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🧳 | <Notice> Trip to Tokamachi by Toki Tetsu Train September XNUMX "Craft Beer Train" Service Hokuetsu Express


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<Notice> Trip to Tokamachi by Toki Tetsu Train September XNUMX "Craft Beer Train" service Hokuetsu Express

 
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Apply by August 8 by entering your zip code, address, participant's name (Frigana), age, gender, phone number, and food allergies in an email (btrain@hokuhoku.co.jp).
 

On September XNUMX, Hokuetsu Express (Headquarters, Minami Uonuma City) collaborated with Echigo Tokimeki Railway (Azumacho, Joetsu City) to "Craft Bee along the line ... → Continue reading

 Joetsu Times

We publish the daily newspaper "Joetsu Times" in the areas of Joetsu City and Myoko City, Niigata Prefecture, and the daily newspaper "Itoigawa Times" in the area of ​​Itoigawa City.
Based on the concept of "local cheering party", the editorial policy is "to support and stimulate the vitality of the area", and the first aspect to be seen in the morning is the citizens (administration) who are doing their best, moving topics, and soothing hearts. It is composed of photographs, etc., and we try to create a page suitable for the start of a refreshing day.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

電子 メ ー ル

電子 メ ー ル(Denshi mail) orEmail(British: email or e-mail) IsComputer networkAs if usingPostbyletterlikearticleExchange (and attached files, photo data, etc.) and its technology.

Overview

インターネットIs a communication method that has existed since the beginning ofUUCP,SMTPSuch asprotocolYour email throughserverBe delivered to. ElectricalsignalSince it is sent and received by, it generally takes several tens of seconds to several minutes regardless of whether it is sent to the other party on the other side of the earth or the other party in the next room.

On the other hand, before the spread of the Internet, so-calledPC communicationHowever, a system for exchanging documents between subscribers was provided as "e-mail". However, in personal computer communication, since communication was generally limited to one personal computer communication system, there was almost no mutual communication function such as an e-mail exchange function with another system. Also, since there were many cases where each PC communication system had its own system,User interfaceAnd so onCompatibleThere was no However, since then, with the spread of the Internet, it has become possible to communicate between major personal computer communication systems and the Internet. Email friend (Mel friend), there were times when it became fashionable.

Also called electronic mail[Source required].

In the 1990s and 2000s, it was common to write "e-mail" with a hyphen in English, but in the 2010s and recent English, email and hyphens are also increasingly omitted.

In the following, items that are not described as "broadly defined mail" areRFCDescribes only e-mails that use the UUCP and SMTP protocols, which comply with. For other emails, see the related items above.

Email in a narrow sense

  • RFCE-mail that conforms to the UUCP and SMTP protocols.

Broad email

Technologies that support e-mail

Address representation

For individual emailsア ド レ スIs "john_smith@examplecompany.com"Or"Yamada.Tarou@example.wikipedia.org"Or"examplename@gmail.comIt is expressed in the form of ".

Unique to actually use emailDomain name(In the above example, "examplecompany.com"Or"example.wikipedia.org)) get and manage the domain nameDNS server,Mail serverYou can send and receive by registering with (manually or automatically).Once joinedInternet providerAddresses of companies, businesses, schools, etc.Account), But yahoo mail andgmailSince the spread of these addresses, those addresses have become more major.

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

Theoretically, there is no limit to the capacity of one e-mail, but it is limited by the capacity set by each provider (expressed as "maximum capacity that can be sent and received").It varies from provider to provider.With a small capacityDial-up connectionNumber of remnants of the timesMegabyteFrom about (MB)BroadbandAfter generalization, it is generally about 10 to 20MB, and some providers set it to about 100MB.A few GB (GigaSome providers set it to about bytes)[Source required].

An example of a major provider in Japan isOCNThen up to 10MB[2],So-netUp to 20MB[3],BiglobeIs up to 100MB[4].. For exchanging large amounts of dataFTP,P2P,HTTPBy etc.online storage,File transfer service,UploaderAnd so on.

Received mail of gmail is up to 50MB per mail[5](For sending, attachments over 25MBGoogle driveAnd other file sharing services)[6].

Application used for sending and receiving

Used by general users when sending and receiving emailsApplication softwareAs for, I installed it exclusively on my PC in the 1990s etc.Email clientI sent and received with software.

From around the 2000s and 2010sWeb browserAccess the server and log in to your accountWeb pageMethod of sending and receiving on (Webmail) Has also spread.This webmail method does not require detailed settings such as POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP, and even if you do not carry your own PC with you in other departments in the company, on the go, or on the road, whether it is a shared PC or a public PC, For the time being, if you can access the Internet website with a browser, you can send and receive e-mails with your own personal address.Also, even if a virus mail with a file containing a computer virus is sent, it is easy to block the influence of it, and let's send a large amount of mail maliciously and intentionally to annoy others. Even if there is a person who says, it is easy to block the adverse effect of it (check only the title and capacity of the email, select only the necessary email and read the contents, and for emails that seem suspicious, put the actual email on your PC You can avoid receiving it), which means that there are also advantages in terms of computer security and operations.

