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🛏 | Ripple Land: Introducing Ariake Road Station where you can enjoy beaches, hot springs, and Amakusa's fruits


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Ripple Land: Introducing Ariake Road Station, where you can enjoy beaches, hot springs, and Amakusa's delicacies

 
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From the observation space, you can see the magnificent Ariake Sea and Mt. Unzen Fugen on the opposite bank.
 

Located in the central part of Aso Uejima in Kumamoto prefecture, facing the Ariake Sea, you can see the Shimabara Peninsula and Unzen Fugendake in Nagasaki prefecture on the opposite bank ... → Continue reading

 Kumakyu: Kumamoto tourism and local information media

Not only tourist information about Kumamoto, but also information about the attractions of Kumamoto, such as gourmet, leisure, events, interesting spots, culture, history, etc., are being disseminated throughout Japan! It is an information medium with the idea of ​​"disseminating the goodness of Kumamoto to the whole country" by discovering the goodness of Kumamoto through community-based interviews.


Wikipedia related words

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Unzendake

Unzendake(Only)Nagasaki OfShimabara PeninsulaTowering in the centerVolcanoIs.To the west of the peninsulaTachibana BayCentered onChidose CalderaLocated on the outer ring of.In a broad senseVolcanologySynonymous with "Unzen volcano" above, the highest peakHeisei ShinzanAlso called Mitake (Mimine)Fugendake-Mt. Kunimidake-Mt. MyokenAlso known as GohoNodake-Mt.-Yadake-Takaiwa and KinugasaIncluding easternFrom BizanWestSaruhayamaIt is composed of more than 20 mountains in total.The complexity of the shape of Mt. Unzen was expressed by various numbers such as Mt. Mitake (Mt. Mt. As a result of this, a usage that refers to only eight mountains (sometimes three mountains) in a narrow sense was born.Historically, the name refers to the entire mountain range that rises above the sea.In administrative divisionsShimabara,Minamishimabara,Unzen CitySpan. It is often confused with the name of the oldest peak, Mt. Fugen (Unzen Mt. Fugen).

Volcanic activity continues even today, 1991 times from May 5 to May 1996.Pyroclastic flowWas observed.in particularLarge-scale pyroclastic flow that occurred in June 1991In 43 people, one died in the pyroclastic flow in June 1993, and memorial services are being carried out.The number of damaged houses reached 6 and the economic damage reached about 1 billion yen.[1].

Overview

Centering on the highest peak, Heisei Shinzan (1,483m), around Mt. Fugen (1,359m), Mt. Kunimidake (1,347m), Mt. Myokendake (1,333m), Mt. Nodake (1,142m), Mt. , Yadake (1,062m) exists.Lava from Mt. Fugen and Mt. HeiseiChidose CalderaIt comes from. That is,Obama OnsenOffshoreTachibana BayUndergroundMagma poolSourced from[2]..The main peak isFugendake(Only FugenBut in 1990 (HeiseiIn volcanic activity from 2 years) to 1995 (Heisei 7)Heisei Shinzan(Heisei ShinzanThe altitude was higher here.Heisei Shinzan is in Nagasaki PrefectureHighest peakBut also.

Volcanic eruption prediction liaison meetingIt has been selected by the volcano as a volcano that requires the improvement of monitoring and observation system for volcanic disaster prevention.[3].

In the old daysHizen Country CultureIt is this mountain that is called "Takagamine" inSpaThere is a description about. Unzen originally used to read "onsen" as "unzen",National parkIt was changed to the current notation when specified. DaijoinManmyoji TheGyoki Great treasureIt is said that it opened in the first year (701).Of this Manmyo-jiissueBut"Spa(YeahIt is a mountain.After that, in Unzen as a sacred mountainMountain worship(Study road) Flourished. In addition, Gyoki is at the same timeOnsen Shrine) Is said to have been opened.DeityIs "Record of Ancient Matters] Is a four-sided god that represents Tsukushi Island.This shrineAntiquityOnsen shrine,Middle AgesWas called Shimengu, but in 1869 (Meiji 2) Shrine revision[Needs verification]Renamed to Tsukushi Kokutama Shrine in 1915 (TaishoI returned to the hot spring shrine when I was promoted to the prefectural shrine in 4 years.More than 10 in the Shimabara PeninsulaSplit companyThere is.

Unzen OnsenAs for 1653 (ComplianceIt is said that the Enryaku-yu, which was opened by Zenemon Kato in 2nd year), started.Water vapor spoutsHydrogen sulfideThe spectacle of the smell ofhellIs described as.ChristianIt also became the stage of crackdown[4]..When the weather is nice, from a place with good visibility,Nishisonogi PeninsulaEast bank andNagasaki PeninsulaEast coast,SagaSouth,FukuokaChikugo region,KumamotoYou can see the western part.elevationIt is also a key point of communication because it is expensive.Nagasaki Prefecture for Unzen NodakeDisaster prevention administrative radio,National Police AgencyThere are relay stations such as.

Near the summit of Mt. FugenPacific Warinsidearmy OfradarThe base was built and about 100 people were stationed there[5].. As of 2021, the area near the summit has been designated as a special protection area in a national park.BonfireEtc. are prohibited[6].

Volcanic history

Prehistoric

The history of activities can be roughly divided into the first half and the second half.The activity is said to have started about 50 years ago.In the previous term,Pyroclastic flow,magmaSteam explosionExplosive, centered oneruptionIt is probable that he was doing.First Takaoka, Kinugatake,YadakeEtc. were formed and became a group of Kyuhobedake fire hills.Eventually, the eruptive activity moved to the north, forming Mt. Kusobe and Mt. Azuma.After that, the eruptive activityLava domeThickLava flowShifted to activities centered on. Since 10 years ago, volcanic activity has changed in the order of Mt. Nodake, Mt. Myokendake, and Mt. Fugen, forming the topography.

After history

  • Eruption from 1663 to 1664
    1663 Located 12m north-northeast of Mt. Fugen from DecemberIidoiwa(Good luckLava flows out from[7]Covered the forest for a total length of 1 km.In the spring of the following year, a lowland 600m southeast of Mt. Fugen,Ninety-nine(TsukumoThere is flood from the island crater[7]Floods into Andokugawara, causing flooding[7].. Over 30 dead[7].
  • 1792 eruption
    1791 From OctoberEarthquakewas there.1792 May 2, Hell ruins on the summit of Mt. FugencraterMore eruption started[7].May 2,Anasakoya(To Anasa KodaniFrom the neck of BiwaSmoke, Sediment spouted[7].May 3More lava outflow started and continued for nearly two months[7].May 3Eruption also rose from Mine no Kubo, and lava also flowed out.[7].May 3Smoke also rose from the old ware head.Lava flowed out to the northeastern part of Mt. Fugen, and the total length became 2.7km.[7]. Also,1792 May 5(Kansei4 May 4) On Mt. UnzenMeishanOccurred inMountain collapseAnd this(I.e.The disaster isShimabara very Higo troubleCalled,Hizen countryHigo countryWith a total of 1 dead and missing, it became Japan's largest volcanic disaster since recorded history.[7]..The eruption continued after that, and even in June and July, the eruption occasionally blew up.[7].

