Dormy Inn discontinues offering of original cup noodle "Gomen-dake" Changed to cup noodle "Pompoko Ramen"
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We will continue to offer the salty soy sauce ramen "Yonari Soba," which is a free service at the restaurant at night.
Dormy Inn will end the offer of Dormy Inn original cup noodles "Gomen-dake" on September 9th. "... → Continue reading
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RamenIsChinese noodleとSoupMainlyIngredient(roasted pork fillet,Menma,Seasoned egg, Tickshallot,SeaweedNoodles)Cuisine.. Kanji notationRamen,Old noodlesorWillow noodles.. Another name isChinese noodlesand支那 そ ば,Nanjing sobaso,"Ramen","Ramen","Ramen","ramen","Ramen"WhenhiraganaIt is sometimes written as.
in Japan,Bakumatsu~MeijiIn the ageOpeningWas doneHarborAppeared inChinatownTo (Nanjing Street)Chinese cuisineThe store opens,TaishoIt has spread to various places since the times.20st centuryFrom the second halfInstant noodleSpread all over the world21st centuryFromJapanMajor ramen chain has stores all over the world.
According to Shin-Yokohama Ramen Museum “History of Japanese Ramen”Edo PeriodThe end of theOpen port officialYokohama,Kobe,Nagasaki,HakodateMany foreigners have moved toJapanFlowed into the,ChugokuThe noodle dishrootsIs supposed to be.Meiji EraAt that time, Chinese cuisine including Chinese noodle dishes spread, and the number of restaurants with foreign students from China also increased outside the port town... However, in NagasakiOverseasHad settled in, and there may have been a Chinese restaurant.
1910 (Meiji43 years),TokyoTokyo cityAsakusa WardFor the first time a Japanese managerYokohama ChinatownInvited fromChinese peopleCookHire 12 people for JapaneseChinese cuisineshop"Coming and goingWas opened and became very popular.The main menu at that time was "NanjingSoba","ChinaIt was a ramen called "soba".According to the Shin-Yokohama Ramen Museum, "Kuraiken" is Japan's first ramen shop that combines Chinese noodle dishes and Japanese food culture., Ramen criticHiroshi OsakiNames this year "the first year of ramen".
Following the success of this store,Prewar JapanThe popular Chinese restaurants opened one after another, and ramenGyoza,Fried riceIt became popular as a standard menu.After the war TheMainland ChinaRamen by the withdrawal fromA stallMany appeared.. In the history of about 100 years, various arrangements have been added, such as in China andEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt has been developed and changed into a noodle dish unique to Japan, which is different from Asian noodle dishes such as (See below for detailsHistorySee section). Non-natural ramen that competes only by the taste of the ingredients and impact-orientedFamily ramenIt has undergone various evolutions according to needs, and is gaining popularity as a national dish.
Ramen is ramenAll stores,Chinese restaurant,Restaurants,A stallIt is provided by eating out. Although there are few, boiled noodles are automatically cooked and served.vending machineThere isIn addition,Ando BaifuInvented byInstant noodles,Cup NoodleIs exported from Japan,世界Locally produced in various places.
Depending on the type of ramen, traditional soy sauce ramen has enough salt, carbohydrates, and fat per serving.Therefore, there is a high risk of overnutrition if you eat ramen with a strong taste, which has increased since the 21st century, like every meal.,Lifestyle-related diseasesThere is also an increased risk of contracting.There are also known cases where people in the industry who eat a lot of ramen die early..
For traditional ramen bowlsLightningIs often drawn.
The name is often written as "ramen" or "ramen". In addition to the notation "Ramen", there is also a rare notation "Ramen" which is incorrect from the etymology. It is also referred to as "Chuka soba" or "China soba", but the dishes are the same except that they are called differently. In Japan, the name has changed over time such as Nanjing soba → Chinese soba → Chinese soba. The reason for spreading the name ramen was1958 (Showa 33)Nissin FoodThe world's firstInstant noodle"Chicken RamenIt is also said that.BrazilThen Nissin FoodsNoodles(Myousei) has acquired the trademark,NoodlesIs also synonymous with instant noodles(See below#Change in designationSee).
Since there are various theories of etymology, multiple descriptions are given.
- One is located in northwestern ChinaLanzhouA type of noodlesRamen(pinyin: Ramien)" (繁体字so"Hand-Pulled Noodle"Simplified charactersso"Kidnapping]) is the theory of origin.Chinese"Ra" means "to pull", and Ramen isJapanese buckwheat noodles,UdonInstead of cutting it with a knife to make it into an elongated shape like this, it is made by a hand-made technique that stretches it by hand to form an elongated noodle shape.This ramen became the prototype of Japanese ramen along with "", which stretches the noodle dough, folds it into several layers, and cuts it into thin noodles with a kitchen knife. Suppose that the time was near, so noodle making with a noodle making machine became common soon after the handmade noodle craftsmen grew up..
- The second is a theory that derives from Lao Meng, and some dictionaries also use the Chinese character notation of "Lao Meng" with "Ramen" in the ramen item..
- The 3 one is1922 (Taisho11 years)HokkaidoSapporoIt is said that the restaurant named "Takeya" (the owner, Shoji Oku, later renamed the Chinese restaurant Takeya), was originally opened in. Takeya Shokudo later became a restaurant that also handles Chinese food, where the owner's wife (Taku Oku)kitchenI was impressed by the Chinese chef's loud yelling "Haorah" accent and made it "ramen".
Noodles, soups and ingredients
Wheat flourAs a raw material,BrineAlkaline salt called (brine water)Aqueous solutionIs a major feature. Therefore, even noodles made from the same flourUdonAnd many other Chinese noodle dishes andイタリア OfpastaIt has a unique color, taste, and texture that is different from. However, depending on the area, non-steamed noodles (Akita Jumonji ramen), noodles made with an alkaline liquid other than brine (a part of Nagasaki Champon, Okinawa soba), egg noodles that bring out elasticity with chicken eggs (sometimes combined with brine) Exists.
Water is added to this flour to make long and thin noodles. In many cases, there are many shops that make noodles with a "noodle making machine" and use noodles produced by a noodle making company, but since the 1990s, small rolling mills have become available, and ramen specialty stores offer homemade noodles. The number of stores that do is increasing.
Further, depending on the thickness of the noodles, they are also classified as “thin noodles”, “medium-thin noodles”, “middle-thick noodles”, “thick noodles”, and the like. Also, consider the crimpiness of the noodles. Combine this, ramenManiaAlthough sometimes referred to as "medium-sized straight noodles" when evaluating noodles, it is just a sensory name.Hakata RamenThere is a wide variety of noodles, from thin noodles to thicker noodles than udon.
approximately,Cutting edge countThe thickness of the noodles is determined by the number, and the 18th, 20th, 22nd, 24th, 26th, and 28th noodles are often used... For Sapporo Ramen, thick noodle No. 22 is used..
