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Established by Morinaga Milk Industry, which manufactures and sells milk, dairy products, and ice cream.
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Morinaga Milk Industry
Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.(Morinaga Nyugyo) isTokyoMinato-kuToMain officePut,Japan OfDairy productsThe manufacturer.Morinaga ConfectioneryAnd兄弟CompanyThe Morinaga group is formed in this relationship.The corporate slogan is "For a bright "smile". "
Once the largest manufacturer in the dairy industry,1955 (Showa30 years)OctoberFrom around the timeMorinaga arsenic milk poisoning caseBy causingSnow Brand Milk IndustryWill surrender the position of the largest in the industry..After that, Megmilk Snow Brand, which had been the number one in the industry for a long time,2000 (Heisei12 years) caused "Snow Brand Group Food Poisoning Case"When,2001 It was a subsidiary of Megmilk Snow Brand in 13.Snow Brand FoodCaused by "Snow brand food beef camouflage caseIn two cases by group companies, the number one in the industryMeiji dairy industryAnd Morinaga Milk Industry2008 (20) Currently second in the industry (2nd in the industry)2007 OctoberSales for the period are 5782 billion yen).
As competitors, Meiji Dairy Industry, Megmilk Snow Brand,Japan milk community(Megmilk) can be mentioned.Of these, the Meiji dairy industry is from the former Meiji Sugar Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Meiji ConfectioneryIt is a separate and independent company, and like Morinaga, it has been separated into "dairy" and "dairy" from one mother body, and the history and product composition between the two departments of confectionery and dairy are similar because the establishment time is near. Therefore, it is often cited as a comparison target in terms of business performance.
The Meiji dairy industry2009 (21)OctoberToMeiji ConfectioneryAnd merged withMeiji HoldingsFounded,2011 (23) In April, the Meiji dairy industry took over the confectionery and food business of Meiji Seika.Meiji CorporationIn addition, Megmilk Snow Brand and Nippon Milk Community also joined the same year.OctoberBusiness integration intoSnow Brand MegmilkWas established (Megmilk Snow Brand merged with Megmilk Snow Brand in April 2011 to become a business company).
Business integration report with Morinaga & Co.
2008 (20)OctoberIn some media reports, "Morinaga & Co. and Morinaga Milk Industry have entered into negotiations for a business integration," but according to Morinaga & Co., it was not announced by Morinaga and has no facts. There is no such movement as of the year .. Note that2017 May 2With Morinaga & Co., a brother company2018 The prospect AprilHolding companyWhen the business is integrated in the formNihon Keizai ShimbunReported byHowever, it stopped after a month...Then on March 2019, 7Kyodo News"Morinaga Milk Industry is considering the introduction of an advisory committee with a view to business integration with Morinaga & Co., Ltd."Morinaga & Co. announced on the same day that "there is no fact that we are considering a business integration or the introduction of an advisory board.".
About the logo
Morinaga milklogoThen, to "eternal"Old font(The above "丶" is "one",Landor AssociatesDesigned by).In addition to this, the same old font is used in the sentence of "Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. Customer Service Office" written on the products for sale.However, in the registration, it is "eternal" which is not the old font.
In addition to milk drinks and yogurt, we also handle ice cream, dessert products, and nutritional foods.Among them, the chilled beverage "Mount RainierThe series is1993 It can be said to be the originator of the chilled cup coffee released in (5), and has the largest share of the chilled coffee market.As of 1 (Heisei 2008), the main product "Aloe Yogurt" has sold a total of 20 billion units. 44Monde SelectionWon the gold medal.
The dessert business is also doing well, and in the ice cream sectorUnileverIn partnership with "EskimoWe have launched a variety of products under the brand and are currently at the forefront of the industry, but in 2010 we abolished the "Eskimo" brand with the aim of increasing the value of the Morinaga brand, and Morinaga will gradually manufacture and release products from the second half of the same year. brand(MIt has been replaced by Mark Morinaga).Morinaga & Co., a brother company, also sells ice cream separately from Morinaga Milk Industry.
- 1917 (Taisho6 years)May 9 --The founder, Hansaburo MatsuzakiTokyoTokyo cityShiba Ward(Currently Taito-ku, Tokyo)Nippon Milk Co., Ltd.Established.
- 1919 (Taisho 8) -Merged with Fuji Milk Co., Ltd. and Shunto Milk Co., Ltd.
- 1920 (Taisho 9)May 7 --Merged with Morinaga & Co., Ltd. to become the Livestock Department.
- 1927 (Showa2 years)
- 1929 (4)October --Launched "Morinaga Milk".
- 1933 (Showa 8) September-"Morinaga Cheese" is released.
- 1937 (12)October -Launched "Morinaga Yogurt".
- 1941 (Showa 16) May --Morinaga Milk Co., Ltd.Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.Renamed to (first generation).
- 1942 (17)October --Merged with Morinaga & Co., Ltd.
- 1943 (18)October --Renamed Morinaga & Co., Ltd. to Morinaga Food Industry Co., Ltd.
- 1947 (22)October --Launched "Morinaga Ice Cream".
- May 4 Morinaga Food Industry Co., Ltd. Separated the dairy departmentMorinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.Independent as (2nd generation, current corporation).
- Morinaga Food Industry Co., Ltd. The dairy division is separated and transferred to Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.
- 1954 (Showa 29) June- Tokyo Stock ExchangeListed on the stock market.
- 1955 (30)October - Morinaga arsenic milk poisoning caseThe corporate image is significantly damaged by causing.As a result, he fell from the top position in the industry for a long time.Snow Brand Milk Industry-Meiji dairy industryIt will be settled in the third place in the industry after.
- 1961 (36)
- 1967 (Showa 42) October --The dairy product sales department is transferred from Morinaga Shoji Co., Ltd.
- 1971 (46) --USSunkist GrowersTrademark agreement with the company.
- 1974 (Showa 49) June- Hikari Association FoundationEstablished.
- 1975 (50) -Brand markLandor AssociatesOf productionM"change to.Until then, it used the same Angel mark as Morinaga & Co., Ltd.
- 1978 (53)-"Morinaga Bihidas Yogurt" is released.
- 1979 (54)October --Technical tie-up with Unilever in the Netherlands, ice cream brand "Eskimo"Launch.
- 1981 (Showa 56) April-Packed beverage "picnicReleased.
- 1985 (60)-Established Morinaga Nutritional Foods, Inc. (USA).
