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State of Hawaii
Moku ʻāina ʻo Hawai ʻi
Hawaii State FlagHawaii State Mark
(State flag(State emblem)
State nickname: Aloha State
The Aloha State
Location of Hawaii
State capitalHonolulu
Largest cityHonolulu
GovernorDavid Ige
Official terminologyHawaiianEnglish
 - Grand total
 -Water area
43th in the US
28,311 km²
16,638 km²
11,672 km² (41.2%)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
40th in the US
72.83 people/km²
Join US
 -Date of subscription

1959May 8
Time zoneUTC -10 (Hawaii Aleutian Standard Time
STD None
latitudeNorth latitude 18° 55'-29°
longitudeWest longitude 154° 40'-162°
East-west widthN/A km
North-south length2,450 km
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

4,205 m
925 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-HI
WebsiteHawaii State Government
SenatorBrian Scharts
Mazzy Hirono

Hawaii(British: State of Hawaii [həˈwaɪ.i] ( Audio file) ,Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi[1]) IsThe Pacific Oceanに 位置 す るHawaiian IslandsIt is inThe United States of America OfState.State capitalIn oahuHonolulu cityIs. It is the last member of the 50 states of the United States.漢字Then write "Fu". Established as a sea areaMicronesiaIt is also the northern end of.

Island of Hawaii,Maui,Oahu,Kauai,Molokai,Lanai,Niihau Island,Kahoolawe IslandOf the 8 islands and over 100 islets of the Hawaiian Islands,Midway AtollAll islands except Hawaii belong to Hawaii.Northwest Hawaii IslandsIt stretches 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the northwestern edge of the island to the Hawaiian island at the southeastern end of the Hawaiian Islands. It is the only state in the United States that consists entirely of islands.

Mainland usaSouthwest ofJapanSoutheast of,AustraliaLocated northeast of and in the center of the Pacific Ocean, geographically and ethnically closePolynesiaConsists of the northernmost archipelago. Its natural diverse landscape, warmTropical climateSurrounded by abundant public beaches and the ocean, andactive volcanoIts activities make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists and volcanologists.JapanMost popular overseasResortOne of the ground. In addition to its unique culture, being in the center of the Pacific Ocean,North America,AsiaIs also affected by many. With a population of over 130 million people,U.S. ForcesMilitary personnel are staying.

Languages ​​spoken at home (Hawaii) 2010
Excluding HawaiianPacific languages
Race Composition (Hawaii) 2010
Native Hawaiian・Pacific Islands
イ ン デ ィ ア ン

Origin of the state name

Hawaiian Hawaiʻi Is a primitive Polynesian Sawaiki It is derived from and is meant to mean "homeland"Internal reconstructionHas been[2].HawaiʻiSynonymIs polynesianMaori language(Hawaiki),Rarotonga(ʻAvaiki)andSamoa(Savaiʻi).

According to linguists Pukui and Elbert[3], Anywhere in Polynesia,Hawaiʻi Or its synonyms are names of underground world or ancestral homes, but have no meaning in Hawaii[4].



Hawaiian IslandsThe reason why humans have immigrated to4st centuryから8st centuryAround[5]And Te Henua Enana in the south (Marquesas Islands) Is believed to be from. It is believed that the catamaran voyage canoe was used during this time.Star navigationIt is a navigation technology widely used in the remote Oceania area. By the way, the theory that immigration to Hawaii was done from Te Henua EnanaBishop MuseumJapanese researcher to which he belongs,Yoshihiko ShinoenThe basis of Dr.'s "Fishing hook year research"[6].

Kingdom of Hawaii

  • 1778:Englishmancaptain CookThe contact with the white people began when the ship arrived.
  • 1794: About 400 foreigners were in Hawaii, which was called the "Sandwich Islands" in Europe at that time, of which 30-40 were of Chinese descent[7].
  • 1795 : Kamehameha I(Great King) uses the firearms brought in by the white people, unifying the Hawaiian Islands where the three kingdoms were separated,Hawaiian KingdomEstablish a country.
  • 1802: Chinese begin sugar cane cultivation with permission from King Kamehameha[8].
  • 1820 : Kamehameha IUnder the control of manyMissionary AmericaImmigrated fromキ リ ス ト 教Culture is settled in Hawaii. Also by AmericanPlantationfarmLand acquisition for
    • It is still a Hawaiian woman's formal wearMu MuSaid that a Hawaiian woman who used to be shirtless in the past was popularized by missionaries because she was “indecent” in Christianity.It is said.[Who?]
  • 1840: Promulgate the constitution,Constitutional monarchyBecomes
  • 1843 : The United Kingdom(UK) declares possession of Hawaii.
  • 1849 : FranceDeclares possession of Hawaii. The fierce rivalry over Hawaii becomes fierce.
  • 1850: Systematic immigration from China begins.
  • 1868(MeijiFirst year): From YokohamaJapanese immigrant148 people moved to Hawaii. This is a traderEugene Van ReedWas an immigrant due to[9].. The Meiji government has not officially acknowledged this, and immigrantspassportThey didn't even have it, so to speak, it was an illegal state, and it should have been a smuggling country. The immigrants at this time are later called the "first year people."
  • 1871 : Treaty of Amity and CommerceConclude.
  • 1881 : Kalakaua KingCame to Japan.Emperor MeijiAnd a formal immigration agreement with the Japanese government. For Japan, the Hawaiian dynastyInequality treatyHe was the first foreign state guest to make a revision.[10].. At this time, King Kalakaua, who was in danger of political and economic invasion of the United States,KaiulaniWith the princessYamashina shrine(AfterHigashifushimi Miyai Hitoshi) WithPolitical marriageBy the Hawaiian royal familyJapanRoyal familyHe proposed to strengthen relations with the United States and a federal system, but was rejected by the Japanese government, which feared worsening relations with the United States.
  • 1882: Chinese exclusion law[11]Was established in the United States. following year(1883) Goes through Congress.
  • 1885:firstImmigrationTravels from Japan to Hawaii.
  • 1886: Influx of Chinese immigrants due to contract labor almost stops[12].
  • 1891: After the death of King Kalakaua,LiliuokalaniThe queen is the throne.

US merger

  • 1893:LiliuokalaniWhen the Queen showed a move to abolish the inequality treaty with the United States,MarinesWith the support of 160 people, a coup d'etat was launched, and the government was defeated and a "temporary government" was established. The queen is arrested by Iolani Palace. At this time, Japan received a request from the royal group, and because of protection of Japanese peopleHeihachiro TogoLeading warship "Naniwa”2 other ships dispatched to Hawaii, moored at Honolulu military port and threatened coup force[13].. Japanese residents in Hawaii were also sympathetic to the Queen's supporters. The “temporary government” calls for the annexation of the United States, but the president immediately after taking officeGlover cleveland(At that time) is reluctant to expand overseas and refuses to merge. After all, Cleveland did not annex Hawaii during his term of office.
  • July 1894, 7: The extraordinary government, which decides that it will take some time for the annexation by the United States to issue a new constitution.Republic of HawaiiDeclared. Became presidentSanford DollBecame the first and last president of the Republic of Hawaii.
  • January 1895, 1: President ClevelandSubmarine cable US CongressSent a message to. The beginning was a request from the British government to the Hawaiian government that "I would like to rent an uninhabited island in Hawaii as a relay point for the cable connecting Canada and Australia." After negotiations between the Anglo-American governments have been completed and a draft agreement has been drafted, President Cleveland has asked the US Congress for approval.[14]The US Congress, which it thought should be laid by itself, silenced.
  • January 1895, 1: Hawaiian royal army uprises, but is quickly crushed and massacred. Queen Liliuokalani was arrested and imprisoned for supporting the armed uprising. Completely take over Hawaii after the atrocities of the natives.
  • January 1895, 1: The kingdom of Hawaii is destroyed due to the abolition of Queen Liliuokalani.
  • 1898 8 Month 12 Day:US-West WarThe United States, which recognized the geopolitical importance of Hawaii in[15], Republic of Hawaii annexed, US dominionHawaii Territory(Territory of Hawaii). The US President (at that time) pushed imperialism policies in contrast to his predecessorWilliam McKinleyIs. After that, Hawaii became the base of the American Pacific rule,OahuPearl Harbor (Pearl HarborThe Great Naval Base was built inUS Navy Pacific FleetThere is a base).
  • 1920: Second Great Strike on Oahu. Japanese workers were also active in uniting with Filipino workers[16].. It is said that this was a factor in the formation in the United States[17].
  • 1924:Japanese Immigration LawDue to the enforcement of, the immigration from Japan became impossible. The number of Japanese immigrants to date has reached approximately 21.[18].
  • December 1941, 12 (December 7, Japan time):Japanese NavybyAttack on Pearl HarborIs performed (Pacific War(Great East Asian War) The open war).
    • Live all over the United States shortly after the warJapanese AmericanAnd the JapaneseConcentration campHowever, Japanese-Americans and Japanese living in Hawaii were not held in concentration camps, except for a few representatives of the Nikkei community, such as the president of the Japanese Association and monks. However, at this time, systematization of Japanese Americans was planned systematically.[19].
    • Born and raised in Hawaii, many American-Citizen Japanese-American youth volunteers to volunteer to show loyalty to their homeland. They were organized only by Nikkei in HawaiiArmy 100th BattalionLater joined the Japanese American troops in the mainland US442nd RegimentThen, in exchange for a lot of sacrifices on the European front, it made a remarkable struggle. Their fight impressed many Americans and helped improve the status of Nikkei in Hawaii and post-war American society.
    • In addition, a special dollar bill that is distributed only in Hawaii during the war, fearing landing and occupation by the Japanese army (en) Was used[Source required].
  • August 1959, 8: Promoted to the 21th US state[20], Full-scale resort development begins.