It is usually boiled in boiling water. Boiling time depends on the thickness of the noodles and the hardness and softness that the store and the person who eat it desire.
Included in noodles in consideration of consumers' health consciousnesscarbohydrateTo reduceDietary fiberThere are companies and stores that add such nutrients and vegetable powder, which is a special product..
Additional orders for noodles only after eating noodles at a ramen shop,SubstituteThat.
Ramen soup is called "soup". Sauce in a bowlsoup stockDivide with (dashi) to make soup. Dashi is sometimes called "soup", but in this section, to avoid confusion, they are described separately.
Soup is a very important factor that determines the taste of ramen, and most stores use time-consuming and devised soup. The sauce to be seasoned has a fragrance that flies and changes in taste when heated for a long time, so the dashi and the sauce are prepared separately. There are also commercial soups that allow you to make soup without cooking your own, and commercial soups that also contain sauce, and some stores also use it. There are concentrated type that is diluted with water, straight type that is a method of boiling frozen packs and retort pouches.
- soup stock
- It becomes the basis of soup. Soy sauce ramen, which is often the origin of Japanese ramen,chicken carcassBased onBonitoSuch asShavings,BoiledThe ones whose taste has been adjusted are the mainstream. Also, ramen that advocates "old-fashioned" often use the same dashi.
- chicken carcass·pig bones-Beef bone-Shavings-Kelp-Dried shiitake mushroomsVarious materials are used as the raw material of the dashi. For deodorizing and flavoringonion-Japanese leek-Ginger-garlicSuch asFlavored vegetablesuse.Besides, beef bone is the base, and seafood (Kezuri-bushi)Boiled-Roasted-ChinEtc.) is the base. There are many combinations, and the combination of kelp and shavings is delicious.SynergyIt is well known that.
- Umami seasoning(Chemical seasoning) Plays a major role in adjusting the taste when gathering multiple soup stocks, but there are also stores that do not use chemicals (no chemical seasoning is used).
- In the latter half of the 2010s, ramen that did not use pork bones became popular as a dish for the Muslim customer base.
- 1972, in TokyoHealth centerWhen 32 samples such as ramen were investigated after receiving a report that his face was numb after eating, the maximum value of monosodium glutamate contained in the soup was 1.64% (4.92 per cup).G There is a record that it was (equivalent to (g)).
- Base flavor seasoning (miso・ Salt, soy sauce, etc., spices and other seasonings (sugar, salt, umami seasonings, etc.)sweet sake-Sake-vinegarEtc.) and other ingredients (vegetables, seaweed, fruits, meat, etc.) pastes, powders and extracts are mixed and blended.
- Complete the soup by dividing the sauce with the dashi stock.
- MapleAlso called. In the case of miso, it may be in the form of paste, and in the case of salt, it may be in the form of powder, and is not necessarily in liquid form.
- Flavor oil
- Emphasize the richness and umami.Asahikawa Ramen,Sakata Ramen,Tsubamesanjo backfat ramen,Kumamoto ramenUsed in etc.
- Items used include green onions andgarlicUsing oil (green onion oil, mar oil, etc.), spicy oil,lardOr grilled lard, chicken oil, shrimp oil,olive,ゴ マVegetable oil with strong characteristics such asHerbsThere are many kinds of oil, such as pickled vegetables and flavored vegetables.
- 2000 Before and after, the "back fat chacha system", which floats a chunk of pork back fat on soy sauce ramen soup, became popular.
- One of the oils used for butter. However, since the topping element is strong, it may be considered as a tool.
醤 油 ラ ー メ ンThen.Kashaki(Char siu)MenmaWith (Sina Chiku)Leek,pig bonesIn ramen, with Yaki and green onions FungusIs often used. The ingredients are added as toppings, or depending on the ingredients to be added, separate menus such as "vegetable ramen" and "negi ramen" are available. To offer at a low price for studentswheat branとJapanese leekThere is also a ramen with only cheap ingredients. Although it is special, there are ramen noodles that do not contain any ingredients, using carefully selected ingredients for soup stock, sauce, and noodles.
- Kashaki(roasted pork fillet)
- In most cases, boiled pork is used, but roast pork (including Chinese roast pork) may also be used.In some stores such as Jiro, it is called "pig".
- Among the ramen ingredients, it is said to be flower-shaped, and in many stores, the ones with more toppings than the standard of the store areChar ShumenIt is called an expensive menu.
- Depending on the shop, you can choose a firm char siu that is cooked in a relatively short time, a soft char siu that is slowly boiled until just before it collapses, or a roasted product.chickenPork and牛There are also char siu.
- However, in some ramen noodles in Tokushima prefecture and elsewhere, sliced pork seasoned and cooked may be used instead of char siu instead of being simmered in chunks.
- Boiled egg-Soft-boiled eggsIn addition to this, "Ajidama" (boiled egg), which is seasoned with these soaked in a seasoning liquid, and "Kaorutama", which is soaked in a smoked liquid, are sometimes used.In addition to putting it in whole, it is often topped in half.Also, insert the raw eggMoon watching, Which is common in some regions (Tokushima RamenSuch).
- MainlyCondimentUsed as. In eastern Japan, there are many thinly chopped white onions.Delicacy"Gray-haired green onion",Pea soy sauce,GochujangThere is also a “spicy green onion” that has been seasoned.Hakata RamenIn western JapanSmall onion,Kujo green onionOften uses fine green onions. Regardless of the region, the type of leek may change depending on the soup stock.Hachioji Ramen,Takeoka RamenIn some,onionAlso used.
- Menma(Chinese bamboo/Synamic)
- MachikuSuch as (matake)bamboo shootsThefermentationThen, wash with water, salt, and desalt. There are shops that use it as it is without salt, and shops that cook it with broth to soften it.
- Blue one (used alone without mixing)
- Often used in soy sauce ramen.Spinach,Komatsuna,ChingensaiBoiled or stir-fried leafy vegetables,Radish sproutsWakameThere are also cases where you can just put it on. Adds scent and texture. in recent yearsPea soy saucePickledLeekMay be included.
- Naruto winding,Kamaboko
- Naruto is a spiral-shaped kamaboko. In some cases, you can use a regular kamaboko. It also adds color and accents the taste.
- Green laver or plate laver,Rock nori(Raw seaweed), raw seaweed, etc. are used to add a unique flavor.