- 1993 (Heisei5 years) -Low phosphorus milk LPKFood for specified health useReceived permission from the Ministry of Health and Welfare as the first issue of.
- 1994 (6) -Established a joint venture, Harbin Morinaga Dairy Co., Ltd., in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.
- 1996 (8) -Aloe yogurt won the gold medal at SIAL (Paris International Food Trade Fair).
- 1997 (9) -Former President Mitsugu MonzenOrder of the Sacred TreasureThe award.
- 2000 (12)- Snow Brand Group Food Poisoning CaseThe corporate image of Megmilk Snow Brand has been significantly damaged.As a result of the company falling from the top of the industry, it has risen to the second place in the industry.
- 2002 (14)-Received the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award as a "consumer-oriented excellent company".
- 2006 (18) -Chairman Akira OhnoAsahi Japan China badgeThe award.
- 2008 (20) Aloe yogurt in 2008Monde SelectionReceived the gold medal. (In addition,2009 Also won the gold medal in a row)
- 2010 (22) October --Eskimo brand abolished.Existing products will be gradually changed to the Morinaga Milk Industry brand.
- 2017 (29) June- Nihon Keizai ShimbunWith Morinaga & Co., a brother company2018 The prospect AprilHolding companyIt was reported that the business would be integrated in the form.However, the cancellation will be decided in March.
Until Ayaka Ohno, according to "Japanese Bureaucracy Comprehensive Dictionary: 1868-2000".
- Japanese condensed milk
- : April 1917-December 9
- Taichiro Morinaga: April 1920-December 7
- Morinaga Brick
- Taichiro Morinaga: September 1927-April 9
- Hansaburo Matsuzaki: April 1935-May 4
- Former Morinaga Milk Industry
- Hansaburo Matsuzaki: April 1941-May 5
- Tahei Morinaga: April 1946-December 5
- Morinaga Milk Industry
- Hansaburo Matsuzaki: April 1949-May 4
- Tahei Morinaga: May 1952-May 5
- : April 1956-December 5
- : April 1960-December 5
- : April 1974-December 6
- : April 1979-December 6
- Akira Ohno: April 1985-6
- Koichi Furukawa: 2003-June 2012
- : April 2012-December 6
- Yoichi Onuki: July 2021-(Incumbent)
- Saroma Factory (HokkaidoSaroma Town）
- Betsukai Factory (HokkaidoBetsukai Town）
- Sapporo Factory (Hokkaido)Eniwa）
- Morioka Factory (IwateMorioka）
- Fukushima Factory (Fukushima）
- Tone Factory (IbarakiJoso City）
- Tokyo factory (TokyoKatsushika) --Closed in March 2021
- Tokyo Tama Factory (Tama Site, Tokyo)Higashiyamasa)★
- Yamato Factory (Higashiyamato, Tokyo)
- Murayama Factory (Higashiyamato, Tokyo)
- Matsumoto Factory (NaganoMatsumoto）
- Fuji factory (ShizuokaFujinomiya city）
- Chukyo Factory (AichiGangnam)★
- Kinki Factory (HyogoNishinomiya) --Closed in March 2019
- Kobe Factory (Hyogo Prefecture)Kobe City)★
- Factories marked with a star are on tour (advance application required).
Research and development facility
- Research and Information Center (KanagawaZama）
- National Food Research Institute-Development of food products centered on dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, and ice cream
- Institute of Nutrition Science-Research and development of dry milk, highly nutritious liquid foods that are active in the medical field, etc.
- Food Research Institute-Research on substances such as probiotics and milk-derived multifunctional protein lactoferrin, exploratory research on various functional ingredients, etc.
- Morinaga ConfectioneryCo., Ltd.-Brother company.It holds about 10% of the shares of Morinaga Milk Industry.
- Clinico Co., Ltd. (TokyoMeguro) --A liquid food sales company wholly owned by Morinaga Milk Industry.Food type Top class share in the field of medical food.
- Morinaga Livewell Division
- Morinaga Engineering Co., Ltd.(TokyoMinato-ku）
- Morinaga Dairy Business Service Co., Ltd.(Minato Ward, TokyoShiba）
- Morinaga Milk Industry Sales Co., Ltd.(Minato Ward, TokyoShibaura）
- Morinaga Dairy Hokkaido Co., Ltd.(SapporoChuo-ku）
- Morinaga Dairy Kyushu Co., Ltd.(Fukuoka CityHakata Ward）
- Morinaga Dairy Sales Co., Ltd.(Minato Ward, TokyoShibaura）
- Friziport Co., Ltd.(TokyoChiyoda WardKanda Ogawa Town）
- Sanfuko Co., Ltd.(Chiyoda ward, Tokyo)
- Tokyo Dairy Co., Ltd.(TokyoKoto Ward）
- Forest Milk Sun World Co., Ltd.(TokyoShinagawaNishigotanda）
- Naples Ice Cream Co., Ltd.(TokyoShinjuku ward）
- Hokkaido guaranteed milkLtd. (HokkaidoOtaru）
- Tokachi Urahoro Morinaga Dairy IndustryCo., Ltd. (HokkaidoTokachi-gunUrahoro Town）
- Tohoku Morinaga Dairy IndustryLtd. (Sendai cityMiyagino Ward）
- Made in JapanLtd. (YamagataHigashiokitama-gunTakahata Town）
- Yokohama Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.(KanagawaAyase）
- MK Cheese Co., Ltd.(Ayase City, Kanagawa Prefecture)
- JA Kanagawa Keizai Ren (Kanagawa Prefecture)
- Fuji Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.(ShizuokaSunto-gunNagaizumi Town）
- Morinaga Hokuriku Dairy IndustryLtd. (FukuiFukui City）
- Hiroshima Morinaga Dairy Co., Ltd.(Hiroshima cityAsakita Ward）
- Kumamoto Morinaga Milk IndustryLtd. (Kumamoto-shiHigashi WardKakizemachi)
- Kuma Dairy Cooperative (KumamotoKuma-gunSagara village）
- Okinawa Morinaga Milk IndustryLtd. (OkinawaNakagami-gunNishihara Town）
- The following is disbanded
- Imuraya Dairy Industry (2005 OctoberWithImuraya ConfectioneryAbsorption-type merger / dissolution of company)
- Niigata Milk Industry (2006 OctoberCompleted liquidation with
- Nidai (2008 OctoberCompany dissolution / liquidation)
- Morinaga Miyazaki Dairy Industry(2009 Company dissolution / liquidation with March)
- Mick (2011 Merged with Morinaga Dairy Sales as of April)
- Kyushu Morinaga Dairy Industry(2011 Company dissolution / liquidation with March)
- Shimizu Dairy Co., Ltd. (2014 Dissolution of the company in March)
- Morinaga Nutritional Foods-Morinaga Milk Industry's local subsidiary in the United States
- Mirai (Germany)
- Harbin Morinaga (China)
- Morinaga's delicious milk
- Morinaga's delicious low-fat milk-Not released only in Hokkaido and Kyushu areas.
