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🧳 | "Tiffany" reopens at Kansai International Airport T1


"Tiffany" reopened at Kansai International Airport T1

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Kansai Airports will renew "TIFFANY & CO." On October 1th in the international restricted area of ​​Terminal 10 ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

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midnight(Mayonaka) isIs the midpoint ofMasako(Shoushi),Child nightAlso called (Shiya).


midnightThe word is Late night(Shinya), Shinkou,midnight(Yahan) (The Japan Meteorological Agency defines "half night" as "about one hour, which is about 0 minutes before and after midnight."[1].. As well as), it may refer to a wide time zone deep in the night, so if you say midnight at midnight (midnight), it is undeniable to use "Masako". The antonym for Masako is "noon", the midpoint of the day.

In modern times, officially in any culture or disciplineJapanIn most cases, (the beginning of the day) is Masako (1:12 noon at night),astronomyThen oncenoon(12:XNUMX noon)JapanIt was (at astronomical time).Julian DayThis is also the reason why the day in is starting at noon.


12:0 noon (midnight)noon(Shogo.NoonAs it is called (Uma) tick, midnight at midnight (midnight)Masako(Shoshi.Child(Ne) tick). TimeZodiacThis is because when expressed by, the midpoint between sunset and sunrise is <child>, and the midpoint between sunrise and sunset is <noon> (Correspondence with XNUMX o'clock Tatsu # time).

Expression in English

The English equivalent of "midnight"midnightIs also a polysemous word, and its meaning depends on the context. In the case of "at midnight", it means Masako (12 o'clock midnight), but the midnight hours means midnight.

The midnight, when referring to Masako, is the time that was used to define the end of the day and the beginning of the next day, mainly in Western culture. This is often thought to be midnight when the day changes, but from an astronomical perspectivesunsetsunrise(夜 明 けThe middle point of) is not always 0 o'clock, and there is seasonal variation. In this section,midnightFor the concept equivalent to, distinguish these points from simple "night" and "0 o'clock".

Solar midnightIt is,MasakoAt the time of hitting(I.e. BottomIs the closest time toNightfallIs the farthest time from dawn. Of each regionTime zoneThe relationship between the time on the clock and the sunMeridianAlthough the midnight passing through is often strict, many sitesSun timeIs being calculated. This Solar midnight is not a time zonelongitudeDepends on.

From noon to Masako

The commonly used dates and times are Masako (midnight midnight)Japan(Beginning of the day).But,astronomyThen.Claudio PtolemySince its inception, the Japanese world has been set at noon (12:XNUMX noon).Astronomical time(Astronomical time) was used. This was to avoid the inconvenience of changing the date during nighttime observation.[2].. And, in contrast to this "astronomical time", the time system that is usually used when Masako starts one day was called "usual time".

Astronomical time is confusing, so it was abolished at the end of 1924.Greenwich Mean Time#Astronomical time abolitionSee. ), after 1925 January 1, in astronomyRegular useWas adopted. Therefore, there is a need for a method for distinguishing which day Masako belongs to.

Masako and noon time representation

(Detail is,Morning and afternoon(See)[3][4][5]

24-hour notationThen, simply setting "00:00" as the start of the day and "24:00" as the end of the day is sufficient. In other words, "Today's 24:00" and "Tomorrow's 00:00" are the same.

12-hour notationIt is,アルメニア,GreeceIn addition, it can be seen in English-speaking countries and South America, but it is distinguished by using the notation'noon''midday' or '12 noon' at noon and'midnight' or '24 midnight' at 00:12. There is.

On the other hand, on computers and digital clocks, Masako displays "12:00 am" and noon displays "12:00 pm". In these notations, the distinction between Masako and noon is ambiguous and unclear. In fact, it is inappropriate to use "am" or "pm" to represent 12:00. In the first place, these abbreviations area.m(Noon,before noon)Whenpost meridian(Noon,after noon). Since noon is neither before nor after, it's funny to use either abbreviation (just a slight deviation like 12:00:01 pm will give you the exact notation). Similarly, Masako is unsuitable because it is 12 hours before and 12 hours after noon (Masako itself is neither morning nor afternoonIs considered). There are the following methods to express these without misunderstanding.

  1. Use 24-hour notation (00:00, 12:00, and 24:00)
  2. Use "12 noon" and "12 midnight" ("12 midnight" is still ambiguous)
  3. Clearly indicate which two days (midnight spanning Saturday to Sunday, midnight between 2th and 12th December)
  4. Dare to use "12:01 am" or "11:59 pm"

The last methodTravel industryIs common, especially列車,airplaneUsed to avoid confusion in your schedule[6].