- It is often used in miso ramen.Bean sprouts-cabbage-carrot-onionSuch asFried vegetablesIs used,cornBoiled bean sprouts may also be used alone. Green for a limited timeAsparagusThere are stores that also use.AnkakeSo, sometimes thickened.
- Fungus-Red ginger-ゴ マ-Taka・ Koume (small and hardSalted plum）
- BothKyushuPork bone ramen (especiallyHakata Ramen) Often used. The fungus is used as a topping. The sourness of red ginger and Koume is said to make the fat of pork persistent. Sesame is used as a condiment (in soy sauce ramen, etc.pepperEquivalent to). Takana ispicklesIn addition to finely chopped old pickled "Takana-zuke" pickled in oil,Red peppersThere is also a case where "spicy takana", in which pepper is added, is used when pickled together or when fried. In some stores, young Takana pickles are lightly desalted and used as they are.
- Garlic squeezed, chopped, grated, fried, and powder are used.
- Old timesRakuno Gakuen UniversityDairy ramen (which already existed in 1977 and at that time used miso ramen with sliced cheese). After that, ramen using grated cheese and grated cheese as toppings has appeared throughout the country.
- crustacean,shellfishThere is one carrying.Dried seafoodAre also used.
In addition, there are a wide variety depending on the preferences of the store and home.
There are various types of soup that are regarded as more important than noodles. In addition to noodles, it is a standard that various ingredients are arranged on top of noodles (topping) and eaten, and there are many types of topping ingredients.
There is a large regional difference in that each ramen contains ingredients that are unique to the region of Japan, and that there are characteristics that the region likes. For ramen by region,# Main ramen in each regionSee section.
It is also a dish that has developed according to the local features and tastes in each region, and there are many types of ramen, such as similar ramen with regional names and special products as well as registered ramen.Chinese noodles # Dishes using Chinese noodlesSee also
Classification by type of sauce
醤 油 ラ ー メ ン
|Soy sauceRamen of taste soup. The basic taste of ramen. Depending on the soup stock that is combined, it is divided into a wide range of types, from clear-colored and refreshing soups to thick, cloudy ones. Sometimes seafood soup and soy sauce are boiled together with mirin, which reflects the regional characteristics (see below).# Main ramen in each regionSee section) There are many ramen.|
|saltRamen of taste soup. The characteristics of soup stock are more likely to appear than soy sauce sauce, but because the sauce itself has a lighter taste than others, there are many things with a lighter overall taste.|
|misoRamen of taste soup. Characterized by the scent of miso and a deep body. Depending on the type of miso, there are many that have a rich taste. I sometimes use roasted miso.|
pork bone ramen
|Ramen with pork bone soup.|
Classification by type of soup stock
The following is a single type of broth, but depending on the store that offers it, it may be used as a mixture of two or more when making it, and it may be called double or triple soup.
- White hot water (paitan) soup
- It features a cloudy color. Mainly simmers bones of animals and fish, vegetables over high heat for a long time, and has a rich taste and flavor.
- Pork white soup (pork soup stock)
- Characterized by a rich taste derived from collagen and bone marrow lipids that dissolve in the soup when cooked over high heat. Since the lipid is emulsified, it appears cloudy. There are various opinions, but Fukuoka PrefectureKurumeIt is said that it originated in and spread throughout northern Kyushu, and it is still the most popular ramen in Kyushu.
- Chicken white hot water (tripaitang) soup
- A cloudy-colored broth made by boiling chicken and breast meat over high heat for a long time. Although rich, it has a light aftertaste compared to Tonkotsu soup.
- Jingtang soup stock
- Dashi soup with no turbidity. When making, prepare at a temperature just below boiling. I don't want to get a little turbid inside, so there are shops that remove turbidity with egg white. Many of them have a refreshing flavor and taste compared to white hot water soup stock.
- Soup of pork bones (eg pork cutlet)
- It is a soup stock to which vegetables and other ingredients are added based on pork bones, but since it is a standard, it is rarely mentioned in particular. A versatile type. Especially often used in traditional Sapporo ramen.
- Chicken stock
- Dashi stock made by boiling chicken, dried sardines and vegetables. The color ranges from almost colorless to slightly yellowish, but the soup is mostly clear. It is clean and can be combined with any sauce such as soy sauce, salt and miso.
- Mixed chicken soup stock
- A soup stock with a flavor that combines a certain amount of richness and cleanliness by using a variety of vegetables, seafood, and sometimes fruits, centered on chicken and pork. Combination with sauce is a versatile type.
- Beef soup
- The soup stock used only in some areas.Streak meatDashi from bones and vegetables. It is mainly used for ramen with names related to ingredients, such as "gyu-dashi".
- Seafood soup
- Dashi stock based on seafood such as shavings of fish, iris and grilled jaws. It has a unique flavor of seafood.
- Curry soup
- There are various types of soup stock, and at curry ramen specialty stores, spices are used to match curry ramen, and soup stock with a curry flavor is often used.
Classification by ingredients
The following names are used depending on the contents of the ingredients.
|The above.KashakiRamen with a lot of toppings.|
|WontonRamen with ingredients.|
|Ramen using Chinese sauce. It is not a noodle dish in Guangdong, China, but a noodle dish that has its own name in Japan.|
|Ramen in Kanto region that uses multiple ingredients such as meat, vegetables, seafood, and eggs. Also called "gomoku soba".|
|Tianjin noodles||Ramen made with crab balls. Salty or soy sauce thickened bean paste is served.|
|FriedMeatOr ramen with fried clothes on it. Some restaurants serve stewed spare ribs.|
|Champon noodle||Ramen made from stir-fried meat and vegetables with eggs. Although it’s called a champonNagasaki ChamponIt's a completely different kind.|
|Tanmen is a salty soup noodle made by boiling a boiled noodle with a soup containing stir-fried meat and vegetables. The soup is based on chicken gala and has a clear salty taste. The cooking method is different from Japanese salt ramen, which uses salt soup with soup, and noodles and ingredients are also used.Nagasaki ChamponDifferent from It also has a different meaning from Chinese noodles.|
|Improvised that you can eat just by pouring hot water or boiling in hot waterInstant Food.. Original ramen is mainly served in restaurants and is popular as home cooking, while instant ramen is widely used as home cooking of Japanese food. In recent years, not only Japan but also China and South KoreaIt is also widely used as home cooking in Asia. Some can be eaten as they are instead of sweets.|
|There are various things such as instant ramen put in a tableware container, soup and ingredients in separate bags, and whether the ingredients are dried or boiled. SimpleMealAs,家庭,officeAnd againIn-flight meal-Behavioral dietAs a widespread.|
The first Chinese noodles I ate in JapanTokugawa Mitsukuni(Mito KomonThere is a theory that it is.1659 (Manji2 years)LightExiled fromScholar OfZhu Shunshui Mito DomainWhen he was invited to, the list of items that he used to make Chinese noodles was included in his inventory, so there is no record that he gave Chinese soup noodles, but he must have made it.1697 (Genroku 10th year) is the retreat of MitsukuniNishiyamasoThere is also a record that Chinese noodles were served by monks and vassals visiting.. What was restored based on this theoryShin-Yokohama Ramen MuseumIt is in.