- Morinaga's delicious high-protein fat 0 (zero) -Limited product only in the Tokyo metropolitan area (Tokyo / Kanto), Chubu (Tokai / Hokuriku), and Kansai areas.
- Morinaga Milk
- Morinaga Cafe au lait
- Morinaga Coffee
- Morinagacocoa --Collaboration with the same product released by Morinaga & Co., Ltd.
- Morinaga Mommy
- Morinaga Picnic
- Morinaga Chorus Aqua (← Chorus Water)）
- Morinaga Yogo
- Morinaga Calcium Master
- Makiba no Sora-Ingredient-adjusted milk.However, only the Hokkaido area has not been released.
- Ajiwai News-A new genre of milk-style milk drink called "".
- PREMiL Blue-Similar to the above "Ajiwai News", it is a product belonging to a new genre of milk-style milk drink called "third milk", but it is derived from milk.protein-calciumIt is a functional beverage with significantly enhanced minutes.
- Care by
- Sunkist 
- Tanta (fruit flavor, yogurt flavor, coffee flavor, tobimen (Menko) With a bonus)
- Morinaga Homo Milk (Discontinued)-Japan's FirstHomogenized milkReleased in 1952."Homo-chan," the image of the sun, was appointed as the mascot character, and a large-scale promotion was carried out on TV, radio, newspapers, and so on.Even after the end of production, the Homo-chan mark is inherited by milk pudding etc..
- Morinaga Domestic Soybean Silk Tofu (mail order only)
- Mount RainierSeries
- Mount Rainier Cafe Latte
- Mount Rainier Cafe Latte Espresso
- Mount Rainier Cafe Latte Non-Sugar
- Mount RainierDouble espresso series
- Mount Rainier Double Espresso Cafe Latte
- Mount Rainier Double Espresso Espresso
- Luxury series
- TBC series
- Yasuragi Teahouse
- LiptonTea series 
Dairy products (yogurt)
- Aloe yogurt- 2008 ,2009 ,Monde SelectionReceived "Gold Award" in a row
- Bihidas yogurt series
- Bihidas Yogurt BB536
- Bihidas Yogurt Fat XNUMX-Foods with Functional Claims
- Bihidas 4-pot yogurt series-Aloe, nata de coco, diced apples, diced mix, blueberries, strawberry
- Lactoferrin200 yogurt
- Dense Greek yogurt PARTHENO
- Morinaga yogurt
- Condensed milk yogurt series
- Lots of fruit and yogurt
- Fat 0 yogurt series
- Soft creamy yogurt
- Household support yogurt plane triple
- Fruit sauce for yogurt-Introduced from the former Forest Milk Laboratories (currently Clinico), which was manufactured by the company for some time after its introduction.
- Triple yogurt- Nippon Food Newspaper38th enactmentFood Hit AwardReceived "Excellent Hit Award"
- Cafe Morinaga
- Angel recipe series
- Delicious Asian series
- Mellow rare cheese dessert
- Dessert supervised by Tanita Shokudo (R) --A major manufacturer of measuring instrumentsTanitaJoint development with.
- Morinaga pudding
- Morinaga plenty of pudding
- Morinaga Milk Pudding
- Morinaga's grilled pudding
- Morinaga's fluffy pudding
- Petit Po Torofuwa Pudding 
- 2 Seconds of Kuchidoke-A pudding that melts in your mouth in just 2 seconds.
- Morinaga Milk Cocoa Pudding-Collaboration with the same product released by Morinaga & Co., Ltd.
- Puru Puru Pudding Series
- Magic spice pudding
- Morinaga Banana Pudding-Features a monkey illustration in a yellow package. 16 patterns were made (1990 eraEnd)
- Morinaga Pumpkin Pudding
- Morinaga Sweet Potato Pudding
- Morinaga Milk CaramelPudding-Collaboration with the same product released by Morinaga & Co., Ltd.Joint development with confectionery (late 1990s)
- Morinaga hot cake style pudding (2017)
- Mellow pudding
- Delicious low-carb pudding
- Fruit jelly (3 types, 3 packs)
- Sunkist jelly
- Morinaga Coffee Jelly
- I want to eat fruits! Series
- Morinaga Melting Jelly (2 types, 4 packs)
- Morinaga Milk Ice
- Morinaga Sleet
- Old Eskimo(Eskimo)Brand (incorporated sequentially after October 2010)
- Mini milk
- Chocolate bar
- Midnight luxury
- Frozen sweets
- Hokkaido Azuki
- Products released in the past
- Italian gelato
- Henri Vieuxtan (Super Premium Ice Cream: 120 types of 5ml cups, 474 types of 3ml pint size) Released in late March 1989. Sold out in March 3 due to the transition to the Fauchon brand.
