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🧳 | Why is the "snacks" of beer edamame?Japanese history of snacks, which was a strip of radish in the Meiji era


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Why is the "snacks" of beer edamame?Japanese history of snacks, which was a strip of radish in the Meiji era

 
If you write the contents roughly
This beer was brought in from the United States when Kurofune arrived, and the European and American delegations dispatched to learn about the advanced culture of Europe and the United States also eat beer in Western countries.
 

How much beer did you drink this summer?As the fall of appetite begins, there may be more opportunities to drink beer ... → Continue reading

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Kurofune visit

Kurofune visitWhat is (Kurofuneraiko)?Kaei6 years(1853 ),Deputy generalMatthew PerryLed byThe United States of AmericaNavyEast India Fleet2 ships, including 4 steamships fromJapanThe case that came to Japan.The fleetEdo BayAt the entranceUraga(KanagawaYokosukaUraga) We anchored offshore, and some of them invaded deep into Edo Bay under the name of surveying.result,ShogunateIs Perry's partyKurihamaAllowed landing therePresident of the United StatesThe national book was handed over to the shogunate, and the following yearJapan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityIt was concluded.Mainly from this incident in JapanMeiji RestorationInResignationUp toBakumatsu".

back ground

Expansion of the United States into Asia

Industrial revolutionWelcomedWestern EuropeDue to the need to expand exports of mass-produced industrial products, each countryIndiaAroundSoutheast AsiaとMainland China OfclearWas in a hurry to expand the market to, but later it was fierceColonyIt will be a competition for acquisition.

But already15st centuryToSpherical Earth theoryBased onVasco da GamaBy voyages such as, the land we live in, that is, "地球 SphereIsThe European countries that understood thatChristopher ColumbusbyNew worldWith the discoveryTreaty of Tordesillas(1494 May 6) AndZaragoza Treaty(1529 May 4), "(At that time)MeridianThe new territory on the east side ofPortugalOn the west sideスペインIt belongs to ".afterwards,Age of DiscoveryWhen you visitThe United Kingdom,FranceAchieved independence from Spain NetherlandsWith the decline of Portugal and Spain, latecomers such as these have advanced to the land that corresponds to the borderline, and have acquired various places through various treaties associated with the rise of national prestige and war.

At the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, there was competition for market expansion.The United KingdomUnder dominanceFranceEtc. are ahead,India,Southeast AsiaThe United States, which does not have a base in, was late.

The population at that time was about 1833 million in the United States in 1,416, about 4 million in the Qing dynasty, and about 1834 million in Japan in 2,760.[1].

America is1833 ToSiamとMuscatFinally succeeded in concluding a treaty with.1835 With JapanclearA special envoy was dispatched to conclude a treaty with the East India Squadron.This attempt was unsuccessful,Opium WarLater in 1842 with QingTreaty of WanghiWill be signed to enter the Qing dynasty market.Commander of the East India Squadron for ratification of this treatyJames BiddleWas dispatched to Qing, but Biddle was also tasked with negotiating a treaty with Japan.For this reason, he arrived in Uraga in 1846, but was unable to conclude a treaty.

Securing a port of call for the purpose of supplying whaling vessels

Due to the Industrial Revolution, factories and offices in Europe and the United States have been operating until late at night.lubricating oil,lampMainly as a light ofSperm whale Ofwhale oilWas used.To meet this demand, Western countries have moved to the seas around the world, including the coast of Japan.whalingWas actively going.Called Japan Ground in the waters near JapanIzu Islands-Ogasawara IslandsNearby, called Kamchatka GroundKamchatka PeninsulaThe eastern part is known as a good fishing ground and is based on the east coast of the United States.Whaling shipWas usually sailing for more than a year[2]..Since whaling vessels at that time were extracting whale oil on board, they needed a large amount of firewood and water, and there was a need for a supply base in the Pacific Ocean, including food for long-term voyages, and the United States is no exception. rice field.

In addition, there was the problem of shipwrecks.The protection of drifters was one of the missions of the U.S. Navy at the time, and in 1849James glynnIs arriving in Nagasaki to receive the wrecked US whaling crew.From the viewpoint of the cost, it was advantageous to conclude a treaty with Japan facing the Pacific Ocean.

Impact of the Mexican-American War

The United States had already made the southern half of Oregon its territory in negotiations with Britain in 1846, but 1846-1848.American ink warWon California.This makes the United States a Pacific nation and a huge market.clearThe development of trade with and has become a national goal.US West CoastからChugokuThe shortest route toGreat circle course) Goes north from the west coast,Aleutian Islands-Kuril IslandsSouth alongTsugaru StraitとTsushima StraitsPassing throughShanghaiIt reaches the vicinity[† 1][3].

For this reason, it faces the Tsugaru Strait.Matsumae(The port actually openedHakodate) Was desired to have a supply base.Furthermore, due to the victory in the Mexican-American War, it was considered to be the main fleet until then.Gulf of MexicoThe need for a fleet diminished, and the Navy needed to expand the role of the East India Squadron to maintain organizational size.[4].