on the other hand,AikokujiTowerRokuoninKage Ryoken (at that time)Kamezumi Collection)'S official diary "Kage Ryoken Diary"文明17 May 5(1485 On June 6th), in a Chinese book entitled "Necessary Things to Stay at Home," "Mizusuri Noodles,Noodles,Keiobi noodlesInvestigate how to cook noodle foods such as "Shosho noodles, Beni 絲 noodles, Midori noodles",Longevity2 years(1488 ）May 2(April 3th)May 5There is a description on (June 6th) that he cooked a dish called "Keiobimen" and acted as a visitor to Kage Ryoken.But2017 (Heisei29 years).. It is also written that this "Keitaimen" uses wheat flour and brackish water as ingredients, indicating that it may be the first ramen in Japan.
As for the spread to Japan,MeijiEntering the ageKobe,YokohamaIn port towns such asChinatownWas born, and it is said that it will start at the Nanjing Soba provided there.1884 (Meiji 17)Hakodate newspaper(At that time)HakodateA Chinese restaurant in Japan, Yowaken, advertised to start offering Nanjing soba for 15 sen.TaishoIt is said to have been provided until that time. Since there is little evidence and the people at the time are not alive, it is impossible to conclude that Nanjing soba at Yowaken is the same type of food as the current ramen..
1910 (43rd year of Meiji)Yokohama CustomsKanichi Ozaki, who retired fromYokohama Chinatown) From a Chinese cockTokyo OfAsakusaA popular Chinese restaurant with ramen mainlyComing and goingOpened. In the photos of the eaves of that time,GuangdongChinese buckwheat noodles"ChinaYou can see a sign saying "Cooking, Shinasoba, Wonton, Shimai, Manchiu". The taste was soy sauce soup, and the price was 1 yen (about 6 yen as of 2007) and the price was reasonable. Popularity is1976 (Showa 51)GoodwillIt continued until I lowered it. Hand-rolled noodles at the time of opening, hand-made in the Showa era.. The store that has inherited the flow of "Kuraikuken" at the moment is Susumu Miyaba, who was the last to train at the store.1966 Only "Shinraiken", which opened in Inage-ku, Chiba (Showa 41).
SapporoThen.1922 (11th year of Taisho), currentHokkaido UniversityIn front of the main gateSendai cityFormer police officer Shoji Oku/Tatsu couple opens "Takeya Shokudo".. China working thereShandongNative chefObunsaiThe authentic Chinese food made by has become popular. A regular professor of Hokkaido University School of Medicine (later President of Hokkaido University)Yuma ImaThe name of the store was also changed to "Chinese cuisine Takeya" on the proposal of.. Initially, noodle making was a hand-made method of pulling and stretching by hand, but after the number of customers increased, it became a noodle making machine.. Takeya's ramen is based on the Chinese dish "Rousu Mien," which is based on saltiness and was mainly intended for Chinese students... Tatsu Oku consulted with two cooks, Lee Hong-gyo and Lee Edo, who succeeded Wang Bunsai, to make it fit the taste of Japanese people. Improved, after trial and error,1926 In the summer of (Taisho 15) with soy sauce flavorroasted pork fillet,Menma(Shinachiku),LeekCreated the original form of the current ramen topped with.. At the time, there were soy sauce ramen with char siu, menma, and green onion in Asakusa Rairaken mentioned earlier, and it is said that the same thing appeared in Yokohama Nankingai. The basic type of ramen that is now popular in various places was completed.
1954 IsNagasaki ChamponInspired by the cloudy soup of "Tonkotsu Ramen"Ganso NagahamaIs open. At the same time, TokyoOgikuboThen Tokyo Ramen "Marucho" and "Harukiya" opened.Kakuei Tanaka OfJapanese archipelago remodeling theoryMade people call out for the "local age"1971 ,京都so"World classIs opened,1974 ToYokohamaof"Yoshimura familyWas opened,Family ramenBegins.1990 eraWhen you enterClass B gourmetAttracted attention in TokyoRing sevenThen the night seven ramen war that the night business office is cutting off.. Famous local shops began to expand into Tokyo one after another, and in the era, the local ramen moved to a ramen that pushed out the characteristics of the individual,GoodwillWas shaping the ramen boom both at home and abroad.
There are two main sources of popularization of ramen today. One is a Chinese restaurant run by Chinese immigrants in Chinatown (Nanjing Street) and other places, as well as the pre-war Kura-eken and the post-war Chinese and old.ManchuriaThis is a Japanese-style Chinese restaurant menu opened by people who have been relocated from. Two areA stallIt is a ramen shop that has opened a fixed store that sells and sells at. In addition to the fact that many people learned how to cook ramen from the experience of living in China, cheap and tasty and nutritious ramen was a good choice after the war when supplies were scarce. The stall itself is oldEdo PeriodAccording to the custom from the barking soba restaurant, the stationary stalls were loaded with cooking utensils and sold at night. A melody called "Doremired, Doremiredrei"CharmelaUp until the 30's, there were many scenes of traveling around the city with mobile stalls that ringed at.
Ramen, which has been popular as a taste of the common people for many years, was introduced in 1996.Chinese buckwheat green leavesHowever, the value of ramen as a soup dish was reevaluated after the launch of W soup ramen that combined seafood-based and animal-based soup stock, leading to a creative ramen boom. A series of chefs and shops that tried new things about soup stock, sauce, flavor oils, toppings such as boiled eggs, noodles, and all the elements of ramen appeared, and at that time the popularity of ramen on the Internet site began. Food repo,TV champion(TXNA new generation of ramen critics produced by the Ramen King Championship, information magazines and TV information programs that feature ramen,Shin-Yokohama Ramen MuseumWith the synergistic effect with such things, the diversification of ramen progressed at a stretch. This trend continues even today, and ramen has become the most varied and diversified cooking style in Japanese cuisine.
