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|saturated fatty acid||12.061|
|Monounsaturated fatty acid||58.877|
|16:1 (Palmitoleic acid）||12.981|
|18:1 (oleic acid）||43.755|
|24:1 (Nervonic acid）||0.018|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acid||1.502|
|18:2 (Linoleic acid）||1.296|
|18:3 (α-linolenic acid）||0.206|
MacadamiaSometimes called.The place of origin is Australia.In recent years, the common pronunciation in Hawaii and English, the main production area, has beenMacaDayMiaClose to.The name macadamia named itGermanyFrom AustraliaBotanist(Ferdinand von Müller) Is a friendEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFromAustraliaPeopleChemist() Is a scientific name (Latin style).
The texture is fragile and slightly moist, and the taste is pale.Palm oilAnd seasoned with salt,チ ョ コ レ ー トWrap or crushク ッ キ ー,cakeAs part of the material of.In addition, the oil obtained by pressing macadamia nuts is used as a food material, and is also used as a diluent oil and massage oil in aromatherapy.
Due to its high lipid content, it is the main production area.HawaiiIn rare cases, crushed macadamia nuts are used for emergency lighting.
1858The first farm was built in,1892ToHawaiian KingdomThe history of commercial cultivation in the area began.Because the original species was poor in sweetness and fat content1921ToUniversity of HawaiiAimed for commercial production inBreed improvementResearch began, and after 20 years of efforts, commercialization was successful.In addition, as a result of the Hawaii state government taking tax exemption measures for macadamia nut plantations during this period,1950 eraBy the end of the planted areapineapple,coffee,sugar caneIt overtook the above and ranked first, establishing the foundation as a representative agricultural product of Hawaii.Plants native to the Australian continent are underdeveloped and macadamia nuts are almost the only cultivated plants..
At the same time as aboveJapanese AmericanMamoru Takitani noticed that macadamia nuts and chocolate go well together, and when he tried to commercialize nuts wrapped in chocolate, it became explosively popular.This is the company's chocolate, which is still the most consumed macadamia nut product as of 2014.
The production of macadamia nuts is about 2 tons in the world.Most of them are from Australia and Hawaii.Island of Hawaii,Maui,KauaiThere is a large plantation in such places.As one of Hawaii's representative specialties1970 eraSince then, it has maintained its immovable position, and macadamia nut chocolate, which is canned or bottled salty nuts and nuts wrapped in chocolate.SouvenirPopular as.
- ^ NDL / FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page
- ^ "History of Nuts" p125 by Ken Albala Translated by Miwa Taguchi Original Shobo August 2016, 8 27st print
- ^ Wikipedia English version(As of May 2010, 5) According to the description.米 国Widely used in "Merriam–Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition ”(2003/2009), etc.Macadam pavement methodKnown for inventingEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHuman engineerThe theory that it is named after is wrong.
- ^ "History of Nuts" p126 by Ken Albala Translated by Miwa Taguchi Original Shobo August 2016, 8 27st print
- ^ "World's Edible Plant Culture Picture Book" p245 Barbara Santitch, Jeff Bryant Translated by Norio Yamamoto Hiiragifusha January 2010, 1 20st print
- ^ "History of Nuts" p127 by Ken Albala Translated by Miwa Taguchi Original Shobo August 2016, 8 27st print
As will be described later, some countries may specify standards for "ice cream" products.For exampleJapanThen, with the ice cream with the highest milk solids and milk fat,Ice milk,Lacto iceThe three types are collectively called "ice creams". Contains almost no dairy ingredients and is not creamyFrozen dessertAre often wrapped in ice cream.
Julius Caesar,Alexander III(Great King) is milkhoneyIt is said that he added ice and snow to the drink and drank it.Also, it was originally made in China over 3000 years ago.Marco PoloIs telling. He ate the frozen milk in China,イタリアThere is also a story that I told him.
In the early 16th centuryUniversity of PaduaWas a professor ofMarc Antonius ZimaraA lot of water in room temperaturesaltpeterBy the heat of dissolutionEndothermic reactionAnd found that the temperature of water can be lowered. Also16st centuryBernardo Buontalenti in the middleBernardo Buontalenti, 1536-1608) by adding saltpeter to ice-20℃It was discovered that the temperature dropped to a certain degree.By using this principle, it became possible to artificially freeze foods such as sherbet without using snow or ice... Of course, salt stones can be recovered from the aqueous solution any number of times.
