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🛏 | Tourism charisma talks about "Corona and Hokkaido tourism" That famous brand opens one after another in Sapporo and Otaru


"Corona and Hokkaido Tourism" Talking about Tourism Charisma That famous brand opens one after another in Sapporo and Otaru

"Corona and Hokkaido Tourism" Talking about Tourism Charisma That famous brand opens one after another in Sapporo and Otaru

 
If you write the contents roughly
How will vaccination affect tourism in Hokkaido in the future?
 

The tourism industry is gradually becoming more active.Hote that develops preferential services for vaccinated people ... → Continue reading

 STV News Hokkaido

This is a news account of STV Sapporo Television Broadcasting (Nippon Television Network System, NNN).
Incidents and accidents, natural disasters, political economy, living information, etc ... We will deliver the latest news of Hokkaido.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

vaccination

vaccination(Vaccination,British: vaccination) IssickAgainstImmunologyTo attachantigenmaterial(vaccine) Administered (Vaccination) What to do.VaccinationBy pathogeninfectionbyIllness,Obstacle,DeathCan be prevented or tempered[1].. furtherEpidemicThe simplest and most effective way to preventCost performanceHighPreventive medicine.

JapanInVaccination methodDefines as "injecting or inoculating a human body with a vaccine that has been confirmed to be effective in preventing the disease in order to obtain an immune effect against the disease" (the vaccination method) Article 2 paragraph 1).

The substance administered by inoculation is a pathogen (live, but less virulent)Bacteria-ウ イ ル ス), a dead or inactivated pathogen, or a purified substance such as a protein.

WHOAccording to the current world, vaccination avoids the death of 200 to 300 million people.[1].. However, if the vaccination rate is further improved, the death of 150 million people can be avoided.[1].

History

Human beings willing to get another kind of infectionsickThe first example trying to mitigatesmallpox.B.C.Around 1000,IndiaでVaccination method(Variolation method) is practiced[2], Of smallpox patientspusTo a healthy person to cause mild onsetImmunologyWas being done. This smallpox method18st centuryIn the first halfThe United Kingdom, ThenAmericaWas also brought to.

1718 years,Mary Wortley MontagueWrote about the Turkish custom of vaccination with liquids from small-pox smallpox and gave similar vaccinations to their children.[3].The United KingdomThe doctorEdward JennerIt is,VacciniaAs to whether the vaccine can be used to generate immunity against human smallpox,1796 Have tested at least 6 people in the last few years. The six are unidentified English (around 6), Mrs Zebel (German, around 1771), Mr. Jensen (German, around 1772), and Benjamin Jestie (English, 1770). Mrs. Rendall (English, c. 1774) and Peter Prett (German, 1782).[4][5].

The word vaccination was first used1796 ,Edward JennerBy. After thisLouis PasteurAdvanced the concept of vaccination with advanced research in microbiology. The vaccination (from the Latin vacca meaning Vaccination "cattle") derives its name from the first vaccine (vaccine) that infects cattle.Cowpox virusso,smallpoxIs less symptomatic, harder to cure and deadlysmallpoxBecause it gave a certain amount of immunity to[4][5].

For vaccination attempts, there are ethics, politics, safety, religion, etc.en: Vaccine controversy) Has been around since the early days. With early successMandatoryVaccination has been widely accepted by the government and a large-scale vaccination campaign has been carried out, which has significantly reduced the incidence of many diseases across many regions.

the purpose

To make antibodies against pathogens and boost immune function

Side effects

in Japan1948 of"Vaccination methodSince then, compulsory vaccination and mass vaccination have expanded, but they have not been carried out in a safe manner.To give an example1964 ToIbarakiInsufficient interviews, inoculation of multiple people without changing needles,MASKSInoculation, infusion of inaccurate amount, etc. were performed without[6]..In Japan, the act of inoculating multiple people without changing needles was widespread.Type B,Hepatitis CIs a frequent cause[7],It is believed that( Iatrogenic diseaseSee also).

Substances used

Inactivated vaccine

Lived with sufficiently reduced toxicityウ イ ル スInoculate.ウ イ ル スBreed, but their speed is slow. Boosting is not necessary so much because it propagates after inoculation and continues to exist as an antigen. This vaccine is produced by leaving a less virulent type of virus in tissue culture, inducing gene mutation, or removing a specific gene that exerts virulence. This major vaccine has a risk of recurrent toxicity, but removal of specific genes is relatively less risky.