Before Perry's arrival

  • 1791 (Kansei 3rd year) --Adventure merchantJohn KendrickWith two shipsKii OshimaLanded on.The first American to visit Japan.
  • 1797 (Kansei 9th year)- Netherlands French Revolutionary WarSeveral American ships raised the Dutch flag because they were occupied by France.DejimaTrade in. 1809 visits have been recorded by 6 (13th year of culture)[5][† 2].
  • 1830 (First year of Tenpo)- Ogasawara Islands OfChichijimaToNathaniel SavoryLanded.
  • 1835 (6th year of Tenpo) --PresidentAndrew JacksonIs Edmund Roberts (Edmund Roberts) Was dispatched to Asia for negotiations with Qing and Japan, but Roberts died in China.East India Squadron was formed to deliver Roberts to Asia[6].
  • 1837 (Tenpo 8)-American merchant Charles King on the Morrison merchant shipOtokichiTraveled to Uraga to send drifters to Japan. In 1808NagasakiでThe United KingdomWoke up by a warshipPhaeton caseLaterForeign Ship Discharge OrderBased on, the Japanese battery fired the Morrison (Morrison case).
  • On July 1844, 15 (Tenpo 7), the Dutch government notified the Edo Shogunate in advance that the merchant ship captain Hiitl Aohert Hitsuki would deliver the letter of the King of the Netherlands to the Edo Shogunate by warship, and on August 29 Was delivered by the warship captain Haes Corps.The letter is written by the Edo ShogunateIsolationIt was requested to solve the problem and to improve the treatment of Dutch ships, their sailors, and Japanese people, and it was accompanied by works of art, maps, botanical pictorial books, astronomy books, etc.[7].
  • 1845 (Koka 2nd year) --The whaling ship Manhattan rescues 22 Japanese drifters and is the captain.Mercator Cooper TheUragaAllowed to enter the portUraga magistrateFaced with.
  • 1846 (Koka 3rd year) Leap May --AmericaEast India FleetCommanderJames Biddle Columbus,VincennesHe led two warships and traveled to Uraga to seek commerce, but he was refused.It was the first US warship to call at Japan.
  • 1846 (3rd year of Koka) --The crew of the American whaling ship Lawrence,Etorofu IslandDrifted to.The following year, it was handed over to a Dutch ship in Nagasaki.
  • 1848 (first year of Kaei) --American whaler Lagoda crew, westEzoDrifted on the ground.He was escorted to Nagasaki like the crew of the Lawrence, but was imprisoned for trying to escape.This is reported to the United States as "Americans are being abused."
  • 1848 (first year of Kaei)- Ranald McDonald, Smuggling on his own initiative to teach English to Japanese people.
  • 1849 (Kaei 2) -East India SquadronJames glynnThe US warship Preble, whose captain is, travels to Nagasaki, receives the Lagoda sailors and McDonald's that were washed ashore the previous year, and leaves.At this time, Grin's "resolute attitude" influences Perry's plans later.


Japan opening order and dismissal for Alliq

May 1851, 5 (April 29, 4),President-FillmoreIs JapaneseOpeningAiming to establish a trade relationship with East India Squadron CommanderDeputy generalJohn AulickIts mission as a special envoy to Japan[8] Given, on June 1851, 6vaporfrigate"SusquehannaIs of the East India SquadronflagshipI left for the Far East as much as possible.However, Alliq was dismissed for having trouble with the captain of Susquehanna, and in February 1852, he was the deputy general.Matthew Calbrace PerryWas given that task[† 3][9].

Kaei 6th year of arrival

Perry is Secretary of the NavyKennedyHas been instructed since November 1852, 11 (October 13, 5).Its main contents are the exercise of a wide range of discretionary powers to carry out its mission to Japan, exploration of the coast of Japan and neighboring continents and islands, and the social, political and commercial situation of the countries and regions where it goes, especially of commerce. Gathering as much information as possible about the new subject, etc.[10].

Perry's plan

Perry made his own masterplan for the Japan expedition in January 2, nearly two years before he was given the task of opening Japan.Navy SecretaryWilliam Alexander GrahamWas submitted to[11]..So he states:

  • Four warships are required for a successful mission, three of which are large steam warships.
  • The Japanese may know the steamship in books, but by looking at itModern nationYou will be able to recognize the military power of.
  • "Appeal to fear would have more advantages than appealing to friendship," to the Japanese as well as to the Chinese.
  • NetherlandsNegotiations in Nagasaki should be avoided, as it is expected to interfere.

Given the mission to open Japan, the plan became even bigger, with "Susquehanna" and "Sasukehana" belonging to the East India Squadron.Saratoga"(sailingSloop), "Plymouth"(USS Plymouth In addition to the same), four steam ships of the Home Fleet, sailingShip of the lineHe requested the formation of a total of 1 large fleets, consisting of one, two sailing sloops, and three sailing supply ships.However, of the four planned home fleet steam warships, only "MississippiWas only.In addition, the ship of the line was excluded because it was too expensive, and instead the steam frigate, which had just returned from West India,PowhatanWill be added[12].

Notice of arrival by the Netherlands

February 1852, 7 (KaeiFebruary 5, 6),Dutch trading houseLongJanus Henricus Kurtius TheNagasaki magistrate"Special style book(Documents unpublished at the end of the Edo period Dejima[13] Saved as[14]) Was submitted.It states that the United States is seeking a treaty with Japan and will dispatch a fleet for that purpose, five US warships around China and four ships scheduled to be dispatched from the United States. Along with his name, he also said that the commander had replaced Perry from Orrick, and that there were rumors that the fleet was carrying soldiers and weapons for land warfare.He also said that it is said that the departure will be after the end of April.

In addition, he submitted a letter from the Dutch East Indies Governor Van Twist on June 6 to Nagasaki Bugyo ("Daison-kun Nagasaki Bugyo-sama"), which was recommended by the Netherlands to deal with the dispatch of the American envoy. As a plan, "Allow trade at Nagasaki Port, accept a magistrate stationed in Nagasaki, allow building a trading house. Trade with foreigners is limited to 25 merchants in Edo, Kyo, Osaka, Sakai, Nagasaki", etc. 5 in total A so-called draft trade treaty was presented across items[15]. Also,1844 letterThe king was disappointed because he was not opened after that, but he expressed concern that a war could affect the Dutch.[16].