Many specialty stores have only counters or tables and counters. At specialty stores, menus are often distinguished by the taste of soup such as miso, soy sauce, and pork bones. Many specialty stores specialize in the taste of a particular soup. In addition, there are many areas where unique soups, seasonings and foodstuffs are predominant throughout the region, such as local ramen described below.
The ramen of these ramen specialty stores have developed their own uniqueness by developing their own unique ways of making noodles and soup. In particular, soup is often referred to as a secret "secret" about recipes,GoodwillIn the form of instruction and in incorporated storeschainIt was spread through guidance by deployment.
On the other hand, chain development andFranchiseThere are also ramen shops that are developing. In stores of this type, soup and other products are produced at the head office factory while keeping trade secrets, and the end stores decide to use the soup wholesaled from the headquarters as the head office.RecipesIn many cases, it is simply used on the street. In this case, the soup is concentrated and suitable for transport.Can of canThere is also an example packed in a container such as. In addition, there are some stores that offer soups, sauces, ingredients, etc. from other stores (other companies) even if they have opened their own stores. this isSeasoningSometimes called.
Currently, there is fierce competition with more than 6,000 ramen shops opening annually and more than 5,000 ramen shops closing down, and ramen shops that cannot be differentiated from other shops will collapse in less than a year. is there.
Changes in designation
In Japan, from the Meiji era to the early Showa era, it was generally called "Nanjing soba" or "China soba"... In this case,NanjingIsNankinmachi (Chinatown),peanutSimilarly, as a cityNanjingRather, it means "Chinese" or "foreign / imported". "China"Is the meaning of China at that time.
Second World WarAfter 1946 (Showa21),Republic of ChinaAs the name of (the name of the country of China at that time)ChinaRefrain from using the wordMinistry of Foreign AffairsThe name "Chinese noodles" was born because it was requested by the administrative vice-minister's notification.Instead of China buckwheat noodles, Chinese buckwheat noodles are commonly called.
It was the first time that the name "ramen" was released in 1958 (Showa 33) in place of the "Chinese soba" which was the majority at the beginning.Instant noodle"Chicken Ramen"(Nissin Food) Is said to have become widespread.After that, it became common to call it ramen, but "Chinese soba" is still used... In addition,Snack companyInstant noodles existed even before chicken ramen, such as "seasoned Chinese noodles" (at that time Matsuda Sangyo)..
Also, "Ramen" is also known as Kyoto Ramen AlleyTokyo ramenEtc. are used.
In recent years, due to the diversification of ramen, there are also shops that call old-fashioned ramen Chinese noodles and Chinese noodles because of their nostalgic implications. Chinese noodles are also used in the name of instant noodles.
Local ramen boom
It had a high profile already since the 1960s-70sSapporo ramenIt is also given that such things contributed greatly to tourism. Chain stores singing "Sapporo Ramen" spread all over Japan,Instant noodleIt was also used in the product name of. These are called "local ramen" and are used as a tourism resource for magazine media and PR in TV media.
Since then, more and more people have enjoyed the uniqueness of “local ramen,” and even today it is not uncommon to see a ramen boom in each region triggered by media coverage. Also nowTravel guidebookAs one of the genres that subdivided the genre,Ramen bookIs established. Published in tourist spots and in areas with intense competition between ramen stores in metropolitan areas such as Tokyo. Some people rely on this information to eat ramen.
While such local ramen has sometimes created large markets and economic effects,, "Local Ramen" has only a large number of Ramen stores compared to the population and the size of the city area, and there are no special common characteristics that can be said to be unique to the area, or it is featured in the media. In some areas, the quality of food (service in addition to taste, etc.) is not involved. Many people are trying to take advantage of the boom.
Writer'sKenro HayamiAccording to this local ramen boomMiura ExhibitionSaysFast culture"(mainly1970 eraFrom aroundmotorizationIt is also closely related to the argument that the landscape of Japan has become uniform)..
Ramen that is eaten in a particular areaLocal ramenSay. However, shops in the surrounding area do not always have the same taste. It is often called with the name of the area.
Since there are many types, they are listed in the separate section below.
|Tsugaru ramen(Dense dried sardines)||Hirosaki||There are thick dried sardines and refreshing royal roads (according to the Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Department).|
|Aomori ramen (lightly dried sardines)||Aomori||Lightly dried soup|
|Miso curry milk ramen||Aomori||Miso ramen with curry powder and milk.|
|Hachinohe Ramen||Hachinohe City|
|Jumonji Ramen||Yokote CityJumonji Town |
|It features light soy sauce-based Japanese soup that uses dried sardines, dried bonito flakes, etc., and thin crispy noodles that have a unique texture without using kansui.|
|Odate CityOther prefectures||Hinai chicken (Natural treasure OfHinai chickenOf the F1 type) ramen, chicken is often topped. Light flavor.|
|Ofunato-sama Ramen||Ofunato City|
|Iso Ramen||Sanriku coast||It features seafood soup and seaweed and seafood ingredients. The origin is Sanriku, but it is currently being served from Hokkaido to Miyagi.|
|Sendai Ramen||MiyagiSendai city|
|Kesennuma City||Ramen (salt or soy sauce) that uses saury oil or salted shark fin ramen is required.|
|Sakata Ramen||Sakata City|
|Ramen noodles||Shinjo City|
|Bird chinese||Tendo city||The soupJapanese buckwheat noodlesJapanese-style chicken that uses soup stock,Tenkasu, Seaweed and so on.pepperThe feature is that it works.|
|Akayu Ramen||Nanyo City|
|Mito Domain Ramen||Mito||The lotus root powder is kneaded into the noodles. Light soy sauce flavor.|
|Stamina Ramen||Hitachinaka City|
|Chikusei||It has a strong soy sauce flavor and is often topped with chicken char siu or simmered chicken skin.|
