KIS International decides to start bankruptcy Total debt 1 million yen
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Based in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka, it mainly handles tours and airline tickets in Southeast Asia.
KIS International received a bankruptcy start decision from the Tokyo District Court on August 8.Tokyo Shoko Research ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Airline tickets to airlinersBoardingNecessary when doingticket(Of land transportationticketIs equivalent to)AirlinesBetween passengers and passengersShipping contractDocumentary evidence of.. The name of the person boarding, the flight segment, flight number, seat class, applicable fare amount, validity period, etc. are stated on the ticket. An airline ticket for connecting two or more airlines is called a joint transportation ticket..
There are domestic tickets and international tickets, but international tickets areWarsaw ConventionAnd restrictions due to the Montreal Agreement.. In the case of passenger transportation tickets that are subject to the Warsaw Convention, it is necessary for the treaty to state the origin and destination, the place and date of issue, the planned place of departure, the name of the carrier and the passenger, and the contents of the carriage... In addition, an excerpt from the International Travel Conditions of Carriage must be included in the international ticket... On the other hand, domestic airline tickets are simpler than international airline tickets due to the restrictions of domestic law... A supplementary ticket may be used to enter the segment fare each time it is transported in a segment with fewer flights and fewer passengers..
Check-in procedures for international flights arepassportAt the same time confirm the destination if necessaryCountry OfvisaCheck.. Although passports and visas are checked by the government and airlines do not have the right to examine them, they are checked by the airlines in order to prevent troubles with immigration procedures. The company will be fined.
Seat selection is performed after checking the airline ticket, but seat selection is important from the perspective of operational safety, such as preventing uneven loading... After seat selection, airline will issue boarding pass in exchange for flight coupon of ticket.. In the boarding pass, in addition to the items listed on the airline ticket, the seat number, boarding gate number, etc. are described. The domestic flight ticket is a combination of the flight ticket and the boarding pass.
Airline tickets and boarding passes are often confused because the words are similar, and recently there are also integrated types, but airline tickets in English are also called Air Tickets (Airline Tickets, Passenger Tickets) Is a security that represents the right to obtain the service of. In contrast, the boarding pass boarding pass It's a boarding pass.
Characteristics of airline tickets
TrainAs a general rule, unlike tickets for land transportation such as buses and busesSigning ceremonyAnd (for corporationsTicket Book(Some of them are anonymous) and cannot be used or changed by anyone other than the person listed on the ticket. In principle, it is not possible to change to a section other than the one described. If you have more than one ticket in one itinerary, you must use them in order and use them backwards (for example, using a ticket from "Tokyo to Osaka" for flights from "Osaka to Tokyo") Can not. However, in the case of a business ticket or a corporate ticket that has a ticket with a fare that can be changed to the reverse section or the reservation can be changedMulti airportExceptions are permitted in some cases, such as changing the departure and arrival airports within the set city. Tickets improperly obtained at online auctions (tickets obtained by the holder other than the person himself/herself or due to a fraudulent act with a credit card) are refused to board and cannot be refunded..
Many airlines apply the rule that if one of multiple sections of the same itinerary is not boarded (), not only that section but all the remaining sections are invalid (Southwest AirlinesIs an exception, the return trip is valid even if you abandon the outbound round trip ticket). Whether or not the fare for the invalidated section is refunded depends on the ticket class (below).
In general, airline tickets to which a normal fare is applied have a purchase deadline, place of sale, valid period and valid flights, range of seats that can be selected (designated), number of sold seats, priority handling when vacant seats (waiting for cancellation), reservation change and refund ( Cancellation), when there are vacant senior seatsDouble booking(Double sales of the same seat)Involuntary upgradeAlthough the degree of freedom and preferential treatment regarding usage conditions is high, the degree of freedom of an airline ticket to which a discount fare is applied decreases in proportion to the degree of discount.
For example,United airlinesIn the case of, first class with no restrictions on changes and refunds,MileageIt is subdivided into 28 classes including privilege tickets,Economy classThere are no restrictions on changes or refunds, from "first stage" to "13th stage" for cheap group tickets that cannot be changed or refunded (travel companies only, not generally sold)..
Type of ticket
Domestic and international tickets
Classification by type of air travel
The types of air travel for determining fares are mainly classified into the following five types.