Hawaii isア ラ ス カ 州Along withMainland usaIt is one of the two states located outside the United States and is the only state not located on the continent of North America, surrounded by the sea on all four laps, and熱 帯It is also the only state located in a rural area.Hawaii islandCape KaraeIs located at the southernmost tip of Jeonju (the southernmost tip of the mainland isFlorida OfFlorida Keys(English edition.Polar regions of the United Statesreference. ).It is about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) southwest of the continental United States.

The land area of ​​the state isKilauea volcanoHighly liquid溶岩The area is continuing to increase as the water flows out. The Hawaiian Islands are eight islandsAtollThe extension extends over a distance of 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers). Of the archipelago, eight large islands are considered "main islands" and are located in the southeastern part of the archipelago. These islands are from northwest to southeast,Niihau Island,Kauai,Oahu,Molokai,Lanai,Maui,Kahoolawe Island,Island of HawaiiAre listed in order.

Northwest Hawaii Islands TheNihoaからKure IslandIt consists of nine small islands and is part of an ancient volcanic belt. BesidesMolokiniThere are more than 100 reefs and islets[21].

The main island is not the largest island of Hawaii, but the largest city in the state capitalHonoluluThere is Oahu.

8 major islands in the Hawaiian Islands
Island nameNicknameCoordinatearea
(my2/ km2)
Highest pointelevation
(ft/ m)
Population (people)
The population density
(People/mi2, Person/km2)
Island of Hawaii[22]1/Big island19 ° 34'N 155 ° 30'W4,028.0 mi2
(10,432.5 km2)
Mauna care13,796 ft
(4,205 m)
185,0790045.948 people/mi2
(17.7407 people/km2)
Kauai[23]2/Garden island22 ° 05'N 159 ° 30'W0552.3 mi2
(1,430.5 km2)
Kawakini05,243 ft
(1,598 m)
66,9210121.168 people/mi2
(46.783 people/km2)
Kahoolawe Island[24]3/Target island20 ° 33'N 156 ° 36'W0044.6 mi2
(115.5 km2)
Pumoura Uranui01,483 ft
(452 m)
Lanai[25]4/Pineapple island20 ° 50'N 156 ° 56'W0140.5 mi2
(363.9 km2)
Lanai Halle03,366 ft
(1,026 m)
3,1350022.313 people/mi2
(8.615 people/km2)
Maui[26]5/Canyon island20 ° 48'N 156 ° 20'W0727.2 mi2
(1,883.4 km2)
Haleakala10,023 ft
(3,055 m)
144,4440198.630 people/mi2
(76.692 people/km2)
Molokai[27]6/Island of friendship21 ° 08'N 157 ° 02'W0260.0 mi2
(673.4 km2)
Kamakou04,961 ft
(1,512 m)
7,3450028.250 people/mi2
(10.9074 people/km2)
Niihau Island[28]7/Forbidden Island21 ° 54'N 160 ° 10'W0069.5 mi2
(180.0 km2)
Paniau01,250 ft
(381 m)
1700002.45 people/mi2
(0.944 people/km2)
Oahu[29]8/Where to gather21 ° 28'N 157 ° 59'W0596.7 mi2
(1,545.4 km2)
Kaala04,003 ft
(1,220 m)
953,2071,597.46 people/mi2
(616.78 people/km2)
NicknameReturn to the original order with the sort button on the column

Hawaii is the only state in the United States to:

  • Not located in North America
  • Be able to grow coffee
  • Surrounded by the sea
  • The whole is an archipelago
  • That there is a royal palace
  • No straight lines on state boundaries

The highest mountain in HawaiiMauna Kea MountainAnd the altitude is 1 feet (3,796 meters)[31]The height from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean is 3 feet (3,500 meters),地球 Of地殻Based on the surfaceMount EverestWill be higher than[32].


The islands of the Hawaiian IslandsSubmarine volcanoMade by CurrentIsland of HawaiiWhere there isPacific plateDeeper thanMantleBy the activity ofHot spotと 呼 ば れ るmagmaThe pool has been around since ancient times. It continues to exist in certain places in the mantle, causing repeated eruption of magma towards the sea floor immediately above, causing eruptive activity such as Kilauea lava.

Pacific plate is the central ridge of the Pacific Ocean, the eastern Pacific OceanSwellからJapanese archipelago-Kuril IslandsAs it continues to move toward the island, when viewed from the Pacific plate (= on the sea), it says, “It was once directly above the hotspot, but as the Pacific plate moved, its position shifted and the activity stopped. Can be seen in a line to the northwest. As it travels northwest, it sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and the Hawaiian Sea MountainsHeaven Mt. Sukaisan Group(Combined twoHawaii-Heaven Mt. Sukaisan Row),Kamchatka PeninsulaTo the root of. The newest islands in the seamount and island line are moving towards the Hawaiian Islands[33].

The last volcanic eruptions outside the island of Hawaii occurred on Mount Haleakala on Maui before the late 18th century, but could have been hundreds of years earlier.[34].

1790 years,Kilauea volcanoHas caused one of the largest explosions in Hawaii (now the United States)[35].. The blast killed at least 5,405 warriors and their families heading for Kilauea[36].

Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have produced impressive geological landscapes. Island of Hawaii has the third highest elevation of any island in the world[37].

Instability of volcanic slopes has caused large earthquakes and tsunamis, especially in 1868 and 1975.[38].

Fauna and flora

Since the Hawaiian Islands are isolated from other land, the three life forms before human activity began are wind, waves, and wings (wings, birds, insects, etc.). It is said to have been carried in. Due to this geographical isolation and environmental diversity (elevation and tropical climate)Endemic speciesHas been born. Hawaii has manyEndangered speciesAnd extinct species appear at a higher rate than the mainland United States[39].

National protected area

National Park ServiceAreas under the control and protection of:[40].

United States Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,Department of Fish and Wildlife, Co-managed by the State of Hawaii,

This is the President of that day on June 2006, 6George W. BushDeclared the registration. This is 50 miles (80 kilometers) of the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 14 square miles (36 km).2) Reefs, atolls, shallows and deep seas,United States National ParkWider than all combined.


The Hawaiian climate is unique to the tropics, but from the eastTrade windHowever, the temperature and humidity do not rise so much, because it blows almost continuously. However, compared to the first half of the 1980s, the number of days when the wind blows has decreased by about 50 days a year, and when the wind stops the temperature rises and it can be a hot day. Summer day highs of 80s° FIt is in the latter half of the table (around 31℃), and the minimum temperature at night is 70s.° FIt is in the mid-range (around 24°C)

80ss during winter day° FMids (around 28℃), 60s in the lowlands at night° FIt rarely drops below the mid table (around 18°C). However,Mauna Kea Mountain,Mauna RoaIn such highlands, there is snow in winter (in winter, you can ski and play on slopes). Snowfall is rare on Mount Haleakala. Snowfall in Polypoli State Park on Maui Island observed on February 2019, 2 is considered to be snowfall at the lowest altitude (about 11 meters) in Hawaii[41].

Mt. Waialeale on Kauai has the second highest precipitation in the world, reaching 2 inches (460 mm). Most of the Hawaiian Islands have only two seasons, the dry season from May to October and the rainy season from October to April[42].

The climate of each island is quite different, compared to alpineUpwind or downwindCan be roughly divided by. Since there are many clouds on the windward side, the resort area is concentrated on the leeward side.

Monthly high and low average temperatures for cities in Hawaii[43]
Hiro64 ° F / 17.8 °C64 ° F / 17.8 °C65 ° F / 18.3 °C66 ° F / 18.9 °C67 ° F / 19.4 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C67 ° F / 19.4 °C65 ° F / 18.3 °C
79 ° F / 26.1 °C79 ° F / 26.1 °C79 ° F / 26.1 °C79 ° F / 26.1 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C83 ° F / 28.3 °C83 ° F / 28.3 °C83 ° F / 28.3 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C80 ° F / 26.7 °C
Honolulu66 ° F / 18.9 °C65 ° F / 18.3 °C67 ° F / 19.4 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C70 ° F / 21.1 °C72 ° F / 22.2 °C74 ° F / 23.3 °C75 ° F / 23.9 °C74 ° F / 23.3 °C73 ° F / 22.8 °C71 ° F / 21.7 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C
80 ° F / 26.7 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C83 ° F / 28.3 °C85 ° F / 29.4 °C87 ° F / 30.6 °C88 ° F / 31.1 °C89 ° F / 31.7 °C89 ° F / 31.7 °C87 ° F / 30.6 °C84 ° F / 28.9 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C
Kahului63 ° F / 17.2 °C63 ° F / 17.2 °C65 ° F / 18.3 °C66 ° F / 18.9 °C67 ° F / 19.4 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C71 ° F / 21.7 °C71 ° F / 21.7 °C70 ° F / 21.1 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C65 ° F / 18.3 °C
80 ° F / 26.7 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C84 ° F / 28.9 °C86 ° F / 30.0 °C87 ° F / 30.6 °C88 ° F / 31.1 °C88 ° F / 31.1 °C87 ° F / 30.6 °C84 ° F / 28.9 °C82 ° F / 27.8 °C
Lihue65 ° F / 18.3 °C66 ° F / 18.9 °C67 ° F / 19.4 °C69 ° F / 20.6 °C70 ° F / 21.1 °C73 ° F / 22.8 °C74 ° F / 23.3 °C74 ° F / 23.3 °C74 ° F / 23.3 °C73 ° F / 22.8 °C71 ° F / 21.7 °C68 ° F / 20.0 °C
78 ° F / 25.6 °C78 ° F / 26.6 °C78 ° F / 26.6 °C79 ° F / 26.1 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C83 ° F / 28.3 °C84 ° F / 28.9 °C85 ° F / 29.4 °C85 ° F / 29.4 °C84 ° F / 28.9 °C81 ° F / 27.2 °C79 ° F / 26.1 °C