Heisei Shinzan eruption and disaster

Eruption activity

The eruptive activity that formed the current Heisei Shinzan was initially in 1989 (Heisei11st year) Tachibana Bay from NovemberSwarm earthquake[8][9] It was said that it started in Japan, but after reviewing the observation data, it was found that Unzen Volcano was actually in the active phase around 1968.[10].. The first swarm started around 1968 and continued until 1975[10], In 1973, even near Mt. Bizan(I.e.3 is the highest felt earthquake has occurred 11 times[10]..At the final stage of this activity, a large amount of water is found at the bottom of the board (Oshigaya) on the east side of Mt. Fugen.Volcanic gasSquirted, about 30CedarWas damaged[10].. In 1975, there were scattered birds and beasts around[10], High concentration from rock crevicescarbon dioxideIs detected[10].. Volcanic gas was erupting in this area even during the 1792 eruption.[10], This rocky place was called a poison stone[10].. Although it has been sluggish since 1975, earthquakes have occurred sporadically, and in June-September 1979, the eastern foot of Mt. Bizanepicenter5 sensitive earthquakes have occurred, led by strong shaking equivalent to a maximum seismic intensity of 89.At Shimabara Onsen, the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide rose sharply from 1975, and in some places it increased by as much as 30%.[10].. From April 1984, swarm earthquakes began to occur one after another in Tachibana Bay.[10], The epicenter is near the south side of HayamaMAn earthquake of 5.7 and seismic intensity 5 occurred in August[10]..This earthquake triggered the Shimabara PeninsulaUpheavalIs beginning to be observed[10], It is said that the supply of magma from Tachibana Bay has started[10].

On November 1990, 2, eruptions erupted from two locations beside the shrine near the summit.This eruption only showed hot water blowing up and cloud smoke from the two eruption holes.In December of the same year, it was in a lull and the road closures were lifted, and it was thought that it would end as it was, but it re-erupted on February 11, 17 (Heisei 2).Furthermore, the eruption expanded on April 2 and April 12. It piled up on May 1991thVolcanic ashFirst by etcEarth and stone flowIn addition, many cracks extending in the east-west direction were formed on the west side of the crater, and magma was expected to rise. On May 5, lava eruption was confirmed from the crater of Hell.The lava was so viscous that it did not flow out and a lava dome was formed around the crater.The lava dome grows like a peach and eventually collapses into four due to its own weight.After that, lava was continuously supplied from the eruption hole under the lava dome, and the lava hung down from the mountaintop, and it was named the 20st to 4th lobes in the order of formation.The collapse of the lava dome occurs when the dome pushed out by the newly supplied magma collapses on the slope, and debris flows down the mountain body with volcanic gas at a speed of 1 km / h.Pyroclastic flowIt caused a phenomenon called (Merapi-type pyroclastic flow).The eruptive activity continued until around March 1995, with a temporary pause on the way.[11][12].. The world's first clear picture of pyroclastic flowContinuouslyRecorded eruption activity (in the past,Play mountainMany pyroclastic flows have been recorded as photographs, and small-scale images have also been taken).

Mode of disaster

Eruption activity is on the Shimabara Peninsula, especiallyShimabaraFukae TownCaused great damage to.The main causes of damage are pyroclastic flows and accumulated volcanic ash runoff due to heavy rains.Earth and stone flowAnd these are the courses that flow downMizunashi RiverAnd the Senbongi area of ​​Shimabara City was severely damaged. Also, during volcanic activityShimabara very Higo troubleCaused theMeishanAlthough there was concern about the collapse of the mountain body, Mt. Bizan protected the central part of Shimabara city from the pyroclastic flow during this eruption activity.

In areas other than Shimabara City and Fukaecho, there is ash fall depending on the wind direction.Kumamoto AirportThen, it also affected the arrival and departure of aircraft.

Pyroclastic flow of June 1991, 6

Particularly serious human damage occurred at 1991:3 on June 6, 3 (Heisei 16).Pyroclastic flowIs[13][14][15][16][17].

Last situation (until June 6)

The debris flow of the Mizunashi River, which originated from the foot of Unzendake, has occurred continuously on the 5th, 15th, and 19st since it first occurred on May 20. Shimabara City has a debris flow for each town in the Mizunashi River basin.Evacuation advisory[Annotation 1]As a result, the evacuation of the residents was carried out smoothly and no personal injury occurred.

However, when the lava dome appeared on Mt. Fugen on May 5, it continued to grow day by day, and on the 20th, a part of the dome collapsed and the first pyroclastic flow occurred.Since then, small pyroclastic flows have occurred frequently, reaching 24 km east of the lava dome on the 26th and 2.5 km on the 29th, tending to gradually increase.On the 3.0th, when the tip of the pyroclastic flow approached 500m from a private house, Shimabara City issued an evacuation advisory for the pyroclastic flow to Kitakamikobamachi, Minamikamikobamachi, Shiratanimachi, Tenjin Motomachi, and Fudanomotomachi in the Mizunashi River basin. Was done.

Mass mediaIn order to capture the state of this pyroclastic flow, reporters and cameramen mainly in the area are within the evacuation advisory area, but they are 4.0 km away from the lava dome and 200 m away from the Mizunashi River, where debris flows were frequent. In addition, the prefectural road in Kitakamikobamachi, which was on a 40m hill, is now the shooting point.This place was favored by the media because it was possible to see Mt. Fugen directly in front of it, and the name "fixed point" became established.Since the 24th, when the first pyroclastic flow occurred, more than a dozen media vehicles have lined up at the "fixed point". In 10, media companies began to use color photographs on paper, and even in the Fugendake disaster, companies were competing for color photographs. On May 1991, "Mainichi Newspapers』Successfully photographed the pyroclastic flow at night, the competition became even more fierce.

In addition, the fact that the pyroclastic flow was recorded as a clear image for the first time attracted a great deal of attention from all over the world, and many volcanologists and government officials also visited the evacuation advisory area to collect and film. May 5th,Ministry of Construction(At that time) The staff of the Public Works Research Institute released a photograph taken by entering the pyroclastic flow trace 500 m below the lava dome. On the afternoon of June 6, another group of scholars entered the tip of the pyroclastic flow and investigated the site for about an hour, photographed the pattern and released it.

More spectators began to rush around Mt. Unzen to see the eruption.Especially since June 6nd was Sunday, many spectators from outside the prefecture gathered around the Mizunashi River to look into the pyroclastic flow with binoculars and shoot with a video camera.National Route 57Then there was a traffic jam.

On the other hand, on May 5, "Asahi ShimbunA reporter was about to get caught up in an evacuation advisory area other than the "fixed point", causing a fuss about being temporarily missing, and safety measures became a problem."Aerial photography of the lava dome from a helicopterMizunashi RiverSabo damBelowFanIf a large-scale pyroclastic flow occurs, there is a strong possibility that it will hit the "fixed point".Asahi Shimbun abandoned the stakeout in the area above the Tsutsuno bus stop.As an alternative, by setting a point in Fukae-cho outside the evacuation advisory area from the 28th and switching to 24-hour shooting from here, coverage near the "fixed point" was limited to patrols.[Annotation 2].