Free address (Free mail serviceIn the case of), most webmails are sent and received on a web page using a web browser.

protocol

Currently on the Internet,Mail serverCommunication betweenclientIs generally sent fromSMTPIs used. In the old days and even now, rarelyUUCPIs used. EmailsserverTherelayIs sent to the target mail server via. In addition, the e-mail includes the e-mail software used by the sender and the transit server.HeaderInformation is attached.

When reading mail from the mail server,POP,IMAPAnd other protocols are used. The format of mail is specified in RFC 5322. Also, non-English characters言语,textFor sending information other than by email, etc.MIMEIs stipulated.

Character code

Original emailCharacter code TheUS-ASCIIWas only aboveMIMEVarious character codes can be used by the regulation of.

Former JapanJUNETThen.JIS standardSet rules based onJapaneseI was able to handle[7].. This ruleMIMERedefined in the framework ofISO-2022-JPIs. This ISO-2022-JP is widely used in current Japanese mail.

RFC 2277 warns you to choose the most widely known character code.this isUTF-8Is provisional until it becomes widespread, but since it may be 50 years, it is also said that it may be considered as eternal in nature.[8].

Mail format

Originally, the email wasarticleDegree ofPlain text形式It was only the thing of the above, but aboveMIMEWith the provision and popularization ofHTMLDescribed byHTML mailAlso,RFCIt has been specified by the and has been used by the general public.

HTML emails can be written in HTML because the email text can be written in HTML.Web pageThere is an advantage that it has the same expressive power as.Mobile phone-PHSBut,cHTMLSome form of e-mail is provided as a general-purpose service.

On the other hand, in particular,Microsoft Windows And its standard email client Outlook ExpressWith the spread of (HTML format is selected by default when composing emails), HTML format emails are often sent and received. However, in the mail client, it is necessary to expand and display the HTML information in the mail.Rendering engine(Internet ExplorerWeb browsers such asSecurity holeHas been discovered, just look at (preview) the email,Computer virusIs damaged,spam-Fictitious billingImage by email etc.TagSend and display the email with the embedded, and collect the information that displayed the email (Web beaconSay) and abuseSecurityThere is a problem above (however, "displaying HTML mail" is not technically fundamentally different from "displaying a web page in a browser"). As a measure,Antivirus-Spam measures OfsoftIntroduce or refuse to receive HTML mail with the filtering function / TrashfolderThere are things like sorting to. In addition, some mail clients do not support HTML mail display, so even if you send HTML mail without notice, it may not be received correctly.

In addition, when sending a certain file data as an attachment to an email, it is converted into a text by MIME etc. as an attachment file (Encoding), embed it in the email body, send it, and restore it to the original data file on the receiving side (Decode) Method is taken. Since a computer virus can be loaded in the attached file, if the setting is such that the attached file is automatically opened when received, there is also a risk that the computer virus may be damaged.

Header information

Each email is separate from the body of the email.HeaderfieldIt has an area where various special information called is written. Most mail clients can refer to the information in this header field in some way (different for each mail client). This information isIntimidationEmail orス パ ムThis is useful for identifying the sender when you receive an email such as. However,CamouflageHowever, it is not possible to completely judge it because it is not necessary to add all the header fields.

Typical header field

Header fields Field name:Field value It is described in the form.

Cc
Bcc
Cc is a copy recipient[9](32.08.04), Bcc is a secret recipient[9](32.08.05)Recipient's email address. It can include single or multiple names and addresses.#Cc and BccSee.
Date
Date and time the sender sent
From
Author's email address[Annotation 1].. It can include one or more names or addresses.
The description of this header can be freely changed by the sender by setting the mail client. Due to such email specifications, it is difficult to completely prevent misuse such as so-called "spoofing".
In-Reply-To
List of Message-ID values ​​such as reply source mail
Message-ID
Unique number attached to each email
MIME-Version
MIME version
Received
By the time this email arrivedMail transfer agent(IP address) And date and time passed
Reply-To
E-mail address that sender wants to reply to
Return-Path
E-mail address transmitted as the sender in SMTP communication
Sender
Sender's email address[Annotation 2].. The name can be included. It should not be used when the author and sender are the same, that is, From is a single address and is the same as Sender. On the contrary, if different, it is essential.
Subject theme[9](32.03.03)
A short sentence that describes the topic. In case of replyRe:, In case of transferFw:Is often added to the beginning automatically (#Re and FwSee).
To
Recipient's email address. It can include one or more names or addresses.
X-FROM-DOMAIN
Sender's domain
X-IP
Global IP address of sender
X-Mailer
Type of mail client
X-Priority
Severity specified by sender

Save format

  • eml format: 1 email 1File
  • mbox: Combining multiple emails into one file (1 folder and 1 email for each user)
  • maildir: 1 mail 1 file
  • MH:: 1 mail 1 file is similar, but directory specifications are different

Features

Cc and Bcc

As a function when sending mail,Cc(Copy recipient[9](32.08.04)[Annotation 3])WhenBcc(Secret recipient[9](32.08.05)[Annotation 4]) There are two types. The original destination of the email is generally specified as To: and sent, but this function is used when there is a person other than the original destination who wants to send a copy.