MajorInterstate highway TheOahuOnly H-1, H-2, H-3, and2005State Highway 78 (commonly known as Moanalua Freeway) was promoted to a highway and became H-201, making a total of 4 routes. As with many major American cities, the metropolitan area of ​​Honolulu isAiea), Pearl City (Pearl City), wiper (Waipahu) And Mililani (MililaniFrom the western suburbs, there will be considerable traffic congestion during rush hour. State roads are distributed around the main island (List of roads in HawaiiSee).

Public transportCovers almost all of OahuPublic busIsTheBus, And the number is small,Maui,Island of Hawaii,KauaiPart ofCommunity busThe route exists.

Formerly, a large island in Hawaii had a rail network that carried agricultural products and passengers. These are allNarrow gauge(Mostly 3 feet (914 mm), islets 2.5 feet (762 mm), mainland United States 4 feet 8.5 inches (1,435 mm)). The largest railroad company was the Oahu Railroad Land Company, which operated many routes from Honolulu to the western and northern parts of Oahu. In World War II he also contributed to carrying troops and munitions. There were traffic lights that made the train run smoothly, and a wigwag device at the railroad crossing to protect the car. The main line was abandoned in 1947, but someUS NavyAcquired and operated until 1970[44].

In the current stateTrainIs a non-profit organization on OahuHawaii Rail AssociationTrains operated by Everkahe Point and MauiSugar caneA total of 13 miles (21 kilometers) including the train (Sugarcane Train) are left for sightseeing,Public transportNot used as[44].. While the western part of Oahu is rapidly developing as a new residential area, interstate highways and buses alone cause chronic congestion,monorailAlthough there are plans to lay, the prospect of realization there is a funds problem was not standing.

However2008Honolulu referendum, western Oahu and downtown, Waikiki andUniversity of HawaiiApproved $ 45 billion budget for railroad project[45][46]Started construction on February 2011, 2[47].. East Kapolei-Aloha Stadium will be open by 2017, and Aloha Stadium-Ala Moana Center will be open by 2019, which is expected to alleviate chronic congestion[47](Honolulu Rail Transit).


Hawaiian Airlines,go!andMokulele Airlines,Island airAre operating on state routes. Hawaiian Airlines also operates interstate and international flights, as well as numerous international flights from the mainland US, Asia and Pacific countries.


Airports within the state where regular private passenger flights are in service (unless otherwise notedHawaiian Airlines,go!andMokulele AirlinesThe regular flights are in service). The Hawaiian Islands always have more than one airport on one island.


From the 19th century to the 1950s, private steamboats and ferries were the only way to connect the islands, so OahuHonolulu Harbor, Island of HawaiiHilo PortAnd so on. Seaflight in the mid 1970sHydrofoilLaunched between major islands[48].2007Connects Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii from DecemberHawaii Super FerryWas in service, but after several suspensions, the operating company went bankrupt in August 2009 and was virtually abolished. The operating company has expressed its intention to resume ferry operations in the future. Ferries for commuting from Maui to Molokai and Renai operate but do not transport vehicles.


Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
Source: 1910–2010[49]

As of 2005, Hawaii is expected to have a population of 1, an increase of 3,070, or 1.0%, from the previous year, 2000, or 6% from 3,657. This included 5.3 people (127 births, 5,194 deaths), a natural increase since the last census, and an increase in 4 immigrants to the state. Emigration from outside the United States will increase by 8,111, and the number of immigrants to the United States will decrease by 9. HawaiianCenter of gravityIs between Oahu and Molokai[50].

Due to the constant presence of U.S. military personnel and tourists in Hawaii, the actual population is over 130 million. Oahu, which is nicknamed "the place where people gather", has the largest population and is 597 square miles (1,546km) on land.2) Has a population of about 100 people/square mile (1,650 people/km).2). Highest population density in mainland United States for comparisonNew JerseyIn the case of 8,721 square miles (2 km2, 871 inhabitants, with a population density of approximately 7,925/sq. miles (1,134/km).2)[51].. In Hawaii, 136 inhabitants have 301 miles (6,423 km).2The population density is 211.8 people/square mile (81.8 people/km).2) Becomes[52]. this isOhio,IllinoisIt is a lower value.

Life expectancy in Hawaii was 2000 years old in 79.8 (77.1 years for men and 82.5 years for women). This is the highest number in the United States[53].

American military personnel account for about 1.3% of the state's population.

Race/ethnic composition

The majority of Asians are close to 40%. This is the only one in every state in the United States, andMixedHave a high ratio of, and continue to increase in other statesHispanicIt is also a big feature that there are few whites and blacks.For this reason, racial discrimination against white people such as bullying at school and unfair dismissal is seen as a problem in the state.[54][55].. In addition, because of its historical background, many Chinese peopleRepublic of China(Taiwan), many VietnameseVietnam WarLater collapsedSouth VietnamAsylum seekers and their descendants, many of the restBoat peopleWho have been exiled as. The state where the largest number of races does not exceed 50% is HawaiiNew mexicoThere are only two states.

82.2% of Hawaiians are born in the United States. About 75.0% of foreign-born residents claim to be from Asia[56].


AsianEspecially among the residents ofNikkeiThere are manyPeople) Another is second place. Partly because of that, unlike the other 2 states,(English editionIs high,BuddhismTemple,ShintoShrineAre scattered throughout the state.

The first unauthorized Japanese immigrantFirst yearThe 150 peopleThe first year of the Meiji eraThe application was started in Hawaii and arrived in Hawaii on June 1868, 6,Immigration The1885May 2Arrived at. It is said that there are currently Nikkei from the 1st to the 5th generation. Most Nikkei since the third generationJapaneseCan't speak, but often knows only words. Also, since Japan's high economic growth period, Hawaii hasJapaneseIs a popular tourist destination forTravel clubThere are many Japanese expatriates living in Hawaii, international students, and long-term residents who own a villa and stay for several months, and the number is said to be about 2 (ConsulateIt is the total number of residents who are reporting to, and it seems that there are actually more.High economic growthAt the time of the period, traveling from Hawaii to Japan required several times the monthly income, but21st centurySince entering Japan, even Japanese students can travel to Hawaii, and the threshold has been decreasing year by year because it became popular.

Native Hawaiian

Of pure bloodNative Hawaiian(Native Hawaiians)” is now significantly reduced[57].

In 1959, it became a state in the United States. Due to its colonial rule, the socio-economic status of Hawaiians has declined, and its effects continue even now (2000s).[58].. There are about 10 ethnic groups called “Indigenous Hawaiians”. However, few of these people can be called pure blood. Currently, there are less than 8,000 pure-blooded Hawaiians. 98% of indigenous Hawaiians are mixed race[59].. Currently widely used is the "Hawaii House Deposit Law" enacted in 1920, "drawing more than 50% of the blood of those who lived on these islands before the arrival of Captain Cook." Is the definition. Indigenous Hawaiians accounted for only 5.9% of the ethnic composition of the state's population, and in 1980Hawaiian Affairs OfficeWas installed. According to the 2000 US Department of Home Affairs, the Hawaiian population is over 40 in the United States, of which about 24 live in Hawaii, and other Hawaiians live in California predominantly. Hawaiians make up about one-fifth of Hawaii's total population, second only to Caucasians, Japanese, and Filipinos.[60].

In the 1990s, the Hawaiian indigenous people's sovereignty restoration movement (Hawaiian Soventi movement: self-determination right or independence demand) rose.[61].

Kamehameha Schools Trial

Kamehameha Schools, a traditional Hawaiian private school, must be enrolled only by native Hawaiian blood draws. Kamehameha Schools is a private school founded by Bernice Pauahi Bishop, a direct descendant of Kamehameha I, who has not received any public subsidies and has not been granted to her by her will. It was the school's policy that education should be the goal.

In 2003, this admission rule was issued by non-HawaiiRacismWas accused of[61].. August 2005Federal Circuit Court of AppealsWas sentenced to be illegal. There was widespread opposition to this ruling from not only indigenous Hawaiians but from the entire Hawaiian community. In December 2006, as a result of reexamination in the Circuit Court, the original judgment was abolished and the Hawaiian priority admission system was not illegal.

Kamehameha Schools won the reversal in a higher court, but the defeated plaintiff's white boy side is willing to counterclaim for "compensation for delay in learning caused by Kamehameha Schools not admitting admission" And asked the United States Supreme Court to retrial, but a settlement was reached between the two before the ruling. The school still maintains an admission system that gives priority to Hawaiians.