NHKHas stopped shooting from within the evacuation advisory area from the end of May and arranged to install an unmanned camera in the Kamikiba area, but as a measure until the unmanned camera is ready, once on June 5st. The shooting staff who lowered to the back was advanced to the Kamikiba area[18]..The factors behind this series of movements are May 5th and 30st.Commercial broadcastSince TV stations shot the bright red lava up close, news program personnel have begun to place orders with frontline filming staff for the lack of power of the footage.Eventually, the shooting staff began to have a sense of opposition to commercial broadcasters who went into the evacuation advisory area and interviewed, and when the evacuation advisory area was reduced, the evacuation advisory was not canceled again. Placed in the district[19].

The fire brigade in charge of the Kamikiba district has been in Minamikamikobamachi since May 5, when the debris flow evacuation advisory was issued.Fire brigadeWhile staying at a station or an agricultural training center in Kitakamikobamachi, he was alert to debris flows and guided the evacuation of residents. On May 5, due to frequent pyroclastic flows, Shiratani downstream of the Mizunashi River from the fire station in Minamikamikobamachi.Public hallHowever, on June 6, he returned to the agricultural training center in Kitakamikobamachi.The reasons for this are as follows.

  • Rainy season frontDue to the temporary weakening of the activity, the debris flow was in a lull, and it was judged that "the area where the pyroclastic flow came out is a steep slope and does not reach a gradual downward level", June 6st. , In addition to Shiroya-cho, where he was stationed, the evacuation advisories for Tenjin Motomachi and Fudanomotomachi have been lifted.Therefore, it was not allowed for the fire brigade to stay in these towns downstream from the Kamikiba district where the evacuation advisory was not lifted.
  • On May 5, in preparation for the rainy season, the demining work on the Mizunashi River, which had been suspended until then, has been resumed, but a wire sensor notifying that a debris flow has occurred is cut off on May 29 by a pyroclastic flow, and there is a prospect of recovery. Since it did not stand, visual monitoring of the upper part of the Mizunashi River was indispensable. To that end, the agricultural training center in Kitakami Kiba, located on a higher ground, was more advantageous than the fire station in Minamikamikiba.[Annotation 3].
  • On June 6, several TV station crews evacuated and broke into private homes without permission, borrowed telephones and outlets, and scattered garbage around them.Shimabara Police StationBecause it was discovered at a press conference of the chief[20], Agricultural training centers closer to the "fixed point" were convenient for monitoring the behavior of the press.In addition, even after May 5, residents often enter the Kamikiba area to take out household goods from their homes, and to do housework and farm work, and I think that it is necessary to guide them to evacuate in case of emergency. Was being evacuated.

Since it was a Sunday on June 6, all 2 members of the Kamikiba district fire brigade stayed overnight at the agricultural training center, but the next day on the 20rd day, the people who worked for the company temporarily retired, so the agricultural workers continued to farm. He remained in the training center and was on alert.

Generation of large pyroclastic flow

Small and medium-sized pyroclastic flows frequently occurred after 6:3 on June 15, and the first large-scale pyroclastic flow occurred at 30:15. This pyroclastic flow (generated from the pyroclastic flow)Pyroclastic surgeAlthough the press did not reach the "fixed point" that the reporters were covering, visibility in the vicinity of the "fixed point" significantly deteriorated because the volcanic ash generated from the pyroclastic flow covered the surrounding area in addition to the rainfall that continued from the morning.

At 16:8, a large-scale pyroclastic flow exceeding the first one occurs, reaching 1 km east from the lava dome. The pyroclastic surge further struck Kitakami Kiba-cho 3.2 km away from the lava dome, and finally stopped near the Tsutsuno bus stop (4.0 km away). The pyroclastic flow also flowed in the direction, but the gust from the south caused the pyroclastic surge to flow toward the "fixed point", so residents and firefighters in this direction as well as the shooting staff immediately escaped to the windward with the camera stationary. Escaped the hardship[Annotation 4].

Meanwhile, "fixed-point" journalists who were hit by the pyroclastic flow parked their chartered taxis and company cars southward on the road with their engines running so that they could escape immediately in case of an unforeseen situation. However, the visibility was poor, and even from the windward side, which should be an escape route, it was almost impossible to evacuate due to the attack of the pyroclastic surge that flowed from the direction of the Akamatsuya River mentioned above. A fire brigade member of the agricultural training center, several hundred meters away from the "fixed point", judged that the roar of the pyroclastic flow was a debris flow, and was attacked by a pyroclastic surge when he left the training center to confirm the Mizunashi River. Many members escaped from the evacuation advisory area on their own, but they were severe.BurnAirwayInjured.

result,After the warFirst large-scale volcanic disasterAs a result, there were 43 dead and missing and 9 injured. The breakdown of the dead is as follows.

The photographer of the dead "Yomiuri Shimbun" is a favorite machineNikon F4He had died as he was holding a car, and although the camera was discolored by heat, seven frames of pyroclastic flow were recorded.[22][23].. In addition, all around the "fixed point" where many of these casualties appearedEvacuation advisoryIt was inside.

In June 2005, a commercial video camera used by a Nippon Television cameraman who died in a pyroclastic flow was discovered. The camera was melted by the high heat of the pyroclastic flow and highly damaged, but the tape inside was taken out and carefully peeled off to repair it. In the video, the reporters who report the state of the first pyroclastic flow and the reporter who continues to cover until just before the "fixed point" is attacked without noticing the approach of the second large pyroclastic flow Appearance and voice were recorded[Annotation 6]..This video was released on October 10th of the same year.NNN document'05 Unsealed Seal Unzen Great Pyroclastic Flow 378 Seconds Will ”, and is now on display at the Unzendake Disaster Memorial Hall (Shimabara City) with a melted camera.

On this day, it rained black and muddy (mixed with volcanic ejecta) at the foot of the mountain.[24].

Damage background

The large number of victims of the pyroclastic flow was due to the lack of widespread awareness of the danger at that time.[25].. the detail is right below.

Press

Although the first pyroclastic flow that occurred on May 5 was shocking, the press officials said at the time, "Although it was quite hot, we didn't know that it was accompanied by hot air (pyroclastic surge) and could escape by car. "I knew it was hot, but I didn't know until it was scorched."[16].

This was discussed by volcanologists and experts at the Japan Meteorological Agency's temporary volcano information on the following day, 25th.The collapse on the 24th is a small pyroclastic flowAlthough it was announcedNo specific mention of the danger of pyroclastic flow due to fear of confusion among residents,[Annotation 7][Annotation 8]The original "Geologically smallMeans ""Scale that does not cause human damageBy being received[15].. On May 5th, a person involved in the construction of the Sabo dam upstream of the Mizunashi River burned his arm due to pyroclastic flow, but there was a rumor that "if you have only a burn, you can wear a long-sleeved shirt." No information was disseminated about the danger. Furthermore, the number of pyroclastic flows that occurred from May 26 to June 5 reached 25, including small ones. It was dammed near the Sabo dam[27][28].. As a result, the press became accustomed to the pyroclastic flow.

