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🧳 | JAL and IBM Japan provide overseas travel information with virtual assistant


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JAL and IBM Japan provide overseas travel information with virtual assistant

 
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"Macana" means "gift" in Hawaiian.
 

Japan Airlines (JAL) and IBM Japan will use the virtual assistant "Makana-chan" to provide overseas travel information ... → Continue reading

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Hawaiian

Hawaiian(Hawaii,Hawaiian: Hawaiian) IsAustronesianBelongs toHawaiian IslandsIndigenous peoplePolynesianIsHawaiianIs the language of the ancestors of.Englishと と も にHawaiiIt is designated as the official language of.As a feature, for example, WIKIPEDIA is WIKIPEKThere is a point that "t" and "k" are not originally distinguished, such as becoming IA.Closely relatedPolynesianUsed as well asphonemeIs very small (described later)#Voice system and alphabetSee chapter).ISO language codeIs haw.

Hawaiian isSamoa,Maori languageSuch asPolynesianIt has a very close relationship withMalay Archipelago,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,フィリピンAlthough it is a little far from the language of, it corresponds to "kinship".

Hawaiian CreoleThe Hawaiian portmanteau, also known as, is different from the Hawaiian language described here.This isEnglishIt is a regional language based on Hawaiian andSugar making-pineappleHired for cultivation etc.Japanese,Chinese peopleBrought in by immigrants, mainlyAsiaSome vocabulary is borrowed from the language of.

Current status of Hawaiian

Crisis of extinction

Currently HawaiianEndangered language.Hawaiian IslandsHawaiian is spoken in most areas ofEnglishIt has been replaced by and is no longer used in everyday conversation.ExceptionallyNiihau IslandI still use Hawaiian for everyday conversation because Niihau is a privately owned island and severely restricts outside visits.

For a variety of reasons, the number of Hawaiian speakers1900The number has decreased from about 3 at that time to about 7 now.The Hawaiian language that currently survivesMother tongueHalf of the speakers are 70 to 80 years old.

Hawaiian Revival Movement

TraditionTrying to revive a HawaiianNative HawaiianEffort is "Hawaiian Renaissance MovementIt has been increasing in the last ten years.Hawaiian nextgenerationTry to leave in家族 OfchildrenCurrently in Hawaiian for usImmersion method(Immersion education)I do"Kamehameha SchoolIs open.also,National public radioHawaii Public Radio (Hawaii Public Radio) Broadcasts a program called "Today's Hawaiian word of the day" every day.

Indigenous Hawaiians are learning Hawaiian as a second language,モデルToNative speakersThe spelling of Hawaiian is also written based on the note value of English, and the English word order is used.also,19st centuryThere is also a tension between those who seek to revive the pure Hawaiian language spoken in the early days and those who grew up in Hawaiian, shaped by more than 100 years of contact with English and portmanteau.

Also, now Hawaiian isHawaii OfOfficial terminologyIt is said to be one of. In the 1970sCivil rights movementFrom the time when Hawaiian became popular, Hawaiian primary and secondary education became popular, for example.Island of HawaiiHiroThen "NervaheeIn some cases, a "school" (Nāwahī School) has been established to educate 600 people from kindergarten to high school in Hawaiian.[1].

Voice system and alphabet

In generalPolynesian languageThe voice system of is simple.The following features are common.

  • There are five types of vowels, a, e, i, o, and u, each of which has a distinction between long and short.
  • The number of consonant phonemes is small, about 8-11.
  • No consonants at the end of the syllable. There are no digraphs.If the vowels and consonants are V and C, the syllables are only in the form of V or CV.

Hawaiian does not have the above characteristics.In the notation system,Samoa,TahitianThere is almost a perfect one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and the alphabet.Alphabet used in Hawaiian (ka pīʻā pā Hawaiʻi ; Kapee Arper Hawaii) is the following 13 characters[2]..The long vowelMcron(Hawaiian: kahakō ; Expressed using Kahako).

These note values ​​are roughly as they are written,apostropheCharacters similar to "ʻ"Is Okina (ʻOkina Called (see below)Glottal closing sound [ʔ] .

Always for long vowelsaccentIs placed.EnglishThe timbre of the vowel does not change depending on the length as in.