Subunit vaccine

As an antigen shown to the immune systemウ イ ル スDo not inoculate sex substances.ウ イ ル スSpecific inproteinThere is a method such as separating and inoculating. The weakness of this method is that the separated proteins may be altered, in which case antibodies different from those corresponding to the virus will be produced.

Other subunit vaccines include recombinant vaccines. This is a method of injecting a protein gene of a target virus into another virus. This second virus expresses protein information but is not at risk of disease. This kind of vaccine is nowViral hepatitisIs used forEbola virus,HIVIt is being actively researched to make a vaccine against a virus that is difficult to vaccinate.[8].

Vaccination against humans

The vaccination situation in the world is as follows.

Type of vaccine

Live vaccine
A weakened virulence of a living pathogen. ,tuberculosis,Measles(Measles),Rubella,Mumps,Varieg(Mizubouso),yellow fever Such.Due to the inclusion of live pathogens, inoculated pathogens may cause mild symptoms (side reactions).
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks (medium 27 days) or more.
Inactivated vaccine
Only the components of the pathogen that died and lost its toxicity.Hepatitis B,, pediatric,Pertussis,Polio,Japanese encephalitis,influenza,Hepatitis A,Rabiesetc.vaccineThe effect of is weak, so multiple doses are often required.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
Toxoid
The toxin produced by the fungus is taken out and detoxified.diphtheria,tetanus(Hashoufu) etc. As with inactivated vaccines, the vaccines are less effective and often require multiple doses. There is also the idea that it is not strictly included in the vaccine because it does not make antibodies that attack the pathogen itself.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.

History

The practice of vaccination is believed to have its origins in ancient India, around 1000 BC.[9]Ayurvedic textbook Sact'eya Grantham was described about vaccination, according to French scholar Henri Marie Husson in Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. It has been reported.[10] Around 200 BC, vaccinations were carried out even in ancient China[5].. Scholar Ole Lund writes: "The oldest documented example of vaccination is from 17th-century India and China, where powdered scabs of people with smallpox were used to prevent the disease. In the olden days, smallpox was a universal disease that killed 20% to 30% of infected people, smallpox accounting for 18% to 8% of deaths in several 20th-century European countries. Professor of Pathology, (en: Almroth Wright) Conducted an experiment led by a professional at Netley Hospital and shaped the form of vaccination for posterity. The results of his experiment led to the development of further vaccinations in Europe[11].

Mandatory

In order to avoid the spread of illness, at different times, states and institutions have created laws that mandate vaccination for all. For example, the 1853 law mandated smallpox vaccinations throughout England and Wales, and fined those who did not comply. Currently, the US state-wide vaccination law requires public vaccination before school. Most other countries have similar vaccinations.

Since the earliest vaccinations beginning in the 19th century, the legalization of vaccination has caused backlash from various groups. These groups are collectively known as anti-vaccinationists, who oppose vaccination from an ethical, political, hygienic, religious, and other perspectives. Common opinions are that “compulsory vaccination is excessive interference with individual problems” and “recommended vaccination is not sufficiently safe”.[12].. Modern vaccination laws provide exceptions to people with immunodeficiencies, people who are allergic to the vaccine, and those who strongly oppose it.[13].. In addition,Yogyakarta PrinciplesIn the 18th principle of "Protection against medical abuse" ofHIV infectionUnethical or unintentional vaccines forAntibacterial agentGuaranteeing protection from the administration of "(18th principle, item (d))".

Japanese vaccination

Routine vaccination

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. For the vaccination costs for the target age, public funds are provided by the local government, and regarding A-type diseases,Local governmentMost of them are free of charge (administrative measures vaccinations, and there are also local governments that pay a fee). In case of health damage due to vaccination approved in Japan, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

[] Name of vaccine

Type A disease --For the purpose of preventing the outbreak of the disease and the spread of the disease in the population, the vaccination target or its guardian is obliged to make efforts for vaccination.
diphtheria-Social Services Lizard-tetanus-Polio(Acute poliomyelitis)[Four kinds of mixed vaccine, DPT-IPV],measles(Measles)rubella(Three days measles)MR vaccine],Japanese encephalitis,tuberculosis(BCG),Varieg,Hib, PediatricPneumococcusInfection【Pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13】,Cervical cancer【HPV vaccine],Hepatitis B, Rotavirus[15]
Type B disease -Mainly focused on individual prevention. No effort required.
People over the age of 65, or between the ages of 60 and under 65, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory problems,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeIf you are suffering frominfluenza.. In the case of people aged 65 or over, under 60 years of age and under 65 years of age, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory disorders, or those with AIDS and weakened immunity, pneumococcal infection [23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23】.