Old ageLeaderMasahiro AbeIs around summerTakumaCirculated these to the Fudai Daimyo[17].Coastal defenseWe also asked (Kaibokake) for their opinions, but received the answer that a trade treaty should not be concluded.Also, Nagasaki Bugyo also said that the Dutch could not be trusted.[18](Previously in the Dutch style book of EnglandHong Kong GovernorJohn bowringWas announced to travel, but it wasn't, and not all information was correct.)[19], The response of the shogunateMiura PeninsulaTo strengthen the defense ofKawagoe Domain-Hikone clanIt was about increasing the number of soldiers.In addition, even within the Bakufu, this information was kept at the upper level up to the magistrate level, and was not conveyed to Uraga's power, which is expected to come to Japan.[20]..On the other hand, the outsideShimadzuSeems to have been verbally informed of this information by the end of the year.[21], Nariakira reported to Masahiro Abe about the movements of the US Navy East India Squadron since it traveled to Ryukyu the following year, and both had a sense of crisis, but they were a minority in the shogunate.

When the US government decides to send Perry to Japan, he asks the Dutch government to notify Japan of the dispatch of a trade negotiation mission and its peaceful purpose through Folsom, the US deputy minister stationed in The Hague, the Netherlands. bottom.However, this letter (dated July 1852, 7) did not reach Japan because it arrived at Van Twist after Curtius left Java for Japan.However, the following year, that is, 2 when Perry arrived (Kaei(6 years) In a special essay submitted, the purpose of dispatching Perry is to establish a trade relationship in a peaceful manner.

Departure

November 1852, 11, 24 years oldMatthew Calbrace PerryCommander-in-chief and Japanese ambassadorvaporfrigate"MississippiIs a single shipNorfolkDeparted from the port and headed for Asia.Perry is a hawkish presidentFillmore(Whig party), It was said that the occupation of Ryukyu was unavoidable.

Mississippi大西洋Cross the

ThroughShanghaiArrived on May 5th.During this time, coal was replenished at each port.Joined Plymouth (sailing sloop) and supply (sailing supply ship) in Hong Kong, steam frigate in ShanghaiSusquehannaJoined.At this time, the president has alreadyDemocratic Party OfPierceOn behalf of him and under himDoppinThe Secretary of the Navy banned the use of force for aggression, but did not reach Perry on the voyage.

In addition, in Macau on the waySamuel WilliamsAs a Chinese interpreter in ShanghaiAnton PortmanAs a Dutch interpreter, he is producing the Chinese and Dutch versions of President Fillmore's letter on his voyage to Japan.

Ryukyu visit

ShanghaiでSusquehannaThe Perry fleet, which moved its flagship to, set sail on May 5, and on May 17.Ryukyu Kingdom(Satsuma DomainI anchored off the coast of Naha (under the influence).PerryShuri CastleI asked him to visit, but the Ryukyu Kingdom refused to do so.However, Perry ignored this and led an armed soldier to land and march through the city to Shurijo Castle.

The Ryukyu Kingdom refused to bring in armor and enter the castle, and Perry entered the castle with several disarmed officers.Perry and his party are treated with tea and sweets at Kitatono, and the president urges the opening of the country.LetterHanded over.In addition, the place was moved to the Omi Palace outside the castle, where it was served with sake and food.Perry thanked him and invited a senior Kingdom official to "Susquehanna" in return to accompany him.FranceServed the cooking of a chef.

However, the hospitality provided by the kingdom was only a convention for visitors,clearfromBookletImplicit refusal to Perry by serving dishes that are lower than hospitality to the messenger (Letter(Reply) (a method used by many countries for visitors).Although he escaped armed control due to his friendly behavior, the Ryukyu Kingdom was still used as a relay point for Perry to Japan.

The records at that time are described in detail in the "Ryukyu Kingdom Rating Office Document" compiled by the Ryukyu side.

Ogasawara exploration

Perry stationed part of his fleet in Naha and set sail on June 6th, with unclear territory from June 9th to June 6th.Ogasawara IslandsExplored.At this time, Perry declared the territory of the Ogasawara Islands, but immediately received a protest from Britain and received a protest.ロシアThe ship also went south to the sea near the Ogasawara Islands to protest, so the declaration was reluctant.Later JapanHayashikodairaBy "Sangoku Tsuru IllustratedClaim territory based on the description[Source required],Mizuno TadanoriDispatchedHachijojimaBy actively relocating residents, the great powers of the time, such as Britain, Russia, and the United States, will be granted sovereignty.

Perry returned to Ryukyu once on June 6, and left a part of the fleet again, and on July 23, he led three ships to Japan with a letter from the president.

Uraga visit

1853 May 7(June 6, 6th year of Kaei) 3:17UragaAppeared offshore and moored.The first ships the Japanese saw were of the Russian Navy and Royal Navy that they had visited before.sailboatIt was different from.The paddle steamer with a black-painted hull has an outer ring in addition to the sail.Steam engineHowever, he sailed, towing the sailing ships one by one, and was already smoking from the chimney.From that situation, the Japanese said,Black shipWas called.

The fleet anchored off the coast of Uraga is the flagship "Susquehanna(Steam paddlewheelfrigate), "Mississippi"(same),"Saratoga"(Sailing sloop),"Plymouth"(USS Plymouth It consisted of four ships (same as above).There were a total of 4 cannons, and they were ready for battle for fear of an attack from the Japanese side.