The current prototype of ice cream is in the middle of the 16th century,FlorenceAnd Buon TarentiMediciCreated for homeSemifreddo OfZucotIt has been.FranceOrleans Hou Henri (laterHenry IV) Was marriedMedici familyCaterina de' Medici, French name:Catherine de Medicis(Catherine de Médicis), 1519-1589) is said to have brought it to France with a confectioner.But,米 国New York UniversityLaura Weiss says the story is groundless.
1686 years,SicilyThe native Francesco Procopio di Cortelli (Francois Procorp, French name)ParisでCafe"Le ProcorpOpened in 1720, Sicilian frozen dessertGranitaThe "glace à la chantilly", which is an arrangement of the above, is on sale. this isWhipped creamFrozen frozen desserts and is considered the first example of the commercial success of ice cream.
The United KingdomIn 1624, Catherine's grandsonHenriette Marie Charles I(1625-1649) when I marriedGelato(Ice cream) It is said that it was transmitted with a craftsman. It was made at the banquet of Charles I by the French chef De Milleo and was said to have been highly prized. Charles I kept his ice cream recipe secret, and in return for providing ice cream only to the king, he spent his entire life as an ice cream craftsman.pensionThere is a legend that gave. However, this anecdote did not appear in the literature before the 19th century, and is said to have been created by selling ice cream. In addition, even in this era, ice cream has hardly used dairy products yet,meringueIt was similar to sherbet using.
Dissemination in the world
Early ice cream is coldbowlIt was very difficult to manufacture because it was made by hand in the. Inventions to improve this were mainly transmitted to the ice cream by immigrants in the 18th centuryThe United States of AmericaMade in.1846Hand-held by a housewife named Nancy Johnson of AmericacrankA stirrer of the type was invented.1851ToMarylandBaltimore CityDairy shop has created the world's first ice cream factory to handle excess cream. After this, the ice cream will be clearly divided into mass-produced products and raw confectionery. The United States is active in mass production of ice cream. on the other hand,1867ToGermanyWhen the ice machine was invented infrozenTechnology anddairyWith the development of, the age of factory production of ice cream has emerged.
Prohibition LawIn the United States of the era (1920-1933), it replaced bars as a social gathering place for people.Soda fountainIce cream has become very popular as it was offered at.beerA major company that can no longer sellBreweryBut ice cream production has begun. From 1916 to 1925, the American population increased by approximately 15%, while ice cream consumption increased by 55%.It was also advertised as a health food.I-Scream Bars (later)),,PopsicleIt was also during this period that various ice cream sticks and popsicles were invented and popularized. When Prohibition was abolished in 1933, the reopening of the bar made ice cream a little less popular, but it remained a national favorite.Second World WarInU.S. ForcesHowever, it is supplied in large quantities to improve the morale of the soldiers and specializes in the manufacture and transportation of ice cream.Ice cream bargeWas also procured.
2015During the summer months, hundreds of stores in Italy held a project called "Reserved Ice", which provided free ice to children in poor families. It was devised by an NGO called Salvamamme, which is a system in which a purchaser who agrees with the purpose pays two charges. Same countryNaplesIt is said to have originatedCafe Sospezo(Prepaid for others' coffee).
The consumption of ice cream by country varies depending on the statistical body and method, but according to a survey by Euromonitor, the country with the highest annual consumption per capita isAustraliaIs 19.3 liters of.
Spread in Japan
JapanThe first ice cream1869(Meiji2 years)6(In the old and new calendars7), Fuzo Machida, who was a member of the US Mission, learned the manufacturing method from Matsuzo Dejima, who had traveled to the United States,Yokohama OfBashamichi StreetIt was manufactured and sold at the "Hyomizuya" that opened in Japan.. "AisukurinIt was a very expensive item, and the price for a single person was 2 minutes (current value is about 8000 yen). The raw material is raw milk,sugar,egg yolkIt is very simple, and this is currently "custardIt is also called "ice". According to the "Yokohama History Magazine," it was in the red in the 2st year of the Meiji era and was temporarily closed.GuardianIseyama Emperor Grand ShrineIt was said that the festival was reopened at the time of the founding festival, and due to the bustling of the festival and the sunshine in the early summer, "it was extremely prosperous and the failure of the previous year was recovered". It is "Ice Cream Day"May 5Is generally said to be the first day to manufacture and sell ice cream in Japan, but there is no such description in the "Yokohama History" (date itself is the Japan Ice Cream Association1965(ShowaIt is a formal one established in 40 years).Dejima MatsuzoEmperor Meiji"Aisukurin" is being donated to. This ice creamMount FujiAt the footIce holeas well as the Hakodate(Hokkaido)ofNatural iceIt is written by himself that it was manufactured using. later1899(Meiji 32) June,TokyoGinza OfShiseidoBut it was on sale and became a popular menu.After that, the industrial production of ice cream will start in Japan.Taisho9 years.