Temporary inoculation

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. When the prefectural governor finds that there is an urgent need to prevent the spread, the prefectural governor may instruct the mayor to do so. Municipalities will subsidize the vaccination costs for the target ages, and in principle, the A-type diseases will be free. If health damage occurs due to vaccination, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

Type A disease -The vaccination target person or their guardian is required to make vaccination efforts.
smallpoxIn addition, type A diseases are targeted.
Inoculation was started in 2021.New coronavirus OfvaccineIs carried out in the form of imposing an obligation to make efforts for inoculation[16].
Type B disease -No vaccination effort is imposed.
HXNUMXNXNUMX influenza(As a single vaccineNew influenza measures special measures law2011 years from 23 (5)[17].. A(H2011N12)pdm1 has been included in seasonal influenza vaccine since FY1/09[18]. )

Optional vaccination

Vaccination is voluntary by the vaccinated person (or their parental authority, etc.), which is not stipulated in the Vaccination Law.

All vaccination costs will be borne by the owner. If health damage occurs due to vaccination,Relief system for adverse drug reactionsIs applied.

Mumps(Mumps),Hepatitis A, For adultsPneumococcus,Rabies,Weil's disease Autumn darknessIn addition to the above, other vaccinations other than the age groups subject to regular vaccination are also optional vaccinations.

Precautions for vaccination

According to the Vaccination Regulations, those who have a clear fever, those who have a serious acute illness, and allergies or anaphylaxis due to the components of the vaccination solution for vaccination related to the disease are revealed by the test. Those who have become ineligible are considered unsuitable and cannot be vaccinated. Pregnant persons will not be vaccinated for acute poliomyelitis, measles and rubella.

In addition, those who are known to have basic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, blood diseases and developmental disorders, those who have fever within 2 days after the previous vaccination, or systemic rashes, etc. Of allergic allergies, having a history of convulsions in the past, having been previously diagnosed with immunodeficiency, or being allergic to the components of the inoculum to be vaccinated Some people are obliged to take vaccinations carefully based on the judgment of the doctor.

Vaccination health damage relief system

Occurrence of health damage due to side effects of vaccination is seen, although it is extremely rare. A system for prompt relief when a causal relationship between vaccination and health damage is recognized, regardless of whether or not there is negligence in the vaccination.[19].

  • Vaccination based on the Vaccination Law (=RegularInoculation,ExtraordinaryIf the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that the health damage has been caused by the
    • Benefits are provided by the municipality.
    • Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the certification of, the causal relationship is examined by a disease/disability certification examination committee composed of a third party.
    • If you receive medical treatment at a medical institution, you will be required to pay the medical expenses and your expenses.
    • When disability remains, child disability pension or disability pension is paid.
    • In case of death, funeral fees and lump-sum death allowance of approximately 4,300 million yen (in case of influenza vaccine, lump-sum payment of surviving family of approximately 700 million yen, survivor pension of approximately 240 million yen (up to 10 years)) will be provided.
    • The cost of relief payment is 1/2 for the country, 1/4 for the prefecture, and 1/4 for the municipality.

Incidentally,anyAs for other health hazards due to vaccination, the drug side effect damage relief system is applied. It is based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, an incorporated administrative agency, rather than the Vaccinations Act.

  • Established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and decided after discussions at the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, which is composed of external experts.
    • Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) Is provided.
    • If you receive medical treatment in hospital, you will be provided with medical expenses and medical allowance. Payment will be provided in case of disability and death.
    • Benefits are set for each type, and there is also a deadline for billing.
    • Contribution from the licensed drug manufacturing and marketing companies, etc. shall be paid for the relief payment. Half of PMDA's administrative expenses are subsidies from the national government.