Uraga magistrateMr. Toda SakaeFirst of all, Uraga Magistrate's Office against the US Fleet flagship USS Susquehanna (which was identifiable because it was holding the Commander-in-Chief flag)Force OfSaburo NakajimaDispatched, Perry's travel to the generalPresident of the United StatesI understood that the purpose was to hand over the letter.Nakajima misrepresented himself as a "deputy magistrate" in order to board the Susquehanna, but Perry refused to deposit his letter because the rank of the shogunate was too low.Then the nextMay 7(June 6, 6th year of Kaei), Uraga Magistrate's OfficeForceKayama EizaemonVisited under the name of Uraga Bugyo and met with Captain Buchanan, Chief of Staff Adams, and Perry's adjutant Conty.However, the response did not change, and the letter was rejected to be given only to the highest-ranking officials.Kayama asked him to give him four days to talk to his boss, but Perry replied that he would wait for three days, and said, "If you don't send a high-ranking official to receive your letter, you'll head north in Edo Bay. He will lead the soldiers to land and hand them directly to the general. "

On the same day, Perry dispatched one armed short boat from each ship belonging to the fleet to survey Uraga Minato.This survey had the effect of intimidating the Shogunate side.Uraga Bugyo, of course, protested.The answer was the idea of ​​eliminating unequal international relations under the seclusion system, and included the idea of ​​forcing Japan to have unequal international relations.[22].. From early morning on July 7 (June 11, Kaei 6), the survey boat corps invaded Edo Bay for about 6 km, and the Mississippi was attached to the escort.Behind that action, Perry hopes that "showing an attitude of approaching Edo with a powerful warship will awaken the Japanese government (Bakufu) and give a more convenient response to the United States." was there.The shogunate was shocked by this action, and on July 6 (June 20, 7th year of Kaei), he said, "I will accept my mother-in-law, leave it to my will, and promptly retreat." We received the national book from the standpoint of[23].

At this time, the 12th generationGeneralTokugawa IekeiWas lying in bed and was not in a position to determine the nation's critical affairs.Rōjū leaderMasahiro Abeは、7月11日(嘉永6年6月6日)に「国書を受け取るぐらいは仕方ないだろう」との結論に至り、7月14日(嘉永6年6月9日)にペリー一行のKurihamaAllow landing,Nobuatsu ShimosoneIn addition to the troops under the direct control of the shogunate,Kawagoe DomainとHikone clan, At seaAizu DomainとNinjaWhile guarding, Uraga BugyoMr. Toda SakaeとIdo HiromichiMeet with Perry.

Perry urges them to open the country President Fillmore's letter[† 4][24], The admiral's credentials, memorandum, etc. were handed over, but the shogunate demanded a one-year grace period for the reply, saying that "the general is ill and cannot decide", so Perry said, "I will return to Japan one year later to hear the reply." I will do it. "No diplomatic negotiations were held here, only the delivery of documents.Two people, Toda and Well, who are the full powers of the Japanese side, Uraga Bugyo, did not say a word.

The Japanese side thought that they would move out a few days after the press conference, but Perry transferred to the Mississippi on July 2 (June 3, Kaei 7), 15 from Uraga.MilesI went north to the point where I could clearly see the port of Edo, and after showing enough threat to the shogun, I returned to the offing of Koshiba.

The fleet left Edo on July 7 (June 17, Kaei 6) and joined the fleet left in Ryukyu to become a British colony.Hong KongI went back to.Perry succeeded in adhering to the spirit of the home government directive[25].

The American fleetAmerican independence day OfCongratulatory gunHe fired dozens of blanks in the bay for command and signal purposes.Since the Japanese side had notified this matter in advance, the townspeople were also informed to that effect.[26], The first bombardment caused a great deal of confusion in Edo.When it was discovered that it was a blank gun, the townspeople were told that they were pleased with the feeling of fireworks every time the bombardment sounded.

The day after the arrival, spectators began to gather in Uraga, and the day after the next day, spectators also flooded from Edo.Sakuma Zouzan,Yoshida ShoinIs also going to see.Some of them took a small boat to get close to them and tried to make contact with them, but when the shogunate told the samurai and tradesmen to "be vigilant", there were rumors of live bombardment. With that, my anxiety gradually spread.

At that time, he said, "I can't sleep at night with four cups of Jokisen who wake up from Taihei's sleep."Mad songWas written[† 5].JokisenMeans "Kisen", a brand of green tea, and "I just drank four cups of Jokisen tea ("caffeineThe ostensibly meaning of "I can't sleep at night (due to the action of)" and "only 4 cups (sometimes counting 1 or 2 cups) of a steamship from a foreign country (Jokisen)[† 6] Because of this, the country is in a turmoil and I can't sleep at night. "

The outline of the ships that arrived in Kaei 6 years is as follows.

Ship nameShip typeYear of constructionTonnageCrewEngine outputarmament
Susquehanna
Susquehanna
Steam paddlewheel frigate1850 Loading capacity 2,450 tons (bm ton)
Displacement 3,824 British tons
300420NHP
795IHP
150 poundsParrott rifle x2
9 イ ン チDahlgren gun x12
12-pounder gun x1
Mississippi
Mississippi
Steam paddlewheel frigate1841 Loading capacity 1,692 tons (bm tons)
Displacement 3,220 British tons
260434NHP
650IHP
10 イ ン チPaixhans gun x8
8 inch Paixhans gun x2
Saratoga
Saratoga
Sailing sloop1843 Loading capacity 882 tons (bm tons)260No8 inch cannon x4
32-pounder gun x18
Plymouth
Plymouth
Sailing sloop1844 Loading capacity 989 tons (bm tons)260No8 inch cannon x8
32-pounder gun x18

Trends of the Shogunate after Perry's departure

On July 10 (June 7, 27th year of Kaei), just 6 days after Perry's departure, Shogun Iekei died.Of the shogun's successorIesada(Inaugurated as the 6th Shogun on November 11, 23th year of Kaei) was ill and was not a person who could take charge of national affairs.However, there is no good idea for the old people, and the country advocates expulsion from foreign countries.ArrogantPartly because of the growing debate, the leader of the Rōjū(I.e.Was troubled by the request to open the country.