Of course, people who are new to e-mail as well as people who are already used to it often do not understand the original usage of this function.[Original research?].. It is very convenient to use this function if you understand and use it well, but it is not limited to private and public use, the difference between Cc function and Bcc function If you do not understand and use the destination well,personal informationIt causes problems in various ways such as leakage.

In addition,BccSince there are mail software with defects such as showing the mail address specified as to other recipients and writing it in another area in the header,BccSome users understand the function but do not use it[Source required].

Cc
ToThis function is used when there are other parties who want to send a copy in addition to the original destination specified in.
ToIn the same way as specifying the destination with,CcSpecify the person you want to send a copy to and use it.ToTo the original opponent specified inToとCcYou can see all the destinations specified in. Also,CcTo the person specified inToとCcYou can see all the destinations specified in.
In short, the sender (From),ToOpponent ofCcThe address will be known to all three people.
Bcc
ToThere are other people who want to send a copy in addition to the original destination specified in.ToとCcThis function is used when you do not want to know the email address of the person who sent the copy and the fact that the copy was sent to the person specified in.
ToIn the same way as specifying the destination with,BccSpecify the person you want to send a copy to and use it. When forwarding mailBccSince the header is deleted from the email text (SMTP DATA),To,CcTo the person specified inBccThe destination specified for is invisible at all. But,BccTo the person specified inToとCcYou can see all the destinations specified in.What this means isBccIf the person who received it inadvertently replies with Reply-all,BccWhat I was doingTo,CcIt means that it will be known to the recipients of.BccDepending on the implementation ofTo,CcBy using the format to forward the email sent in, even if you inadvertently do this,FromIn some cases, emails can only be sent to the person in question.What side effects do you haveBccCareful attention should be paid when using.Also,BccIf there are multiple destination addresses forBccAmong the specified destinations, other destinations other than oneself cannot be known.
When connecting to a single mail account server from multiple mail clients, there is a technique that utilizes Bcc.BccToFromBy specifying the same address as (yourself) (always setting by mail client (MUA) is also possible), the mail you sent will be delivered to the inbox of your mail client as it is. By setting the mail server to not remove the mail received by the server or mail client on the mail server such as POP3 (delete it after several days), the mail sent from one mail client will be sent to all other mail clients. Delivered as a copy. This allows you to check sent mails with multiple mail clients, where you normally can't know unless you see the sent box of the sent mail client.
NetiquetteAlthough it is the recommended method of sending emails as one of the above, it is not so true when mass email should use Bcc in any case. For example, for a particular broadcast email, there is no need to use Bcc if all the recipients exchange email addresses, rather To and the destination and purpose are clearly stated. It is normal to use Cc properly. Advanced netiquette knowledge is required to properly use To, Cc, and Bcc depending on the time and case.
Sometimes, "Black carbon copy[Annotation 5]Is sometimes said, but it is a mistake, and "blind carbon copy" is correct.

Re and Fw

Re (Reply)
manyEmail clientThen, the symbol of Re: or RE: is automatically added to the beginning of the subject of the returned email. This abbreviation is for convenience of automatically adding the reply title "About XX" (Regarding ~) to the title "XX" of the received mail, and is not a mark indicating that it is a reply. The person may intentionally delete it. The conventions used in commercial texts for a long time were adopted for the email commands in the beginning of email, andRFCIt was established by being described in, but there are other theories.
Fw, Fwd[Annotation 6](transfer)
Part ofEmail clientThen, when forwarding an email, a subject such as Fw: may be automatically added to the beginning of the subject. This abbreviation is not only a matter of convenience like Re, but also a proprietary specification that is not described even in RFC. For example, if Fw: is consecutive, you can think of it as an email that was forwarded many times.Email clientIt's just a specification, not a general understanding. The sequence of Fw:Chain mailSince it is very common, it can also be used as a standard for chain mail. For this reason, some chain mails include instructions to delete Fw: when transferring.

History

Pioneering activity

The way to electrically convey text messages was in the mid 1800sMorse codeCan be traced back to the telegram.1939 New York World's FairThen,IBMSent a blessing document from San Francisco to New York by communication using high-speed in-house radio waves that will replace postal mail in the future[10].Second World WarUsed by GermanyTeletype terminal The[11],afterwardstelexWas used until the end of the 1960s, when it became popular worldwide. There was a similar TWX in the United States, which occupied the position of an important communication method until the end of the 1980s.[12].

