodo)”, “Mt. Ooyama(Oyama,Daisen)”, “Kawauchi(Kawauchi,Sendai)”, “Kokufu"(Kokufu, Kokubu, Ko),"Fuchu"(Fuchu,like this), "Kokubu"(Kokubun, Kokufu, Kokubu),"Tomita(Tomi, Tomida,Blown), "Toyama"(Toyama, Tomiyama, Tomi-san), "Toyama"(Toyama, Sotoyama, Tonoyama)," Kobe "(Kobe, Kodo, Goto, Goudo, Kanbe, Kando, Cancer, Gando), etc. However, for a person who knows only one, the other is difficult to read.This was in the Edo periodCovertWidely used as a method of spotting.[Source required]

Special reading by region
  • Honshu-Shikoku-Kyusyu
    Place names that mainly include the meaning of terrainNara period OfWado6 years(713) "The name of the county town is similar to that of China.Good wordThere are many place names that have been replaced with two forcible Ateji characters by the Wado official order, saying "Write with (Yokiji, auspicious characters)", and many of those place names remain.Even readings that were not difficult to read in old languagesDead languageIf the period after becoming is long, the number of people who do not understand the reading will increase, and it may become an obfuscated place name.
    In addition to obfuscated place names, in Kyushu, "hara" is often read as "haru" or "baru" (example: ""Zhongyuan"=" Nakabaru ","Harada"=" Haruda ").In the San'in region, "mountain" is read as "sen" (example: "sen"Mt. Ooyama"=" Daisen ","Ulsan"=" Hiruzen ","Mount Hino"=" Hyo no Sen ").
  • Hokkaido-TohokuNorthern region
    AinuWhen assigning a kanji to a place name that was used as a place name, it is often an obfuscated place name because it is read in a way that is not normally used, or because a kanji that is rarely used and is not well recognized by the general public is used.
    Place name/station name in HokkaidoSee also
  • Okinawa
    RyukyuIt is an obfuscated place name when a unique vocabulary or phonology is used.There are many examples of changing the reading in Japanese style, but it is often called in the old-fashioned way in the field.For more informationList of obfuscated place names in Okinawareference.
    An example
    As in other Kyushu, "hara" is often read as "haru" or "baru" (example: ""Haebaru"=" Harubaru ","Yonabaru"=" Yonabaru ").
    Also, due to a sudden change in the phonology of Ryukyu, it will be an obfuscated place name even if it deviates from the original pronunciation (around 1500) when the Kanji was applied.[4][5].
    An example
    • Nakijin = "Nakijin → Nakijin"
    • Serikyaku = "Zerikaku → Jitchaku"
    • Bin Bin = "Boemo → Bottle"

Place names that would otherwise be obfuscated place names

Even if the condition as an obfuscated place name is satisfied, everyone knows how to read the place name, that is, it is highly recognized as a unique place name and can be read in general.common senseTherefore, some place names are not treated as obfuscated place names.An example of using rare characters is "Shiogama""Gifu""Osaka""Atago""埼 玉(The original reading "Saitama"Is less well known.)" As an example of rare reading, "Sapporo(Sapporo) ""Wakkanai(I don't know) ""Hirosaki(Hirosaki) "" Kobe (Kobe.. Other,"Kanbe" "Goudo"(There is a case to read) "" Oita (Oita..Similarly, "OitaThere is a case of reading ")" "Beppu(Beppu-Befu..There are other rare cases of reading) ""Hakata(Hakata) ”and so on.

In addition, even if the place name is called an obfuscated place name, the residents who have lived in the area for a long time do not think that it is an obfuscated place name, and it is an example that it can be understood only when it is pointed out by an outside person. Not a few.For example, Shotaro Onodera, who was born in Miyagi prefecture and became a famous cartoonist, is from his hometown.Ishinomori TownFor a long time, it was called "Ishinomori Shotaro" after (Ishinomori).Pen nameHowever, from readers and publishers nationwide who do not know how to read Ishimori, "IshimoriSince it was unavoidably called "", the pen name was changed from 30, which marked the 1985th anniversary of its debut.Shotaro IshinomoriThere is an episode that it was changed to "Ishinomori" and finally it was called "Ishinomori" (Shotaro IshinomoriSee item).

List of obfuscated place names in Japan

注 釈

  1. ^ a b c d Tokyodo Publishing "Dictionary of Obfuscated Place Names" 1978 Reprint From one of the legends, selection criteria
  2. ^ Nobuo Yoshida "Adult Learning 24 Review of Kanji" Jiyu Kokuminsha, 2012, p. 146
  3. ^ "Susukino" in the place nameMiscanthusThe kanji notation "thin" is a kanji notation unique to Japan (ChineseThen "Japanese pampas grass)).
  4. ^ Shinichiro Tawada, "Transition of Okinawan Language Thinking by Place Name-For example, until" Zerikaku "(Seijin) becomes" Jichaku "-" Keisuisha, 2012, p. i
  5. ^ "The transition of Okinawan language by place name-for example, until" Zerikaku "(serikyaku) becomes" jichaku "-" pp. 103-110

References

  • Tokyodo Publishing "Dictionary of Obfuscated Place Names" 1978 Reprint

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