August 8 (July 5, Kaei 6),(I.e.Widely sought opinions on diplomacy from people who did not participate in the shogunate, from daimyo to Hatamoto to the common people, but this was the first time since the opening.There was no voice in national affairsOutside DaimyoWas pleased, but there was no good idea.From this point onward, the government will decide on a collegial system rather than the shogunate alone.Public council theoryAs a result, the authority of the shogunate was lowered.

Military buildup

In addition, Abe will be on August 8 (July 26, 6th year of Kaei) to strengthen Edo Bay security in case of a battle with the US side.Egawa Taro SaemonFor artilleryDaibaI ordered the construction.EgawaFuttsu-Kannonzaki,Honmoku-Kisarazu,HanedaWe had proposed four defense lines off the coast of Shinagawa and off the coast of Shinagawa, but due to budget and construction schedules, 4 daibas were to be built off the coast of Shinagawa.[27].

On December 12th (November 14th, 6th year of Kaei), the Kawagoe, Aizu, and Oshi domains were appointed to defend the 11st to 14rd Daiba under construction.[28]. Also,Prohibition of building a large shipWas also lifted, encouraging each clan to build warships, and the shogunate itself was a Western-style sailing ship.Phoenix MaruOn October 10st (September 21th, 6th year of Kaei)Uraga ShipyardIt was laid down at.Orders for ships to the Netherlands have also been decided on July 1 (June 7, Kaei 24), just one week after Perry left.[29].. On December 12th (November 7th, 6th year of Kaei), I returned from the United States two years ago.Tosa DomainWas a professor at the clan schoolJohn ManjiroWas promoted as a full-fledged flag and made him describe the situation in the United States.

Arrival in Kaei 7 (1854)

1854 May 2(January 7, Kaei 1), Perry returned to Uraga via Ryukyu.The bakufu was very impatient because it was supposed to give a one-year grace period in the agreement with the bakufu, but it dared to make a decision in half a year.Perry learned of the death of General Iekei in Hong Kong and decided to take a chance in the turmoil of national affairs.You can also see Perry's diplomatic skills here.

2月11日(嘉永7年1月14日)に輸送艦「サザンプトン」(帆船)が現れ、2月13日(嘉永7年1月16日)までに旗艦「Susquehanna"Mississippi" "Powhatan"(that's all,vaporPaddlewheelfrigate) "Macedonian" "Vandalia" (above, sailingSloop) Six "Lexington" (sailing supply ships) have arrived. February 6,Miura Peninsula OfNagai VillageThe Macedonian ran ashore, and the Uraga Magistrate's Office reported the first report of the stranded incident to the Perry fleet, and the Perry fleet immediately sent for rescue.With the magistrate's officeHikone clanOffered help, but without waiting for the rescue operation on the Japanese side, the Mississippi arrived and pulled it out with a rope.The Japanese side was launched on the beachballastAnd delivered it to a fleet 20 miles away[30]..After arriving at Edo Bay, the flagship moved to "Powhatan". From February 2th, Kumigashira of Uraga Magistrate's OfficeKabei KurokawaSaid Lt. Col. Adams on the Perry side, and negotiations began on the location of the reception.The magistrate's office built a reception office in Uraga, but Perry was not convinced and it was finally February 2th.YokohamaIt was settled in.May 3, A reception office was completed in Yokohama, and on March 3, a total of 8 Americans landed in Yokohama.[30].. "Saratoga" (sailing sloop) arrived on March 3 (February 4, Kaei 7), and "Supply" (sailing supply ship) arrived on March 2 (February 6, Kaei 3). At that time, a large fleet of nine ships gathered in Edo Bay, and Edo was greatly shaken.On the other hand, Uraga was packed with many onlookers and became a tourist destination.In addition, some citizens left their boats and came into contact with Americans.

Although the Shogunate was surprised by the sudden arrival of the large fleet, neither the Japanese side nor the American side took hostile actions as in the previous arrival, and the American side served French cuisine to the Japanese messenger on board. Behaved and welcomed.Japanese people areRed snapperThe American side, who had purchased the information that they were pleased with the sea bream, had a part in the cooking that was conscious of the Japanese side, such as catching sea bream and cooking.According to the description on the American side, the cooking itself is the place where you should bring back the menu at the endOld paperHe said he was surprised that he wrapped it in an isshokuta and wrapped it in various dishes.However, this behavior isHonzen cuisineIs called "inkstone lid"Fried sweetsIt was derived from the fact that it was a practice to bring it home.[Source required]

As a response, after the first Japan-US talks were held at the reception office in Yokohama, the Japanese side served a Honzen-ryori lunch to the American side.Edo Ukiyo Koji Hyakukawa undertook the cooking for 2,000 cars and made a set for 300 people.[31].. If you calculate the value of 2,000 cars as modern value, it will be about 1 million yen, which is 5,000 yen per person.Using the finest ingredients, more than 1 dishes were served, including sake, soup, side dishes, main dishes, second dishes, and desserts.However, Perry said, "Japan" because of the prejudice that "meat dishes are not served because it is undeveloped", that there were many biological and light-tasting dishes in general, and that the amount per dish was small for Americans. Should be hiding something better. "However, some Americans have said that "Japan has done everything it can."After that, it is said that the Japanese side went to the American side to eat something.[Source required].