Incidentally,calendar Some religions use different times as the beginning of the day. For example,Hebrew calendar,Islamic calendar,Jewish calendar,Church calendarThen,日 没Time(positiveRooster.. The day starts at 18:XNUMX in the evening (Christmas Eve #OverviewSee).

manyDeveloped country,In particularNorth AmericaIn, there are many people who start the day between 2-5 o'clock. It does work beyond MasakoWorkerThere are many. ManyTV stationMokoCustomAre advertising according to.United KingdomThen, TV stationsRadio stationsRegards 6:XNUMX am as the beginning and end of the day.

Meaning in culture

In Japan, after childhoodAt 1 o'clock (3-XNUMX o'clock), the third time (between XNUMX am and XNUMX o'clock) that divides the time of the ox into four is called osan and okusankoku, and this time is considered to be the time when plants also sleep. .. At this time, the direction of Yi Tiger, which is the boundary between Yin and Yang, is set.Demon gateIt was said that it was a time when youkai and other people would easily be lazy.[7].. Also, this timeNichiren Masamune OfPedestal ServantIt's time to do.

GermanThen, Mitternacht (midnight) from 23:1 to XNUMX:XNUMX the next day was called Geisterstunde (ghost time), and it was time for the ghosts, demons, and witches to roar.

In the old magical way of thinking, midnight solar midnight, That is,solar noonIt is said to be antipodal. This separates the real world from the other worldPerigeeAnd darkApogeeIt is the axis of thought that is linked to and. Thus, midnightカ オ ス-dead-YomiThe world ofTwilightIt became to be associated with. It was also thought that the most inspirational moment was when the sacrum appeared on its own. Of course, inspiration is thought to be associated with the darkness mentioned above, and midnightsoul-幽 霊-Evil spirit-DevilWas thought to come.

It was believed that all supernatural dark creatures—though reminiscent of horrifying nocturnal carnivores—had appeared at night, maximizing their abilities at their midpoint, the midnight.SlabAccording to the folk tale, the midnight is the time when he rises from the grave to suck the blood of a person, and the time when the ruin attacks the sleeping person's breath and the devil comes to the sinner.Poland OfJewishThe gods believed that midnight was the time when demons possessing physical possession of living humans attached to the people and caused madness.

At night混沌,OriginalityTherefore, all actions summoned from another world are easiest to take at the highest point of the night. Demons and demons were supposed to respond to human summons in every region. — It is a dying wish,famine Ofcurse, Was obedience or a contract to the devil.magician-magic-black magicIt was the easiest thing to do at the time. While some are said to require complex rituals, one folk tale believed in a very simple and non-sacred way of calling the demons at the midnight intersection. Even without a reliable clock to see the time, even looking into the mirror at night was considered dangerous because the devil would look back from inside.

In addition, midnight is also the time to collect ingredients used in magic, and variousHerbsWas thought to be most effective when harvested on midnight.

ChristianFolk taleIn, Christ was born in the stable,Christmas EveChristmasThe animals are talking on the midnight between.

"Nuclear scientist bulletin''(Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists) Has announcedWorld doomsday clockIn the midnightNuclear warIs used symbolically as the time.

midnightCinderellaIt is used as a deadline for completing missions, as seen in folktales such as.


  1. ^ Term of day subdivision Meteorological Agency, a term related to time. In the "half night" column, "about 0 hour including about 30 minutes before and after midnight."
  2. ^ The beginning of the day National Observatory > Calendar > Calendar Wiki > Start of the day
  3. ^ Morning and afternoon NAOJ > Calendar > Calendar Wiki > Elements > What is a day? > Morning and afternoon
  4. ^ Question 4-1) Is 12 noon noon? Or 12:XNUMX pm? Top 5 frequently asked questions, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
  5. ^ XNUMX:XNUMX am? Midnight? (Germany) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Frequency Standards Division, February 1989, 2
  6. ^ NIST Time and Frequency FAQ(As of January 2010, 4Archive
  7. ^ Monthly Japanese, Volume 5, Issue 7-12 P41

外部 リンク

Related item


Sales(Eigyo) means to carry out business for the purpose of profit.From here, a certain act is said to be business.It is also used as a term to refer to a collection of corporate activities.Each will be described in detail below.

Sales as an act

Definition of sales

Sales as a human actProfit(In the usual senseprofitIt means to carry out business for the purpose of (in other words, acquisition of). "Running" in the case of "running a restaurant or liquor store" means "business", and "business" in the case of "business hours" often posted at the storefront also means exactly this.

As explained above, the general wisdomCommercial lawAccording to the regulations ofPerforming the same kind of actions continuously and repeatedly for the purpose of "profitable"Refers to.

  1. As a result, as long as it is for commercial purposesIf you couldn't make a profitBut it corresponds to business.
  2. Initially, as long as there is an intention to continue / repeatIf you quit onceBut it corresponds to sales[1].