- One Way (OW)
- Round Trip (RT)
- In this case, the round trip means that the fare amount on the outward route and the return route are the same, and the routes are not always the same.
- Circle Trip, CT
- The lap in this case refers to the case where the fare on the outbound route and the fare on the inbound route are different.
- Open jaw (Open Jaw, OJ)
- In round-trip or round trip, it refers to a trip in which either or both of the departure place and the arrival place are different.
- Round The World Trip, RTW
- 大西洋とThe Pacific OceanA trip that goes back to the place of departure either eastward or westward. A dedicated air fare is set. For more informationRound the World Ticketchecking ...
Purchasing an air ticket
Air ticket issuance
Airline tickets other than airlinesTravel clubBut tickets are issued. Where it was issued is printed on the face of the ticket. In case of normal fare, it is not always necessary to reserve a flight for purchase (open ticket can be issued), but for most discount tickets, a round trip flight must be booked before purchase (round trip FIX Obligation).
Ticketing at a travel agency is performed at a travel agency that has an agency contract with an airline for domestic flights. For international flights, the number of airlines and travel agencies is huge, soInternational Air Transport Association By (IATA) BSP (Billing Settlement Plan) "Bank centralized payment method" called.
In Japan,BSP JAPAN Airline tickets that are members of BSP JAPAN Tickets issued by a travel agency certified byMizuho BankThrough. This travel agency is called an IATA authorized agency.
In addition, some airlines outside JapanBSP JAPAN There are also cases where a ticket is outsourced by contracting directly with a Japanese travel agency without passing through. Both domestic and international flights are contracted and approved by designating stores, so even the same travel agency may or may not issue air tickets.
In recent years, with the spread of the Internet reservation system, ATB tickets are issued at the time of check-in at the airport described later, andElectronic ticketHas been switched toTravel agencySo paper tickets are gone.
When using Japan domestic flights,Travel agency,AirlinesMost of the time, you could check the seat availability and buy an airline ticket at a sales office in Japan.2002/From aroundAirlines OfWebsiteAtインターネットReservations and payments are beginning to be expanded, and in this case, it is possible to use a "ticketless service" in which no air ticket is issued.
- *Payment method in this case is partlyExpress BusSimilarly, pay the fare at the convenience store after booking, and use the certificate printed at the cashier as a substitute for the airline ticket,Credit cardIf you choose to pay, enter your reservation number at the airport counter or check-in machine on the day of boarding, or insert the credit card you used at the time of reservation/purchase into the check-in machine to board the airline ticket Often takes the form of receiving a ticket. It is a good idea to print the reservation screen just in case.
In the past, international airline tickets from Japan were mainly purchased at travel agencies and airline sales offices, but recently airlines, including major airlines, have been focusing on selling ticketless services for online reservations. Before the introduction of the ticketing fee, etc., the fee was set to be a little cheaper. Ticketless discount for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines2007/9/30It was finished after the boarding and was abolished. It was applied to most fares that could be booked on the website, and even the discounted fares had an additional 2% discount applied.
Ticketing fees, etc.
In recent years, an increasing number of airlines collect ticketing fees when making reservations, changes, ticketing, etc. through manned channels such as airline city counters, airport counters, and call centers. in Japan,Japan Airlines, ANA earns a ticketing fee for international passengers when booking through the above (free for domestic flights). Even if it’s a domestic flight in Japan,Cheap airlineIn this case, reservation fees, payment fees, seat reservation fees, etc. are often collected. Many airlines around the world also collect fees.
Also, after abolishing the sales fees paid by airlines to travel agencies (zero commission), many companies also collect the ticketing fees specified by the travel agencies when they make reservations and issue tickets.
When purchasing an air ticket, in addition to the air fare (except for free tickets and award tickets),consumption taxAnd immigration taxtaxPay. Also,Airport fee(Passenger service facility feeAnd so on)Aviation insuranceFees, special fuel surcharges (fuel surcharge) Or special aviation insurance charges may be required. However, taxes and fees are often incorporated into airfares.