In the negotiations at the Yokohama reception office on March 3, the Japanese side agreed to the letter of the President of the United States about the provision of firewood, food, coal, shipwrecks and rescue of drifters, but consented to trade. I answered that I couldn't.As a result of the exchange between the head of Hayashi University and Perry, Perry withdrew his trade request.[32]..The following day, on March 3, the Japanese side handed Perry a letter stating that there would be a five-year grace period for the opening of the evacuation port, and that Nagasaki would be used until then. On March 9th, Perry proposed to donate American souvenirs, and on March 5th, he was given a list of gifts and a list of rewards.A total of 3 items were presented, including a quarter model of the steam locomotive. On March 10, a letter was sent from the United States requesting the immediate opening of a port and the conclusion of a treaty. On March 3, the Japanese side handed over a draft treaty with the same content as before. A meeting was held at the reception office in Yokohama on March 13, and the US side requested the opening of several ports by March 4. On March 1, the heads of Hayashi University returned to Edo and consulted with Rōjū. With Shimoda at the Yokohama meeting on March 140HakodateIt was agreed to open two ports. At a meeting in Yokohama on March 2, Perry demanded that American officials be stationed in Shimoda's promenade and Shimoda, but Hayashi would occasionally need firewood, water and food to start trading. I replied that I could not respond because I only did. Agreed to discuss again with the American envoy coming 3 months later. On March 28With a glanceAs a result of discussions by dispatching Nora, it was agreed that the number of promenades would be 7 ri squares, the opening date would be immediate under the treaty, in fact it would be April or May next year, and the date of signing the treaty would be March 4. On March 5, Hirayama was dispatched to discuss the draft treaty with each other.Regarding the signing format of the treaty, the Perry side proposed to write the names of Hayashi, Well, and Perry in a row according to the customs of each country, but the Japanese side insisted that each signature be accepted on a separate sheet and exchanged, and pushed through. rice field[30].

After about a month of discussions, on March 1 (March 3, Kaei 31), Perry and about 7 generals and sailorsMusashi countryKanagawaNearby Yokohama Village (currently Kanagawa Prefecture)横 浜 市) And received hospitality from the Japanese side, thenHayashi Akira(Japanese full power ・ (Ambassador of Extraordinary Plenipotentiary) Has been appointed, and negotiations have begun, covering a total of 12 articles.Japan-US Treaty of Peace and Amity(Kanagawa Treaty) was signed and the Japan-US agreement became formal, and the third shogunTokugawa IemitsuThe seclusion that has continued for more than 200 years since then has been lifted (immediately after April 4)Yoshida ShoinIs contacting the Powhatan in an attempt to stowaway to study abroad).After that, for inspection in late May (late April, Kaei 5)Hakodate PortEnter the port,Matsumae clanElderlyMatsumae KageyuAsks for an arrangement regarding Hakodate Port, but is rejected as having no authority[33]..After returning from HakodateIzukuniShimoda (currently Shizuoka Prefecture)Shimoda)ofRyosenji TempleIt consists of 6 articles that stipulate the detailed rules of the Convention of Kanagawa on June 17 (May 7, 5th year of Kaei).Shimoda TreatyConcluded.

The Perry fleet left Shimoda on June 6 (June 25, 7th year of Kaei) and stopped by on the way back.Ryukyu KingdomAlso formally signed a trade treaty.After returning to the United States, Perry submitted these voyages, "The Expedition to Japan," (which is still the first-class material for this case) to Congress, but only four years after he played a major role in concluding the treaty. He died in 4 at the age of 1858.After that, America was fierceCivil WarRushed into, lost influence over Japan and Qing, and eventuallyThe United Kingdom,France,ロシアHas strengthened its ties with Japan and expanded its influence over the Qing dynasty.

On September 20, 1945, when the Japanese Instrument of Surrender signing ceremony was held on the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the American flag on the Perry fleet's flagship "Powhatan" at that time was displayed. Brought in from home, a signing ceremony was held in front of the flag. The bell that was sent from Ryukyu to the Perry fleet in July 9Annapolis Naval AcademyDecorated in the same schoolfootballIt was ringing at the victory celebration, but was returned to Okinawa in 1987.[34][35]..The official name of this bell is "Old Daianzenji Bell", commonly known as "Gokokuji Bell", and it is said to have been manufactured in 1456.[34].

The outline of the ships that arrived in Kaei 7 years is as follows.

Ship nameShip typeYear of constructionTonnageCrewEngine outputarmament
Powhatan
Pawhatan
Steam paddlewheel frigate1852 Loading capacity 2,415 tons (bm ton)
Displacement 3,765 British tons
289420NHP
795IHP
11 イ ン チDahlgren gun x1
9 inch Dahlgren gun x10
12-pounder gun x5
Susquehanna
Susquehanna
Steam paddlewheel frigate1850 Loading capacity 2,450 tons (bm tons)
Displacement 3,824 British tons
300420NHP
795IHP
150 poundsParrott rifle x2
9 イ ン チDahlgren gun x12
12-pounder gun x1
Mississippi
Mississippi
Steam paddlewheel frigate1841 Loading capacity 1,692 tons (bm tons)
Displacement 3,220 British tons
260434NHP
650IHP
10 イ ン チPaixhans gun x8
8 inch Paixhans gun x2
Saratoga
Saratoga
Sailing sloop1843 Loading capacity 882 tons (bm tons)260No8 inch cannon x4
32-pounder gun x18
Macedonian
macedonian
Sailing frigate1852 remodelingLoading capacity 1,341 tons (bm tons)489 (before remodeling)No8 inch cannon x6
32-pounder gun x16
Bandaria
Vandalia
Sailing sloop1848 remodelingLoading capacity 770 tons (bm tons)150No8 inch cannon x4
32-pounder gun x16
Southampton
Southampton
Sailing supply ship1845 Loading capacity 567 tons (bm tons)UnknownNo42-pounder gun x2
Lexington
Lexington
Sailing supply ship1843 remodelingLoading capacity 691 tons (bm tons)190 (before remodeling)No32-pounder gun x6
supply
Supply
Sailing supply shipPurchased in 1846Loading capacity 547 tons (bm tons)60No24-pounder gun x4