- Double soda
- Morinaga ice cream
- Morinaga Ice Bar
- Soda ice cream
ド ラ イ フ ー ド
- skim milk
- Let's mix it with milk
- Morinaga Milk (Sweetened condensed milk）
- Collagen skim
- Lactoferrin skim
- Table supplement
- Aura barrier
- Products released in the past
- Pure chorus
- Morinaga Twist
- Asparagine sandlink
- Bakery opened today (Toaster ovenでBreadThe dough to make.Asahi Foods (currently:Table mark) Manufactured, later sold byAsahi KaseiTransferred to.Currently sold out)
- Sonnet (a sister product of Creep, currently sold out)
- Christie (creep's sister product, now sold out)
- Skim Ca & Fe (inherited to the following "perfect balance" by improving the prescription)
- Skim Super Calcium (Calcium-enriched skim milk, currently sold out)
- Perfect balance (calcium and iron-enriched skim milk for women's beauty and health. Inherited to "Morinaga Peptide Milk E Mom" (currently "Morinaga E Mom"))
- Craft potion jam
- Regular coffee
Cheese & butter
- KRAFT Foods (Kraft) cheese (Monderies internationalAffiliated with.Manufactured by joint venture MK Cheese)
- sliced cheese
- 6P series
- Cut cheese
- Melting cheese
- Colorful cheese
- Fresh mozzarella
- Shredded cheese
- 100% palmezan cheese
- Philadelphia cream cheese --Changed to a plastic container from January 2011
- Whole Hokkaido
- Small cheesecake
- Mahorobo no Sato Cheese
- Craftsman's cheese
- Smoked cheese
- Morinaga Hokkaido Butter
Childcare / nutrition food
- Morinaga Dry Milk Hagukumi
- Morinaga Follow-up Milk Chill Mill
- Morinaga Peptide Milk E Baby
- Morinaga E mom
- Morinaga MA-mi
- Morinaga New MA-1
- Morinaga Non-lacto
- Morinaga gentle baby water
- Morinaga Baby Beverage
- Morinaga baby food
- Children's mill
- Uru Jelly
- Easy jelly
- Milk life
Under the name of "Morinaga's Silk Goshidoufu", it is available not only in Japan but also in North America.1979 (ShowaThe aseptic packaging pack that can be stored for a long time, which was developed in 54, was not accepted as a pressure on micro-enterprise in Japan, and the local subsidiary established in the United States was negative (tofu was the number one unpopular food at that time). ) And spread it throughout the United States..It ranks third in the North American market and is also sold at convenience stores, but in Japan.SME Business Field Adjustment LawBecause it is almost impossible to sell over-the-counter, as a general rule, apply for purchase from the official website or the nearest Morinaga Milk Dealer (from 1 per case), and obtain it by home delivery from the retailer.
Broadcast program provision / CM
Originally, dairy manufacturers have few commercials, but Morinaga has refrained from sponsor credits for a long time, probably due to the influence of the Morinaga arsenic milk poisoning incident, and the number of programs provided was very small (PT treatment).However, credits were resumed in April 2009, and since then it has been provided to many programs.I have a lot of commercials.
In TV commercials, depending on the program, the letter M, which is the logo mark, is attached to the head.M Morinaga Milk Industry"" Display and company name only "Morinaga Milk IndustryThe sponsor credits are divided.Also, in the past, "Vividas yogurtThere was also a program that issued sponsor credits.
In addition, anime and special effects programs for which ADK (and its subsidiary NAS) are in charge of advertising may also be broadcast irregularly as PTs (the same applies to affiliated Unilever).Master FoodsMay be broadcast in this way.Cosmo OilWas broadcast in this form for a while).
Occurred on January 2011, 3Great East Japan EarthquakeDue to the influence of, we will refrain from all advertising activities until the following April, and the programs provided will beAC JapanIt was replaced with. At the same time as resuming advertising from May, at the end of the commercialSound logoCan now be inserted.
Past offering programs
- tv set
- Star with Angel ~ Your most important thing ~(NTV/BS Nippon Television) *Morinaga Group(Collaborated with Morinaga & Co., Ltd.) Provided
- TV in the afternoon→It's really good!! TV(NTV series)
- Mama Mokomo TV(NTV) * Indefinite (Nippon TV)Japan Post LifeProvided in turn)
- Suddenly! The Golden Legend.(TV Asahi)
- Music Station(TV Asahi)
- 19:XNUMX from the earth(Every day broadcastingProduction / TBS series) *PT
- Quiz!! Inspirational password(Mainichi Broadcasting System / TBS series) * PT (late stage)
- Sensitive! Econo Quest→You know! Heisei most popular(Mainichi Broadcasting System / TBS series) * PT
- You can laugh!(Fuji Television Network, Incseries)
- Viking (TV program)(CurrentlyBUYSELLAfterAderansTo)
- The Best House 123(Fuji TV series)
- New Country Story Red Peacock(Drama version) (NET series) * Provided by one company.
- Asahi Broadcasting/TV Asahi Friday 9 o'clock serial drama
- M-1 Grand Prix(Asahi BroadcastingProduction / TV Asahi)
- Doraemon(TV Asahi)
- Crayon Shin-chan(TV Asahi)
- Hanamaru Market(TBS series)
- Ippuku!(TBS series)
- The chance!(TBS series)
- Super Dice Q(TBS series)
- Sun Fang Douglam(Tokyo channel 12 →Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.series)
- Friday drama(TBS series)
- VS Arashi→VS soul(Fuji TV series)
- Mezamashi Doyoubi(Fuji TV series)
- Information presenter Tokudane!(Fuji TV series)
- BBC Earth Legend(BS Asahi, Wednesday 20:00 --20:54)
- Bihidas Radio High School(FM Yokohama,FM AICHI, FM OSAKA)
- Healing Venus(TOKYO FM, @FM, FM OH!)
- Miu Sakamoto's Dear Friends(TOKYO FMJFNseries)
June 2010, 6, Shibuya Prime (SHIBUYA109(Location next to) 6th floor live house "SHIBUYA ENTERTAINMENT THEATER PLEASURE PLEASURE"Naming rightsObtained (naming rights), "Mt. RAINIER HALL (Mount Rainier Hall) ”.This is the first time that a naming rights contract has been signed, and the contract period is three years (until May 3, 2013).The drama "The company provides a commercialSPEC ~ Public Security Department, Public Security Department, Public Safety Division, Section XNUMX』Production announcement press conference will be held here and sing the theme songTHE RiCECOOKERSAlso performed live.
- Hisako Higuchi Morinaga Ladies --Sponsored in 2014 (jointly with Morinaga & Co., Ltd.).
Scandals / incidents / problems
- Morinaga arsenic milk poisoning case
- Glico Morinaga Incident ――The target of the threat was Morinaga & Co., but Morinaga Milk Industry was also involved in the threatening letter.
- ^ The company said about this case1970 I did not try to recognize the causal relationship until (Showa 45).1974 In (49), victims and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currentlyMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare) By discussion with "Hikari Association FoundationHas been created, and since then the company has continued to permanently rescue victims through the association.
- ^ In the same year, Megmilk Snow Brand also suffered from food poisoning.Snow Brand Yakumo Factory Skim Milk Food Poisoning CaseWas causing.
- ^ Morinaga Milk Industry News Release(September 2008, 12))
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ About "Today's partial coverage" Morinaga & Co., July 2019, 7
- ^ Qin 2001, P. 751.
- ^ a b Notice regarding discontinuation of production at Kinki Factory and Tokyo FactoryMorinaga Milk Industry February 2018, 2
- ^ "Morinaga Mommy" with adorable animals (Man's Romantic Legend Vol.95) | Dream Mail
- ^ As of May 2012, there is no explanation on the site and news release about the background of the product name change, the end of March 5-April change?