Historicallyelectronic mail(Electronic mail)The term "generally used to refer to electronically transmitted documents in general. For example, in the early 1970sfacsimileWas also used as a term for sending documents by[13][14].

Origin of email

Email was developed before the Internet. The existing e-mail system has become an important tool in making the Internet.

The first email is1965 ,main frameupperTime sharing systemHas started to be used as a way for multiple users to communicate with each other. By the early 1970s,US Department of Defense Of(English edition) (AUTODIN) connects 1350 terminals and can handle an average of 1 million messages per month for 3000 million messages per month. The AUTODIN is supported by 3000 computerized large switching devices, and connects about 18 terminals.(English edition)Also connected to the Advanced Record System[15].. Although the exact point is unknown, SDC (Land InstituteFrom a spin-off fromSAGEThere is a Q32 system from the company that developed the software.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyWas in 1961CTSSIntroduced[16]Established a system in which multiple users can log in to the central system from a remote terminal using a telephone line, and save and share files on a disk[17].. E-mail was soon extended to "network e-mail" for users to exchange information between different computers.1966 Was forwarding emails between different computers (the details of SAGE are not clear, but it may have happened earlier).

ARPANETHas had a great impact on the evolution of email. Right after its birth1969 Has reported that an experiment of inter-system e-mail transfer was conducted.[30].BBN OfRay Tomlinson The1971 For the first time to develop an e-mail system on ARPANET@Enabled to specify user name and device using[31].. The number of e-mail users has increased rapidly on ARPANET,1975 Had been used by over 1000 people.

Besides, UNIX mail was networked by 1978.UUCPNext[32], In 1981 IBMmain frameEmail ofBitnetConnected with[33].

Penetration of the general public

As the convenience and benefits of e-mail on ARPANET became generally known, e-mail became popular and people who could not connect to ARPANET demanded it. Several e-mail systems have been developed that connect time-sharing systems with alternative networks. For exampleUUCP,IBMVNET etc.

All ofComputer,Computer networkSince they are not directly connected to each other, the e-mail address needed to indicate the "route" of information transmission, that is, the path from the sending computer to the receiving computer. Emails can be routed between several networks (ARPANET,Bitnet,NSFNET). It was possible to exchange e-mail with the host connected by UUCP.

The route was specified by a method called "bang path". Write the address of the host that is directly reachable from one host, then bang the address of the next reachable host from it (Exclamation point=!It is an address specification method that connects with) and writes.[34].

CCITTIn the 1980s to enable interoperability of various email systems.X.400Developed a standard. At the same time,IETFIs a simpler protocolSimple Mail Transfer Protocol Developed (SMTP), which is for email transfer on the Internet.De facto standardBecame. In the modern age of connecting to the Internet from homes, the interoperability of e-mail systems based on SMTP is, on the contrary, a security problem.

1982 ,White House TheAmerican National Security Council (NSC) Adopted IBM's e-mail system Professional Office System (PROF system) for workers.1985 In April, the system became fully operational for NSC workers.1986 In November, the rest of the White House went online. Until the end of the 11s there was only a PROF system, but after that various systems have been introduced (VAX A-1 (all-in-one), cc:Mail, etc.)

Since 1984 in JapanJUNETHas begun to connect between universities, and has since expanded to include corporate research institutes.Initially, only ASCII characters were assumed, but later in JUNET, a character encoding method that enables the use of Japanese (Kanji) in e-mail, etc.ISO-2022-JPIs being developed[7](Email # character code).

When composing mail on UNIX as of the late 1980sJapanese input system(FEPAlso called) in a UNIX environmentWnnThere was a way to use (as a Japanese input system, laterCaneWas also developed).Apart from that, on MS-DOSSerial portFor the purpose of communication viaKEK-KermitEtc. and set the personal computer as a UNIX terminal[35], As a Japanese input systemATOKOrMatsutakeIs used to generate the kanji code on the personal computer side, and KEK-Kermit etc. is used to generate the kanji code on the local side of the personal computer. Shift JIS Is the kanji code specified on the UNIX side.EUCOrJISThere was also a method of inputting kanji when composing an email on UNIX by sending it to the UNIX side while converting it to.Conversely, when displaying an e-mail containing kanji received on the UNIX side on the personal computer side that is the UNIX terminal, the kanji code received on the personal computer side is displayed again by KEK-Kermit etc.Shift JISIt was displayed after being converted to.