Furthermore, with the rainy season, the attention of the press began to be directed from the pyroclastic flow to the debris flow.Many media outlets confuse pyroclastic flows with debris flows, and most of them are "Since the pyroclastic flow follows the Mizunashi River like the debris flow, it is within the evacuation advisory area, but it is 200 m away from the Mizunashi River and a fixed point with an elevation difference of 40 m is not attacked.I was aware.With the help of such an excessive sense of security about the "fixed point", the coverage of this area became overheated.[16].

On the other hand, I noticed that the pyroclastic flow became hot due to the wildfire that occurred on May 5th.Kyushu UniversityWhen the director of the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory boarded a helicopter for a crater inspection on May 5, he discovered from the sky that there were reporters and residents 31 meters away from the tip of the pyroclastic flow, and immediately the Shimabara City disaster. He told the response headquarters, the Shimabara Police Station, and the Shimabara Promotion Bureau of Nagasaki Prefecture that "there is media, etc. No one should be allowed to enter."In response, the City Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters requested the press to "because the inclinometer readings are different than usual, please do not enter above the Tsutsuno bus stop."When the media reported that "there is something wrong with the data" and the press said, "Is there something wrong with the mountain?", The director of the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory interviewed the director and found that "strange numbers came out." This is not the case, but if the media enters (in the evacuation advisory area), residents will also enter, so please refrain from doing so. "However, the rephrasing of "change" rather than "abnormality" did not convey a sense of crisis to the press.[29].

Also on May 5, the Volcanic Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee at the Japan Meteorological Agency said, "It is thought that eruption activity will continue, lava eruption, pyroclastic flow, debris flow will continue, so strict caution is necessary." "Greater than this There is no guarantee that large scale pyroclastic flows will not occur." However, this warning was not taken seriously by the press, which had been dragged by the recognition of the extraordinary volcanic information of the Meteorological Agency on the 31th, as there was no specific reference to the danger of pyroclastic flow. Volcanologists were aware that the dangers of pyroclastic flows were increasing, but at this point, the psychological fear of residents' panic was still a factor that made these warnings a rather weak statement. there were[29].

The Nagasaki Prefectural Police stationed a large number of police officers on the border of the evacuation advisory area, and the city and prefectural police also requested the press to move out.[30], No entry restrictions were imposed on vehicles with a flag indicating the press. From May 5, Nagasaki Prefecture began issuing the "Emergency Transport Vehicle Mark" to the press, and after that, the vehicles of the press with this mark can freely enter the evacuation advisory area. Could be[16].

Local residents

Shimabara City against the pyroclastic flow on May 5Evacuation advisoryHowever, the "district name sticker" was issued from the same day in response to the request from the residents that "the regulations of police officers are strict when returning to home to prepare for evacuation for a long time". Therefore, private cars with this sticker were able to enter the evacuation advisory area with priority. Therefore, in the daytime, there were many residents who were doing laundry and field work at home in the evacuation advisory area. Especially in the Kamikiba districtTobacco leafMany farmers made a living by cultivating, but since the evacuation recommendation by debris flow that started on May 5, they have been forced to live for a long period of time, so the flower picking work to promote the growth of leaf tobacco has been delayed. Many were concerned about this. Therefore, on June 15, in cooperation with the leaf tobacco cultivation farms in Annaka-cho, which were not subject to the evacuation advisory, all residents of the Kamikiba area entered the evacuation advisory area and carried out flower packing work later than usual. Was planned[31].

As a result, many volcanologists, who initially feared panic and did not talk about the dangers of pyroclastic flows, gradually became aware of the situation in which many residents continued to enter the evacuation advisory areas for their lives even after May 5. Through the Shimabara city and the media, residents are now warned not to enter the evacuation advisory area. However, since May, no concrete image of the danger of pyroclastic flow has been communicated compared to the debris flow, which was causing much damage, and most residents did not take the warning seriously. There were many residents who misunderstood the pyroclastic flow as just smoke.[32].

"Transmission of disaster information and response of residents in the 1992 eruption of Mt. Unzen" carried out in 3[33] According to the report, 75% of local residents perceived debris flows to be more dangerous than pyroclastic flows before June 6, and only 2% recognized pyroclastic flows to be more dangerous. Furthermore, only 15% of residents in the Kamikiba area recognized pyroclastic flows as "very dangerous". As the findings show, volcanologists' warnings were not even understood by residents of the most endangered areas.

On the other hand, on June 6rd, a large pyroclastic flow occurred because a debris flow was warned due to the rain that continued from the morning and a party was held in Shiratanimachi to celebrate the winners of the Shimabara city council election held on the 3nd. Fortunately, it was unfortunate that at times most of the inhabitants were withdrawn from the evacuation advisory area, resulting in fewer casualties.[15].

After this pyroclastic flow, local governments such as Shimabara City will be forcedWarning areaAs a result of gradually setting the target area and expanding the target area, up to 11,000 people were forced to evacuate, but the number of victims since then has been reduced to one. In the disaster-stricken area, construction work for raising levees and grounds began in the mid-1s, creating an environment where the residents could live again, except in some areas.

However, as the eruptive activity continued until around 1995, these reconstruction projects were completed in 2000.Similar to the Kamikiba area mentioned above, the disaster area was an area with many farmers, but many of them could not resume farming during that time, and part of the disaster area was acquired as sabo land, so the planted area also decreased. did.Despite various support measures, many farmers who were worried about their successors left the farm in the wake of the disaster, and 667 of the 293 affected farmers left the farm by 2000.Before the disaster (1990), the number of leaf tobacco cultivators was 149, mainly in the Kamikiba and Annaka districts, but by the time agriculture resumed (October 2000), the number had decreased to 10.[34].

Disaster prevention personnel

As mentioned above, the debris removal work of the Mizunashi River, which had been temporarily suspended due to pyroclastic flow, was carried out on May 5, without clear restrictions on access to the area by the media and local residents. It was resumed.

This was because volcanic ash and earth and sand were being accumulated in the upper stream of the Mizunashi River due to successive pyroclastic flows, and the rainy season was approaching, so disaster prevention officials in Shimabara City were more cautious about debris flows than direct disasters due to pyroclastic flows. It depends. In addition, on June 6, it was discovered that some TV station officials had evacuated and illegally invaded an unoccupied house and borrowed an outlet, so the Kamikiba district fire brigade was used at a fire station in the Minamikamikiba district. It was on a hill overlooking the Mizunashi River, and was monitoring the debris flow at an agricultural training center in the Kitakami Kiba area, where it was easy to grasp the behavior of the media near the “fixed point”.[35].. Until June 6, there was no pyroclastic flow larger than May 2, so the view is that the pyroclastic flow will stop around this (about 5 km east of the lava dome that arrived on May 29). Few fire brigade members were concerned that the agricultural training center located about 5 km east of the lava dome would be attacked by the pyroclastic surge associated with the pyroclastic flow.[36].