Vaccinations and laws (valley problems)

There is a legal structure to remedy victims whose lives and bodies have been seriously damaged by vaccination.ConstitutionIt is a problem above.17 articleTheory,29 articleParagraph 3 Interpretation theory, Article 29 Paragraph 3 Of course, interpretation theory,25 articleTheory,13 articleTheories are claimed.

Recommended vaccination sequence

National Institute of Infectious DiseasesKnow VPD,NPOVaccination schedules have been announced by the Society for the Protection of Children, the Japan Association for Primary Care, and the Japan Society for Pediatrics.

Also, at the NPO Corporation Children's Association,iPhone-AndroidSmartphoneThe vaccination scheduler app for Android is provided free of charge.

Simultaneous inoculation

``Simultaneous vaccination'' in which two or more types of vaccinations are given to one and the same person at the same time in one visit is once recognized as ``not good'' in Japan, and MHLW is "What doctors can do if they find it necessary"[20][21]However, in 2011, the Japanese Academy of Pediatrics proposed that "simultaneous vaccination is considered a necessary medical practice to protect Japanese children from diseases that can be prevented by vaccines".[21], In recent years, the number of doctors giving simultaneous vaccination has increased[22].

There is no limit to the number of combinations and

  1. Regular vaccination and voluntary vaccination
  2. Inactivated and live vaccines
  3. Live vaccines and live vaccines
  4. Injection and drink type vaccine

Can be safely inoculated simultaneously with all combinations of[23].. Some local governments and doctors have different vaccination methodsBCGOnly in the case of single vaccination without simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines[24][25].

Since a mixed vaccine contains several types of vaccine in one injection solution from the beginning, it can be said that it is a simultaneous vaccination in a broad sense.[23].

Italy vaccination

In Italy2017 Than,Compulsory educationBefore receiving (up to 6 years old)Polio,diphtheria,tetanus,Hepatitis B,influenza,,,measles,rubella,Mumps,XNUMX days,chicken poxVaccinations have become mandatory[26].

Vaccination of animals

AnimalからPeopleTo be contagiousInfectious disease of animal origin(Zoonosis:Zoonosis(Also included in) and transmitted from humans to animalsZoonosisThere is vaccination for the purpose of preventing. Useful for wildlife conservation and industry家畜,Pet OfEpidemicThere are also vaccinations to prevent the spread of the disease.

Ministry of AgricultureVeterinary drug laboratory・Veterinary drug database[27]If you search for “vaccine” in, 2014 cases were registered as of December 12. But,Domestic animal infectious disease prevention methodIs a "law that stipulates the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases (infectious diseases) in livestock and the prevention of spread of livestock."And killDisposaldisinfectionHowever, there is no regulation regarding vaccination. "The prefectural governor, when necessary to prevent the spread of livestock infectious diseases, can have livestock quarantine officers inspect, inject, bathe or administer livestock by the methods specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( Based on the Livestock Infectious Diseases Prevention Law Article 31)", the measures such as vaccination are different for each prefecture.[28].