- ^ The medical supplement "Sunkist Pochiplus" is a group company, but the seasoning "Sunkist 100% Lemon" isMizkanIs manufactured and sold.
- ^ The secret of milk pudding and homo-chanMorinaga Milk Industry
- ^ Paper carton products only.Cans and PET bottle productsSuntoryManufactured bySuntory FoodsIs for sale.
- ^ Morinaga Bihidas Yogurt Improvement of stools Fat-free drink type (G474)
- ^ 1995 (Heisei7 years)Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.seriesWas broadcast onTV champion』, Participated in the" Junior and Senior High School Confectionery Masters Championship "and later joined Morinaga Milk Industry, but developed it."Egg simmering pudding" throughout the year, "Matcha", "Caramel", "Sweet potato", "Vanilla", "Royal milk tea", "Strawberry", "Cafe latte", "Marron" flavors, etc. Was sold.
- ^ "Morinaga Hot Cake" becomes a pudding | Nico Nico News
- ^ "JBA Seminar Challenge the Tofu Stupid World" (year 2015). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ ""PARM Various Faces" will be aired nationwide from April 4st (Monday)". PR TIMES (September 2019, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Pay attention to Masataka Kubota's "unwinding expression"! "Mount Rainier" new commercial "Unwind and recommend. 』Broadcast nationwide from May 5th (Thursday)". PR TIMES (September 2020, 5). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Saki AwanoCo-starred with."New commercial for "MOW" starring Kei Tanaka has started! "Ice shop MOW" will be aired nationwide from March 3th (Thursday).". PR TIMES (September 2019, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "The new product "Morinaga Aloe Yogurt Aloe Power (Chikara)" TV commercial "Shocking Aloe" will be aired nationwide from October 10th (Tuesday).". PR TIMES (September 2019, 10). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "New TV commercial for the "Triple Yogurt" series "Appearance" will be aired nationwide from March 3th (Friday)!". PR TIMES (September 2020, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Kimura Fumino is too cute CM". ORICON (September 2015, 4). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Mikako Tabe and Keisuke Koide co-star for the first time in the role of "chiguhagu" brothers and sisters". web the television. KADOKAWA (December 2016, 4). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Since Koide's contract was canceled in June 2017 due to a weekly magazine report on Koide, only multiple copies have appeared since October 6."Keisuke Koide "Mount Rainier" CM contract canceled The impact of suspension of activities such as cancellation of drama broadcasting spreads". ORICON NEWS. ORICON (September 2017, 6). NovemberBrowse."Mikako Tabe walks while singing "that artist's song"!Morinaga Milk Industry "Mount Rainier" TV commercial "Going up the stairs" will be aired nationwide from October 10th (Friday)!". PR TIMES (September 2017, 10). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Morinaga Milk Industry "Mount Rainier" New TV commercial "Florist" / "Architectural Office"". PR TIMES (September 2018, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Baba TohruCo-starred with.""Mount Rainier" New CM "Journalist" will be aired nationwide from July 7th (Monday)!". PR TIMES (September 2019, 7). NovemberBrowse.
- Ikuhiko Hata ed., "Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Japanese Government Officials: 1868-2000", University of Tokyo Press, 2001.ISBN 4130301217.
- Hayashiya Kikusen ――I worked as a salaryman before becoming a rakugoka.
As will be described later, some countries may specify standards for "ice cream" products.For exampleJapanThen, with the ice cream with the highest milk solids and milk fat,Ice milk,Lacto iceThe three types are collectively called "ice creams". Contains almost no dairy ingredients and is not creamyFrozen dessertAre often wrapped in ice cream.
Julius Caesar,Alexander III(Great King) is milkhoneyIt is said that he added ice and snow to the drink and drank it.Also, it was originally made in China over 3000 years ago.Marco PoloIs telling. He ate the frozen milk in China,イタリアThere is also a story that I told him.
In the early 16th centuryUniversity of PaduaWas a professor ofMarc Antonius ZimaraA lot of water in room temperaturesaltpeterBy the heat of dissolutionEndothermic reactionAnd found that the temperature of water can be lowered. Also16st centuryBernardo Buontalenti in the middleBernardo Buontalenti, 1536-1608) by adding saltpeter to ice-20℃It was discovered that the temperature dropped to a certain degree.By using this principle, it became possible to artificially freeze foods such as sherbet without using snow or ice... Of course, salt stones can be recovered from the aqueous solution any number of times.
The current prototype of ice cream is in the middle of the 16th century,FlorenceAnd Buon TarentiMediciCreated for homeSemifreddo OfZucotIt has been.FranceOrleans Hou Henri (laterHenry IV) Was marriedMedici familyCaterina de' Medici, French name:Catherine de Medicis(Catherine de Médicis), 1519-1589) is said to have brought it to France with a confectioner.But,米 国New York UniversityLaura Weiss says the story is groundless.
1686 years,SicilyThe native Francesco Procopio di Cortelli (Francois Procorp, French name)ParisでCafe"Le ProcorpOpened in 1720, Sicilian frozen dessertGranitaThe "glace à la chantilly", which is an arrangement of the above, is on sale. this isWhipped creamFrozen frozen desserts and is considered the first example of the commercial success of ice cream.
The United KingdomIn 1624, Catherine's grandsonHenriette Marie Charles I(1625-1649) when I marriedGelato(Ice cream) It is said that it was transmitted with a craftsman. It was made at the banquet of Charles I by the French chef De Milleo and was said to have been highly prized. Charles I kept his ice cream recipe secret, and in return for providing ice cream only to the king, he spent his entire life as an ice cream craftsman.pensionThere is a legend that gave. However, this anecdote did not appear in the literature before the 19th century, and is said to have been created by selling ice cream. In addition, even in this era, ice cream has hardly used dairy products yet,meringueIt was similar to sherbet using.
Dissemination in the world
Early ice cream is coldbowlIt was very difficult to manufacture because it was made by hand in the. Inventions to improve this were mainly transmitted to the ice cream by immigrants in the 18th centuryThe United States of AmericaMade in.1846 Hand-held by a housewife named Nancy Johnson of AmericacrankA stirrer of the type was invented.1851 ToMarylandBaltimore CityDairy shop has created the world's first ice cream factory to handle excess cream. After this, the ice cream will be clearly divided into mass-produced products and raw confectionery. The United States is active in mass production of ice cream. on the other hand,1867 ToGermanyWhen the ice machine was invented infrozenTechnology anddairyWith the development of, the age of factory production of ice cream has emerged.