However, the local disaster prevention council recognized that the fire brigade was monitoring debris flow at the fire station in the Minamikamikiba area, and it was not known that they had already moved to the agricultural training center. Therefore, one hour before the occurrence of a large pyroclastic flow, the Council for Disaster Prevention Measures tried to inform the fire brigade to be careful because the weather was bad and the visibility deteriorated due to the west wind, but we could not contact.[14].

Immediately before the large pyroclastic flow, Mt. Unzen, Japan Meteorological AgencyWeather stationBut"It became a very dangerous situation. I want the press and fire brigade to evacuate (from the evacuation advisory area)The Nagasaki Prefectural Police, who received the information, issued an evacuation order to 13 police officers in the Kamikiba district, and at the same time contacted them to guide them to evacuate.As a result, most police officers evacuated from the Kamikiba area,Police carThe two police officers who were patrolling in the area headed for the "fixed point" to guide the evacuation of the press.At this time, two workers were entrusted by Shimabara City to remove the poster bulletin board for the election of city council members who had been washed away by debris flow in the Kitakamikoba district and clogged the bridge of the Mizunashi River. There was.

On the other hand, the information on the Unzendake weather station was transmitted by telephone (orally) to the Kamikiba district fire brigade of the Agricultural Training Institute via Shimabara City and the Shimabara Wide Area Fire Brigade Headquarters, but at that time the information was "The state of the mountain is strange.Be carefulIt was not communicated that the Kitakamikoba district was in a critical situation and urgent evacuation was required.The information was also distorted because there was a discrepancy in the perception of the degree of danger between the Unzendake weather station, which notified the danger of pyroclastic flow, Shimabara City, which had been increasing caution against debris flow, and firefighters.[37][38].

It is unclear whether fire brigade members would not have entered the agricultural training center without the unauthorized borrowing of outlets by TV station officials.However, there were many voices among the residents saying that the fire brigade members were sacrificed because of the media, and that feeling remained for a long time.[39].

after that

In this way, the pyroclastic flow that occurred on June 6 was not only reported by the press who was shooting at the "fixed point", but also by the members of the fire brigade, the workers who are removing the election poster bulletin board, and the Shimabara Promotion Bureau mentioned above. He also swallowed police officers who came to call for evacuation from the "fixed point."

On June 6, the Nagasaki Prefectural Police told Shimabara City, "Evacuation advisories only ask residents and the press for cooperation"Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawBased on Article 63Warning areaShimabara City said, "If the city area is set as a warning zone, residents will not be able to enter and it will become a ghost town."[Annotation 9]Meanwhile, for the time being, he stated that he would maintain the evacuation advisory, saying that "secondary disasters can be prevented by successively checking the information from the lava surveillance camera."

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Japan Ground Self-Defense Force OfV-107Diverted to the tobacco field due to engine trouble caused by volcanic ash.At this time, "The reporters were guided in a safe direction by handy radio from the sky, and the reporters of each company rushed to Mizunashi River.RiverbedAll of them escaped to the safe zone of No. XNUMX and all were safe without encountering the pyroclastic flow "(according to the testimony of veteran Captain Tsunehara of Asahi Shimbun).

On June 6, Shimabara City accepted the repeated persuasion by Nagasaki Prefecture and the Nagasaki Prefectural Police, and went to Kitakamikobamachi, Minamikamikobamachi, Shiratanicho, Tenjin Motomachi, and Fudanomotomachi, where evacuation advisories for pyroclastic flows had already been issued. On the other hand, a caution zone was set, and unauthorized entry was prohibited thereafter.Preparations for the evacuation shelters of the residents of these five towns were carried out at a rapid pace immediately after the warning zone was set, and the evacuation of all the residents was completed by the evening of the 7th.A few hours later, at 5:8 pm, a large pyroclastic flow that exceeded three days occurred.This large pyroclastic flow crossed National Highway No. 7, which had been congested by Mt. Unzen spectators on June 51, and reached a point 3 kilometers to the coastline. There was no damage. On September 6, Senbongi-cho was also added to the alert area.

However, since the area where the warning area has been set can not be seen from the outside from the outside, many rumored words such as "the thieves have invaded the warning area and are crowing" since then. I started to fly around. The most important concerns for residents living in evacuation were the prospect of volcanic activity and the time to release the warning zone, and the sources of information were TV and newspapers. As a result, in addition to the fact that there were a lot of interest-oriented reports until then, the residents gradually began to expect from media members who had a bad reputation due to the poor manners of interviewing in the evacuation advisory area. The press also suffered a great deal of human damage on June 6, which led to self-reflection of the past news gathering activities, and since then he has been devoting himself to accurately reporting the disaster. The reputation gradually improved[40].

after that,ReporterAs a result of invading the caution area without permission and publishing a local report in a weekly magazineDocument inspectionThere was a case that was done (laterIndictment[Annotation 10], Residents thanked the reporter for being able to easily understand the situation inside the unsafe area.[Annotation 11].

"20 Unzen Rally" held in Unzen City on June 2011, 6, 5 years after the catastrophe (Newspaper union, Sponsored by the Nagasaki Media and Cultural Joint Fighting Conference, etc.), said Kazunori Tanihara, director of the video coverage department of Nippon Television, "To install an unmanned camera for debris flow photography, I drew electricity from a house that had a power source outside. I made a note of disclaimer to get the permission of the person who was there, and searched around the shelter, but I could not find it. " "Behind the press, you can't protect the security of the area," he apologized for increasing the number of victims. "[43][44].

Local government, Self-Defense Forces, firefighting

Since the precursory phenomenon was observed, a countermeasure meeting was held in advance, and the relations of related organizations were generally good.Especially in Nagasaki Prefecture, Shimabara City, the Ground Self-Defense Force dispatched to rescue the victims (16th Ordinary Science RegimentEtc.), from the localKazuya OtaThe relationship with the Kyushu Shimabara Volcano Observatory, which was the director, was extremely close.Since all of the media, academics, and disaster prevention organizations were killed by the pyroclastic flow, expectations are high for the Self-Defense Forces, which had the only ability to act near the volcano at that time, and the Self-Defense Forces are also receiving guidance from observation stations for relief activities. By jointly observing the volcano and providing the results to related organizations and local residents in real time 24 hours a day, it greatly contributed to the stability of the people's mind, the progress of restoration work, and volcano research.The Self-Defense Forces have been a symbol of volcano observation and support for the local community for 1995 days (the longest in history) until December 7.Disaster dispatchContinued.AlsoFire helicopterRescued a hoist of 10 broadcasters left on Bizan.