on the other hand,Rabies Prevention LawSince it is regulated byDogThe owner of the dogRabies vaccineMust be vaccinated once a year (Article 1 of the Rabies Prevention Law).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Immunization coverage (Report). WHO. (2007-03). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/. 
  2. ^ Smallpox prevention[1]
  3. ^ Behbehani AM (1983). “The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease”. Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455-509. PMID 6319980. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6319980. 
  4. ^ a b Plett PC (2006). “[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner”] (German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219-32. PMID 17338405. http://lib.bioinfo.pl/meid:4459 NovemberBrowse.. 
  5. ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination”. Rev Sci Tech. 26 (1): 29-48. PMID 17633292. 
  6. ^ Kenji Yoshihara "From Private Rage to Public Rage-Vaccine Evil as a Social Problem" p.112-114
  7. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun February 2000, 2 Article "Expanding hepatitis C, in areas where 9% are "positive""
  8. ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Archived August 2003, 6, at the Wayback Machine. Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
  9. ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics.MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
  10. ^ Chaumeton, FP; FV Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.Paris: CLF Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
  11. ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
  12. ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). “Anti-vaccinationists past and present”. BMJ 325 (7361): 430-2. two:10.1136 / bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/430. 
  13. ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al.(2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
  14. ^ a b Medical expenses public expenditure system for vaccination accidents(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Health and Welfare Bureau)
  15. ^ "From Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to Rota vaccine regular vaccination from October, 20”. Mix online (October 2019, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  16. ^ "What is the vaccination method? Corona vaccine "special case of temporary vaccination"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 4). NovemberBrowse.
  17. ^ Tuberculosis Infectious Disease Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareOutline of Vaccination Law revision (establishment of new temporary vaccination, etc.)IASR, Vol. 32, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Information Center, November 2011, pp. 11-331.
  18. ^ Influenza vaccine strain -National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  19. ^ Vaccination health damage relief systemMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  20. ^ Periodic vaccination procedure -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  21. ^ a b Japanese Pediatrics Association's approach to simultaneous vaccination
  22. ^ Vaccination> Simultaneous vaccination -Ariake Children's Clinic
  23. ^ a b Necessity and safety of simultaneous vaccination -Know VPD!
  24. ^ Vaccination of children -Koto Ward
  25. ^ vaccination -Hara Pediatric Clinic
  26. ^ Italy vaccinated to attend school AFP (December 2017, 5) Read December 20, 2017
  27. ^ Veterinary drug database -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Veterinary Drug Laboratory
  28. ^ About livestock vaccines -Miyagi Prefectural Livestock Association

Related literature

  • Mikio Watanabe, "A Historical Consideration on Japan's Vaccination System," National Hygiene, Vol. 73, No. 6, Japan Society for National Hygiene, June 2010, pp. 6-243, two:10.3861 / jshhe.73.243.

Related item

外部 リンク

Group train


Group train(Dantai Senyo Ressha, commonly known as "Group train") IsDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular-Company-combinationSpecific groups such asGroup) Is a normal ride with the general public when travelingPassenger trainIt is set separately and can be rented out列車-Railway carIs a generic name for. For those that have a dedicated train,Extra trainIt is also a kind of (Group special train.Danrin(Abbreviated as).

Overview

Group trains are classified according to type as follows. This is to distinguish it from the chartered ticket (chartered train) system in the passenger business rules of JNR → JR.

  1. "Handling for passenger cars only" A part of a general passenger train is reserved. It is used when the number of people is relatively small. On the Shinkansen, etc., it is often filled from the end of the formation due to the relationship with other passengers. As one type of this, there is one that connects a dedicated vehicle to a general passenger train, and this is also included in the handling for passenger cars. As a famous exampleSeychellesThis applies to the addition of "Ikoi" before remodeling.
  2. A special train dedicated to "group-only special trains" is set, and is abbreviated as "DanrinAlso called.Joyful TrainEtc. are often used.
  3. "Chartered trains" JNR → JR refers to trains to which the above-mentioned chartered ticket rules apply, but due to strict capacity rules (= high prices), they are not operated at all. On the other hand, many trams have a chartered fare, and group trains to which this chartered fare is applied fall under this category.

OnceJapan National Railway(JNR) mainlySchool excursionI had a "group-only vehicle" for use, but nowJR passenger companiesDoes not have a special vehicle other than the Joyful Train. Long business distanceKinki Nippon Railway(Kintetsu) has owned and operates group-only vehicles for some time. Other railroad operators may also charter vehicles to tailor group trains.
In the case of the JR Group, it is quite difficult to operate group-only trains used by small groups such as individuals and small groups, so major travel agencies make primary purchases in units of formation and resell them to small and medium-sized travel agencies in small lots (resale). ) Is not popular in the business model.

Many tourist trains such as cruise trains are also travel products (パ ッ ケ ー ジ ツ ア ー), So it will be treated as a group.

Some businesses say "Group"not"reservedThere are also businesses that display ""[1].

Major group trains in Japan

School excursion train

School excursionFor transporting students, teachers, and tour conductors.

Although the number has decreased these days, many dedicated vehicles and trains were set up in the past, and the time was set in advance."Hinode", "Kibo", etc., which are similar to regular trainsSchool trip intensive transportation temporary trainWas also seen.