For domestic flights in Japan, in addition to airfare,Tokyo International Airport(Haneda),Chubu International Airport,Kitakyushu AirportFor flightsPassenger facility fee or Passenger handling facility usage fee (PFC / Passenger Facility Charge)Narita International Airport,KIXTerminal 2For flightsPassenger service facility fee (PSFC / Passenger Service Facility Charge) is required (except for free tickets and award tickets). Japanese domestic airfares include consumption tax,Osaka International AirportOf (Itami)JetFlightsSpecial landing feeIs included.Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA)2011/9/1Boarding minutesMore than airfareFuel special surcharge(Fuel surcharge) is required separately.American terrorist attacksUnder the influence of2001/11/1From domestic flights introduced by major Japanese airlinesFlight insurance special charges The2006/10/1It was abolished from boarding, and the equivalent amount was incorporated into the airfare.
Validity period of ticket
The contents of the ticket will be validated by the validating stamp of the ticketing airline or its agent..
For regular fare tickets, if there is no reservation for domestic flights in Japan, the expiration date is 90 days from the day after the ticket issuance. However, when discounted fares such as "early discount" and "special flights" are applied due to the liberalization of air fares, only that flight/seat will be valid.
In addition, the international fare ticket for international flights is valid for one year starting from the day after the ticket issuance in the case of ticketing without reservation (OPEN ticketing), but this also applies to the flight or seat when applying the discounted fare. It is valid only for a limited time, and the minimum and maximum number of days required for travel may be set. Some group and round-trip tickets may be valid for months or weeks.
Most cheap flights change bookings andStopover(Stopover. Stay in a city other than your destination for at least 24 hours),Open jaw(There are restrictions on one or both of the starting point and the arriving point)
For cheaper tickets,Direct flightsIt has been used for a while (when traveling from Japan to Europe,Seoul,Hong Kong,MoscowFor example, it takes more time than a normal direct flight, and the waiting time for transit may be extremely long.
The following are general treatments by airlines when they are caused by personal circumstances other than illness. If you booked/issued tickets at a travel agency,Travel agentas well as the Travel agent agentDetermined byClauseMay follow. Also bad weatherVolcanoeruption-EarthquakeIn case of force majeure or due to airline such as equipment failure, etc., the handling is different from the following, and it is often handled on a case-by-case basis.In this case, the airline that purchased the ticket or I would like to contact a travel agency (Example:Traffic paralysis due to eruption of Aiyafiyatra York in 2010,Boeing 787 battery problem,Flex traveler systemSuch).
There are fare that can change reservation and fare that cannot change reservation. Even if the fare can change the reservationBooking change fee,Exchange issue feeMay be required. In addition, some airline tickets allow you to change the reservation only for the return flight even if you cannot change the reservation for the outbound flight.
For domestic flights of major Japanese airlines, you can change your reservation as often as you like before the departure time of the flight you plan to fly, as long as you have a ticket with a changeable reservation, and cancel your reservation (open ticket) You can also However, if the fare is different from the next flight, you will need to adjust the difference, additional charges will be collected for the shortfall, and excess will be refunded, and the PFC will be treated in the same way. As mentioned above, the name of an airline ticket cannot be changed, and some sectors cannot be changed. In addition, even if the ticket has a fare that cannot be changed, there are some tickets that can be changed only if there is a vacant seat at the departure airport before the reserved flight on the day of boarding.
When refunding, on domestic flights of major Japanese airlinesCancellation feeとRefund chargeThe remaining amount deducted will be refunded. For international tickets, if you only charge the cancellation fee or refund fee, whichever is higher, or if it is a combined fee, some tickets cannot be refunded, so please check the refund rules for each fare. I want to make a wish. Also some cheap airlinesMiles-Point,CouponThere are also airlines that offer refunds with in-kind benefits.
Cancellation fees for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines are not refundable by the departure time of the booked flight, but not after refunding the ticket purchased with a fare with a changeable reservation (normal fare, round-trip discount, etc.) Will incur a prescribed cancellation fee. In addition, in the case of refunding a ticket purchased with a fare that cannot be rebooked, cancellation charges are often incurred both before and after the departure time, even if the fare is the same for different airlines these days. Increasing numbers of cases have completely different refund policies.