In the era that followed, personal computers were directly connected to Ethernet at universities and companies, and dial-up connections were expanding to ordinary households.Email clientAppears.

problem

Increased traffic and delivery delay

Much of the email traffic is actuallySpam mail.Barracuda NetworksReport of[36]according to,2007 90% to 95% of the emails sent were spam emails. These spam emails, which are sent in large quantities, place an excessive load on the mail server and may cause delays in mail delivery. For example2004 From late July to early August, major internet providers@niftyIn spite of this, spam mail sent in large quantities from overseas placed an intermittent burden on the mail server, and continued to hinder the reception of mail.[37].. (October 2010ロシアThe spam mailers caught in the U.S. sent 1 billion emails a day. )

In recent years,Trojan horseSuch asMalwareThe ratio of DDoS type spam transmissions caused by computer infected with virus is increasing rapidly, and it is said that the load on mail server will be further increased (→BotnetSee).

Other than spam, there are also so-called "New Year's mails" (a large amount of greeting mails that occur around New Year's day) as a cause of increasing traffic. In particular, e-mail functions such as mobile phones may be used as a chat as a “means for immediate communication”, so they are more likely to be sent in large amounts and more intensively than general e-mail, and delivery due to this Delay orconvergenceMay be a problem. As a countermeasure against this, each telecommunications carrier may call for refraining from use during the year-end hours or restrict calling. In the days when personal computer communication was at its peak, there was also a service to prevent the concentration of processing by sending a New Year's mail reservation to a server in advance and delivering it to New Year's Day.

Note that many e-mail delivery systems have a mechanism in which when the mail server is overloaded with a certain amount of load, the sending is suspended, the data is temporarily stored in the spool, and then resent (for example, several hours later), so that the traffic is Exceeding a certain amount causes extreme delay in delivery. This delay occurs for each email, so even if the emails are sent at the same time, some will arrive in a few seconds, and some will arrive in a few hours. Then, there is a risk of rubbing the email "sent" or "not sent".

一時 的 なtrafficWith the increase ofspoolIn many cases, the pending mail stored in is processed and returns to normal, but if the capacity of the mail server is not sufficient, the resending process itself may not be in time and the failure notification may be returned to the sender.In principle, even a failure notification cannot be returned and "disappeared". If the mail server cannot catch up with the ability to receive mail (SMTPThis is because the connection) itself is rejected. I often see in New Year's mail, etc. that the provider's mail was lost due to increased traffic, as if it were force majeure, but to be exact, the provider's mail server was not properly managed. , The process at the time of congestion is not working properly. The system is defective.[Source required]

Terrorist attacksAt times, there was a one-day delay in mail between New York, and in 1South AfricaでCape TownとJohannesburgExperiments were carried out over 700 km, and the carrier pigeon was able to transmit information earlier than e-mail.

Problems with anti-spam mail

On the server as a spam mail countermeasure,clientOnfilteringBecame popular, but normal emails wereス パ ムThe problem of non-delivery has been increasing (→Email filteringSee).

Communication problems

dialectEven people who cannot communicate verbally due to such reasons can communicate with each other by letters, so it is useful to communicate by e-mail in the present age when people's exchanges are widespread (Japan, Japan,Chugoku,The United KingdomEspecially in countries with various dialects). on the other hand,PC communication,インターネットProblems seen in exchanging only characters in etc. (Burning,Flaming) Can also be found in email. There are cases in which the true intentions and emotions of emails do not get transmitted to the other party and often develop into rubbing. In the English-speaking world, the name of an email sent by mistakenly reading the true meaning of the email and leaving it to the emotion (Slang) Has Flame Mail.

Safety issues

Text-based plaintext in email isserver,networkHighly likely to be sniffed abovesecurityIt cannot be said that it is preferable from the viewpoint of.Philip ZimmermannDeveloped and published byCiphersoftware(Pretty Good Privacy: PGP) plug-in etc. can be installed to improve safety.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Email address" here is technically called a mailbox-list. The same applies to BCC, CC, Reply-To, To.
  2. ^ The "email address" here is technically called a mailbox.
  3. ^ British: carbon copy
  4. ^ British: blind carbon copy
  5. ^ British: black carbon copy
  6. ^ British: forward