Of ice cream in Japan2006(HeiseiThe domestic sales amount of domestic and imported products is estimated to be 18 billion yen (according to the Japan Ice Cream Association).home,Morinaga Milk Industry 12.5%,Ezaki Glico About 12.0%, Haagen-Dazs Japan 11.8%,Meiji dairy industry10.5%, Lotte9.8%, other (Kanebo (now Kracie),Akagi dairy industry,Ohayo dairy industry,SentanManufacturers such as) 43.4% (Nihon Keizai ShimbunEstimate).
The manufacturer's shipment value of ice cream and frozen desserts compiled by the association reached a record high of 2020 billion yen in FY0.9, up 5197% from the previous year.Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionBelow, it seems that eating and drinking at home and consumption of nesting were affected..
Place of origin
Dairy products are roughly dividedMilk fatCalled the source,fatSources other than, are classified as those that include both. As a source of milk fat, fresh cream orUnsalted butterThere is. Unsalted butter is cheaper,fermentationThe odor can be a drawback. As a source of milk solids other than fat,Skimmed milk powderI have a hurt. These too can suffer from their characteristic odor. Including bothmilk,Concentrated milk, There is.In addition, for the purpose of manipulating the fat content, the milk fat separated during the preparation of skim milk powder may be added.Usually, "milk" ismilkBut rarelyGoat,sheepThere are some types of milk, so it is a misunderstanding to interpret it as milk.
The milk fat content and the volume ratio have a great effect on the properties of the finished ice cream.If the milk fat content is high, the texture will be smooth, but if it is too high, it will be difficult to contain air and it will be hard.Non-fat milk solids are milkprotein,lactose,mineralAnd so on. To tasteRichTo make it easier to contain air, but if too much is added lactoseCrystallizationThen it has a rough texture.
Add sugar to sweeten the ice cream. Ice cream tastes cold, so it is less sweet. So for the ice cream mixSucroseIf so, add it at a fairly high ratio of around 15%. Other than sucroseGlucose,Isomerized sugar,SyrupEtc. are used. The flavor of ice cream changes depending on its sweetness and physical properties. For example, glucose has the effect of providing a refreshing feeling. Sugar other than starch syrupFreezing point depressionPrevents ice cream mix from freezing. This has the effect of strengthening the taste of milk, but it is important to adjust the amount because the ice cream tends to melt.
It is used to supplement ice milk and lacto ice with fat. In addition, for products that reduce raw material costs and are conscious of health,Vegetable oilIs used (Ice cream is prohibited except for milk fat). This is an oil and fat that is solid at around room temperature like a milk fat content and becomes a liquid at a temperature around body temperature. In addition, it is necessary that the oil/fat itself does not have a peculiar odor. Vegetable oils that meet these conditionsCoconut hardened oil,Palm oil,Cottonseed oilAnd so on.PolyphenolAn ice cream that does not lose its shape even at room temperature has been developed by using the technology that prevents the separation of water and fats..
- For solid milk protein, use ice cream when frozengelIt has the function of converting and retaining air to keep ice crystals fine.However, this function cannot be expected with ice milk or lacto ice, which has a low milk solid content.In addition, if the temperature fluctuates during the transportation or storage of ice cream, some ice crystals will melt and refreeze, causing the ice crystals to grow and give a hard texture (heat shock). ).Stabilizers are used to prevent this.In the old daysStarch,gelatinWas used, but nowPectin,Sodium alginate,Gum arabicAlso used.Haagen-DazsIs not used in principle, so be careful when handling.
- Since milk solids have an effect as an emulsifier to some extent, it is possible to make a uniform ice cream without adding an emulsifier especially in a large amount of ice cream. However, it is necessary to add an emulsifier because ice milk or lacto ice having a low milk solid content is insufficient.