Credit cardIf you purchase an airline ticket in, you will be refunded through the credit card company, but other than that, it depends on the airline's regulations, the place of payment, and the payment method.accountTransferIn many cases, refunds can only be made at the airline's airport counter or branch. In many cases, refund costs such as transfer fees and transportation expenses are to be borne by the user. In addition, such as travel ticketsgift cardDepending on the payment method, refund may not be possible.
Please note that the refund period is often predetermined.Japanese yenEven if you bought the ticket atUnited States dollar,Localcurrency, The airline is registeredCountryIt may be refunded in the currency of.
- ^ a b c Yoshikata Yamanobe "Aviation Industry" Education Company, 1977, p. 265.
- ^ a b c d e f g Mitsuru Kawaguchi, "Introduction to Airlines, Revised Edition," Japan Aeronautic Association, 1983, p. 71.
- ^ a b Mitsuru Kawaguchi, "Introduction to Airlines, Revised Edition," Japan Aeronautic Association, 1983, p. 90.
- ^ a b Mitsuru Kawaguchi, "Introduction to Airlines, Revised Edition," Japan Aeronautic Association, 1983, p. 91.
- ^ Please be careful about fraudulent ticket salesJapan Airlines August 2018, 8
- ^ United Airlines Fare Chart
- ^ Changes to domestic terminal passenger handling facility usage charges - Japan Airport Building
- ^ Passenger facility fee - Chubu International Airport (company)
- ^ Passenger handling facility usage fee - Kitakyushu Air Terminal
- ^ Passenger service facility fee (PSFC)/Security service facility fee (PSSC) - Narita International Airport (company)
- ^ Passenger Service Facility Charge (PSFC)/Passenger Security Service Charge (PSSC) - New Kansai International Airport
- ^ (PDF) - Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA) Announcements/Press Releases 2011/6/29
- ^ a b Mitsuru Kawaguchi, "Introduction to Airlines, Revised Edition," Japan Aeronautic Association, 1983, p. 73.
- Electronic ticket
- CRS (aviation) -To reserve a seatComputer system
- Mileage service
- Immigration control - Advance passenger information system
- Waiting for a seat
- MCO -Receive the same treatment as an airline ticket.
- Employed Free Ticket
- International solidarity tax
- Amadeus (CRS)
Southeast Asia(Finally Asia,English: Southeast Asia, Southeastern Asia) IsEast AsiaThansouth,South AsiaThanto East Malaysia OfAsiaRefers to the area.Indochina Peninsula,Malay Peninsula,Indonesian Islands,Philippine IslandsWith AsiaIslands Southeast AsiaIt is divided into
The term Southeast Asia is relatively new, first appearing in the 1830s. Geography and history at that time were biased toward national theory and rule theory, and initially became popular only as archaeological and ethnographic terms... It was generalized as a geographic concept in 1942.AlliesThe military has "Southeast Asia Command"CeylonIt was set up in, and became officially politically named as the name of the operational area of the Allied Forces that promotes post-war processing. However, even now, in British English and French, the concept of Southeast Asia often does not include islands...In Japanese travel guides, etc., "Hong Kong-Macau-TaiwanEtc. ", but usuallyEast AsiaWill be treated as.
Mostly above 25 degrees CelsiusKöppen climate classificationSay熱 帯[Annotation 1]And a sudden thunderstorm peculiar to the tropics,SquallIs often seen in the rainy season. The islands that belong to the moist tropics have a lot of rainfall all year round, but the continental areas andIndochina Peninsula Themonsoon[Annotation 2]Under the influence ofSavanna climateThe rainy season and the dry season are clear.
Rainforest-Islands from the Philippine Islands to Borneo, the northern half of Sulawesi, western Java, Sumatra, the Arakan coast, the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. It is a treasure trove of plants due to high temperatures exceeding 25 degrees Celsius and heavy rainfall of 2000 to 4000 mm per year.
Tropical Highlands-Pamas (South Sumatra), Minangkabau (West Sumatra) and other basins in the Sumatra Mountains of Sumatra are around 1500 meters high, humid but cool climate. People have lived in the area for a long time and intensive rice cultivation has been carried out.
Coastal Lowlands-The coast of the rainforest is peat forest except for dunesmangroveAlthough it is not suitable for agriculture in the forest, it is a base for fishing and shipping along with the sand dunes.