Prohibition LawIn the United States of the era (1920-1933), it replaced bars as a social gathering place for people.Soda fountainIce cream has become very popular as it was offered at.beerA major company that can no longer sellBreweryBut ice cream production has begun. From 1916 to 1925, the American population increased by approximately 15%, while ice cream consumption increased by 55%.It was also advertised as a health food.I-Scream Bars (later)),,PopsicleIt was also during this period that various ice cream sticks and popsicles were invented and popularized. When Prohibition was abolished in 1933, the reopening of the bar made ice cream a little less popular, but it remained a national favorite.Second World WarInU.S. ForcesHowever, it is supplied in large quantities to improve the morale of the soldiers and specializes in the manufacture and transportation of ice cream.Ice cream bargeWas also procured.
2015 During the summer months, hundreds of stores in Italy held a project called "Reserved Ice", which provided free ice to children in poor families. It was devised by an NGO called Salvamamme, which is a system in which a purchaser who agrees with the purpose pays two charges. Same countryNaplesIt is said to have originatedCafe Sospezo(Prepaid for others' coffee).
The consumption of ice cream by country varies depending on the statistical body and method, but according to a survey by Euromonitor, the country with the highest annual consumption per capita isAustraliaIs 19.3 liters of.
Spread in Japan
JapanThe first ice cream1869 (Meiji2 years)October(In the old and new calendarsOctober), Fuzo Machida, who was a member of the US Mission, learned the manufacturing method from Matsuzo Dejima, who had traveled to the United States,Yokohama OfBashamichi StreetIt was manufactured and sold at the "Hyomizuya" that opened in Japan.. "AisukurinIt was a very expensive item, and the price for a single person was 2 minutes (current value is about 8000 yen). The raw material is raw milk,sugar,egg yolkIt is very simple, and this is currently "custardIt is also called "ice". According to the "Yokohama History Magazine," it was in the red in the 2st year of the Meiji era and was temporarily closed.GuardianIseyama Emperor Grand ShrineIt was said that the festival was reopened at the time of the founding festival, and due to the bustling of the festival and the sunshine in the early summer, "it was extremely prosperous and the failure of the previous year was recovered". It is "Ice Cream Day"May 5Is generally said to be the first day to manufacture and sell ice cream in Japan, but there is no such description in the "Yokohama History" (date itself is the Japan Ice Cream Association1965 (ShowaIt is a formal one established in 40 years).Dejima MatsuzoEmperor Meiji"Aisukurin" is being donated to. This ice creamMount FujiAt the footIce holeas well as the Hakodate(Hokkaido)ofNatural iceIt is written by himself that it was manufactured using. later1899 (Meiji 32) June,TokyoGinza OfShiseidoBut it was on sale and became a popular menu.After that, the industrial production of ice cream will start in Japan.Taisho9 years.
Of ice cream in Japan2006 (HeiseiThe domestic sales amount of domestic and imported products is estimated to be 18 billion yen (according to the Japan Ice Cream Association).home,Morinaga Milk Industry 12.5%,Ezaki Glico About 12.0%, Haagen-Dazs Japan 11.8%,Meiji dairy industry10.5%, Lotte9.8%, other (Kanebo (now Kracie),Akagi dairy industry,Ohayo dairy industry,SentanManufacturers such as) 43.4% (Nihon Keizai ShimbunEstimate).
The manufacturer's shipment value of ice cream and frozen desserts compiled by the association reached a record high of 2020 billion yen in FY0.9, up 5197% from the previous year.Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionBelow, it seems that eating and drinking at home and consumption of nesting were affected..
Place of origin
Dairy products are roughly dividedMilk fatCalled the source,fatSources other than, are classified as those that include both. As a source of milk fat, fresh cream orUnsalted butterThere is. Unsalted butter is cheaper,fermentationThe odor can be a drawback. As a source of milk solids other than fat,Skimmed milk powderI have a hurt. These too can suffer from their characteristic odor. Including bothmilk,Concentrated milk, There is.In addition, for the purpose of manipulating the fat content, the milk fat separated during the preparation of skim milk powder may be added.Usually, "milk" ismilkBut rarelyGoat,sheepThere are some types of milk, so it is a misunderstanding to interpret it as milk.
The milk fat content and the volume ratio have a great effect on the properties of the finished ice cream.If the milk fat content is high, the texture will be smooth, but if it is too high, it will be difficult to contain air and it will be hard.Non-fat milk solids are milkprotein,lactose,mineralAnd so on. To tasteRichTo make it easier to contain air, but if too much is added lactoseCrystallizationThen it has a rough texture.
Add sugar to sweeten the ice cream. Ice cream tastes cold, so it is less sweet. So for the ice cream mixSucroseIf so, add it at a fairly high ratio of around 15%. Other than sucroseGlucose,Isomerized sugar,SyrupEtc. are used. The flavor of ice cream changes depending on its sweetness and physical properties. For example, glucose has the effect of providing a refreshing feeling. Sugar other than starch syrupFreezing point depressionPrevents ice cream mix from freezing. This has the effect of strengthening the taste of milk, but it is important to adjust the amount because the ice cream tends to melt.
It is used to supplement ice milk and lacto ice with fat. In addition, for products that reduce raw material costs and are conscious of health,Vegetable oilIs used (Ice cream is prohibited except for milk fat). This is an oil and fat that is solid at around room temperature like a milk fat content and becomes a liquid at a temperature around body temperature. In addition, it is necessary that the oil/fat itself does not have a peculiar odor. Vegetable oils that meet these conditionsCoconut hardened oil,Palm oil,Cottonseed oilAnd so on.PolyphenolAn ice cream that does not lose its shape even at room temperature has been developed by using the technology that prevents the separation of water and fats..
- For solid milk protein, use ice cream when frozengelIt has the function of converting and retaining air to keep ice crystals fine.However, this function cannot be expected with ice milk or lacto ice, which has a low milk solid content.In addition, if the temperature fluctuates during the transportation or storage of ice cream, some ice crystals will melt and refreeze, causing the ice crystals to grow and give a hard texture (heat shock). ).Stabilizers are used to prevent this.In the old daysStarch,gelatinWas used, but nowPectin,Sodium alginate,Gum arabicAlso used.Haagen-DazsIs not used in principle, so be careful when handling.