- However, an emulsifier may be added to ice cream. It is said that the function of the emulsifier in this ice cream is different from the normally expected surface-active effect, and on the contrary, it is to appropriately destroy the emulsification at the time of freezing so that the oil droplets of milk fat grow large. This makes the ice cream texture less watery.Glycerin fatty acid ester,Sucrose fatty acid ester,lecithinEtc. are used.
- Due to the trend of the time when natural materials were sought, these additives often came from food.
- Ice cream is given a flavor (flavor) that matches the taste of milk.vanilla,チ ョ コ レ ー ト,strawberryThree kinds offlavorWas the main, but now otherfruitAndMatcha,coffeeThe number of products with the flavor of favorite beverages such as is increasing. Milk flavors are also used in ice milk and lacto ice to supplement the taste of milk.
Ice cream manufacturingMixing of raw materials, emulsification, sterilization, cooling, aging, freezing, hardeningConsists of.
- Mixing raw materials
- Mix the ingredients and completely dissolve to make an ice cream mix. It is performed by heating around 60℃.
- Finely crush the oil droplets in the ice cream mix to a uniform state. Usually, emulsification is performed twice. The first emulsification is performed at high pressure, and the diameter of the oil droplets is reduced to 2 µm or less. At this point some oil droplets are stuck together. The second emulsification is carried out at low pressure and the oil droplets are broken up and dispersed.
- Besides sterilizing the bacteria in the ice cream mix, it also has the function of deactivating the enzymes contained in the milk ingredients.酵素This is because the oil and fat will be decomposed and odor will be emitted if the activity of is left. Industrially, since batch sterilization performed in a tank takes time to cool and deterioration of quality is likely to occur, a continuous flow type high temperature instantaneous sterilization method is used.
- Immediately after sterilization, the ice cream mix is refrigerated and stored for a while. During storage, the emulsifier is sufficiently adsorbed on the surface of the oil droplet, and the fat in the oil droplet is solidified. This affects the retention of air during freezing.
- Introduce ice cream mix and air into the freezer, and quickly cool it to a temperature of about -2 to -9°C and freeze it. By freezing rapidly with vigorous stirring, air is frozen while being trapped in the ice cream as air bubbles, and the texture unique to ice cream is obtained. The ratio of the volume of air taken in to the volume of ice cream mix is called overrun. A suitable overrun depends on the composition of the ice cream mix, but if it is too low, the texture becomes too hard and too cold, and if too much, it becomes dull. The faster the freezing speed, the finer the ice crystals and the smoother the texture of ice cream. By this freezing, about 50-80% of the water content in the ice cream is frozen. The soft serve ice cream was prepared by taking out ice cream at this point.
- Fill the container with ice cream from the freezer, cool it to below -20°C, and freeze most of the remaining water. This is the freezing temperature of the freezercrystalThis is because the melting and growth of ice gradually cause the ice crystals to coalesce to give a rough texture, and the bubbles coalesce to become non-uniform.
Classification by ingredient standard
Ice cream is classified according to the ingredient standard.
Ice creams and frozen desserts in Japan are "Ministerial Ordinance on Standards of Ingredients for Milk and Dairy Products(Ordinance of the Ministry of Milk, etc.) and "Fair competition agreement regarding the display of ice cream and frozen desserts" Are classified by. The following ice creams are classified as dairy products by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Milk, etc.
|Ice cream||ice cream||Milk solids of 15.0% or more by weight, of which milk fat is 8.0% or more||Concentrated milkOr useRaw milkBased onFresh creamTo mix or match the classification of "ice cream"Milk fatMay be adjusted.|
|Ice milk||Milk solids of 10.0% or more by weight, of which milk fat is 3.0% or more|
|Lacto ice||Weight percentage of milk solids of 3.0% or more||What is lactoLatinMeans "milk".It has less milk solids than ice milk and gives the flavor of ice cream.Vegetable oilIn the case of a product supplemented with fat by mixingcalorieCan be higher than ice cream or ice milk.|
|Frozen dessert||Frozen sugar solution or a liquid obtained by mixing it with other foods, or crushed edible ice, mixed with sugar solution or other foods and re-frozen, which is to be served in frozen form||shaved iceSuch. The distinction from ice cream is due to the ratio of the ingredients,sherbet,PopsicleEven if dairy products are used as raw materials, etc., they are classified as frozen desserts depending on the ratio.|
* BothFood Sanitation ActIt is said that it must comply with the standards based on.