Many due to the lack of phonemesAbnormal noiseIs allowed.for example / k / TheFront vowelin front of [t] Often tuned to the sound,/ w / [v] It is often pronounced close to.

Hawaiian isLinguistic typologyAtFricativeIt is also a rebuttal of the theory that "in a language with only one, the fricative is [s]" (the only Hawaiian fricative is [h]).

Okinawa and Macron

In modern Hawaiian orthography,Latin lettersOthersAccent signAs Okinawa (glottal stop, glottal stop,Hawaiian: ʻOkina)WhenMcron(Choonpu,Hawaiian: kahakō) Is added.

OkinaIs a letter similar to the apostrophe used in Hawaiian notation.A type of consonantGlottal closing sound [ʔ] It is a character representing.For example, the original pronunciations of "Hawaii" and "Oahu" are [ha.ˈvai.ʔi][3],[o.ˈʔa.hu] (IPA), But each of these Hawaiʻi,Oʻahu Spell it like this.

UnicodeFormally, "ʻ"(U + 02BB) is used, but it is not supported.font,Web browserWill not be displayed correctly, soSingle quoteThe opening "'" (U + 2018) is a compromise.Grave accentOften we use "` "(U + 0060) or quotes with thick bottoms.

McronSince it represents a long vowel, it is placed on top of the vowel and expressed as "ā ē ī ō ū Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū". Around 1821, missionary Hiram Bingham (Hiram Bingham I) Etc. made the Hawaiian written languageDuffel BagI requested such a character font, but it didn't make it, and then text without Okina or Macron was rampant.

Morphological features

There are five types of articles: ka, ke, nā, he, and ʻo.

  • ke (definite article) + singular common noun starting with a, e, k, o
  • ka (definite article) + singular common noun starting with h, i, l, m, n, p, u, w,'
  • nā (definite article) + multiple common nouns
  • he (indefinite article) + singular common noun
  • ʻO + proper noun to be nominative

In other words, if the above five types appear, most of the words that follow them are nouns.However, Ke is followed by a verb, which takes the form of Ke + verb △△ + nei + subject ○○, and may have the syntax “○○ is △△”, which represents the present.

Hawaiian duplicate words are characterized by grammatical changes such as changes in the meaning and part of speech due to duplicates.

Duplicate the whole word

  • kila (high position) → kilakila (dignified)
  • holo (run) → holo holo (take a walk)
  • wai (Wed) → waiwai (wealthy, abundant)

Partial duplication

  • mālama (be careful) → mālamalama (light of knowledge)
  • nahele (forest) → nāhelehele (weeds)

Basic word order

  • The basic word order of Hawaiian is verb + subject.

 Hula (dancing) + au (me) = I dance. / Inu (drink) + ʻoe (you) = You drink.

  • The word order of modifier is modified word + modifier word

 Noun phrase: lei + nani = beautiful lei / verb phrase: hula (dancing) + leʻa (fun) = dancing happily

Hawaiian phrase examples

HawaiianHula,Hawaiian music, And other academic terms related to Hawaii's unique culture (Aa lava,Pahoehoe lava,KipukaAnd so on), it has become well known all over the world.

Widely known phrase

Commonly used words in English

People living in HawaiiEnglishYou may use Hawaiian words.

  • Keiki-Children.For example, on a private road sign, "Keiki at Play" "Caution for children jumping out"
  • Capital(Kane) and Wahine- MaleFemale.WCThese words are also written at the entrance of.
  • Makai-sea side, Mauka-mountain side.Since they all live on the island, they are always conscious of whether they are on the sea side or the mountain side (inland side).
  • Ohana(ʻOhana)-means family.However, it is used in a broad sense.
  • Kōkua-Cooperation.
  • Kamaina (Kamaʻāina) --Hawaii locals (Hawaii OfDriver's license(People who have) and are eligible for discounts to locals.
  • Hale- Home,buildingIn the sense ofHalle Honoluluetc.
  • Lani[5] - Our Sky,天国means.Halekulanietc.

In addition, the names of all the islands of the Hawaiian Islands, and most of the place names on each of these islands, are in Hawaiian.Long time agoNorthwest Hawaii IslandsEach island of Tsunoshima also had a Hawaiian name.