Support/Visit

Emperor-QueenTheir Majesties visited the disaster area on July 1991, 3 (Heisei 7) after the largest pyroclastic flow occurred.At that time, the number of aides was kept to a minimum, lunch was a simple meal (similar to the victims, they ate instant curry as a relief material), and time was set to visit the victims as much as time allowed.At that time, the emperor knelt on the floor and directly exchanged words with the victims, but it was the first time for successive emperors to kneel on the floor when exchanging words.This has been done since the time of the emperor as a prince, but it has been continued even after the emperor's visit to the disaster area, and since Heisei, the royal family has followed suit.

The national, prefectural, and municipal governments have established funds to provide about 100 items of living support, such as improving evacuation shelter life and subsidizing housing reconstruction.In addition, the amount of direct and indirect damage reached about 2300 billion yen (1996 (Heisei 8), Shimabara City survey), but Nagasaki Prefecture andJapanese Red Cross Society230 billion yen was donated to such people.These donations were also used for housing reconstruction and restoration projects for the victims.

In addition, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation has the purpose of encouraging the victims.Saturday dramaProduced "Ganbaramba"[45].

From restoration work to the present

Observation of volcanic activity

Heisei Shinzan has been surveyed and climbed several times (general public is prohibited from climbing because of the caution area), and detailed observation of the lava dome is being carried out. Even today, active fumaroles can be observed from several peaks.

In 2016, such as "Welcome to the lava dome" at the lava dome of Mt. FugengraffitiIt was discovered that it was being run. Shimabara CityCultural property protection lawViolateddamage reportAre considering submitting[46].

Restoration / reconstruction and disaster prevention work

Of the areas destroyed by the pyroclastic flow, the area around Heisei Shinzan and the upper reaches of the Mizunashi River are still designated as caution areas because of the risk of collapse.The Mizunashi River completely filled with earth and sanddredgingAndEmbankmentAnd bridges have been strengthened.National highway No. 57 collapsed due to repeated pyroclastic flows and earth and sand, and a new one was constructed.In the downstream area, it was judged that the removal work was impossible due to the huge amount of earth and sand, and a new residential area was constructed on the earth and sand.Also,National Route 251ToRoad Station Mizunashi Honjin FukaeWas installed.

Ariake SeaBy the earth and sand carried out on the coastLandfill(Heiseicho) was built and thereUnzendake Disaster Memorial HallShimabara Reconstruction Arena・ Shimabara Workers General Welfare Center was constructed.Volcanic ash is 20 to 80 centimeters on the seabed of the Ariake Sea off the Mizunashi River in Shimabara City.mudSince it was formed and accumulated, making it difficult to recover naturally, sediment improvement work is underway.

Was passing through the damaged sectionShimabara Railway LinePart of the building was restored after being elevated, but the damaged section was included in 2008Shimabara Outer Port Station-Katsusa StationThe period was abolished.

A total of 1000 million yen was provided to demolished households. On the hill, a new residential area such as "Nita housing complex" was newly created for the victims.

Various support was provided to prevent farmers from leaving the farm.The Agricultural Improvement and Extension Center conducted interviews with all households (667 households) affected by the disaster, and held five consultation meetings for those who wished to resume agriculture until 1999.Training allowances are provided to those who plan to convert the crops they handle, and the reconstruction fund pays subsidies for the installation of greenhouses or relocation costs.In parallel, in the disaster areaIrrigationFacility maintenance was also carried out. When agriculture resumed in 2000, the number of farmers in the disaster area had decreased to 374, but these support measures were successful, and the agricultural production value of Shimabara City and Fukae Town recovered to almost the same level as before the disaster in 2005. did[Annotation 12].

Approximately 4 in the Senbongi district of Shimabara City, which became a burnt field due to the pyroclastic flowHaThen, the citizen group "Unzen XNUMX Years Forest Creation Association" established after the disasterKunugi,Camellia,Cherry blossomEtc. 3Planting trees official[24].

Material display

  • Old destroyed by pyroclastic flowOnokiba Elementary SchoolThe school building is preserved as a document.Gymnasiums and other facilities are in danger of collapsing and have been removed.The "Ono Kiba Sabo Miraikan" has been built right next to it, where materials are exhibited and disaster prevention activities are being carried out. From the observation room on the 3rd floor, you can see Mt. Fugen in front of you.
  • Road Station Mizunashi Honjin FukaeThere is a debris flow-damaged house preservation park in the area.The area of ​​the park is about 6,200 square meters, and 3 buildings (1 of which has been relocated) in a large tent and 8 buildings outdoors, a total of 11 damaged houses are preserved and exhibited (free of charge).There is also a large pyroclastic flow experience center and a volcano learning center (charged).
  • Materials related to the eruption of Mt. Fugen are also exhibited at the Heisei-Shinzan Nature Center in the Rafter Plateau Forest Park, which faces the west of Heisei-Shinzan.
  • Unzendake Disaster Memorial HallHas the largest number of materials on display.Outdoors of the Self-Defense ForcesArmored carIn addition to the helicopter on display, there is also a media library.
  • Unzen Onsen"Unzen Oyama Information Center" exhibits objective materials such as the underground structure of the Shimabara Peninsula and the magma supply route.[47] There is.
  • The area around the above "fixed point" is3Preservation and maintenance is carried out mainly by local residents, and the restoration of Ishigaki and Shimizu River and the damaged vehicles are also exhibited.[48][49].

Volcano research

Unzen Volcano Firing Project Team from 2002 to 2004[50] A survey was conducted to find and excavate a conduit (the path through which magma rose from underground).As a result, in the excavation that was dug diagonally from a point about 1km north of the summit of Mt. Collected[51].. It is expected that this sample collection will elucidate how the conduit is formed and the eruption mechanism.[52].

Development history

  • 1957 (Showa 32)/7/15 Unzen RopewayOpening of business.
  • November 1990, 2 Eruption activity started.
  • 1991
    • May 5 The appearance of a lava dome is confirmed from the crater of Hell.
    • May 6 Pyroclastic flowOccurs.Shimabara City, which was called "fixed point" at that timeNational Route 57A catastrophe of 43 deaths, centered on the press who attacked the Mizunashi River Bridge and entered without permission, as well as police and firefighters who were cracking down on it.Among them is a famous volcanologistMr. and Mrs. CraftIs also included. In addition, it should be notedEvacuation advisoryIt was inside.
  • June 1993, 5 (Heisei 6) One local resident was involved in the pyroclastic flow that struck the Senbongi area and died. At that time, this area was designated as a caution zone.
  • 1995
    • February Lava dome growth stopped.
    • December The Ground Self-Defense Force Shimabara Disaster Dispatch Corps withdrew.
  • 1996
    • May 5 ShimabaraAnd Obama Town (currentlyUnzen City) Named the lava dome "Heisei Shinzan"[54].
    • June 6 "Declaration of the end of eruptive activity" is issued.
  • April 2004, 16 Heisei Shinzan is the countryNatural treasureSpecified in.
  • 2007Top XNUMX geological features in JapanSelected for ("Unzen").
  • August 2009, 21 Japan's first worldGeoparkCertified as ("Shimabara Peninsula Geopark)).