It should be noted that from many years of research, the temperature of ice creamBelow freezingIt is known that the original state hardly changes at 25°C or lower,Japan Ice Cream AssociationRecommends that you store ice cream in a factory freezer or commercial freezer for a long time at 25°C below freezing, and at least 18°C below freezing until you store it at a retail store and store it at home... It is premised that the product is stored below 18°C below freezing point, and if it is stored at an appropriate temperature, the quality change is extremely small, but if it is not properly controlled, it will deteriorate and will not return to its original state. Management is important. Therefore, in JapanExpiration Soon,Expiration dateIs not obligatory.
US Food and Drug AdministrationAccording to the rules of ice cream, milk solid content is 20% or more,Milk fatIt is said to include 10% or more per minute. Milk fat 6% or more,protein2.7% or moreMerolinIt is called (Mellorine). Previously, ice milk was classified as having less milk solids and milk fat than ice cream, but it is now abolished.
Classification by product type
Ice cream is classified as follows depending on the product type.
- カ ッ プ
- Ice cream cups are roughly divided into paper and resin, and are sealed with lids and stickers..
- Some stick type ice cream sticks are made of wood or resin... The method of making stick type ice cream is divided into mold type and extruded type..
- Monaca (Ice Monaca)
- In the middleUsing dough (monaca skin) as an edible container.
- Ice cream cone
- Can eatconeThe shape of the saucerIce cream cone(Ice cream cone) or simply cone. In Japanese, the katakana notation is the same, so it is often mistaken, but the name corn comes from the shape, and the raw material iscornNot (corn)Wheat flourIs. CurrentlyFour cornersCone-shaped, smalltartSome of them have a dough-like shape, and a container with an open top made of wheat flour is generally called a corn, including such a non-conical one. There is also a waffle cone made by baking the waffle dough hard.
- The inventor of the corn is unknown. The first bibliography about this isMrs. AB Marshall's Cookery Book(1888). Marshall is known as a person who has made various innovations in the ice cream manufacturing method, and there is also the possibility of her invention. This cup is1904 OfSt. Louis World's FairUsed by the ice cream seller of, it spread all over the world at once.
- At ice cream specialty stores and the like, a cone stand is used to store the cone at the time of sale, and at the time of sale, a cone-shaped paper (sleeve) may be attached to the lower end of the cone. In addition, caps made from baked flour dough may be used as accents in soft ice cream.
- Bite type -So that you can eat in one biteチ ョ コ レ ー トThose coated with.
- Sandwich type
- Stickless bar type
- Decoration type
- Handy container type -Using a pouch container with spout
Classification by sales form
Ice cream has the following sales forms.
What is sold in units of one is called a single pack.convenience storeIce cream packaged in single servings is sold at stores and supermarkets. The form of the product is cup ice in a paper or plastic cup, potion ice that is sealed and packed in a plastic container so that each dish can be easily taken out, ice cream in a plastic container (pouch container), It takes the form of an ice bar with ice cream on a stick such as wood.
A multi-pack is a set of slightly smaller ice creams... It is sold in the form of individual packs of individually packed ice cream (multi-ice, family pack, boxed ice).
Home type is a large container or cake type that is placed on a plate or cut into pieces..
supermarket,convenience storeSells ice cream (bulk ice) in large round or square plastic or paper containers. A few liters of ice cream is filled in a container, and it is eaten separately from the container. To a representative brand,Haagen-Dazs,Lady bodenand so on.
A large container filled with about 2-10 liters of ice cream for restaurants, fast food restaurants, hotels, coffee shops, etc..
At coffee shopsvanillaSometimes there is only ice cream, but some restaurants also offer desserts that are a combination of ice cream platters and other foods such as fruits. It is common for these restaurants to serve ice cream on some plate or bowl.
There are stores that specialize in ice cream, and such stores are often national, international, or wide-area chain stores. To the representativeBaskin Robbins(The brand in Japan is "XNUMX Ice Cream"),Haagen-Dazs, Hobsons,Blue sealand so on. These stores offer a wide variety of flavors of ice cream,corn,waffle, A paper cup or the like is used. These ice creams can be taken home as well as eaten in the store.