Case study

Gifts

For garment manufacturing in the United States from the 1830s to the 50sミ シ ンWas well developed, but on the second visit in 1854 (Kaei 7), from PerryTokugawa ShogunateIt is said that a sewing machine was sent to.Other things given by Perrysteam locomotiveOne thousandthmodel,Telegraph,Silver plate photoMachine,pistol,telescopeAbout 140 points[37]..Some are known as one of the most expensive books in the worldPicture book"American birdsWas also included[38].

The ones given by the Japanese sideSuzuri-bako,Silk fabric,lacquerware,China,sword2 swings,matchlock3RiceWith 200 baleschicken300 feathersWrestlerI let you carry[37].

Establishment of Shokonsha (Yasukuni Shrine)

IwakuraAccording to "Building a Shokonsha" in the writing record of 1869Soul soul company(Yasukuni ShrineWas established with the Martyrs since the arrival of Kurofune.Fushimi War(Boshin War) To memorialize the martial arts together.

The document says, "Since May XNUMXth, Yin Water Ox.The soul of the martial artsComfort Higashiyama"We will build a shrine in Japan and enshrine it", and "May 1th Yin Water Ox" corresponds to June 1853, 6, when the first visit was made.With this memorialTokyoKojimachi WardKudanA shōkonsha was set up in the precincts of the shōkonsha, which was the first Western style in Japan.RacecourseWas made[39].

Questionable cases

It is questioned by Japanese history experts because it is only conveyed by specific sources.

White flag legend

Perry gave two flags to the Shogunate when he first arrived in Uraga, but the type of flag and the purpose of the gift are unknown.Regarding this matter, the Goryeo ring document is said to have handed over a document urging "opening or surrendering" at the same time. "One of the two flags is a white flag, which is used when surrendering," he said.However, the contents of this document are often inconsistent with the situation at that time, and some are excluded from Japanese history experts.CounterfeitIt is judged that.note that,Kayama EizaemonSusquehanna'sFranklin BuchananThe captain mentions the "white flag", but there is no record of the "surrender recommendation".

Bombardment

According to Perry's "Expedition to Japan", more than 2 blanks have been shot in the name of congratulatory guns, salutes, and guns on two visits. Despite being reported and touched by the public, it has been recorded that this caused havoc, but all were blank and undamaged.However, of the seven ships under "Powhatan" that came to Japan, two steamships and three sailing shipsAwakuni(Chiba) When he bombarded SunosakiIn the old documents on the Japanese side[Source required].

The incident was in 1854May 2(Kaei 7 yearsMay 1) Guarding Susaki in the oxBizenIt was a bombardment of the Okayama domain.The shell of the ship fell into the sea about 10 meters in front of the position.The Bizen clan made an emergency call and fired with five cannons, two steamships fled, but three sailing ships were hit.The Bizen garrison attempted to board a sailing craft by boat, and about 5 people were killed or injured in the counterattack, but three were "picked up" (captured).However, this incident occurred on February 2 (the lunar calendar).May 2) Is cut off at the end.

In response to the incident of this dayTosa DomainThen, February 1854, 2 (Kaei 21)May 1),TosaFeudal lord OfYoshihide Myojin Mountain contents hallThan,Aki DistrictmagistrateI was askedForeign Ship Discharge OrderBased onEdict to Repel Foreign ShipsIs being told[40].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Ishii, p20-24. The House Navy Commissioner King's report on May 1848, 5 mentions this route (via the Tsugaru Straits), and Finance Secretary Walker said the same in December of the same year. ing
  2. ^ According to the Edo-Tokyo Museum 1999, the American charter ships destined for Japan are as follows.
    1. 1797, Captain William Robert Stuart's Eliza
    2. 1798, same as above
    3. 1799, Captain James Debro's Franklin
    4. 1800, Captain William V. Hatchings Massachusetts
    5. 1800, Captain William Robert Stuart's Emperor of Japan
    6. 1801, Captain Michel Gardner Derby's Margaret
    7. 1802, Captain George Stills Samuel Smith
    8. In 1803, Captain James McNeill's Rebecca.
    9. In 1803, Captain William Robert Stuart's Nagasaki.
    10. 1806, Captain Henry Reeler's American issue
    11. 1807, Captain Joseph Okine's Ecribs
    12. 1807, Captain John Davidson's Mount Vernon
    13. 1809, Captain James McNeill's American Rebecca
  3. ^ There were three purposes in sending Alliq to Japan.One is to allow US steamers engaged in trade with China to purchase Japanese coal.Second, the Government of Japan should be obliged to protect US sailors and property wrecked along the coast of Japan.Third, US vessels acquire the right to sell or exchange cargo at Japanese ports.In addition, Alliq kept the president's letter to the Japanese emperor (general).
  4. ^ The letter from President Fillmore to the "Emperor of Japan" (general) states that the purpose of sending Perry to Japan was to allow free trade between the two countries, to give preferential treatment to wrecked seafarers and to protect their property, and to ship coal to ships. -The designation of one port on the southern coast of Japan as a port of call to supply food and water has been raised.It is noteworthy that trade has been carefully expressed, such as conducting a trial for 5 to 10 years and stating that if it turns out that there is no profit, it can be restored to the old law.
  5. ^ Only similar phrases can be seen in contemporary historical materials, mainly in the 11th year of the Meiji era (1878).Wujiang chronology, And 3 (1914), "Edo period Ochishoju", etc., since the source can be seen after the Meiji era, it is pointed out that it may be a song that was touted in posterity, and in recent years it has disappeared from textbooks. There is.However, in 22, a letter indicating that it was written immediately after the arrival of Kurofune (from Yamashiroya Sabei dated June 2010, 6).Irokawa MinakaLetter to,Seikado BunkoCollection) has been found.
  6. ^ Actually, as mentioned above, only 4 of the 2 black ships are steamships.