Disaster prevention of Mt. Unzen

There are still many unstable sediments (pyroclastic flow deposits) near the summit, and during heavy rains, they become debris flows and flow down to downstream villages and national roads, so at the foot of the mountain.Control,SaboLarge-scale disaster prevention facilities are being installed, such as dam installation, greening work, and dike installation by the project.

The Japan Meteorological Agency classified Mt. Unzen as rank A "volcano with particularly high activity" in 2003 (Heisei 15), and from 2007 (Heisei 19).Eruption alert levelHas introduced[55].. However, since 1997 (Heisei 9), although small fumarolic activity and volcanic earthquakes have continued, no eruptive activity has occurred.

climate

Climate of Unzendake Special Area Meteorological Observatory (Unzen, Obama-cho, Unzen City, altitude 678m)
MonthOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberYears
Highest temperature record ° C (° F17.3
(63.1)
18.2
(64.8)
21.2
(70.2)
25.3
(77.5)
29.4
(84.9)
31.0
(87.8)
32.8
(91)
33.2
(91.8)
30.5
(86.9)
27.6
(81.7)
22.5
(72.5)
18.6
(65.5)
33.2
(91.8)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F6.1
(43)
7.7
(45.9)
11.2
(52.2)
16.1
(61)
20.5
(68.9)
22.7
(72.9)
25.8
(78.4)
27.2
(81)
24.5
(76.1)
19.8
(67.6)
14.2
(57.6)
8.6
(47.5)
17.1
(62.8)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F2.5
(36.5)
3.6
(38.5)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
15.9
(60.6)
19.2
(66.6)
22.5
(72.5)
23.3
(73.9)
20.4
(68.7)
15.3
(59.5)
10.0
(50)
4.7
(40.5)
13.0
(55.4)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F−0.7
(30.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
2.8
(37)
7.2
(45)
11.6
(52.9)
16.1
(61)
20.0
(68)
20.5
(68.9)
17.1
(62.8)
11.5
(52.7)
6.3
(43.3)
1.2
(34.2)
9.5
(49.1)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−12.2
(10)
−12.8
(9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.0
(21.2)
1.3
(34.3)
7.6
(45.7)
13.0
(55.4)
12.9
(55.2)
8.1
(46.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−6.0
(21.2)
−10.2
(13.6)
−12.8
(9)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)88.2
(3.472)
129.2
(5.087)
202.5
(7.972)
253.3
(9.972)
265.1
(10.437)
575.4
(22.654)
513.6
(20.22)
314.4
(12.378)
260.7
(10.264)
132.8
(5.228)
123.5
(4.862)
103.1
(4.059)
2,927.1
(115.24)
Average days of precipitation (≥0.5 mm)10.311.013.012.211.916.814.212.211.78.610.310.8143.4
(I.e.78767574768690868379807880
Average monthlyDaylight hours88.4101.9133.6149.7159.694.2105.8132.3123.6140.6108.896.41,436.6
Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1991-2020, extreme value: 1924-present)[56][57]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Evacuation advisories are issued by the heads of local governments, but they encourage residents to evict, and there are no compulsory forces or penalties. How to prohibit or restrict the entry and exit of people other than authorized people such as workers for calming disastersDisaster Countermeasures Basic LawBased on Article 63Warning areaNeed to be specified. As of May 1991, there were no cases where a warning zone was set up in an urban area where many residents live in Japan.
  2. ^ In the disaster on June 6, the final point of the pyroclastic surge generated from the pyroclastic flow was near the Tsutsuno bus stop. As a result, the Asahi Shimbun has not found any casualties due to this disaster.
  3. ^ Debris flow evacuation advice was issued to the Kamikiba district on May 5, 15, 19, and 21 May, but the agricultural training center was designated as a resident evacuation shelter at that time.
  4. ^ This pyroclastic flow in the direction of Akamatsuya River was shot by a TV Asahi cameraman, and the "figure of residents and fire trucks escaping from the pyroclastic flow" in the video was then shot right next to it.FOCUSIt will be used in many media both in Japan and abroad, along with photographs taken by photographers.In addition, some of the videos featured in overseas media include the siren of the fire engine and the voice of the firefighters saying "Run away!", But these are added later for the purpose of production, and the actual video Absent.
  5. ^ It seems that she could not evacuate due to a car hired by a media representative.
  6. ^ The video ends when the cameraman notices a sound that seems to be from a pyroclastic flow and points the camera toward Mt. Fugen, saying "What kind of sound?
  7. ^ What volcanologists at that time had in mind as a pyroclastic flow disaster was that the year 79 ADVesuviusDue to a volcanic eruptionPompeiiDisappeared, and in 1902Play mountainIt was a big eruption.They feared that the word "pyroclastic flow" would remind residents of these catastrophes and cause confusion.Therefore, there was an opinion that it should be announced as "debris flow" instead of "pyroclastic flow".Also, in the temporary volcano information on the 25th, the phrase "high speed inside and outside 100 km / h" was initially included in the explanation of the pyroclastic flow, but later "it seems that Unzen has such a speed. Removed from the original as "not"[16][26].
  8. ^ Immediately after the announcement of the temporary volcano information on the 25th, a commentary meeting was held at the Japan Meteorological Agency Press Club in Tokyo.The summary is as follows. "Since the pyroclastic flow of Mt. Unzen occurs with the lava dome crumbled, it is more likely that it will not be the most worrisome" pyroclastic flow that spouts like a gunball. "The hat (dome) has been removed. Therefore, I don't think that something out of the ordinary will happen. Also, it seems that the pyroclastic flow this time is not so hot because there was no fire at the time of the outflow. The pyroclastic flow is always out in Sakurajima. Even at Mt. Asamayama It is observed every time an eruption occurs, and it is not so rare. "" Pyroclastic flow seems to be regarded as a big one, but please do not overlook it. "[16]
  9. ^ The evacuation advisory is "a measure for the safety of residents and a benefit", and those who do not comply are considered to abandon their interests, and no penalties are imposed. Penalties are imposed on those who do not comply, so that social and economic activities in the area are completely stopped, and the impact on residents and the local economy is immeasurable.
  10. ^ The reasons for not prosecuting are as follows. (1) No malicious acts such as invading the victim's house are found just by interviewing and shooting the site on the street etc. (2) The motive should be taken into consideration for the purpose of reporting (3) There are no cases of cases or arrests, even though there is evidence that many residents have entered the caution area, and there is no reason to actively punish them.[41]
  11. ^ The Yomiuri Shimbun reported in an article dated July 1991, 7 about the invasion and coverage of the reportage in the caution area, but the chairman of the Fugendake Eruption Victims Council responded to the Yomiuri article by saying "(Reportage). It's ridiculous (by the writer's interview) to be upset. We want to know exactly what's going on in the area we lived in. I once had a video camera inside. I went into the (warning area) and showed it to the residents, so I felt like I should try to arrest him. "[42].
  12. ^ The amount of agricultural production in 2005 was 101 billion yen. It was 1989 billion yen in 98 and 1990 billion yen in 106 when the eruption activity started.