Koshien Transport Train

Selected High School Baseball Tournament(Senbatsu, Spring Koshien) orNational High School Baseball Championship(Summer Koshien)Hanshin Koshien StadiumIt transports spectators heading to (mostly at stations around the high school where they participate, recruited in the form of a trip sponsored by the JR branch office). Due to its nature, the number of passengers is large, so dedicated trains are often tailored. "Koshien RinIs generically called. The destination is due to equipment etc.Osaka StationIn most cases, in that caseSecondary trafficAsHanshinOsaka Umeda StationからHanshin Electric Railway LineOrCharter BusI will head to Koshien Stadium.Koshienguchi Station(10 minutes by bus from the station to the stadium, about 2km) There are few trains going to the station, and there is also a platform that can be used to return trains.However,1990 eraAfter that, there are cases where you can take a chartered bus directly from your hometown to Koshien.Shinkansen,aircraftCase to use (in this caseShin-Osaka Station,Osaka International Airport(Often go to Koshien by chartered bus), and even more2015 OfHokuriku Shinkansen-Nagano - KanazawaParallel after openingHokuriku Main Line・ Kanazawa – Naoetsu Third sector railway[2]Due to the fact that it was transferred to, it became difficult to operate it in this section, and the operation of dedicated trains is decreasing year by year.[Source required].

First visitor transport train

Local groupsShotoCustomersShrine-Buddhist templeThose that transport to the nearest station such as. this houseMt. Takaosan Yakuouin Yukiji TempleFirst visitor toTakao StationWhat to transport toRin Takao"Naritasan Shinshoji TempleFirst visitor toNarita StationWhat to transport toRin Narita, In KamakuraTsuruoka Hachimangu ShrineFirst visitor toKamakura StationWhat to transport to "Rin KamakuraIs called. There are many settings for dedicated trains, and for the vehicles usedVarietyThe feature is that there is. After all it is recruited in the form of a trip sponsored by the JR branch office.

Regarding "Narita Rin", in the pastKeisei Electric RailwayHowever, it is set as an irregular express and a limited express, and even nowCity linerIs being driven as. Aside from this,Tobu RailwayIs its own subsidiaryTravel agencyTobu TravelIn the form of a tourTobu Main LineFrom along the lineKeisei Main LineKeisei Sekiya StationContactTobu Isesaki LineUshida StationIt is operated by departure and arrival. In addition, a group-only train will be operated on the Keisei Line by contacting this train.

Also about "Takao Rin"Keio Electric RailwayButOvernight drivingSometimes set.

Religious groups

  • Tenrikyo Transport Train
    • From all over JapanTenrikyoThe one that transports believers during the festival. The number of passengers is large, and the honor train is not usually set.Sakurai Line OfTenri StationDedicated trains are often set up to go to. Previously as an organizationPassenger car,RailcarThis was because the detention line at Tenri Station was non-electrified until 2008.[3].. Commonly known as "Tenri Rin". Ticket arrangement for this special group trainJTBIs in the process of. Also,Kintetsu Tenri LineSimilarly, a special train (Limited express trainandExpress train) ・ A group-only train is set. In addition, group tickets for believers are sold at each parish and Tenrikyo headquarters in the Kinki area. This is sold at a 25% discount on the regular fare between Kintetsu Main Station and Tenri Station, as well asMost of the general trains on the day will be treated as "group trains".[Source required]
  • Konkokyo Transport Train
    • From all over JapanGolden lightOf believersSanyo Main LineKonko StationThose that carry out transportation at the time of the festival. As with Tenri Rin, there are many passengers, so dedicated trains are often set up. Known as "Kinkorin. "
  • Soka Gakkai Transport Train (Abolished) / Hokkoko Transport Train
    • From all over JapanSoka GakkaiThe members had a relationship at that timeNichiren MasamuneIs the main mountain ofOishi TempleTo worship atMinobu Line OfFujinomiya StationIt was operated until. There were many dedicated trains set up from all over the country, and there were also operations that were incorporated into regular trains during the peak period. However, it was completely abolished because Nichiren Masamune excommunicated the Soka Gakkai in 1991. Known as "Soka Gakkai""Creation. "
    • Even after the excommunication of Soka Gakkai, it is a congregation of Nichiren Shoshu.Hokkoko(Nichiren Shoshu Hokkoko Federation) May be set up as a dedicated train for visiting Taiseki-ji Temple, but the number of trains in operation has decreased significantly compared to before the excommunication of Soka Gakkai (a few times a year). Known as "Houkarin(Even when "Soka Gakkai" was in operation, "Hokkarin" was in operation about once a month). In addition, since highway buses from Tokyo and Osaka began to directly enter Taiseki-ji Temple, "Hokkarin" is also on the decline.