Source

  1. ^ "RFC 5321 --Simple Mail Transfer Protocol". Network Working Group (June 2008). 2010/2Browse.
  2. ^ OCN official page
  3. ^ Member support ... Basic mailbox capacity and storage period
  4. ^ BIGLOBE mail specifications
  5. ^ "You can receive up to 50 MB of email.[1]'
  6. ^ Note: Use Google Drive or other file sharing services to send attachments larger than 25 MB.[2]'
  7. ^ a b JUNETUser's Guide (First Edition)
  8. ^ Using International Characters in Internet Mail[Broken link]
  9. ^ a b c d e JISX0032 1999.
  10. ^ The Watsons: IBM's Troubled Legacy
  11. ^ See File: Gestapo anti-gay telex.jpg
  12. ^ Telex and TWX HistoryDonald E. Kimberlin, 1986
  13. ^ Ron Brown, Fax invades the mail market, New Scientist, Vol. 56, No. 817 (Oct., 26, 1972), pages 218-221.
  14. ^ Herbert P. Luckett, What's News: Electronic-mail delivery gets started, Popular Science, Vol. 202, No. 3 (March 1973); page 85
  15. ^ a b USPS Support Panel, Louis T Rader, Chair, Chapter IV: Systems, Electronic Message Systems for the US Postal Service, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1976; pages 27-35.
  16. ^ "CTSS, Compatible Time-Sharing System" (September 4, 2006), (English edition), USA-CTSS.
  17. ^ Tom Van Vleck, "The IBM 7094 and CTSS" (September 10, 2004), Multicians.org (Multics), web: Multicians-7094.
  18. ^ IBM (pdf). 1440/1460 Administrative Terminal System (1440-CX-07X and 1460-CX-08X) Application Description (Second Edition ed.). IBM. H20-0129-1. http://bitsavers.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de/pdf/ibm/144x/H20-0185-1_1440_ATS_termOpe.pdf NovemberBrowse. 
  19. ^ IBM System / 36O Administrative Terminal System DOS (ATS / DOS) Program Description ManualIBM. H20-0508 
  20. ^ IBM System / 360 Administrative Terminal System-OS (ATS / OS) Application Description ManualIBM. H20-0297 
  21. ^ Version 3 Unix mail (1) manual page from 10/25/1972
  22. ^ Version 6 Unix mail (1) manual page from 2/21/1975
  23. ^ APL Quotations and Anecdotes, including's story of the Mailbox
  24. ^ History of the Internet, including Carter / Mondale use of email
  25. ^ David Wooley, PLATO: The Emergence of an Online Community, 1994.
  26. ^ Stromberg, Joseph (February 2012, 2). “A Piece of Email History Comes to the American History Museum". Smithsonian Museum. NovemberBrowse.
  27. ^ "...PROFS changed the way organizations communicated, collaborated and approached work when it was introduced by IBM's Data Processing Division in 1981...", IBM.com
  28. ^ "1982 --The National Security Council (NSC) staff at the White House acquires a prototype electronic mail system, from IBM, called the Professional Office System (PROFs) ....", fas.org
  29. ^ Gordon Bell's timeline of Digital Equipment Corporation
  30. ^ Tom Van Vleck (February 2001, 2). “The History of Electronic Mail". NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ Ray Tomlinson. "The First Network Email". NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ Version 7 Unix manual: "UUCP Implementation Description" by DA Nowitz, and "A Dial-Up Network of UNIX Systems" by DA Nowitz and ME Lesk
  33. ^ "BITNET History", livinginternet.com
  34. ^ rfc976 https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc976 UUCP Mail Interchange Format Standard Section 5 “Summary” describes the bang path (representing the email address by connecting the host name with!). An example of a bang path is hosta! Hostb! User.
  35. ^ Hiroshi Kimura, Akihiro Taimura "How to use e-mail and e-news"Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University, Natural Sciences," Vol. 33, No. 1, Nagasaki University, Faculty of Liberal Arts, July 1992, pp. 7-65, ISSN 02871319, NOT 120000916619., "5.1 Setup between modem (digital phone) and computer"]
  36. ^ Yukihiro Katsumura (December 2007, 12). “"95% of emails were'junk emails'", 2007 spam trends". ITpro. Nikkei BP. NovemberBrowse.
  37. ^ "Member support> About mail delay due to mass spam mail and countermeasures". @nifty. Nifty (September 2004, 8). NovemberBrowse.[Broken link]

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Food allergy

Food allergy(Allergy to the body) is a detrimental symptom (skin, mucous membrane, digestive organs, respiratory organs, anaphylactic reaction, etc.) that occurs through an immunological mechanism after ingesting the causative food.FoodDepending onAnaphylactic shockMay develop and be life-threatening. In some groups laterAtopic dermatitis,asthmaTo progress toAllergy marchIs the first allergic reaction of the hypothesis.

The prevalence rate decreases with age after reaching the peak at 0 years old, and most of them develop in infancy.[1].. In Europe, America and Asia乳 幼 児からEarly childhoodAs a major cause of food allergiesChicken eggsとmilkOccupies more than half of them[1][2].. In Japanese epidemiologyAdolescenceAs the number of cases increased, the number of cases caused by crustaceans decreased, and the amount of milk decreased.adultAfter the period,crustacean,wheat,fruit,seafoodAre the main foods that cause allergies[1].. According to statistics of 3882 Japanese people, the top three foods that cause foods are chicken eggs 3%, milk 38.3%, and wheat 15.9% (pulled by the large number of infants).[1].. Peanuts are the main cause in the West but rare in Asia[2].. Wheat allergies are common in Japan and South Korea, but in other Asian countries it may be due to cooking[2].