According to anthropologist Akihiro Inoue, these trials were rooted in the opposition to the sovereignty rehabilitation movement of the Hawaiian indigenous peoples in the 1990s, and their reaction to American society.Affirmative ActionIt is said that it is not related to the flow of (backlash)[61].

Indigenous Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act

August 2009, 12,(English editionIt is,(English editionApproved. This is for native Hawaiians,Ethnic self-determinationFor decision-making for theイ ン デ ィ ア ン, AlaskaEskimo,AleutLike the US Department of the Interior.(English editionEven approved this law.

"The establishment of an indigenous Hawaiian ethnic government violates the United States Constitution," regarding the bill within the Commission on Natural Resources,(English editionOpposition members have been formed by Republican members represented by the House of Representatives.

On the Democratic party's side, there are a number of lawmakers, including the Hawaii-born President Obama, as well as the native Hawaiians, as well as the Alaska parliamentary delegation,イ ン デ ィ ア ン,EskimoOrganizations support this.


The official language of Hawaii was approved by the 1978 ConstitutionEnglishHawaiian.
Hawaiian ThePolynesianUsed traditionally by the Native HawaiiansAustronesianIs a language belonging to. In modern times, few speakers speak their mother tongue. However, in recent years, notation in Hawaiian pronunciation has increased in place name notation.
There were many Japanese immigrants, so once it was easyJapaneseThere were many who could understand it, but the number of speakers decreased due to the spread of English and the exclusion of immigrants. Since the number of tourists from Japan increased after World War II, Japanese can be understood around Waikiki.
Since Hawaii was “discovered” by British captain Cook,EnglishIs used as a supplement, and English (US English) continues to be used even after the merger with the United States. According to a 2008 American Community Survey, 5% of Hawaii residents aged 74.6 and older speak English only at home[62].
After the annexation, among Japanese immigrantsPidgin englishCame to be spoken.
Many European descent speak their native language.Spanish2.6% of the population speaks and 1.6% speak other Indo-European languages. 21.0% of Asian language speakers are migrant workers from Asia,Chinese,Tagalog(5.37%),Iloko(4.05%) etc. 0.2% speak different languages[62].


As of 2000, the denominations with the most followersキ リ ス ト 教And then big apartBuddhismMet. The number of followers by denomination is as follows[63][64].

For other denominations,Baha'i,Confucianism,Taoism,Hawaii religion,Hinduism,Islam,Sikhism,Shinto,Zoroastrianismand so on.

Adenomas include agnostics, atheists, humanitarians, and disbelievers.

Major cities

Major cities
RankName of a citypopulationcounty
1Honolulu345,064Honolulu County
2East Honolulu49,914Honolulu County
3Pearl City47,698Honolulu County
4Hiro43,263Hawaii County
5Kailua38,635Honolulu County
6Wiper38,216Honolulu County
7Kaneohe34,597Honolulu County
8Mililani27,629Honolulu County
10Ewa Gentry22,690Honolulu County
11Mililani Mauka21,039Honolulu County
13Macakylo18,248Honolulu County
14Wahiawa17,821Honolulu County
15Scofield barracks16,370Honolulu County
17Kapolei15,186Honolulu County
18Ewa Beach14,955Honolulu County
19Royal Kunia14,525Honolulu County
20Harawa14,014Honolulu County
21Weimaru13,730Honolulu County
22Wireena13,177Honolulu County
23Nanakuri12,666Honolulu County
24Kailua Kona11,975Hawaii County
26Waipio11,674Honolulu County
27Hawaiian Paradise Park11,404Hawaii County
29Kalaoa9,644Hawaii County
30Kaneo Station9,517Honolulu County
31Maili9,488Honolulu County
32Aiea9,338Honolulu County
33Waimea9,212Hawaii County
35Ahuimanu8,810Honolulu County
36Holualoa8,538Hawaii County
37Ocean point8,361Honolulu County
38Makaha8,278Honolulu County
39Haiku Powella8,118Maui
41Waikele7,479Honolulu County
42Napili Honokowai7,261Maui
44Hickam housing6,920Honolulu County
47Waikoloa Village6,362Hawaii County
48Laie6,138Honolulu County
49Ewa Village6,108Honolulu County

Politics and law

State government

Hawaii State GovernmentHawaiian KingdomIn timesBritish politicsRegime, then (Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii) GraduallyUnited States Federal GovernmentIs used as a model. Established in the Hawaii State Constitution and subject to administrative, legislative and judicialThree rights separatedHas been done.

Executive branchIs supervised by the governor and assisted by the deputy governor. Both are selected from a combined candidate list. The governor is the only official elected statewide, and other officials are appointed by the governor. The Deputy Governor is the Secretary of State. The governor and deputy governors oversee 20 institutions from offices in the Capitol. The governor's residence is the Washington Palace. The law enforcement agency is not the state policeSheriff.

The departments of the provincial government are as follows in English name order:[65].

  • Accounting & General Services (DAGS)
  • Agriculture Department (Agriculture, HDOA)
  • Department of Attorney General (Attorney General, AG)
  • Budget & Finance, B & F
  • Business, Economic Development & Tourism, DBEDT
  • Commerce & Consumer Affairs, DCCA
  • Defense Department (Defense, DOD)
  • Education Department (Education, DOE)
  • Hawaiian Homeland Club (Hawaiian Home Lands, DHHL)
  • Hygiene department (Health, DOH)
  • Human Resources Development (DHRD)
  • Human Resources Department(Human Services, DHS)
  • Labor & Industrial Relations (DLIR)
  • Land and Natural Resources Department (Land & Natural Resources, DLNR)
  • Public Security Department (Public Safety, DPS)
  • Tax Department (Taxation, HDT)
  • Transportation Department (Transportation, DOT)

In addition to this, there is an agency such as the Governor's Office.

Legislative office TheHawaii State LegislatureThe 51-member House of Representatives and the 25-member House of RepresentativesBicameral system.Hawaii State CapitolIs being discussed in.

JudiciaryIs the supreme institution of and uses Aliiolani Hare for trial. Below that are the High Court, District Court, and Family Court.

CurrentGovernorIt is,Democratic PartyJapanese OfDavid Ige(November 2014 -). The Japanese governor of the stateGeorge Ariyoshi(1974-1986) since, it is the second person.

Since it is a state with a large number of Asian residents such as about 20 Japanese and about 17 Filipino, the composition of the inhabitants is reflected in the state legislature and many state members of the Nikkei are active as well. A lot of federal lawmakers have been elected so far.

On the legal side, state law prohibits racial discrimination, and non-white people in the United States, including Asians,ImmigrationIt is known that there are many. Also, although there are many laws on nature conservation, it is a fact that there is a lack of funds to make it a reality. The idea of ​​a casino has been raised in parliament from before, and attempts have been made to eliminate the lack of funds, but it has not been passed many times. Nothing under current state lawgamblingIs prohibited,LotteryAlso not for sale. For that reason, as a tourist destination for HawaiiansLas VegasIs always the most popular.

Currently in Hawaii,Death penaltyHas been abolished.

Local administration

The governing situation peculiar to Hawaii is that there is no local government. All communities are managed at the county level. The only incorporated area is Honolulu Integrated City County, which governs the entire Oahu Island. County officials are called mayors (same as mayors) and are all elected in a nonpartisan election.

The following five counties are located in Hawaii.

Representative to the federal government

From the state of Hawaii, two Senators and two House members have been sent to Congress. As of 2, all four are Democrats, and three of them are women.

House of Representatives

Honolulu and other parts of the state from the 1st constituency of the House of Representatives, including southeastern Oahu,Colleen HanabusaHas been elected. Hanabusa was held in May 2010 following the resignation of a representative from the current governor of Abercrombie.By-electionThen I also sought to runEd caseFailure to unify candidates with former House of Representatives split the party, rival Republican PartyCharles ZhouI had a torture before, but in November of the same yearMid-term electionThen, he overturned the close battle observation until the last minute, defeated Zhou with a score of 6 points, and defeated Zhou. He was re-elected in the 2012 election and is now in his second term.

Former Honolulu city council member Tulsi Gaddad has been elected from the second congressional district, including the rest of the state. Gaddad moved to the SenateMazzy HironoInstead, he ran and won the election on November 2012, 11, which is now the first term. Gaddad is the first Samoan andHinduIs a member of the Diet. Also, as an Army National Guard in Hawaii(I.e.Also had the experience of serving in the military and also won the election for the first time in 2012Tammy DuckworthAlongside that, she is a female federal parliamentarian with experience in combat areas.


Senator is currentlyBrian SchartsMazzy HironoAre selected.

In Hawaii,Daniel InouyeHas served as the senior senator for almost 1963 years since January 1, 3. InoueRobert BirdBecomes the Senate's earliest Senate with the death of the Senate and is given to the elder of the Senate majorityUnited States Senate, But died on December 2012, 12. Was incumbent in the election on November 17, 2012Daniel AkakaRan as a successor to the retirement ofFukushimaBorn Japanese immigrant Mazzy Hirono was elected, and if Senator Inoue was alive, from January 2013 all senators in the state of Hawaii would have been occupied by Nikkei, but it disappeared with the passing of the member. ..

Brian Scharts, who was deputy governor under the Abercrombie Governor, was appointed to succeed Inouye and took office on December 2012, 12. Inoue's term was originally2017April (2016Up until the election)2014By-elections will be held in line with the mid-term elections.