Savannah Plain-In continental Southeast Asia, due to the influence of the dry northeast monsoon, there is a strong dry season in winter, and there are many rainy green forests that grow in the rainy season and fall in the dry season. The Burmese plain becomes arid due to the influence of the southwest monsoon. Plain upland farming has progressed since the old days, and irrigation using running water from the surrounding mountains has been developed. In the Korat Plain and Cambodia Plain in northeastern Thailand, rainy green forests are formed although there is a difference in precipitation between the rainy season and the dry season. In the summer, there is long-term precipitation, and rain-fed rice cultivation is widespread.
Delta-The three major deltas (Iwaraj, Chao Playa, Mekong)Savannah climateIs. There is almost no rainfall in the dry season. However, in the rainy season, rivers cause floods.
Country name list
The nations belonging to Southeast Asia are listed below. capital Notated in the order of.
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu - Bandar Seri Begawan
- Cambodia(Kampuchia)- Phnom Penh
- Indonesia - Jakarta (Papua Island OfPapua,West Papua TheOceaniaBelongs to the region)
- Laos - Vientiane
- Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
- Myanmar(Burma)- Naypyidaw
- フィリピン(Piripinus)- Manila
- Singapore --Singapore (City state）
- Thailand - Bangkok
- 東 テ モ ー ル - Dili(Timor IslandAboriginal peopleMelanesiaEthnically related to the Oceania region in the system)
- Vietnam - Hanoi (VietnamKanji culture areaBelongs to and rarelyEast AsiaMay be included in)
See below for the history of each Southeast Asian country.
- Indonesian history - Cambodian history - History of Singapore - Thai history - Philippine history - Brunei history - Vietnamese history - Malaysian history - Myanmar history - Laos history - History of East Timor
Original history of Southeast Asia
The history of Southeast Asia is often written as the history of each country. But especially in the Malay Peninsula and the islands, the territories of each country19st centuryから20st centuryTo the beginningWesternGreat powerColonyThe result of dividing Southeast Asia based on the principle was later recognized as an independent nation, and it can be said that it has a very strong political color.
The history of Southeast Asia departs from the history of such political modern nations and, in other words, the history of the traditional political sphere, the political and cultural center of the city and its surrounding spheres.Historical zoneIs the target. Also, originally this areaFeudalism,Centralization,emperorDifferent from tyranny,Mandala theoryIn recent years, it has been emphasized that the region has a multi-layered power structure that is clarified by the theory. AlsoJapanSome relationships withFirst ResidentCame toPacific WarEntered each country inHigh economic growth periodThere is something very deep, such as a large number of companies entering the market.
Human culture in Southeast Asia is in the latter half of 2 to 3 years agoPaleolithicYou can start from. This is because you can get traces of human life in caves and ledges in both continents and islands.
In the continental part, it can be traced to the Songvi culture, Hoangbin culture, Baxon culture, and Daboot culture in northern Vietnam.Sonvie cultureMainly stone tools that are cut out around the gravel. Discovered in the old province,Radiocarbon datingThen, it was 2 to 1 years ago.Polished stonewareBecause it is not accompanied byPaleolithicBelongs to. nextHoa Binh cultureIs a culture named after the cave and rock shelters in Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam. In addition to the original form of stone tools, it is characterized by advanced forms such as Smatrias, and partially ground stone tools also appear. Seashells (freshwater) on food debrisSnail,snails), Accompanied by a layer of animal bone.
Dating is almost 1 to 1000 years ago,Mesolithic cultureLocated in. This culture is from all over the continent to the Malay Peninsula,SumatraWidely distributed. Found in the Baxon Mountains, Lan Son ProvinceBaxon cultureIt is,Blade ground stone axIs the main subject. SometimesEarthenwareAccompanied by. Thanh Hoa ProvinceTabooThe ruins are big freshwaterShell moundThere are few changes in stone tools at the ruins, but the important change is the appearance of earthenware. There are few things that can be seen as a whole, but it is a round deep bowl shape. Thick, soft and unpatterned, there are traces of fibers wound around the stick that is struck by the slamming technique. This technique went south from China. It is about 6000 years ago in the radiocarbon dating. Nghe AnQuinn VanThe ruins are large shell mounds of sea snails, accompanied by stone tools that smash large stones, a small amount of ground stone ax, and coarsely pointed earthenware. The radiocarbon dating is 4700 years ago.