As a countermeasure, remove the causative food to the minimum necessary. For clinical research stage treatmentOral immunotherapyIn 2017, ensuring safety was an issue because the frequency of serious symptoms was not low.[3].. Since 2015, infants with food allergies to eggs and peanuts with atopic dermatitis have been shown to develop tolerance faster through early exposure to food.[4].. on the other hand,Milk allergyIn addition, there are some results that resistance is acquired faster when using mixed milk derived from soybeans and rice.[5][6].. About foods that are often the cause, in JapanFood Sanitation ActArticle 19Specific raw materialIt is obligatory to display designated items as.

Age of onset

日本の3882例の統計からは、0歳時の約1250例(約30%と少し)を頂点にして、1歳児で約700例、2歳児で約400弱、4歳で200例を下回り、年齢を重ねるほどに漸減し、多くは乳幼児期に発症する[1].

16% of milk allergies by age 79 and 68-78% of chicken eggs develop resistance to IgE[7].. Only 20% of children who are allergic to peanut allergies develop tolerance, and many adults still need to be managed.[8].

Prevalence Epidemiology

The number of affected people has doubled in the United States and the United Kingdom compared to the 1990s and 2000s, and the cause is unknown.[2].

Region

The prevalence of food allergies in Asia is comparable to that in Europe and the United States, and because of the abundance of seafoodcrustaceanAllergies are common and extremely low in peanuts[2].. Peanut allergies are doubling in the West[2], Severe anaphylaxis is also increasing[9].. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, fish and soybeans are common in the West, but the prevalence of fish and soybeans is questionable and low in those papers.[2].

Eggs and milk are the most common in babies and toddlers[2].. Among children, eggs are the most common in Asia and milk is the second. Wheat allergies are rare in most Asian countries, but common in Japan and South Korea[2].. Buckwheat is a major allergy to Japanese school children[2].

Anaphylaxis under the age of 6 is most common in milk, and shellfish are common from then on until the age of 18.[2].. In Japan and South Korea, wheat is a major cause of anaphylaxis in children and is also an important trigger for anaphylaxis in Thailand and Singapore.[2].

In adults, peanut and nut anaphylaxis is common in the United Kingdom, Australia and other Western countries.[2].. Anaphylaxis caused by shellfish is the most common and is the main cause in most Asian countries such as China, Thailand and Singapore, as well as in the United States and Australia.[2].. In Korea, wheat and buckwheat are the main ingredients[2].

Onset epidemiology

Pregnant mother's peanut intake is independent of her child's peanut allergy[10].Randomized controlled trialIn, there is no preventive effect on the onset of allergies by early intake of chicken eggs to healthy infants of 4 to 6 months, and if they are already allergic, increase the frequency of allergic reactions as a group.[11].

Diagnosis

Food allergies cannot be diagnosed simply by having symptoms that appear to be an allergic reaction after eating. In fact, food allergies are often confused with intolerance due to enzyme deficiency and reactions due to the pharmacological action of substances contained in food. Type I that develops immediately after ingestion for food allergiesAllergiesThere are cases of non-type I allergy, in which symptoms appear after several hours or more.

Tests such as RAST should only be used for cases considered to be type I allergy. These testsfalse positiveSince there are many cases, judge from the medical history and inspect only what is necessary. AlsoRastThe clinical significance of these results differs depending on the food antigen and the age of the patient, even if the values ​​are the same. For example, in infants, wheat is often positive for RAST, so low egg white positivity is considered to be more clinically significant than moderate wheat positivity.

hay feverIf it gets worse in the seasonOral allergy syndromeThere is a possibility of. Especially in the case of adults.

治療

Anaphylactic shockIf this happens, treat anaphylactic shock. seafood,nut,Peanuts,BuckwheatIs known to often cause severe anaphylaxis. AlsoasthmaIt is said that patients with a history of anaphylaxis are also likely to develop serious anaphylaxis.

The principle of treatment is to remove the causative food, but many children have food allergies, and severely removed foods may adversely affect nutrition. If the cause cannot be identified, it is desirable to see an allergist.

By ingesting an amount of causative food that does not cause an allergic reactionGet used to the body,Oral immunotherapyIs also carried out at dedicated institutions and hospitals. In the clinical research stage, the frequency of immediate symptoms of oral immunotherapy in hospital is 58-71%, and the frequency of adrenaline use for anaphylactic shock is 6-9%, and the frequency of serious symptoms is not low. It is a high-risk treatment method, and ensuring safety was an issue in 2017.[3].

Since 2015, studies have shown that infants with food allergies to eggs and peanuts with atopic dermatitis develop resistance faster with treatment for eczema and early exposure to food after 4 months.[4].. Rigorous multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to find the best method[12].

Milk allergySo, in a 2016 survey for new milk allergy guidelines by the World Allergy Organization, milk allergies lasted around 40 months with the use of milk proteolytic milk, with formulas derived from soybeans and rice. Evidence that it took about 24 months when used[5]Is also appearing[6].