Source

  1. ^ "Great Pyroclastic Flow Unforgettable 30 Years" "Yomiuri Shimbun" Morning Edition June 2021, 6 Page 4
  2. ^ From the material exhibition at the Unzen Oyama Information Center.
  3. ^ "Volcanoes need to be fully equipped with monitoring and observation systems for volcanic disaster prevention (PDF)". Japanese Meteorological Agency. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ "Visit the stage of "silence"”. Unzen Onsen Tourist Association. NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ "Mysterious beer bottles one after another During the war, at the summit of Mt. Fugen in Nagasaki, a top secret radar station"West Japan Newspaper], January 2017, 1.NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ "Bonfire "absolutely useless" at the summit of Mt. Fugen in Unzen Called by the Ministry of the Environment office"Nishi-Nippon Shimbun," January 2021, 1.NovemberBrowse.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Volcanic activity since recorded history of Mt. Unzen". Japanese Meteorological Agency. NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ Recent seismic activity in and around Kyushu (November 1989-April 11) (Japan Meteorological Agency) (PDF) "Earthquake Prediction Liaison Bulletin" Volume 44
  9. ^ Recent seismic activity in and around Kyushu (November 1990-April 5) (Japan Meteorological Agency) (PDF) "Earthquake Prediction Liaison Bulletin" Volume 45
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kazuya Ota"Hot springs of Unzen volcano and its geological background", Journal of Japan Geothermal Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, Japan Geothermal Society, October 2006, pp. 10-337, ISSN 03886735.
  11. ^ Kyushu University Graduate School of Science Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Kyushu University Graduate School of Science Earthquake and Volcano Observation Research Center (September 1998, 9).Part 3 The Great Eruption of 1990-1995". Internet Museum "Unzen Fugendake Eruption and its Background". NovemberBrowse.
  12. ^ Tadahide Ui, Mari Sumita, Geological Group, University Joint Observation Group "Merapi-type pyroclastic flow generation process: Observation results at Unzen Fugendake No. 6 Dome", Volcano, Vol. 38, No. 2,Volcanological Society of Japan, June 1993, 7, pp. 1-45, NOT 110003041573.
  13. ^ Hiroi 1992, Foreword
  14. ^ a b Sugimoto & Nagai 2009, pp. 9–22
  15. ^ a b c Hiroi 1992, pp. 33–52
  16. ^ a b c d e f Miyamoto 2006, p. 9
  17. ^ Kazuki 2012, p. 16
  18. ^ Shoko Egawa"Disappearing in a large pyroclastic flow"文藝 春秋, 1992, 176 pages.ISBN 4-16-346970-2.
  19. ^ Hiroi 1992, p. 44
  20. ^ Shoko Egawa, “Large pyroclastic flow”, p. 183[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  21. ^ Miyamoto 2006, p. 4
  22. ^ Nikon F4 Legend
  23. ^ Recording scoop photos - Wayback machine(Archive on July 2017, 7) Yomiuri Shimbun
  24. ^ a b 3.3 trees planted in green Unzen 1 people participated "To symbol of reconstruction" "Yomiuri Shimbun" morning edition June 2021, 6 (social aspect)
  25. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 48–49
  26. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 12–15
  27. ^ Video: A relatively large pyroclastic flow photographed in front of the agricultural training center in Kitakami Kiba on May 5.. Largest pyroclastic flow before June 6
  28. ^ Geological Survey of Japan Research Material Collection No.469 "Miyagi, Kawabe, Takada, Sakaguchi, Takarada (2007) Unzen Video Clip Collection" - National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyGeological Survey of Japan
  29. ^ a b Hiroi 1992, pp. 27–28
  30. ^ Yoichi Ishikawa "Former reporter who "killed the citizens" in overheated reports 30 years after the eruption of Mt. Unzen and Mt. Fugen"47NEWS"Kyodo News, August 2020, 11.NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 34–36
  32. ^ Hiroi 1992, p. 25,Hiroi 1992, pp. 64–66, Resident Questionnaire Survey
  33. ^ Hiroi 1992, p. 104
  34. ^ Kazuki 2012, pp. 26–28
  35. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 36–39
  36. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 21–29
  37. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 59–64
  38. ^ Sugimoto & Nagai 2009, p. 17
  39. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 38–39
  40. ^ Hiroi 1992, pp. 134–138
  41. ^ Shoko Egawa "Disappearing in the Great Fire Crushing Flow-The Death of 20 Unsen Fugendake and Press"Shinfusha<Singpoosha Bunko>, 2004,[Page number required].ISBN 4-7974-9511-1.
  42. ^ Partial excerpt from Shoko Egawa's "Disappearing in the Great Fire Crushing Flow-The Death of 20 Unsen Fugendake and Press" (Singpoosha Bunko, 2004)[Page number required]
  43. ^ "Nagasaki Shimbun] November 2011, 6
  44. ^ Unzen gathering in Shimabara for the first time in 10 years-newspaper labor federation, Kyushu district federation - Wayback machine(For archived March 2015, 4)
  45. ^ NHK Archives Ganbaranba
  46. ^ "Unzen, Fugendake Lava Dome Graffiti "Welcome" with yellow paint"Mainichi Shimbun, April 2016, 5.オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2019-04-05.
  47. ^ Unzen Oyama Information Center youtube[Broken link]
  48. ^ 30 years since the pyroclastic flow disaster at Mt. Fugen in Unzen / "Fixed point" was established and announced to local residents (TV program). TV Nagasaki.. (September 2021, 3). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNNMRrfADAA NovemberBrowse. 
  49. ^ "Installed pyroclastic flow damaged vehicles for exhibition"Toyama newspaper"Hokoku newspaperCompany, March 2021, 3.NovemberBrowse.
  50. ^ "Unzen Volcano International joint research to elucidate eruption mechanism and magma activity by scientific excavation”. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Volcano Research Center. NovemberBrowse.
  51. ^ "Volcanic drilling at Unzen Volcano"Geoscience Magazine" Vol.122 (2013) No.2 Special Issue: Current Status and Prospects of Land Science Drilling in Japan
  52. ^ Unzen Volcano -International Collaborative Research for Elucidation of Eruption Mechanism and Magmatic Activity by Scientific Drilling- Ministry of educationScience and Technology Promotion Coordination Fund Comprehensive Research (1999-2005) / International Land Science Drilling Program (ICDP) Joint Project
  53. ^ a b c "Shigeru Kobayashi" Eruption of Mt. Unzen, Shimabara "" "National History DictionaryVolume 15, edited by the Kokushi Daijiten Editorial Committee,Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, 1996, pp. 83-84.ISBN 978-4-642-00515-9.
  54. ^ "Lava dome is" Heisei Shinzan "Unzen / Fugendake Topographic map application for name" "Traffic newspaper』Kotsu Shimbun, April 1996, 5, page 21.
  55. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency eruption alert level Unzendake - Wayback machine(For archived March 2014, 3)
  56. ^ "Normal value download”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021/4Browse.
  57. ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021/4Browse.

References

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