Southeast Asia is basically a lot of ethnic groupsAgriculture raceIs. Agriculture began in Vietnam about 4000 years ago, and even around the present Kingdom of Thailand, agriculture began around 300 BC. Even in Cambodia, it was one of the leading rice-growing areas in Southeast Asia around the 4th century. Southeast Asia is still one of the world's leading agricultural nations.
Influence of China and India and establishment of traditional nation
Southeast Asia (excluding the Philippines) is located in the middle of the trade route between China and India, and has developed as a relay point for a long time, and traditional nations are established in various places under the cultural influence of China or India. become(Indianization), After that, each achieved its own historical development. The ancient Indians called this land "Golden State" or "Golden Land (Swannapum)", and the Chinese called it "Nankai".
Political forces in Southeast Asian watersHonanViaSouthern ChinaIn the first half of the 6th century, countries were formed in the South China Sea, the Malay Peninsula, the Straits of Malacca, Java, and Bali, respectively.[Annotation 3]He came to have direct negotiations with him and began to actively tribute to him. However, the Chinese perception of Southeast Asia remains on the islands or continental coasts.Port city nationIt was a world of groups.
Since the end of the 4th century, Indian thought has influenced the royal power system itself in Southeast Asia. From the 4th century to the 6th century, inscriptions using the South Indian alphabet appeared in various parts of Southeast Asia. In the islands of East Kalimantan in the 4th centuryKutai KingdomThe Mula Valman inscription is excavated from, and the Bourna Valman inscription is excavated from around Bogor in West Java. In the Mekong Delta, a group of inscriptions collectively called "Funan inscriptions" was excavated in the 5th and 6th centuries. AlsoOkeoThe statues of Indian gods and Buddhas found in various places, including the above, prove the large-scale influx of Indian thought.
Colonization by Western powers
19st century, By Western powers in Southeast Asian countriesColonyThe conversion was promoted.As you can see below, various control systems were taken in each region, but the common point is "Dual economy, "Complex society," and "division."In other words, there are three points: the coexistence of the modern capitalist economy and the traditional agricultural economy, the social composition based on ethnic diversity, the preservation of order by the former rulers, and the division and indirect rule using it.
Looking at the characteristics of colonization by region, first of all, the area around Java and Sumatra (Greater Sunda IslandsIn the south), only certain ports and coastal areas were dominated in the early 19th century, but graduallyUnited Kingdom- NetherlandsThe competition for control between them began to intensify. The Dutch governmentJavaでsugar cane,coffee,tobaccoThe local farmers were forced into poverty by exploitation. Along with that, resistance wars began in various places from the end of the 19th century.20st centuryIt occurred frequently until the beginning.
In the northern and western parts of BorneoEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSultan gave local sovereignty as a reward to the oppressors of the tribal rebellion, so the current state of Sarawak is a nation by the White King.Kingdom of SarawakWas established, and the current state of Sabah was colonized by Britain, who boarded in the name of Sikh protection. In southern Borneo, it is the first Hakka republic in Asia.Lanfang RepublicExisted, but Lanfang Republic's foreign policyclearIt uses the authority of the dynasty,Opium WarWhen Qing was defeated, he was attacked by the Netherlands and was destroyed.
In the Philippine Islands, the chieftainLapu-LapuBut once due to skillful tacticsMagellanDefeated his army, but was gradually eroded by Spanish forces, and the defeat of Brunei weakened Islamic authority, which determined it. Under Spanish governanceSpainUnder a large landowner centered on peopleKosakuFarmers are forced to work hardHacienda systemWas rampant. Emerging landowners and intellectuals have rebelled against these social contradictions, (1892/Formed) and other nationalist movements.1898/ OfUS-West WarWonAmericaWith the cooperation ofEmilio AguinaldoAnnounced the Philippines Declaration of Independence and became the first president. However, after that, Aguinaldo was captured after being cracked down by the United States claiming territory.
Malay PeninsulaWas colonized during the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511 and later became British. Singapore prospered as a British trade and military hub.
Since Cambodia has been suffering from severe pressures from both Vietnam and Thailand since the last century, and there were many dangers of land loss,Mekong RiverFeared that the country would be divided into two countriesAng Duongwith KingNorodomThe king himself became a French protectorate.