Cause food

The foods that cause food allergies that are subject to allergen tests include the following, and of these, the foods that are subject to labeling under the law are generally determined in consideration of the number of cases and severity.

Foods that cause allergies
Food nameResponse in JapanRemarks
egg"Specific raw materials"
Obliged to display as
There are also egg yolk allergies and egg white allergies instead of whole eggs
wheat
Shrimp
Crab
SobaBuckwheat # allergySee also
peanutsPeanut # Peanut allergySee also
milk
Abalone"Similar to specific raw materials"
Encourage to display as
The squid
How much
Orange
Cashew nuts
Kiwi fruit
beef
Walnut
ゴ マ
Salmon
Mackerel
soy
chicken
banana
豚 肉
Matsutake
Peaches
Sweet potato
Apples
gelatin
Rice
Barley(barley)
Millet(millet)
Hie(稗)
Millet(millet)
corn
Green beans
pea
Almond
coconut
Chestnut(Chestnut)rubberIs said to have similar allergies
(Main component with similar molecular structure and unique odor (Rubber protein) Is included)
Strawberry
melon
mango
Avocado
Pear
Tomato
celery
parsley
onion
watermelon
carrot
potato
sweet potato
Pumpkin
Spinach
Bamboo shoot
garlic
Mustard
Wasabi
Cacaoチ ョ コ レ ー ト(Including quasi-chocolate and chocolate sweets in Japan) ・cocoaetc.
Chocolate allergySee also
Clams
Oyster
Scallop
squid
Octopus
サ バ
Horse mackerel
イ ワ シ
Cod
salmon
Tuna
salmon roe
Tarako

footnote

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Source

  1. ^ a b c d e Japan Pediatric Allergy Society Food Allergy Committee "Food Allergy Practice Guidelines 2012 Digest Version"Chapter 2 Epidemiology", viewed August 2017, 8.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lee AJ, Thalayasingam M, Lee BW (2013). “Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?”. Asia Pac Allergy 3 (1): 3–14. two:10.5415 / apallergy.2013.3.1.3. PMC 3563019. PMID 23403837. https://apallergy.org/DOIx.php?id=10.5415/apallergy.2013.3.1.3. 
  3. ^ a b "Dyspnea and cardiopulmonary arrest due to milk allergy treatment! The fear of immunotherapy that dares to take allergens”. HEALTH PRESS (December 2017, 12). NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ a b Natsume (May 2017, 5). “Prevention of Childhood Food Allergies-Recent Findings”. Weekly Medical Newspaper. http://www.igaku-shoin.co.jp/paperDetail.do?id=PA03222_02#bun NovemberBrowse. 
  5. ^ a b Terracciano L, Bouygue GR, Sarratud T, Veglia F, Martelli A, Fiocchi A (2010). “Impact of dietary regimen on the duration of cow's milk allergy: a random allocation study”. Clin. Exp. Allergy 40 (4): 637–42. two:10.1111 / j.1365-2222.2009.03427.x. PMID 20067480. 
  6. ^ a b Fiocchi A, Dahda L, Dupont C, Campoy C, Fierro V, Nieto A (2016). “Cow's milk allergy: towards an update of DRACMA guidelines”. World Allergy Organ J 9 (1): 35. two:10.1186 / s40413-016-0125-0. PMC 5109783. PMID 27895813. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109783/. 
  7. ^ “[In memory of Professor VG Ginzburg”] (Russian). Vestn Rentgenol Radiol 45 (5): 109. (1970). two:10.3390 / children2040439. PMID 4928773. http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/2/4/439. 
  8. ^ Yun J, Katelaris CH (2009). “Food allergy in adolescents and adults”. Intern Med J 39 (7): 475–8. two:10.1111 / j.1445-5994.2009.01967.x. PMID 19382983. 
  9. ^ Sumathi Reddy (August 2017, 8). “Serious acute food allergies, significantly increased in rice”. Wall Street Journal. http://jp.wsj.com/articles/SB12800216862765424235404583345464259655922 NovemberBrowse. 
  10. ^ Fox AT, Sasieni P, du Toit G, Syed H, Lack G (2009). “Household peanut consumption as a risk factor for the development of peanut allergy”. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 123 (2): 417–23. two:10.1016 / j.jaci.2008.12.014. PMID 19203660. 
  11. ^ Bellach J, Schwarz V, Ahrens B, et al. (2017). “Randomized placebo-controlled trial of hen's egg consumption for primary prevention in infants”. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 139 (5): 1591–1599.e2. two:10.1016 / j.jaci.2016.06.045. PMID 27523961. 
  12. ^ Nowak-Węgrzyn A, Chatchatee P (2017). “Mechanisms of Tolerance Induction”. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 70 Suppl 2: 7–24. two:10.1159/000457915. PMID 28521317. 

References

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