Source

  1. ^ Population statistics: historical demography Retrieved February 2017, 7
  2. ^ Akira Osaki, "The decline of American whaling and the Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 19th centuryGeoscience Magazine 2010 Vol. 119, No. 4, p.615-631, two:10.5026 / jgeography.119.615
  3. ^ Hakodate Japan-Russia Exchange History Study Group "Newsletter" No.9 1998.8.11. In 1807, the American merchant ship Eclipse attempted to trade in Cantonese and Alaska, and after replenishing water and firewood in Nagasaki on the way back from Cantonese, the Sea of ​​Japan There is a precedent that went north and passed through the Tsugaru Strait from west to east.
  4. ^ Kato, p56-p58
  5. ^ Bauer, p. 57
  6. ^ ELLIOT GRIFFIS (August 1905, 8). “Edmund Roberts, Our First Envoy to Japan”. New York Timex. October 2010th, 1Browse.
  7. ^ "The Dutch delegation's diplomatic recommendation to the morning』.#Kimiki Iwakura.
  8. ^ Immediately open a steamer route from California to China (Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) 30 pages)
  9. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Pages 30-31
  10. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Pages 31-32
  11. ^ Graham, Volume IV
  12. ^ Mototsuna, p38-40
  13. ^ Miyako Foss
  14. ^ Nippon Foundation Library 15 Maritime Lecture Sea / Ship Seminar 2003? Perry's 150th Anniversary Commemoration?
  15. ^ Katsu Kaishu compilation "Kokukoku Kigen" "Reconciliation of Kapitan Sending Envelope, Settlement Submission Date: Child September"
  16. ^ "Dedicated to the Shogunate the diplomatic recommendation of the Dutch territory 𠺕』.#Kimiki Iwakura.
  17. ^ Kato, p40
  18. ^ Iwashita
  19. ^ Fukuchi Genichiro, p14-15
  20. ^ Kato, p43.Later, I dealt with the on-site responseSaburo Nakajima,Kayama EizaemonIs protesting to Uraga Bugyo that there was no communication.
  21. ^ Kato, p42
  22. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Page 48
  23. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Pages 49-50
  24. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Page 52
  25. ^ Takashi Ishii "History of the Opening of Japan" Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2010 Reprint (1972 First Edition) Page 58
  26. ^ Yokohama Kurofune Study Group"Historic event in Kanagawa prefecture (7), Chapter XNUMX Kurofune uproar in Yokohama village, I, residents surprised by the approach of foreign ships" Toshiro Kusama
  27. ^ Asakawa 2009, p55-p61.Since the area off Shinagawa is shallow, large ships equipped with large caliber cannons cannot approach, and it was thought that it would be sufficient to compete with small ships.In addition, the battery was installed not only on the front but also on the back in consideration of the case of breakthrough.
  28. ^ Asakawa 2009, p64
  29. ^ The following day, September 7, 9 (November 21, 1854), actually two steam warships (Kanrinmaruas well as the Chaoyang Maru) Has been ordered
  30. ^ a b c Yuzo Kato "Diplomatic Relations and Opening of the Country at the End of the Edo Period"
  31. ^ "Japanese ancient documentsIn the materials related to the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, there is "Miyanoshita on the right side of the dish", and in the Kawaraban version of "Bushu Yokohama Tomigoro" around the first year of Ansei, there is "Miyanoshita", but in "Dainippon Komonjo" Also includes materials that are said to have been undertaken by Tomigoro Iwaya, Kamiyanoshita.
  32. ^ Translated by Morita, "Modern Language Translation, Sumiko Reception Record", page 38
  33. ^ ""Hakodate City History" Myth Volume 1". Hakodate. October 2014th, 8Browse.
  34. ^ a b "Okinawa Prefectural Museum and Art Museum Interpreter Guide Training Materials (PDF)". Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. p. 149. October 2014th, 6Browse. “After that, I returned to Okinawa in 1987”
  35. ^ Junior officer p. 66
  36. ^ "Komi Iwakura" in 1906.National Diet Library NDLJP:781064/251
  37. ^ a b "Material color history"Hamashima Bookstore, 1994, 111p
  38. ^ Riko Imahashi"Culture and Representation of Natural History in Edo Bird-and-Flower Painting" Kodansha <Kodansha Academic Bunko>, 2017 (Original 1995 Skydoor).ISBN 978 4062924122.(Final chapter "Birds and Birds Across the Sea-Western Europe and Edo Period Natural History")
  39. ^ Nikkei Style "Yasukuni Shrine used to be a racetrack!], January 2011, 12.Archive
  40. ^ "Palace Attendant Ancestor Book" "Yoshihide MyojinAccording to the section.

References

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