Tourist group train

1961 From (Showa 36)National railwayPartners with a travel agency to dedicate a pre-determined model courseHonor trainStarted recruiting sightseeing tours in the same yearMay 3Will be the first train exclusively for tourist groupsNanki Tourism Group TrainStarted operation. same yearMay 10of"San Lok TooCalled "Timetable revisionThen,Tokyo-OsakaThe set sections have been expanded all over the country, centering on, and some of them have distinctive driving sections. At the timeTimetableThe ones that were published in are described below.

1964 (Showa 39) October, thisTokaido ShinkansenThe timetable revision when the train opened was the heyday of the tourist group trains, and among the above trains, the "Kyoto tourist group train" was "Kansai No. 2 Tourist Group TrainThe name was changed to "Venus" for both round trips, and the "Nanki Tourism Group Train" went down from Tokyo Station. Taki StationExpress train "NachiAs a result, the first train going up from Shirahama Exit will be the express train between Nara Station and Tokyo Station.Yamato", And each has been changed. "Shinano / Nikko Tourism Group Train" is also "Shinetsu / Nikko Tourism Group TrainIt was renamed. In addition, the following trains have been newly set.

  • "Kansai No. 1, Shinetsu, Nikko, Kyoto Tourism Group Train"Kyoto / Kansai No. 1 / Shinetsu / Nikko Tourism Group Train(Driving between Tokyo Station and Kyoto Station)
    It became a rare thing that the train name was different on the top and bottom.
  • "Sanin Tourism Group Train(Down Osaka Station- Taisha Station(Currently abolished), going upIzumo Station --Driving between Osaka stations)
  • "Southern country"(Takamatsu Station - Kochi StationInter-operation, regular 1 round trip, irregular 1 round trip)
    Vehicles for the general public are also connected,Semi Express TicketIt was possible to get on with the purchase of.
  • "Tohoku Tourism Group Train(Down Ueno Station- Ichinoseki Station(Via Tohoku Main Line), going upFukushima Station --Driving between Ueno stations)

Next day1965 (40) In the timetable revision on October 10, the following new trains were constructed, names were changed, and operating sections were changed. Furthermore, at this time, many of the notations of "Train for tourist groups" are also "" on the timetable.○○ Tourist group trainIt has been changed to.

Newly established
  • "Kyushu No. 2 Tourism Issue(Down Osaka Station- Hakata Station・ Oita Station ・Haiki StationBetween, going up Haiki Station / Hakata Station-Osaka Station driving)
    Similar to the previous "Kyushu Tourism Group Train", general passengers could use it if there was a vacancy. Another thing that has changed is Hakata Station- Hizen Yamaguchi StationIn between, I ran in conjunction with the preceding "Kyushu No. 1 Tourism Issue".
Change name / operation section / combined train
  • "Kyushu Tourism Group Train" → "Kyushu No. 1 Tourism Issue' 
    The driving section is between Tokyo Station and Nagasaki Station on the downhill, and between Nagasaki Station and Oita Station on the uphill. However, as mentioned above, there was a section where the "Kyushu No. 2 Kanko-go" was connected and run, resulting in a complicated operation system.
  • "Kansai No. 2 Tourist Group Train" → "Kansai No. 1 Tourist Issue'
    Both round trips were changed to independent operation at this time.
  • "Nanki Tourism Group Train", "Kansai No. 1, Shinetsu, Nikko, Kyoto Tourism Group Train", "Kyoto, Kansai No. 1, Shinetsu, Nikko Tourism Group Train" → "Nanki / Shinetsu / Nikko / Kyoto Kansai No. 2 Tourism'
    The driving section did not change, but "Nanki Sightseeing" and "Kansai No. 2" became combined operation, and "Nanki Sightseeing" went through the Nara Line again.
  • "Tropical No. 1" (regular) →"Ashizuri"Tosa' 
  • "Tropical No. 2" (irregular) → "Tosa'
    DownhillKubokawaTaking the opportunity of the first train, it changed to the same nickname as a general train. Regular trains are treated in the same way as regular trains.
  • "Tohoku / Hokkaido Tourism Group Train" → "Hokkaido No. 1 Sightseeing'
    As mentioned above, the time setting for the descent was not suitable for sightseeing in Tohoku, so the name is adapted to the actual situation.