A federal agency in Hawaii is housed in the Prince Kuhio Federal Building near Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor. In the buildingFederal Bureau of Investigation(FBI),National Tax Agency(IRS), andUnited States Secret ServiceHas an office,Federal District Court for the State of HawaiiAnd the Hawaii District Federal Prosecutor's Office.

National election

Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
201629.44% 128,84760.98% 266,891
201227.84% 121,01570.55% 306,658
200826.58% 120,44671.85% 325,588
200445.26% 194,19154.01% 231,708
200037.46% 137,84555.79% 205,286
199631.64% 113,94356.93% 205,012
199236.70% 136,82248.09% 179,310
198844.75% 158,62554.27% 192,364
198455.10% 185,05043.82% 147,154
198042.90% 130,11244.80% 135,879
197648.06% 140,00350.59% 147,375
197262.48% 168,86537.52% 101,409
196838.70% 91,42559.83% 141,324
196421.24% 44,02278.76% 163,249
196049.97% 92,29550.03% 92,410

Hawaii has supported the Democratic Party in 14 of the last 12 US presidential elections. In 1972 (the Republican party was supportedRichard NixonSecond term) and 2 (Ronald ReaganOf the second term). In 2, the Democratic candidateJohn KellyHave 54% of the total valid votes,George W. BushIt won 9 electors in Hawaii with a 4% difference. All five counties in the state supported Democratic candidates. In 5, Hawaiian-born Hiram Fong called for a Republican nomination. Also in 1964, Patchy Mink also ran for the Oregon preliminary.

The 44th President of the United States born in HonoluluBarack ObamaAt that timeIllinoisElectedUnited States SenateA member of parliament, he was elected president in the 2008 elections. He was nominated for 2008% of the votes at the Democratic Party of Hawaii State Assembly held on February 2, 19. Obama is the third Hawaiian candidate to be nominated as a candidate for a major political party, becoming the first party nominee[66][67].

public holiday

It is the only region in the United States that is currently in the form of a print, and a dynasty that has been recognized by Westerners has been established. Due to the historical background that theUnited States holidaysThe following holidays are set independently by the state. [68]

In addition, State Hood Day (1959To HawaiiTerritoryからStateInstead of being a holiday, the federal holiday Columbus Day (10nd Monday of October) is not considered a holiday by the Hawaii state government.


Hawaii's economic history is characterized by the transition of major industries. IeSandalwoodmaterial[69],whaling[70],sugar cane,pineapple,Munitions, Sightseeing[71]And education. After 1959tourismIs the largest industry, accounting for 1997% of GDP in 24.3.

Early economy

The Hawaiian economy used to be the "Big Five" (Big five) Called a majorsugarIt was supported by a group of conglomerates led by the company. These companies are20st centuryEmerged at the beginning,1960 eraHe has been leading the politics and economy of Hawaii until. What is the Big Five?Alexander and Baldwin(Alexander & Baldwin), (Castle & Cooke), (C. Brewer), (Theo H. Davies), (Amfac).

PlantationImmigrants from Asia have also increased to work in.

1970 eraEnter sugarPlantationWhen they were shut down one after another, the companies under the umbrella of the Big Five were acquired and consolidated by companies in other states, with the exception of their headquarters.

Modern industry in general

Hawaii's gross domestic product in 2007 was $583.07 billion (about 5 trillion yen)[72].ShigaThe economy is about the same as (about 6 trillion yen).

Currently in the public sector, munitions,TourismIs the three pillars of[71].pineappleOnceLanaiIt produced 90% of the national production and 75% of the world production by itself, but the ratio of agriculture is lower than in the past.In modern timesKona coffeeThese are mainly high-value-added agricultural products.In recent years, the government is encouraging people to start farming in order to break away from the constitution that depends on the unstable tourism industry.[71].

As for munitions, there are manyMilitary baseHas a large impact on the economy by the military and related industries[71].. In 2009, US troops spent $ 122 billion in Hawaii, which was 18% of the domestic budget.75,000 U.S. Department of Defense personnel live in the state[73].

For tourism, 6,982,425 people a year, includingAmerica4,592,650 from Japan, 2,389,775 from abroad, of which 1,239,481 from Japan annually (both2010[74]) Is an international tourist destination that supports the state of Hawaii along with military demand.[71]..In recent years, due to the policy of attracting a large number of tourists,Sustainable development goalsAiming to transform into a tourist destination that considers the natural environment[71].

Remote islandTherefore, most of the industrial products and all of the fuel are from the US mainland.輸入The average price is the highest in the United States on a state-by-state basis, which is about 1.5 times the national average (second place is).New JerseyOn the other hand, since the average annual income is almost the same as the national average,Disposable incomeCan be said to be below the national average

Exports from Hawaii include food and clothing.However, even on the west coast of the United States, for example, Hawaii has a small role in the economy due to its considerable transportation distance.For export foodcoffee,Macadamia nuts,pineapple,sugar cane, Livestock, etc.According to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Bureau, agricultural sales in 2002 were $ 3 million, pineapples were $ 7,090 million and sugar cane was $ 1 million.However, sugarcane cultivation is on Maui.PuuneOnlyAlexander & BaldwinThe only farm left was, but it closed in December 2016 and commercial sugarcane cultivation in Hawaii ceased.[75].

Taxation in Hawaii is relatively heavy. In 2003, per capita tax collection was $2,838, the highest of all 50 states. This is due to the fact that education, health care and public works are all carried out by the states, while in other states local governments are in charge.

Many tourists contribute to Hawaii's tax income by paying sales tax and hotel room tax. In other words, not all tax revenues are collected from the residents. However, business owners think that the high tax burden creates high prices and a climate that is not effective for transactions.[76]..In recent years, a tax called a green fee has been considered to secure financial resources for environmental protection.[71].

Hawaii is one of the few states to regulate gasoline prices under the Gas Cap Act. As the profits of oil companies are monitored compared to the mainland United States, the law keeps state gasoline prices the same as mainland. This lawHurricane KatrinaIt was effective in September 2005 when the price fluctuated in Japan, but was put off in April 9.

If you continue to describe the current economy by industry, such as company name, first of all,News (Chinese)In the industry,OahuPublished inHonolulu Star AdvertiserIs a leading newspaper in Hawaii and is read all over the island. In addition to this, local newspapers are issued on each island, for exampleIsland of HawaiiThen,West Hawaii Today"When"Hawaii Tribune Herald].EconomyIn related newspapers,Pacific Business NewsThere is Covering the nationABC/CBS/NBCSuch as commercetv setNetwork andPBS Hawaii'Public broadcasting service, Cover the whole islandHawaii Public RadioAnd of each islandradioThere is a broadcasting station.

金融In a relationship, headquartered in HawaiiBank of Hawaii,First Hawaiian Bank,Central Pacific Bank,American saving bank, VariousCredit union(,Hawaii Community Federal Credit UnionEtc.)bankTo all over the state支店There are many, and they do business with individuals and companies.Japanese bankBanks with headquarters outside of Hawaii, including those in Hawaii, are concentrated in Honolulu, and their main business is with business partners.

EnergyIn the supply sector,electricity TheHawaii Electric Power IndustryCovers almost the entire island,gasoline TheAloha oil,Shell oil,Chevron,76,Tesoro oilSuch asoilSales company,CostcoOf mass retailers such asgas stationIs being done in.gas TheHawaii GasIt is distributed by. In terms of distribution,Walmart,Safe wayIn addition toFood landAnd its subsidiary Sack'N Save,KTA Super Storesand so on.

TransportationThen.Aviation industryIs greatly developed,Hawaiian AirlinesHas shown overwhelming power, but major airlines in the United States and major airlines in the world are operating in Hawaii.ShippingThen.MatsonIs international shipping,Pasha HawaiiWith HawaiiAmericaBetween,Young Brothers Hawaii Hawaiian IslandsActive in the meantime.communicationIn a relationship,Hawaiian TelkomTelephone company,Charter Communications OfOcean SpectrumCommunication cable covers the whole USAT&TSuch asMobile phone companyIs covered.

Large companies such as Hawaiian Airlines, Mokulele Airlines, Hawaii Electric Power Industry,Hawaiian Telkom, Bank of Hawaii, First Hawaiian Bank,ABC storeIsHonoluluHeadquarters are in charge of all-island operations, and other companies are focusing on each island.Kona beer company,Hawaii Nui Beer CompanyAre active.

Cost of living

The cost of living in Hawaii, especially Honolulu, is much higher than in the major cities of the United States. But 6.7% lower than New York City and 3.6% lower than San Francisco[77].. This number may not include factors such as increased travel and shipping costs for customers outside the mainland United States and lack of promotional opportunities. Some online shops do not charge shipping for orders to Hawaii[78], Many stores are in Hawaii, Alaska,プ エ ル ト リ コOverseas territories such as are excluded from the target of the trade area.

The median home price was $2000 as of 272,700, but the national average was less than half that amount, at $119,600. $211,500 in California[79], Hawaii is the state with the highest house prices in the United States. A recent Real Estate Association study found the median home price in Honolulu at $607,600 and the US value at $173,200. This year, californiaSilicon ValleyAt $602,000, Honolulu has become the city with the highest home prices[80].

According to the results of a national household income survey released in 2018, the average percentage of households struggling to manage their households was as high as 43%, but by state, Hawaii reached 49%.New mexico,CaliforniaAnd recorded the worst in the US[81].