Vietnam is the last dynastyMorningWith the help of France and other powers when the country was founded, it later became a protectorate of France, and some became a crown colony.
In Laos, the enslaved kingdoms of Luang Prabang, Vientiane, and Champasak became French territories as a result of the Franco-Siamese War.
Myanmar invades Britain three times (Anglo-Burmese War), And was incorporated into a state of the British Indian Empire.
Thailand is England,FranceSuffered from the invasion of, but modernization policies such as politics and education and skillful diplomacy,Territory cededAt the cost of this, it became the only Southeast Asian country to maintain its independence and become a buffer state for Britain and France.
The establishment of such colonial rule caused a backlash from the local people, and from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the buds of nationalism were born in the Southeast Asian world, although there was a slow difference.
The reason why the name "Southeast Asia" became widely used was in 1942.AlliesIt was when the military set up the "Southeast Asian Command". There is no concept that covers the four colonies of British Burma and Malaya, French Indies, Dutch East Indies, American Philippines, and the Kingdom of Thailand, which are the areas of operation of the Japanese military, and the term "Southeast Asia" is used at this time. It was taken up. further,Pacific WarLater, it was politically formalized as the name of the Allied operational area for post-war processing. After this, it became widely used by "Southeast Asian" researchers, mainly in the United States, and eventually became commonly used... There were researchers who used the term "Southeast Asia" in Japan during the war, but in Japan before and during the war, it was often referred to as the "Southern" or "South Sea", including the current Pacific region. ..
Cooperation system of Southeast Asian countries after the establishment of ASEAN (ASEAN)
1967/In August, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. at first,Cold WarAn autonomous relationship with the structure andRegional conflictThe purpose is for a voluntary and peaceful solution (although all member states areAnti-communityWas), above all1975/ OfSaigonAs a result of overcoming the tension after the fall, it has come to the attention of the international community. After that, along with the closer economic relations against the background of the powerful economic development of each country, the framework of regional economic cooperation centered on trade, resources, technology, etc. was established (expansion of preferential system in the region, reduction of tariffs, etc.) ) Has begun to proceed.
1986/February Revolution of the Philippines,1998/ OfSuhartoThe democratization movement in Southeast Asia, which is seen in the resignation, is progressing rapidly, and Southeast Asian nations are accelerating the movement of their own political and cultural nation-building. Since the 1990s, the trend of building political populism and popular cultural nationalism has become prominent. Especially1999/By joining CambodiaASEAN10The establishment of the national territory was established and approved by both international and Southeast Asian countries. Since 1999, studies of Southeast Asian history have centered on the process of forming Southeast Asian nations.
- Sina Tibetan - Burmeseな ど
- Austronesian - Vietnamese,Khmer languageな ど
- Thai-Kadai language - タイ 語,Laoな ど
- Austronesian - Filipino,Malay,Indonesian,Tetumな ど
- Mon Mien language family - Miao,Yaoな ど
- Papuan languages --New Guinea
Works set in Southeast Asia
Excludes those created in Southeast Asian countries.
- Cook under the Ambassador(Vietnam)
- Dien Bien Fu(Vietnam)
- Burmese lyre(Myanmar)
- Rambo/Last Battlefield(Myanmar)
- Musical Southern Cross(Indonesia)
- Bengawan Solo(Indonesia)
- Lupine III Seven Days Rhapsody(Thailand)
- If you step on a land mine(Cambodia)
- ^ United Nations Statistics Division-Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)
- ^ Momoki (1996) p.30
- ^ Momoki (1996) p.2
- ^ Ikebata (1994: 3-7)
- Setsuho Ikehata (1994) "Approach to the History of Southeast Asia" Setsuho Ikehata, "The Changing History of Southeast Asia" Yamakawa Shuppansha.
- Akira Nagazumi (1977) "History of Southeast Asia New Book Oriental History (7)" Kodansha.
- Shiro Momoki (1996) "Southeast Asia as a Historical World" Yamakawa Shuppansha ISBN 978-4-63-434120-3
- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) --10 Southeast Asian countries (as of 2005) are members
- Toyo Ward --Including Southeast AsiaBiogeographic area