|Sano ramen||Sano City|
|Fujioka Ramen||Fujioka||Many shops use light soy sauce-based soups with thick chicken noodles and thick curly noodles.|
|Stamina Ramen||Saitama||Omiya cityYazawa Corporation inOmiya StationA menu that was born at "Manmantei" in front of Nishiguchi|
|Tea Ramen||Tsurugashima-shi||Saitama specialtySayama teaRamen featuring noodles kneaded with salt, salt soup and many boiled vegetables.|
|Kinpira Ramen||Fujimino-shi||Local ramen with Kinpira on soy sauce ramen|
|Katsuura Tintin Men||Katsuura|
|Funabashi sauce ramen||Funabashi||ソ ー スRamen based on taste.|
|Arirang Ramen||市 原 市-Chonan Town-Nagara Town|
|White gourmen||Sodegaura||milkRamen of white soup using. Since Sodegaura City's milk production is one of the highest in Chiba Prefecture, ramen using milk for soup was invented.|
|Tokyo ramen||TokyoCentered onCapital Area||Asakusa Ward(CurrentTaito)ofComing and goingOriginated in. Soy sauce ramen based on chicken gala.|
|Ogikubo Ramen||Suginami||JRcenter laneOgikubo StationOriginated around. Soy sauce ramen based on seafood soup.|
|Hachioji Ramen||Hachioji City||Soy sauceSauce醤 油 ラ ー メ ン.toppingChopped intoOnionsThe feature is that it contains.|
|Aoba ramen||Nakano||The soy sauce ramen is based on soup that is a combination of fish and animal soup.|
|Sun Mamen||横 浜 市andShonanPart of the region|
|Family ramen||横 浜 市|
|横 浜 市EbinaWait|
Kanagawa prefecture area
|Light soy sauce thin noodles provided at Kujiraken in Yokohama and Nakamuraya in Ebina|
|Odawara Ramen||Western Kanagawa||Yugawara town"Aji no Onishi" is the main temple|
|Odawara Dandan noodles||Western Kanagawa||A ramen shop group that was founded in Kamisoga, Odawara City, Kanagawa Prefecture in 1975. Tantan noodle specialty storeSichuan, ChinaIs the source.|
About Niigata Prefecture
|Nagano||Everyone's Tenhou||NaganoChain development in Nagano prefecture centered on Suwa area||Mainly Tokyo-style soy sauce ramen, charmen, tanmen, tantanmen, etc. Gyoza is also very popular. Based on the taste that the founder trained at "Gyoza Kaikan" in Kabukicho, Tokyo.|
|NaganoWhole area andNiigata-Yamanashi-TokyoA part of||OnceNaganoNagano cityGondo TownA ramen inspired by the existing ramen shop "Koran". The definition is to add black pepper to the clear soy sauce soup of chicken.|
|Anyoji Ramen||Saku||Ramen made with Anyoji Miso.|
|Toyama White||Toyama||Shio ramen with white shrimp, a specialty of Toyama prefecture.Vegetables, white shrimp, meat, etc. ride on it.|
|Nyuzen Brown Ramen||Irizen Town|
|Ramen of salt soup with red pepper mixed noodles.|
|Oyabe White Ramen||Oyabe City|
|Takaoka Green Ramen||Takaoka|
|Hanging||Imizu City||I used udon soup instead of ramen soupShinminatoRamen.|
|Tsuruga Ramen||Tsuruga||A soy sauce-based soup that combines two types of pork bones and chicken.|
|Nagoya cityas well as the Chukyo area||A pork bone ramen that started at Koraiken in Nagoya. The feature is that there are large servings of Kasiyaki and Menma. The apprentice opened a store near Nagoya and spread. There was also a store with a sign called Nagoya Ramen.|
|Taiwan ramen||Nagoya cityas well as the Chukyo area|
|Vietcon Ramen||Ichinomiya·Gifu Prefecture(I.e.||Ramen with plenty of garlic. Abbreviation for "best condition ramen" or "Vietnam WarBorn in the middle of theVetconIt is said to be based on the name "."|
|Shita Ramen||Fujieda-Yaizu City-Shimada||The birthplace of morning ramen. There is also chilled ramen.|
|Kyoto ramen||KyotoSouthern partShigaSouthern region|
|Otsu City||Black ramen made with tamari soy sauce. In the toolwheat branThe feature is that|
|Kobe ramen||Kobe City-Hanshin area|
|Banshu Ramen||Nishiwaki-Kato City-Takamachi|
|Himeji Ramen||Himeji-Kakogawa-Tatsuno City- HarimaRegion|
|Banshu Ako salt ramen||Ako City||It's a relatively simple salt ramen that uses Ako's salt, but some shops feature a combination of raw garlic.|
|Takaida Ramen||OsakaHigashinari Ward-Higashi Osaka City|
|Tenri Ramen||Tenri City|
|Lizou Gou Art Print||Wakayama Cityな どWakayamaKihoku region|
|Okayama Ramen||Okayama City|
|Fukuyama Ramen||Fukuyama City||Soy sauce ramen made from chicken with pure water and lightly seasoned with medium-thin noodles. The ingredients are relatively simple, and some backfat will be on it.|
|Hiroshima Ramen||Hiroshima city|
(Kure cold noodles）
|Kure||Light Chinese buckwheat noodles. You can also add vinegar.|
|Tottori beef bone ramen||Kurayoshiな どTottoriCentral part|
|Ube Ramen||Ube City|
|Seafood seafood ramen in Setouchi||Matsuyama City||It is characterized by a rich soup made from dried fish and other seafood such as small fish from the Seto Inland Sea. It has a rich flavor and is satisfying to eat. Not sweet and does not use garlic. It is represented by the Azuma family.|
|Gourmet ramen||Matsuyama City||It is characterized by sweet soup and char siu. Derived from the names of the stores that begin with multiple "gou".|
|Tokushima Ramen||Tokushima||At a typical store,Taste ballSuch as boiled eggs andBoiled eggnot,Raw eggTheyolkInsert so that you can see.|
|Hakata Ramen||Fukuoka City|
|Nagahama Ramen||Fukuoka CityChuo-ku|
|Omuta Ramen||Omuta City|
|Saga ramen||Saga City|
|Tamana Ramen||Tamana City|
|Saeki Ramen||Saiki City|
|Chinashi Ramen||NagasakiNorth||Ramen of chin (flying fish) soup stock. The ingredients are relatively simple and thin noodles are used.|
|Miyazaki spicy noodles|
Ramen circumstances outside Japan
Outside JapanInstant noodleIs recognized as "ramen," and there are few countries where the original ramen exists.
For Chinese noodle dishes, "cut noodles", which are thinly rolled with a rolling pin and folded and then cut into small pieces with a kitchen knife, are cut into pieces of flour with a sword.Sword noodles, And hot noodles, cold noodles, tanmen, etc..
Tonkotsu ramen is very popular among ramen as Japanese foodAjisen RamenFranchisee has nearly 400 stores in China, making it the most popular restaurant chain in Japan.ThailandThen in the capitalBangkokCentered on8 ramenThe number of Japanese multi-storey ramen stores such as Yajisen Ramen, Yamagoya Ramen, and Bankara Ramen stands out.
Ramen as a Japanese food in China is supported by Tonkotsu ramen, and other support is weak. Reasons for this include lack of clear differentiation from local noodles, and not a few Chinese who are not good at taste of seafood dashi..