Below are the main ice cream parlors.
- Baskin Robbins(XNUMX ice cream)
- Daily Queen
- Ben & Jerry's
- Cold Stone Creamery
- Pierre Marcolini
- Lady boden
- Blue seal ice cream(Big dip)
- Rainbow hat
In the case of outdoor sales such as stalls, when sharing one meal (ice cream,sherbet), individually packaged (ice lolly), when making one serving on the spot (shaved ice), etc. As an example,AkitaSpecialtyBabaheraAnd so on.
Provision of ice cream
- A special tool that allows you to easily put ice cream on a cone or bowl.
- Ice cream glass
- A special glass used for serving ice cream for desserts at meals.
- Ice cream spoon
- A spoon dedicated to ice cream. In addition to metal spoons, there are also disposable wooden spoons wrapped in paper bags.
- Documentary "" Series 4th "Ice Cream" (History channel）
- Documentary "Contemporary Wonders" series 454th "Ice Cream" (History Channel)
- Movie "" (Original:)
- Movie "" (original title:The Freshman,1925(Taisho 14))-Silent comedy movie actorHarold LloydA comedy movie about a young country-playing youngster who plays a role in becoming a student at a university where he goes to become a student.
- Movie "" (original titleThe Stuff,directed by:Larry Cohen,1985-A fluid parasite from outer space (similar in appearance and taste to ice cream) skillfully attracts and uses the Earthlings who have taken over the body through successful oral intake, making it a national ice cream chain. An alien invader panic movie in which the store is disguised and the invasion proceeds.
- song"Song of ice cream] (Lyrics:Yoshimi Sato, Composition:Koichi Hattori,1960(Showa35 years))- ABC RadioWas broadcast inNursery rhyme.1962(Showa37 years)NHK"Everyone's song] Was broadcast on.
- ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
- ^ Tell me! What is the difference between Ice Cream Prince/Ice Cream and Lactic Ice? Japan Ice Cream Association (viewed November 2018, 11)
- ^ a b c d e f "Milk Encyclopedia" edited by S. Kaminogawa (Asakura Shoten, 2009) p.126
- ^ Laura Weiss "History of Ice Cream" Translated by Takeda Yen,Hara Shobo<Sweet Library>, 2012.ISBN 978-4562047857.
- ^ "Thanks, Prohibition! How the Eighteenth Amendment Fueled America's Taste for Ice Cream". Perspectives on History. 2021/8/14Browse.
- ^ Prepaid for someone, "pending ice cream" Italy AFPBB News(2015 8 年 月 日 1)
- ^ "Cold goodwill" = free ice for children of poor families-Ita". Rome AFP =Current events(November 2015, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 8.
- ^ "Annual consumption per capita in countries around the world”. Japan Ice Cream Association. 2019/8/22Browse.
- ^ Ice Cream Japan Old Story Shinshu University Akiyoshi Hosono p33
- ^ "The highest sales of ice cream and frozen desserts, the demand for home-cooked meals increased in FY20" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』April 2021, 7 9 pages
- ^ Increased production of "insoluble ice cream""Nikkei Sangyo ShimbunSeptember 2018, 9 (food, daily necessities, services) and "Nikkei MJ』October 2018, 10 (convenience store food side) / viewed November 1, 2018
- ^ "Let's make ice cream”. Mie Prefectural Education Center. As of November 2003, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/12/20Browse.
- ^ "Fair Competition Code and Fair Competition Code Enforcement Rules for Labeling Ice Cream and Ice Cream". Japan Ice Cream Association. 2016/10/6Browse.
- ^ Ice cream and temperature control Japan Ice Cream Association
- ^ 5. Shelf life Japan Ice Cream Association
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shuichi Uenogawa, "Encyclopedia of Milk," p.127, Asakura Shoten, 2009
- Ice cream truck
- shaved ice
- Ice Manju
- Soft cream
- Ice screen
- Ice cream girl.
- Namco Namjatown -There is an ice cream food theme park "Ice Cream City" in the park.
- Related pain -Headaches caused by eating cold things such as ice creamIce cream headache".
- Hojo rice -There is an ice cream called Hojo rice scream that uses rice.
- tempura -There is tempura that uses ice cream as seeds.
- Japan Ice Cream Association