Homeless problem

In recent years, the high cost of living mentioned above and especially immigration from other statesホ ー ム レ スIt has become more serious as the number of tourists has been increasing and flooding tourist destinations such as Waikiki.[82].

In 2020Impact of new coronavirusThe tourism industry was hit in Japan and increased on Oahu and other islands.[71].


University/Junior college

Public school

Hawaii is the only state in the United States to have an integrated education system throughout the state. Decision-making is made by 14 members of the State Board of Education. The Commission makes policy decisions andHawaii Department of EducationHire an education supervisor to oversee. The Ministry of Education is divided into seven districts, four on Oahu and one on each of the other three counties.

The main reason for the centralization of education is to eliminate the effects of the disparity between the highly populated islands of Oahu and the less populated islands, as well as the income disparity. In the mainland United States, public schools operate with local property taxes.

Educators need to work with immigrant children who do not speak English. The culture of these children is different from that of the mainland.

The results of the common exams conducted in public elementary and junior high schools and high schools (performed under the Fall Prevention Law) are inferior to the national average. This difference is due to the State Board of Education having all qualified students take the exams and reporting all the results (eg Texas and Michigan do not). In August 2005, 8 out of 282 schools in Jeonju failed to meet federal minimum standards in mathematics and reading[83].

On the other hand, in the 2005 ACT college classification test, senior students scored 20.9, slightly higher than the national average (21.9).[84].. In the widely held SAT exams, college-oriented students in the state of Hawaii tend to outperform the national average in all non-maths subjects.

Other schools

Independent Iolani school in the state,Kamehameha School, Chubu Pacific School, andPunahou SchoolThere is. The Pacific Academy of Buddhists, the second and first state-run Buddhist school in the United States, opened in 2. The first indigenous managed public charter school is the Kanuokaaina New Century Charter School.

Independent schools and charter schools can select students, but regular public schools must accept all students in the district. Kamehameha School is the only school in the United States that has its own ancestors to determine student acceptance and is the richest school in the United States. It has assets of over $90 billion. In 2005, there were 5,398 students, 8.4% of whom were indigenous children[85].

Art and culture

The native culture of Hawaii isPolynesianbelongs to. Hawaii is the northern end of a vast Polynesian triangle that extends into the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The traditional Hawaiian culture remains strong today, with rituals and traditional ceremonies rehearsed on all islands.Luau(Hawaii banquet)HulaAlthough it is a form that has changed greatly, there are some that have influenced the United States.

In addition to the continental United States, the culture brought in by immigrants from Japan and other countries is also influential (see below).


In HawaiiliteratureIt is,Native Hawaiian TextWithoutOral literatureWas reported as19st centuryTo westernMissionaryWas transcribed after being written,Cumulipo] Is a typical example. afterwardsMark Twainof"Hawaii communication],Isabella Bird"Hawaii Journey", recentlyJames Mitchenerof"Hawaii],Paul SeloLike "Hotel Honolulu"Hawaiian IslandsBecame famousNon-Fictionthe work·fictionThe work was called "Hawaii literature," but in recent years, the definition has changed to refer to works by Hawaiian writers.[86].

Quarterly magazine published by Bamboo Ridge PressIs a literary magazine that publishes the works of local contemporary artists.1998AwardNora Okja Keller,1993AwardA lot of writers attracting attention have been produced.[86].

Music and butoh

In Hawaii, as an entertainment inherited from ancient timesMeleHulaThere is.PolytheismWas an ancient HawaiianRitualAs before, Hawaiians used toTextBecause it didn't haveOral traditionIt is a song and dance that was performed as a part of.

Mele is a Hawaiian prayer to God.Hawaiian musicIs an indigenous music that was founded in the 20th century in the rich development of traditional music and pop music.Hawaiian PopsThere is. This music isSlack key guitarOr western stylefalsettoAlthough it was introduced from Europe and the United States, it is now widely loved as one of Hawaii's leading performing arts. Known as a Hawaiian instrumentukuleleIt is,19st centuryToPortugalImmigrationIt is said that the musical instrument brought by is the prototype. Ukulele day in hawai'i is February 2th.

Hula is close to the ancient formHula Kahiko(Classical hula) and modern pop music such as Hawaiians were greatly adopted.Hula Auana(Modern Hula). Hula Auana can be danced to ukulele and other performances, but in Hula Kahiko it's a song orIp(Gourd) AnddrumSuch asPercussion instrumentUse only.

Every yearMemorial Day OfweekendToOahu-HonoluluThe Hawaii Musician of the YearNa Hoku Hanohano AwardWill be awarded with. Also,イ ー ス タ ーAt the time ofIsland of Hawaii OfHiroso,"HulaThe Olympic GamesMary Monarch FestivalIs done[87]..Japan is a country where Hawaiian music and butoh are popular, and in September, we invited the annual Na Hoku Hanohano Award winner and the excellent dancer of the Merrie Monarch Festival.Festival Na Hiva Hiva HawaiiWill be held. [88]

State song is "Hawaii Ponoi]. other"Hawaii Aloha] Is also widely loved and was held in 1976HokureaThis song was sung at the departure ritual during the first Tahiti voyage.

Aloha shirt

Aloha shirtThere are various theories about the origin ofJapaneseBrought inkimonoThe theory that it was derived from diverting the fabric of[Source required].. In Hawaii,Aloha shirtIs considered a man's formal wear, and he often sees aloha shirts worn in state legislatures and official venues, and not many suits are seen even in the office district. By the way, according to the tourist guide, it is noted that even a restaurant with a certain status in Hawaii will be recognized as dressed if wearing an Aloha shirt (This is also the content that warns tourists to eat in rough clothes and formal places, restaurants.[Original research?]).

Food culture:

Food culture:About Mexicans, Southeast Asians, Caucasians, etc.ImmigrationLike many states, there are various food cultures brought in by immigrants from each country. "Mix plate ()Plate lunch)” is a remnant of the food brought by immigrants from all over the country during the plantation farming era.

Using raw fish filletPokiIn addition to the Hawaiian specialty dish, "Pacific Rim Cuisine", a dish prepared with local ingredients based on the techniques of Japanese cuisine and French cuisine, was also devised and gained popularity. There is. In recent years, traditional Polynesian food culture has also been reviewed from the perspective of health.PoiCalled "Taro OfPasteThey are sold everywhere.

Brought in by the Japanese, who had a particularly large number of peopleJapaneseThe effect of "Bento", "Shoyu", "Teriyaki", "Musubi", (rice ballMeaning)”, etc.JapaneseThere are many that have been translated into local languages. The fact that Japanese food is still alive in Hawaii is "just after the end of World War II.Lara suppliesIt is also known that soy sauce and miso produced in Hawaii were sent to Japan via ".

From the late 2010sCantonese schistosomiasisAre likely to occur in thefruit,Vegetables, Especially leafy vegetables are recommended to be washed under running water before eating[89].

Ocean culture

surfingIs said to be the birthplace of Hawaii,Duke Kahanamoku,in recent years,John John FlorenceHas produced great surfers such as. Hawaii has also played a leading role in the nautical canoeing cultural revival movement that has flourished since the 1980s in remote Oceanian waters. Especially built in 1975Nautical canoe"Hokurea", the dead reckoning technology that does not use any navigation equipment is revived.Nainoa ThompsonThe activity of is widely known.

2018May 7,Coral reefFor protectionCoralAs harmful such as whitening ofUVTo be an absorbentOctinoxateThe governor has signed a bill banning the sale and distribution of sunscreens containing. Effective January 2021, 1[90].

Lomi Lomi

Lomi LomiWas developed as an ancient Hawaiian medicine and was first introduced to the world by Anti Margaret as a modern relaxation.


Hawaii has a historic "" (Hawaii Theater), the modern "" (Neal S. Blaisdell Center)and so on. The Hawaii International Film Festival, which has become famous in the Pacific Rim film industry, is being held. From old days in HonoluluLGBTThe Rainbow Film Festival, a film festival of[91].


In HonoluluBishop Museum,Honolulu Museum of ArtThere are other museums and museums on each island.


Sports team

Locationally,4 major professional sports leagues in North America (NFL,NBA,MLB,NHL) Team never existed. However1980から2009Every February until NFL is equivalent to an all-star gamePro bowl,Super bowlNext weekAloha StadiumI was going there.

Although it is not a major sport, it will be held during the off season of the NFLArena footballHas a Hawaiian Islanders professional team. In college sports, in the stateUniversity of HawaiiIs the most influential and has been ranked second in the USvolleyballI've been in a team or 25 best in the USAmerican FootballThe team is famous. Also before,OahuBrigham Young University Hawaii in the northeast2004ToJapanesePlayed for the first time as an NBAYuta TabuseWas enrolled in.

Historic site

Nation of Hawaii

Hawaiian independent sovereign state Pu'uhonua O Waimanalo Village. In 1993, Hawaii's Independent Autonomous Country was born with the return of 55 acres of Waimanalo to native Hawaiians under the Hawaiian Kingdom Invasion Apology Bill [93].

Relationship with Japan

NikkeiA lot of people from outside the United StatestouristBeing No. 1 in several countries, and onceGrand SumoWrestler (Mt. Takamiyama Daigoro,Konishiki Yachikichi,Aketaro,Musashimaru Mitsuhiro) Was produced[94]Economically and culturally, it has strong ties with Japan.