In late July 2015, South IndiaChennaiThen,IndiaThe first full-fledged Japanese-style ramen shop "Akihei -AKI BAY-" opened and is popular with Japanese expatriates and local Indians. PerfectHalalIn the hood, support various religions,Middle EastIt is also expected to expand into regions.
Kind of cuisine
- Dantan noodles -ChinaSichuan ProvinceOriginal noodle dishes.
- Bacon noodles - TaiwanFood. Put the meat and miso on top. It is said to be the roots of Aichi Taiwan ramen.
- Bone noodles-Taiwanese food.RibsPut (pork ribs with ribs) on top.
- Beef noodle -Taiwanese cuisine that originated in Sichuan, China. It is said that Okayama Ward, Kaohsiung City, is the birthplace.
- Paulownia noodles- 宋Noodle dish born in China of the times. The noodles are thin and the soup has a clear soy sauce flavor and a low fat content, and the ingredients are also lightly seasoned to reduce the variety and the appearance and taste of Japanese ramen that was the mainstream at the beginning was similar.
Japanese cuisine using Chinese noodles
A dish that is sometimes classified as a type of ramen.
A dish that uses noodles similar to ramen, but is rarely classified as ramen.
- Fried noodles(炒 麺・Steamed noodles)
- Grilled ramen -With ramenFried noodlesIntermediate dish.
- Ramen salad
- chilled Chinese noodles
- Okinawa soba
- Saimin - HawaiiLocal cuisine. It uses almost the same noodles as ramen, and the basic toppings are very similar to Japanese ramen. For soupshrimpThe soup stock is used and it has a light finish with little oil.
- Rice noodles - RiceNoodles made from.East Asia,Southeast AsiaThen you can eat like ramen. Vietnamese foodFouretc.
- Ramen can -Tailored like ramenKonjacNoodlescanningThe one I made. I use konjac noodles because the noodles grow in the soup when normal ramen is canned.
Ramen food theme park
- Asahikawa Ramen Village (HokkaidoAsahikawa）
- Sapporo Ramen Republic (HokkaidoSapporoChuo-ku）
- Sapporo Ramen Yokocho (Chuo Ward, Sapporo City, Hokkaido)
- Tsugaru Ramen Highway (AomoriGoshogawara）
- Funabashi Ramen Yokocho (ChibaFunabashi）
- Tokyo Ramen Street (Tokyo station first street）
- Ramen Kokugikan (TokyoMinato-ku）
- Ramen Square (TokyoTachikawa）
- Ramen Symphony (KanagawaKawasaki City）
- Shin-Yokohama Ramen Museum (Kanagawa Prefecture横 浜 市）
- Tokimeki Ramen Bandaijima (NiigataNiigata）
- Nagoya/Domamen Dori(AichiNagoya city）
- Kyoto ramen alley(KyotoKyoto City）
- Noodle load (HyogoKobe City）
- Takamatsu Lamen Chikko (KagawaTakamatsu）
- Ramen Stadium 2 (FukuokaFukuoka City）
- Ramen champion (SingaporeRepublic)
- Sapporo Susukino Ramen Museum(Chuo Ward, Sapporo City, Hokkaido)
- Musashi Urawa Ramen Academy (SaitamaSaitama）
- Ramen Kokugijo Sendai Place (MiyagiSendai city, October 2003, 9-December 3, 2008)
- Ramen Shichifukujin (Saitama City, Saitama Prefecture)
- Shinagawa Shinagawa (Minato-ku, Tokyo, December 2004, 12-March 1, 2020)
- Nationwide local store Sembatu Ramen Koshien (Yokohama-city kanagawa prefecture)
- Nagoya Menya Yokocho (Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture)
- Kuwana Ramen Highway (MieKuwana City）
- Full of Naniwa noodles (OsakaOsaka）
- Izumigaoka Ramen Theater (Osaka Prefecture)Sakai City）
A program with the theme of local ramen
- "Diamond☆Yukai and Yukai Ramen Institute』(Tochigi TV,2014 May 4 -2014May 6(13 times)
- "Ramen trip』(TV Niigata）
- "Japan National Ramen Championship』(CS broadcasting OfTBS channel, February 2006 -)
- "Hime et al., Gourmet Support Team!』(FM GENKI, January 2012, 1-, 15st and 1rd Sunday of every month 3:17-15:18)
- "Kansai Ramen Coliseum』(MBS Radio,2015 May 1-)
- ^ Nishiyama noodles Ramen Wonderland "What is the meaning of the ramen bowl design?" See the related items and tableware below.
- ^ "Kojien』（岩波書店）による記述の変遷。第1版（1955 (昭和30)年）[老麺]（中国音 laomien）、第2版（1971 (昭和46)年）及び第2版補訂版（1976 (昭和51)年）[老麺]（中国語）、第3版（1983 (昭和58)年）及び第4版（1991 (平成3)年）[拉麺・老麺]（中国語から）、第5版（1998 (平成10)年）及び第6版（2008 (平成20)年）[拉麺]（中国語から）。
- ^ a b c d e f Daijirin (excite dictionary),Daijisen (goo dictionary),Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Yahoo! Dictionary)From the "Ramen" section of.
- ^ a b c d Hideyuki Ishigami "The essence of ramen", Best New Book, KK Bestsellers, 2007,ISBN 978-4-584-12154-2
- ^ "Weblio Japanese-English Dictionary-English / English example sentences / English expressions for "Ramen"". ejje.weblio.jp. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ Japanese-Western Dictionary, Shogakukan. “Speaking of ramen in Spanish-Kotobank Japanese-Western Dictionary”(Japanese). Koto bank. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ Progressive Japanese-English dictionary (Kotobank)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shin-Yokohama Ramen Museum “History of Japanese Ramen”
- ^ "From major chains to the latest popular stores: Japanese ramen, accelerating overseas expansion”(Japanese). Nippon.com (September 2015, 7). October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Secret history of Japanese ramen"NikkeiPremium series, 2011.
- ^ Gyoda City, Saitama Prefecture Auto Restaurant
- ^ "Nutritional Value of Main Eating Out | Tokyo Health Station". www.fukushihoken.metro.tokyo.lg.jp. October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Soy sauce ramen-calorie calculation / nutritional ingredients”(Japanese). Calories Slism. October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "[Calorie] Nutritional balance of "pork bone ramen" (according to 2020/3/25)". www.eatsmart.jp. October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ Tenkaippin. “Tenkaippin-We are proud of our chicken-based rich ramen!-”(Japanese). Tenkaippin-We are proud of our chicken-based rich ramen!-. October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Not only Minoru Sano, but also ramen industry people who die prematurely.”(Japanese). News & Entertainment Information "Merumo". October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Is "If you eat too much ramen, you die prematurely" is true?Ramen lover "deceased" who resurfaced on the Internet after Kai Ato died”(Japanese). J-CAST News (September 2015, 11). October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ Kazuyoshi Yukimasa (September 2014, 9). “Probably the world's first ramen cooking "Akeisei mission" by heat entering the atmosphere". ASCII.jp. October 2016th, 7Browse.