However, as the use of the Shinkansen became more common in group travel, these tourist group trains were either abolished or converted to regular trains. First1967 (Showa 42) With the timetable revision on October 10, there were movements such as the abolition of trains and conversion to general trains as follows.

  • "Kyushu No. 1 Tourism" → "Goto(Driving between Tokyo Station and Nagasaki Station) ・ "Kunisaki(Driving between Tokyo Station and Oita Station)
    The name was changed to be similar to that of a general train, and both round trips were operated between Tokyo Station-Nagasaki Station and Oita Station (combined to Moji Station).
  • "Kyushu No. 2 Tourism" → "Hirado2 No.(Osaka Station-Driving between Haiki Station) ・ "Yutsuki2 No.(Osaka Station-Oita Station driving)
    The name was changed to be similar to that of a general train, and both round trips were operated between Osaka Station-Saki Station and Oita Station (combined to Moji Station).
  • "Nanki Tourism Group Train" → "Nanki Tourism(Renamed)
  • "Nanki / Shinetsu / Nikko / Kyoto No. 2 Tourism" → "Nanki / Shinetsu / Nikko Tourism(Renamed only up)
  • "Tosa" (temporary) → "Tosa" (regular)
    With the upgrade of regular trains, it will be treated in the same way as regular trains.
  • "Hokkaido No. 1 Tourism" → "1st Oirase(Driving between Ueno Station and Aomori Station)
    It was changed to "general trains that may carry group passengers".
  • "Tohoku Tourism Group Train" → (Down) "4th Matsushima(Ueno Station-Ichinoseki Station driving) ・ (Up) "2nd Azuma(Driving between Fukushima Station and Ueno Station)
    It was changed to a general train.
  • "Shinetsu / Nikko Tourism Group Train" → (between Nagano Station and Nikko Station) abolished ・ "Ayakumo(Temporary train, Osaka station-Nagano station operation)
    The operating section has been significantly reduced, and it is now treated as a temporary general train.
  • 3521M / 3522M train (formerly 1511/1512 train) → "Kirifuri Plateau(Between Ueno Station and Nikko Station)
    It was changed to a general temporary train.

そ し て,1968 (Showa 43) On October 10st, "Yong San TooA large-scale timetable revision was carried out over the years, and at that time, the following arrangements were made again, and the train called "tourist group train" disappeared.

  • "Goto" → "Nagasaki(Renamed) "Kunisaki" → abolished
  • "Hirado No. 2" → "Xihai2 No.(Osaka Station- Sasebo StationInterim operation) (Renamed / changed driving section) "Yuzuki No. 2" → "Beppu2 No.(Renamed)
  • "Nanki Kanko" → abolished
  • "Shinetsu / Nikko / Kyoto Kansai No. 2 Tourism" / "Nanki / Nikko / Nikko Tourism" → Abolished
  • "Kansai No. 1 Tourism" → Abolished
  • "San'in Tourism Group Train" →"Daisen No. 4"(Going down)・「Daisen No. 3"(Going up) (Temporary trains / "General trains may be treated as" tourist group trains "at times"

Group employment train

Post-warHigh growth eraIn addition, a special train operated by a group of new graduates from junior high and high schools in rural areas such as Tohoku to find employment in factories in urban areas such as Tokyo.1954 From (Showa 29)1975 (50)May 3Was operated until.Hokkaido-Tohoku-Shin-EtsuFrom rural areas, Tokyo (Ueno Station),Kyusyu-Chugoku-Shikoku-HokurikuFrom the region, OsakaNagoyaIt is said that there were many trains heading to.

Related item

footnote

  1. ^ Kintetsu,Hanshin Electric Railway,Hankyu Corporationetc.
  2. ^ Kanazawa- KurikaraTheIR Ishikawa Railway, Kurikara- IchiburiTheAinokaze Toyama Railway, Ichiburi-NaoetsuEchigo Tokimeki RailwayTransferred to each.
  3. ^ CurrentlyJR EastOwned 583 series or 485 seriesKyoto StationDriving up to.

 

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