Hawaiian greeting expression

  • Aloha. --Hello, goodbye.
  • Aloha kakahiaka. --Good morning.
  • Aloha awakea. --Hello.
  • Aloha ahiahi. --Good evening.
  • Maikaʻi. --I'm fine.
  • Mahalo. --Thank you.
  • Mahalo nui loa. --Thank you very much.
  • E komo mai. --Welcome, welcome.
  • Mele Kalikimaka. --Merry Kalikimaka.Christmas.
  • Hauʻoli makahiki hou.- new YearHappy new year.
  • Hauʻoli lā hānau.- birthdayCongrats.
  • Hauʻoli lā aloha. --Happyバ レ ン デ ー.

例文

  • Hello.

  • Now I speak Hawaiian.

I kēia manawa ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi wau.

Book

  • Written by "First of all, this is Hawaiian" Kokusai Gogakusha ISBN 978-4-87731-576-4
  • Same as above "First Hawaiian" Shogakukan
  • Same as above (supervised) "Isso Illustration Hawaii Wordbook" Shogakukan
  • Book "A Hawaiian Book That Anyone Can Understand"

Related item

footnote

  1. ^ Asahi Shimbun Sunday Edition The Asahi Shimbun GLOBE (April 2014, 4): Eri Goto "E ola ka'ōlelo Hawai'i. Hawaiian keeps alive"
  2. ^ New Guinea OfRotokas(11 characters),PirahãAlong with (10 characters), it is said to be one of the notation systems with the smallest number of constituent characters.
  3. ^ "Hawaii" and "Hawaii" are expressed in kana.However, pronounce in 4 beats.Don't take one beat with "tsu" in Japanese style.
  4. ^ Holo Holo in Hawaii (fun walk)
  5. ^ Tagalog,IndonesianSuch as langit andMaori languageIt has the same meaning as rangi.In this language, the ng sound changes to the n sound.

外部 リンク

Macana

Macana(Macana) isAmericaWidely used insword-Stick.

Maya Aztec Macana

MesoamericaMacana, which was used in the Caribbean and Caribbean regions, made a groove in a wooden board and made a groove.obsidianTree sandwiching the blade ofswordIs.The Spanish word macana isTainoIs said to be derived fromNahuatlThen.McAwitol(Mācuahuitl) That is, it is called "hand tree".Macana was widely used as a warrior's weapon in Mesoamerica, where there was no ironmaking technology and the use of metalware was limited.Also, the Nahuatl word "McAwitru" is used as a general translation of "sword" in colonial literature.

In the Aztecs, macanaJaguar warriorEtc. chosen戦 士Was given only to.The length is 1.0-1.5m, the width is 5-10cm,It wasn't as penetrating as the sword, but it was sharp and could cut off the enemy's limbs and neck.Don't drop itstringInlaid with shells and jewels and brightly colored birds羽毛There were also macanas decorated with, which were carried by higher-ranking warriors.

During the Aztec era, the distribution of obsidian, which is produced only in a limited areaTenochtitlan-Tora TerrorcoTherefore, it was possible to produce various cutlery such as macana, so it was superior to the surroundings in military power and productivity.In the religion of ancient Central American civilizationSacrificeThe memorial service is indispensable, and in order to secure the sacrifice, it is necessary to have a powerful military force, many expeditions, rebellion of satellite countries and allies, and hostile relations with neighboring countries. It is said that it was indispensable to maintain.

Other macana

The New World south of the Maya regionCaribbeanThe macanas used on the islands ofcoconutAlthough it was made of obsidian and did not use obsidian, it was made by sharply shaving it like a knife, and it was possible not only to hit the enemy but also to cut off the enemy's body like a sword.StickBut also made of metalBut it was so effective that European whites who explored these areasSashikoI wore my armor to counter this.

Related item

  • Robinson Crusoe - Daniel DefoeThe popular name of the novel written by, and the main character of the novel.It is stated in the work that the indigenous people, Friday, who Robinson helped and became a servant, had experience using a wooden sword that can kill people, and this wooden sword seems to be Macana.
  • Microlith

 

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