- ^ Norihito Matsuda (September 2012, 9). “Aiming to spread ramen culture". Nikkei newspaper. October 2013th, 1Browse.
- ^ a b Ramen glossary-Nishiyama noodle Co., Ltd.
- ^ Cutting edge-Kanno noodle shop
- ^ About the cutting edge-Kaneko Seisakusho
- ^ [STARTup X] "Complete Meal" Ramen Squid Nagi Spirits x Base Food"Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun』December 2018, 12 (one page) viewed January 20, 1.
- ^ Akira Kuninaka, "Study on the Taste Action of Nucleic Acid-Related Compounds," Journal of Japan Society for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Vol. 34, No. 6, Japan Society for Bioscience and Biotechnology, 1960, pp. 489-492, NOT 130001230996,2012/10Browse.ONLINEISSN 1883 6844, PRINTISSN 0002 1407
- ^ Isn't Tonkotsu ramen without Ichiran? Ramen's popularity in the Islamic world Sankei News 2019.9.2 12:00 (viewed January 2020, 1)
- ^ "Seriously side effects with chemical seasonings" "Asahi Shimbun" May 47, 5, morning edition, 26th edition, 13nd page
- ^ Kosuge, page 32.
- ^ Mito Tourism Association "Mito Domain Ramen'
- ^ ""Complete Book of Buddhism in Japan. 134" "Kage Ryoken Diary May XNUMX, XNUMXth"”. National Diet Library Digital Collection. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ ""Complete Book of Buddhism in Japan. 135" "Kage Ryoken Diary February Sakuhi, XNUMXnd year of Chokyo"”. National Diet Library Digital Collection. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ ""Complete Book of Buddhism in Japan. 135" "Kage Ryoken Diary May XNUMXth, XNUMXnd year of Chokyo"”. National Diet Library Digital Collection. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ Not the first ramen Mito Komon? Discovery of new materials in the Muromachi period -Sankei News, July 2017, 7
- ^ It wasn't Mito Komon who ate ramen for the first time in Japan... a big discovery that rewrites history -Sports report, August 2017, 7
- ^ BEGIN Japanology "Ramen" NHK October 2009, 10
- ^ Hantz Endo, “How to Walk at a Good Ramen Shop: A Book That Can Become a Dr. Ramen with This One” Living Information Center, April 1.ISBN 4915776964.OCLC 167766813.
- ^ a b "The Tokyo Gourmet: All 222 Delicious Street Corners!"Kotsu Shimbun<Walk Master Theme Version MOOK>, January 2007.ISBN 4330909073.OCLC 675063006.
- ^ Shinraiken: Traveling Chiba Ramen
- ^ Rikiya Yamaji, "Tokyo Nostalgic Ramen", Hiki Shobo, June 2008.ISBN 9784902615395.OCLC 232342956.
- ^ "Shiru Shiru Mi ShiruOn October 2009, 10, the first store survey of the broadcast broadcasted, the president of Oshoken declared himself founded in 7. Certified by the program as the first ramen shop in Tokyo
- ^ Kosuge, page 66.
- ^ Kosuge, pp. 67-70.
- ^ Kosuge, page 77.
- ^ a b Tomioka, pp. 14-15.
- ^ Kosuge, pp. 70-72.
- ^ Kosuge, pp. 78-88.
- ^ However, the ramen of Takeya at that time is different from the current ramen of Sapporo.
- ^ Kosuge, pages 34, 42-50.
- ^ Okuyama Tadamasa 2003.
- ^ a b c d "Ramen and Patriotic"Matsuoka Masatake's Thousand and Thousand Volumes 1541 Nights, April 2014, 04
- ^ Nishiyama noodles Ramen Wonderland "Starting food stalls"
- ^ Nishiyama Seimen Ramen Wonderland "The Story of Chalmera"
- ^ Ramen store opening support "flavoring FC" system overview -Cookpit
- ^ Kenro Hayami "Ramen and Patriotic" pp.21-22, Kodansha, October 2011,ISBN 9784062800419
- ^ "A case to avoid Chinese calls"
- ^ 
- ^ Example: Hiroshi Ono,Shuichi Kitajima, And many others. "Category: Ramen CriticsSee also.
- ^ Example: Japan Regional Development Center, Magazine "Regional Development" December 2008 Issue 12Town development by "local ramen"'ISSN 0385 6623.NCID AN00140572.
- ^ Kenro Hayami"Ramen and Patriotic"Kodansha, 2011, pp. 166-168.ISBN 978 4062800419.OCLC 758439090.
- ^ "Feast Saitama: Fujimino City". www.smdc.or.jp. October 2019th, 8Browse.
- ^ (Company) Tsuruga Tourism Association
- ^ The reason why only Japanese-style ramen is sold in China DIAMOND ONLINE. Diamond Co., Ltd. Aug. 2017.8.18, 2017 (Text by Hisashi Fujioka, viewed August 8, 19)
- ^ Official program blog
- ^ FMGENKI179.3 official website program guide
- Okuyama Tadamasa, "Cultural Noodles and Ramen", Akashi Shoten, 2003.ISBN 4-7503-1792-6.
- Keiko Kosuge"Japanese Ramen Story" Kodansha <Kodansha + α Bunko>, 1998.ISBN 4-06-256302-9.
- Kenro Hayami "Ramen and Patriotic" Kodansha Contemporary Shinsho 2011
- "World Encyclopedia 7'' 平凡 社,1988 (63)May 3First edition issued
- Takeshi Goto "Geography of Japan clearly understood by just reading" Treasure Island,2009 (21)May 6First edition issued,ISBN 978-4-7966-7060-9
- Kinosuke Tomioka "Sapporo Ramen Story" Mantensha 1977
- Bowl of rice(Bowl)-Most ramen is served with this tableware. Especially"Lightning(Raimon, a pattern in which square swirls are connected) is often used. The four patterns of the blessing pattern that make the bride happy in line with each other are also the trademark of the ramen bowl..
- Lotus flower(Astragalus)
- Flying Spaghetti Monsters -In this parody religion, noodles are considered sacred food, so "ramen" is the word of prayer.
- Noodle harassment
- Ramen-themed fiction