- Since milk solids have an effect as an emulsifier to some extent, it is possible to make a uniform ice cream without adding an emulsifier especially in a large amount of ice cream. However, it is necessary to add an emulsifier because ice milk or lacto ice having a low milk solid content is insufficient.
- However, an emulsifier may be added to ice cream. It is said that the function of the emulsifier in this ice cream is different from the normally expected surface-active effect, and on the contrary, it is to appropriately destroy the emulsification at the time of freezing so that the oil droplets of milk fat grow large. This makes the ice cream texture less watery.Glycerin fatty acid ester,Sucrose fatty acid ester,lecithinEtc. are used.
- Due to the trend of the time when natural materials were sought, these additives often came from food.
- Ice cream is given a flavor (flavor) that matches the taste of milk.vanilla,チ ョ コ レ ー ト,strawberryThree kinds offlavorWas the main, but now otherfruitAndMatcha,coffeeThe number of products with the flavor of favorite beverages such as is increasing. Milk flavors are also used in ice milk and lacto ice to supplement the taste of milk.
Ice cream manufacturingMixing of raw materials, emulsification, sterilization, cooling, aging, freezing, hardeningConsists of.
- Mixing raw materials
- Mix the ingredients and completely dissolve to make an ice cream mix. It is performed by heating around 60℃.
- Finely crush the oil droplets in the ice cream mix to a uniform state. Usually, emulsification is performed twice. The first emulsification is performed at high pressure, and the diameter of the oil droplets is reduced to 2 µm or less. At this point some oil droplets are stuck together. The second emulsification is carried out at low pressure and the oil droplets are broken up and dispersed.
- Besides sterilizing the bacteria in the ice cream mix, it also has the function of deactivating the enzymes contained in the milk ingredients.酵素This is because the oil and fat will be decomposed and odor will be emitted if the activity of is left. Industrially, since batch sterilization performed in a tank takes time to cool and deterioration of quality is likely to occur, a continuous flow type high temperature instantaneous sterilization method is used.
- Immediately after sterilization, the ice cream mix is refrigerated and stored for a while. During storage, the emulsifier is sufficiently adsorbed on the surface of the oil droplet, and the fat in the oil droplet is solidified. This affects the retention of air during freezing.
- Introduce ice cream mix and air into the freezer, and quickly cool it to a temperature of about -2 to -9°C and freeze it. By freezing rapidly with vigorous stirring, air is frozen while being trapped in the ice cream as air bubbles, and the texture unique to ice cream is obtained. The ratio of the volume of air taken in to the volume of ice cream mix is called overrun. A suitable overrun depends on the composition of the ice cream mix, but if it is too low, the texture becomes too hard and too cold, and if too much, it becomes dull. The faster the freezing speed, the finer the ice crystals and the smoother the texture of ice cream. By this freezing, about 50-80% of the water content in the ice cream is frozen. The soft serve ice cream was prepared by taking out ice cream at this point.
- Fill the container with ice cream from the freezer, cool it to below -20°C, and freeze most of the remaining water. This is the freezing temperature of the freezercrystalThis is because the melting and growth of ice gradually cause the ice crystals to coalesce to give a rough texture, and the bubbles coalesce to become non-uniform.
Classification by ingredient standard
Ice cream is classified according to the ingredient standard.
Ice creams and frozen desserts in Japan are "Ministerial Ordinance on Standards of Ingredients for Milk and Dairy Products(Ordinance of the Ministry of Milk, etc.) and "Fair competition agreement regarding the display of ice cream and frozen desserts" Are classified by. The following ice creams are classified as dairy products by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Milk, etc.
|Ice cream||ice cream||Milk solids of 15.0% or more by weight, of which milk fat is 8.0% or more||Concentrated milkOr useRaw milkBased onFresh creamTo mix or match the classification of "ice cream"Milk fatMay be adjusted.|
|Ice milk||Milk solids of 10.0% or more by weight, of which milk fat is 3.0% or more|
|Lacto ice||Weight percentage of milk solids of 3.0% or more||What is lactoLatinMeans "milk".It has less milk solids than ice milk and gives the flavor of ice cream.Vegetable oilIn the case of a product supplemented with fat by mixingcalorieCan be higher than ice cream or ice milk.|
|Frozen dessert||Frozen sugar solution or a liquid obtained by mixing it with other foods, or crushed edible ice, mixed with sugar solution or other foods and re-frozen, which is to be served in frozen form||shaved iceSuch. The distinction from ice cream is due to the ratio of the ingredients,sherbet,PopsicleEven if dairy products are used as raw materials, etc., they are classified as frozen desserts depending on the ratio.|
* BothFood Sanitation ActIt is said that it must comply with the standards based on.
It should be noted that from many years of research, the temperature of ice creamBelow freezingIt is known that the original state hardly changes at 25°C or lower,Japan Ice Cream AssociationRecommends that you store ice cream in a factory freezer or commercial freezer for a long time at 25°C below freezing, and at least 18°C below freezing until you store it at a retail store and store it at home... It is premised that the product is stored below 18°C below freezing point, and if it is stored at an appropriate temperature, the quality change is extremely small, but if it is not properly controlled, it will deteriorate and will not return to its original state. Management is important. Therefore, in JapanExpiration Soon,Expiration dateIs not obligatory.
US Food and Drug AdministrationAccording to the rules of ice cream, milk solid content is 20% or more,Milk fatIt is said to include 10% or more per minute. Milk fat 6% or more,protein2.7% or moreMerolinIt is called (Mellorine). Previously, ice milk was classified as having less milk solids and milk fat than ice cream, but it is now abolished.
Classification by product type
Ice cream is classified as follows depending on the product type.
- カ ッ プ
- Ice cream cups are roughly divided into paper and resin, and are sealed with lids and stickers..
- Some stick type ice cream sticks are made of wood or resin... The method of making stick type ice cream is divided into mold type and extruded type..
- Monaca (Ice Monaca)
- In the middleUsing dough (monaca skin) as an edible container.
- Ice cream cone
- Can eatconeThe shape of the saucerIce cream cone(Ice cream cone) or simply cone. In Japanese, the katakana notation is the same, so it is often mistaken, but the name corn comes from the shape, and the raw material iscornNot (corn)Wheat flourIs. CurrentlyFour cornersCone-shaped, smalltartSome of them have a dough-like shape, and a container with an open top made of wheat flour is generally called a corn, including such a non-conical one. There is also a waffle cone made by baking the waffle dough hard.