Hawaii became the 50th state in the United States1959(ShowaShopping center which opened in 34,Ala Moana CenterFrom the beginningTokyu GroupDepartment stores under the umbrellaShirokiyaOpened, Hawaii state legislature made a resolution admiring investment by Tokyu and Shirokiya[95].

After the late 1970s, it was a Hawaii trip that became a staple of Japanese overseas travel, but initially it was Takamine's flower.1964(39) The cost of the 4-night, 1-day post-war first tour, which departed one week after the liberalization of overseas travel on April 1, was 7 yen (when the university graduate's starting salary was about 9 yen).[96].. But in the same yearJapan Transportation Corporation(Current JTB) opens branch in Hawaii,1965(Showa 40)パ ッ ケ ー ジ ツ ア ー"Jar pack”Has appeared, and the basics of Japanese tourism in Hawaii today are prepared.[97].

In addition,Kenji OsanoLeadInternational businessHas been paying attention to Hawaii's tourism resources from early on,1963As of (Showa 38)Royal Hawaiian,Moana surf rider,Sheraton Princess KaiulaniHave acquired a prestigious hotel in Waikiki. Nevertheless, Hawaii was a longing place for Japanese people at that time, and the 1960s TV program "Up-down quiz』(Mainichi Broadcasting) "Dreams of Hawaii Travel" was announced as a prize,1961Kotobukiya (present year 36)Suntory) Also started the CMLet's drink Tris and go to Hawaii!Was[97].

In retail1972(Showa 47),Yokohama OkadayaOpened a store in Waikiki,1974(Showa 49)Sheraton WaikikiWas also acquired by Kokusai Kogyo[97].1982(Showa 57)Daiei Ala Moana CenterAnd get the real estate adjacent to it,Bubble periodPioneered the Hawaii investment boom in[95].1986(Showa 61)Azabu building Hyatt Regency・Acquisition of Waikiki, more than 90% of Waikiki hotels and most of Hawaii's private golf courses became owned by Japanese companies during the bubble period[97].. On the other hand, buying and buying by Japanese companies has spread to real estate and housing, and real estate prices have skyrocketed.Wedding industryWith the advance of(I.e.Even if it became a target of acquisition, I bought the local residents[97].

Japanese tourists visiting Hawaii continue to increase,1988(63) Since the exemption from tourist visas in the United States in December, the increase has accelerated and the yen has strengthened.1997(HeiseiIn 9 years, it reached a peak of 222 million people per year.

After that, the number of Japanese tourists decreased,2001(13)American terrorist attacks,2003(15)SARSIt has been further reduced due to the influence of the fashion, etc.2008(20) The number of Japanese tourists in one year was about 1 million, which is about half of the peak time, which is the lowest since the introduction of the tourist visa exemption system.

However, there are 1 to 11 daily flights to Japan and Hawaii today, and many Japanese tourists are still visiting.

"KZOO"Hawaii Hochi", a radio station that broadcasts in Japanese to residents and travelersShizuoka broadcastingSubsidiary of. YomiuriSports reportIrrelevant) exists. By broadcasting some Japanese programs on "KIKU-TV" as well as receiving "NGN (Nippon Gorlden Network)" through local cable TV,TV JapanYou can watch Japanese broadcasts including. In the past, Japanese radio stations such as "KOHO" and "KJPN" also existed, but the former had finished broadcasting by the end of the 20th century and the latter by 2007.

Japanese bandTUBEIt is,2000May 6When we celebrated the 15th anniversary of our debut,Aloha StadiumIt was the first time for an Asian to perform live. The state of Hawaii commemorated the success of the live, and because they are used as a shooting location and location for many CD jackets, June 6stTUBE DAYI decided.

JapaneseSpecial effectsprogramIsAndroid kikaider], [Kikaider 01] Was first broadcast in Hawaii in 1973, and is still very popular today. On April 2002, 4, the Governor of Hawaii established April 12 as "Generation Kikaider DAY", and on May 4, 12,MauiMayorBy May 5th was established as "Kikaider Brothers DAY" and became a big topic.

Every April or May,Cute☆con]Anime conventionIs being held at the Hawaii Convention Center.

Once in JapanProfessional baseballIt often became the team's campground, but there are currently no teams camping in the state. Instead of this,2005(17),J LeagueJ2 OfThe Spa KusatsuYokohama FCWent camping,2008ToPan Pacific Championship 2008 Aloha StadiumIn a relationship held inGamba OsakaWent camping.

On September 2014th and 9th, 19, a male idol group "Arashi" held a 20th anniversary live ARASHI BLAST in Hawaii at a special venue in Ko Olina, Oahu. This live was made possible by the invitation of Hawaii. Also, Hawaii has designated September 15 as ARASHI DAY.

Japan's sister cities

Hawaii and Japan's sister cities
Fukuoka prefecture flagFukuokaHawaii1981(56)
Okinawa prefecture flagOkinawaHawaii1985(60)
Hiroshima prefecture flagHiroshimaHawaii1997(9)
Ehime prefecture flagEhimeHawaii2003(15)
Hokkaido flagHokkaidoHawaii2017(29)[98]
Hiroshima prefecture flagHiroshimaHiroshima cityHonolulu CountyHonolulu city1959(34)
Okinawa prefecture flagOkinawaNahaHonolulu County Honolulu1961(36)
Oita Prefecture FlagOitaSaiki CityHonolulu County Honolulu2003(15)
Ehime prefecture flagEhimeUwajima CityHonolulu County Honolulu2004(16)
Niigata Prefecture FlagNiigataNagaokaHonolulu County Honolulu2012(24)
Kanagawa prefecture flagKanagawaChigasakiHonolulu County Honolulu2014(26)
Tottori prefecture flagTottoriTohaku-gunYurihama TownHawaii County1996(8)
Gunma prefecture flagGunmaShibukawaHawaii County1997(9)
Hyogo prefecture flagHyogoSumotoHawaii County2000(12)
Tokyo flagTokyoOshima TownHawaii CountyHilo City1962(37)
Okinawa prefecture flagOkinawaNagoHilo City, Hawaii County1986(61)
Yamaguchi prefecture flagYamaguchi Oshima-gunSuo Oshima TownKauai1963(38)
Shiga prefecture flagShigaMoriyamaKauai1975(50)
Okinawa prefecture flagOkinawaIshigakiKauai1999(11)
Fukushima flagFukushimaIwakiKauai2011(23)
Tokyo flagTokyoHachijoMaui1964(39)
Okinawa prefecture flagOkinawaMiyakojima CityMaui1965(40)



Hawaiian symbols etc.

  • Hawaiian Flowers-Yellow Hawaiianhibiscus
  • Hawaiian bird- Nene
  • Hawaiian Tree- Kukui
  • Hawaiian fish- Hum Hum Nuku Nuku Apua(Although it was officially certified in the past and was once uncertified,2006Once again certified as a state fish)
  • Hawaiian motto -"Life of the earth is held by justice" (Hawaiian: U mau ke ea o ka aina I ka pono) (English: The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness

Celebrities from Hawaii



[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ [həˈwɐiʔi, həˈvɐiʔi]
  2. ^ Pollex--a reconstruction of the Proto-Polynesian lexicon, Biggs and Clark, 1994.The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form.
  3. ^ Pukui and Elbert 1986, p. 62.
  4. ^ Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini 1974.
  5. ^ The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press. (1989). Pp. 77–79. ISBN 0521273161 
  6. ^ The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press. (1989). Pp. 77–79. ISBN 0521273161 
  7. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993
  8. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shinsho
  9. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shinsho
  10. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993
  11. ^ The law limits the number of Chinese immigrants to 2400 per year.
  12. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shinsho
  13. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993, 127 pages
  14. ^ Grover Cleveland, "Message from the President of the United States, Submitting Dispatches and Accompanying Documents from the United Minister an Hawaii, Relative to the Lease to Great Britain of an Island as a Station for a Submarine Tlegraph Cable", United States Congress (53rd , 3rd Session), Committee on Foreign Relations, January 9, 1895 (available at University of Hawaii, Hamilton Hawaiian-Library, TK5613.U58).
  15. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993
  16. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993
  17. ^ Doyo Masayo "The Conspiracy of Japan: Light and Shadow of the Great Strikes on Oahu, Hawaii" Shunju Bungei 1991
  18. ^ Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993
  19. ^ According to research. Hayato Yamanaka "Hawaii" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, 1993, p.149
  20. ^ Hawaii State Government.
  21. ^ Rubin, Ken, General Information about Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes, http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_volc.html Year ending March 2009Browse. 
  22. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Hawaiʻi
  23. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Kauaʻi
  24. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Kahoʻolawe
  25. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Island of Lānaʻi
  26. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Maui
  27. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Molokaʻi
  28. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Niʻihau
  29. ^ US Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System:Island of Oʻahu
  30. ^ Hawaiian Islands: Image of the Day, Earthobservatory.nasa.gov, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3510 2010th of February 11Browse. 
  31. ^ Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii.
  32. ^ Unke, Beata (2001), “Height of the Tallest Mountain on Earth”, The Physics Factbook, http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/BeataUnke.shtml 
  33. ^ Plate tectonicsAccompanyPacific plateDue to the movement of.
  34. ^ Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than AD 1790, United States Geological Survey, (September 9, 1999), http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1999/99_09_09.html 1999th of February 10Browse. 
  35. ^ Living on Active Volcanoes—The Island of Hawaii, US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 074-97.
  36. ^ Human Footprints in Relation to the 1790 Eruption of Kīlauea, Swanson, DA;Rausch, J., American Geophysical Union.
  37. ^ Largest islands of the world, Worldatlas.com, http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/islands.htm 2011th of February 4Browse. 
  38. ^ "Tsunami Safety & Preparedness in Hawaiiʻi”. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (November 2009, 11). As of April 12, 2009オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2009th of February 11Browse.
  39. ^ Howard Youth. “Hawaii's Forest Birds Sing the Blues”. Smithsonian Nationnal zoological park. As of July 2008, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 10Browse.
  40. ^ Hawaii, National Park Service, http://www.nps.gov/state/HI 2008th of February 7Browse. 
  41. ^ "Storm, fallen trees, blackouts and other damage in Hawaii caused snowfall on Maui”. CNN (July 2019, 2). 2019th of February 2Browse.
  42. ^ Climate of Hawaii.
  43. ^ Hawaii Weather | Hawaii Weather Forecast | Hawaii Climate[Broken link].
  44. ^ a b Hawaiian Railway Album – WW II Photographs Vol 2; Victor Norton Jr. and Gale E. Treiber; 2005; Railroad Press – Hanover, PA
  45. ^ http://www.khnl.com/Global/story.asp?S=9295785 Honolulu-Rail transit passes
  46. ^ “Honolulu rail might be rerouted to airport”. Honolulu Advertiser. (November 2008, 11). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20081224235329/http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=%2F20081106%2FNEWS01%2F811060369%2F1001%2FNEWS05 
  47. ^ a b [Oahu Guide] Thorough coverage of Honolulu City Tram Project! -My Hawaii, February 2015, 2
  48. ^ Cataluna, Lee (December 2005, 12). “Nothing Smooth On Seaflite”. The Honolulu Advertiser. http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2005/Dec/23/ln/FP512230359.html 
  49. ^ "Resident Population Data - 2010 Census”. 2010.census.gov. As of May 2011, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011th of February 4Browse.
  50. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000”. United States Census Bureau. As of December 2008, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 12Browse.
  51. ^ New Jersey Quickfacts.
  52. ^ Hawaii Quickfacts Archived August 2011, 10, at the Wayback Machine..
  53. ^ "Average life expectancy at birth by state”. As of May 2008, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 9Browse.
  54. ^ Is there racism? -Let's study abroad in Hawaii! ~The charm and experience of studying in Hawaii~[Reliability required verification]
  55. ^ "American Class B News (No.3)”. Kama / aina Kama Aina. As of September 2015, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 9Browse.[Reliability required verification]
  56. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. “Hawaii – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2008”. Factfinder.census.gov. As of December 2010, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010th of February 5Browse.
  57. ^ Hawaiian (Kanaka Maori) is a general term for people of Polynesian indigenous people who were indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands before the discovery of Hawaii by James Cook at the end of the 18th century.It was estimated that there were about 30 people when Cook came to the island, but in the 19th century it dropped sharply to 4. In the 20th century, mixed races progressed and increased (Junko Obayashi and Hayato Yamanaka "<Hawaii> 12 Kanaka Maori / Hawaiian" / supervised by Tsuneo Ayabe edited by Keiji Maekawa and Kuntanabashi "Lecture: Indigenous Peoples of the World-First Peoples" Present-09 Oceania ”Akashi Shoten 2005 p. 217)
  58. ^ Junko Obayashi and Hayato Yamanaka "<Hawaii> 12 Kanaka Maori / Hawaiian" / Supervised by Tsuneo Ayabe Edited by Keiji Maekawa and Kuntanabashi "Lecture: Indigenous Peoples of the World-The Present of First People-09 Oceania" Akashi Shoten 2005 Page 218
  59. ^ Junko Obayashi and Hayato Yamanaka "<Hawaii> 12 Kanaka Maori / Hawaiian" / Supervised by Tsuneo Ayabe Edited by Keiji Maekawa and Kuntanabashi "Lecture: Indigenous Peoples of the World-The Present of First People-09 Oceania" Akashi Shoten 2005 Page 219
  60. ^ Junko Obayashi and Hayato Yamanaka "<Hawaii> 12 Kanaka Maori / Hawaiian" / Supervised by Tsuneo Ayabe Edited by Keiji Maekawa and Kuntanabashi "Lecture: Indigenous Peoples of the World-The Present of First People-09 Oceania" Akashi Shoten 2005 Page 218
  61. ^ a b c Hawaiian Sovereignty Recovery Movement ④ Akihiro Inoue Glocal Tenri, Vol.11 No.1 January 2010. Retrieved September 2015, 9.
  62. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. “Hawaii – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2008”. Factfinder.census.gov. As of December 2010, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010th of February 5Browse.
  63. ^ State of Hawaii Data Book 2000, Section 1 Population, Table 1.47.
  64. ^ Honolulu Advertiser.
  65. ^ Departments & Agencies (Official web of Aloha State)
  66. ^ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009), NPR's `` Political Junkie'', 23 December 2009, accessed 30 December 2009, Npr.org, http://www.npr.org/blogs/politicaljunkie/2009/12/todays_junkie_segment_on_totn_5.html 2010th of February 5Browse. 
  67. ^ Heard on Tell Me More (October 29, 2008), Asian Writer Ponders First Asian President Too, Npr.org, http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=96126355 2010th of February 5Browse. 
  68. ^ Hawaii Holidays (Hawaii Government) (English)
  69. ^ Hawaii sandalwood trade.
  70. ^ Whaling in Hawaii.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Transforming Hawaii "Now is just right"". NHK News. 2021th of February 5Browse.
  72. ^ "Gross Domestic Product by State”. Bureau of Economic Analysis. As of September 2008, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 9Browse.
  73. ^ Associated Press, "Study: Military spent $ 12B in Hawaii in 2009", Military Times, June 1, 2011.
  74. ^ "Visitor Statistics" (English). dbedt.hawaii.gov. 2021th of February 5Browse.
  75. ^ Magazine "Hana Hou!" Dec. 2016/Jan. 2017, pp. 110-131, "Final Harvest: Sugar's last days in the Islands"
  76. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News.
  77. ^ "Cost of Living Wizard”. The New York Times website. As of September 2008, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 9Browse.
  78. ^ "for examples of stores that ship free to Hawaii (Hawaii Free Shipping: Stores That Ship Free to Hawaii)”. FreeShipping.org. As of July 2011, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 9Browse.
  79. ^ Historic Housing Values on www.census.gov
  80. ^ Metropolitan Median Prices from the National Association of Realtors (r).
  81. ^ "5100 million households struggle with their daily lives, unable to earn sufficient income”. CNN. 2018th of February 5Browse.
  82. ^ ""Airin district" can be opened in Hawaii. One-way ticket flying homeless paradise "Declaration of emergency"”. Sankei News. 2018th of February 9Browse.
  83. ^ "Two-Thirds Of Hawaii Schools Do Not Meet Requirements – Education News Story”(October 2005, 8). As of October 18, 2011オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010th of February 5Browse.
  84. ^ Honolulu Advertiser, August 17, 2005, p. B1
  85. ^ Ishibasha, Koren (November 2005). “Official Enrollment (PDF)”. As of May 2010, 2オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.Year ending March 2009Browse.
  86. ^ a b "Hawaii" (Lonely Planet,ISBN-4 8401-1421-8, 2005, p.42)
  87. ^ "Merrie Monarch Festival 2005”. The Honolulu Advertiser. As of October 2009, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010th of February 5Browse.
  88. ^ Festival Na Hiva Hiva Hawaii
  89. ^ "Five people this year on the Big Island of Hawaii, including three tourists infected with parasites”. CNN (July 2019, 5). 2019th of February 6Browse.
  90. ^ "SankeiBiz-Hawaii, sunscreen bans from 2021 due to protection of coral reefs 2018.7.4 16:08". 2018th of February 7Browse.
  91. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, Archives.starbulletin.com, (May 29, 2001), http://archives.starbulletin.com/2001/05/29/features/index.html 2010th of February 5Browse. 
  92. ^ “In Jigokudani, a Japanese National Concentration Camp, a National Historic Site”. Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2015, 2). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150220105934/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/20150220-OYT1T50053.html 
  93. ^ "Hawaii independent sovereignty”(May 2017, 11). 2017th of February 11Browse.
  94. ^ As a foreign wrestlerEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSecond most after
  95. ^ a b Ala Moana Center "Resort R01 Waikiki & Oahu" Diamond Big, Inc. December 2010 Revised 12th Edition p11
  96. ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun" evening edition, August 2010, 8, 27 pages
  97. ^ a b c d e "Resort R01 Waikiki & Oahu" Diamond Big, Inc. December 2010 Revised 12th Edition p11
  98. ^ Road signing with Hawaii
  99. ^ "Hawaii Handbook"


  • The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV.
  • Bushnell, OA 1993. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawaii. ISBN 0824814576. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press
  • Kinzer, Stephen 2007, Overthrow:America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. ISBN 0805082409. Times Books
  • Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages ​​of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-508116-1 
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena; Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0 
  • Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999):402–408.
  • Stokes, John FG 1932. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in Hawaii and Hawaiian-American Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, v, 34, n, 4, pp. 594–600.

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