- The inventor of the corn is unknown. The first bibliography about this isMrs. AB Marshall's Cookery Book(1888). Marshall is known as a person who has made various innovations in the ice cream manufacturing method, and there is also the possibility of her invention. This cup is1904 OfSt. Louis World's FairUsed by the ice cream seller of, it spread all over the world at once.
- At ice cream specialty stores and the like, a cone stand is used to store the cone at the time of sale, and at the time of sale, a cone-shaped paper (sleeve) may be attached to the lower end of the cone. In addition, caps made from baked flour dough may be used as accents in soft ice cream.
- Bite type -So that you can eat in one biteチ ョ コ レ ー トThose coated with.
- Sandwich type
- Stickless bar type
- Decoration type
- Handy container type -Using a pouch container with spout
Classification by sales form
Ice cream has the following sales forms.
What is sold in units of one is called a single pack.convenience storeIce cream packaged in single servings is sold at stores and supermarkets. The form of the product is cup ice in a paper or plastic cup, potion ice that is sealed and packed in a plastic container so that each dish can be easily taken out, ice cream in a plastic container (pouch container), It takes the form of an ice bar with ice cream on a stick such as wood.
A multi-pack is a set of slightly smaller ice creams... It is sold in the form of individual packs of individually packed ice cream (multi-ice, family pack, boxed ice).
Home type is a large container or cake type that is placed on a plate or cut into pieces..
supermarket,convenience storeSells ice cream (bulk ice) in large round or square plastic or paper containers. A few liters of ice cream is filled in a container, and it is eaten separately from the container. To a representative brand,Haagen-Dazs,Lady bodenand so on.
A large container filled with about 2-10 liters of ice cream for restaurants, fast food restaurants, hotels, coffee shops, etc..
At coffee shopsvanillaSometimes there is only ice cream, but some restaurants also offer desserts that are a combination of ice cream platters and other foods such as fruits. It is common for these restaurants to serve ice cream on some plate or bowl.
There are stores that specialize in ice cream, and such stores are often national, international, or wide-area chain stores. To the representativeBaskin Robbins(The brand in Japan is "XNUMX Ice Cream"),Haagen-Dazs, Hobsons,Blue sealand so on. These stores offer a wide variety of flavors of ice cream,corn,waffle, A paper cup or the like is used. These ice creams can be taken home as well as eaten in the store.
Below are the main ice cream parlors.
- Baskin Robbins(XNUMX ice cream)
- Daily Queen
- Ben & Jerry's
- Cold Stone Creamery
- Pierre Marcolini
- Lady boden
- Blue seal ice cream(Big dip)
- Rainbow hat
In the case of outdoor sales such as stalls, when sharing one meal (ice cream,sherbet), individually packaged (ice lolly), when making one serving on the spot (shaved ice), etc. As an example,AkitaSpecialtyBabaheraAnd so on.
Provision of ice cream
- A special tool that allows you to easily put ice cream on a cone or bowl.
- Ice cream glass
- A special glass used for serving ice cream for desserts at meals.
- Ice cream spoon
- A spoon dedicated to ice cream. In addition to metal spoons, there are also disposable wooden spoons wrapped in paper bags.
- Documentary "" Series 4th "Ice Cream" (History channel）
- Documentary "Contemporary Wonders" series 454th "Ice Cream" (History Channel)
- Movie "" (Original:)
- Movie "" (original title:The Freshman,1925 (Taisho 14))-Silent comedy movie actorHarold LloydA comedy movie about a young country-playing youngster who plays a role in becoming a student at a university where he goes to become a student.
- Movie "" (original titleThe Stuff,directed by:Larry Cohen,1985 -A fluid parasite from outer space (similar in appearance and taste to ice cream) skillfully attracts and uses the Earthlings who have taken over the body through successful oral intake, making it a national ice cream chain. An alien invader panic movie in which the store is disguised and the invasion proceeds.
- song"Song of ice cream] (Lyrics:Yoshimi Sato, Composition:Koichi Hattori,1960 (Showa35 years))- ABC RadioWas broadcast inNursery rhyme.1962 (Showa37 years)NHK"Everyone's song] Was broadcast on.
- ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
- ^ Tell me! What is the difference between Ice Cream Prince/Ice Cream and Lactic Ice? Japan Ice Cream Association (viewed November 2018, 11)
- ^ a b c d e f "Milk Encyclopedia" edited by S. Kaminogawa (Asakura Shoten, 2009) p.126
- ^ Laura Weiss "History of Ice Cream" Translated by Takeda Yen,Hara Shobo<Sweet Library>, 2012.ISBN 978-4562047857 .
- ^ "Thanks, Prohibition! How the Eighteenth Amendment Fueled America's Taste for Ice Cream". Perspectives on History. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Prepaid for someone, "pending ice cream" Italy AFPBB News(2015 8 年 月 日 1)
- ^ "Cold goodwill" = free ice for children of poor families-Ita". Rome AFP =Current events(November 2015, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 8.
- ^ "Annual consumption per capita in countries around the world”. Japan Ice Cream Association. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Ice Cream Japan Old Story Shinshu University Akiyoshi Hosono p33
- ^ "The highest sales of ice cream and frozen desserts, the demand for home-cooked meals increased in FY20" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』April 2021, 7 9 pages
- ^ Increased production of "insoluble ice cream""Nikkei Sangyo ShimbunSeptember 2018, 9 (food, daily necessities, services) and "Nikkei MJ』October 2018, 10 (convenience store food side) / viewed November 1, 2018
- ^ "Let's make ice cream”. Mie Prefectural Education Center. As of November 2003, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Fair Competition Code and Fair Competition Code Enforcement Rules for Labeling Ice Cream and Ice Cream". Japan Ice Cream Association. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Ice cream and temperature control Japan Ice Cream Association
- ^ 5. Shelf life Japan Ice Cream Association
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shuichi Uenogawa, "Encyclopedia of Milk," p.127, Asakura Shoten, 2009
- Ice cream truck
- shaved ice
- Ice Manju
- Soft cream
- Ice screen
- Ice cream girl.
- Namco Namjatown -There is an ice cream food theme park "Ice Cream City" in the park.
- Related pain -Headaches caused by eating cold things such as ice creamIce cream headache".
- Hojo rice -There is an ice cream called Hojo rice scream that uses rice.
- tempura -There is tempura that uses ice cream as seeds.
- Japan Ice Cream Association