For example, in the case of restaurants and liquor stores, opening a store and selling it is generally called "sales", but that is just a narrow sense of "store sales".[2]..The various acts of "running a business" in pursuit of profits as a corporation are businesses in a broad sense.

Even if the store is temporarily closed, in-house meetings, POP and leaflet production, distribution and exhibition, site production and information update, ordering work, inventory confirmation and inventory control, store cleaning, employee education , Customer support, product shipping, market research, business trips and inspections ...Doing business as a corporationIs considered[3]..The same is true even if these do not directly or indirectly bring benefits.

Classification in commercial conduct

About commercial conductCommercial lawThe business activities of "sales" can be classified as follows.

Absolute business practices
Whether it is a business or not, it is a commercial act. (Article 501 of the Commercial Code)
Commercial conduct
What is done as a business is a commercial act. (Article 502 of the Commercial Code)
Ancillary business practices
The act that a merchant does for its business is a commercial act. (Article 503 of the Commercial Code)

Furthermore, as a commercial act under the special law,Underwriting of trust,Inexhaustibleand so on.For this reason, those who engage in these acts are "merchants."In addition, if the same kind of act is repeated for the purpose of profit, it falls under business.[4].

Cases that do not correspond to sales

Occupations not applicable to sales

  • Acts of doctors, lawyers, etc. that do not fall under the above-mentioned commercial acts are not "business".The same applies to school corporations and teachers.
  • Even if a primitive producer such as agriculture, fishery, or livestock industry sells its product without having a store, it is not a "sales" because it is excluded from the concept of a merchant.
  • Since the proviso of Article 502 of the Commercial Code stipulates that "the act of a person who manufactures goods or engages in labor exclusively for the purpose of earning wages is not limited to this", acts such as office workers and internal employment are also included. Not in business[5].

Corporations that do not fall under business

In the case of corporations, private corporations can be broadly divided into "profit corporations," "public interest corporations," and "corporations other than those."

Corporation to be in business
According to the provisions of the Companies Act, a commercial corporationLtd.,Partnership company,Joint stock companyorA limited companyHowever, the act of doing the business and the act of doing it for the business are "commercial acts" (Article 5 of the Companies Act), and all are business (excluding those related to capital transactions, etc.).
Corporations other than commercial corporations and public interest corporationsRegarding, under the Stamp Tax Law, a corporation other than a company that can distribute or distribute profits or surplus in consideration of the actual situation of the business is a third party other than the investor. Businesses conducted on a person are included in sales (businesses conducted on an investor are not included in sales).
Corporation that does not become a business
Public interest group corporation corporation,Public interest incorporated foundation,Public interest corporations such as school corporationsWith regard to, even if the act of obtaining the funds necessary for the corporation to achieve its purpose corresponds to a commercial act, it does not fall under business.
In addition, the establishment was approved by the Specified Nonprofit Activity Promotion Law,Specified non-profit organization (so-called NPO corporation)Does not fall under business if the articles of incorporation stipulate that profits or surplus cannot be distributed or distributed.

Sales as a profession

Although it is a business that is carried out for commercial purposes, promoting activities such as selling some kind of product is sometimes called "sales" in particular.The person in charge"Sales" "Salesperson" "Salesman" "Salesman"And so on.In a broad sense, it refers to the department in charge of negotiations with customers (sales department).

In addition,singer(EspeciallyEnkaSinger)EntertainerIs a relatively small box office (In-store eventIn some cases it is called business. Sales in this case are mainlytv set,radioな どMass mediaIt is used to contrast with the work that is exposed to many people through.

Legal business means repeating certain actions for commercial purposes. The problem with this conceptCommercial Code Article 502It is in the interpretation of business commerce prescribed in. The actions listed in Article 502 of the Commercial Code are not repeated until they are repeatedly and continuously performed for the purpose of profit.Business practiceIs said to be.

Sales as the name of all corporate activities

Legally, sales may be used as a term that refers to overall corporate activities such as corporate assets and their operating methods, rather than individual actions. People and companiesBusiness transferThe term "sales" does not mean the act of commercial purpose itself, but rather the equipment used for corporate activities andReceivable-debtSuch asKnow-howFacts with economic value such as customer information, customer information, and suppliers (“Goodwill"Also referred to as")[6].

Business day, business hours

The day of business (ie,Days OffNon-business days) are called business days, and the time from the start of business to the end of business is called business hours.In some cases, such as financial institutions and customs business operators, laws and regulations stipulate regulations on business days and business hours.In addition, as a legal term, especiallybusinessmanFor companies that are not (if assumed), the word "sales" may be avoided and different terms may be used.

The following are available for business days.

The following items correspond to business hours.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ National Tax Agency. “Significance of sales”. Laws, etc.> Questions and Answers> Stamp Duty (National Tax Agency). https://www.nta.go.jp/law/shitsugi/inshi/19/01.htm 2021/7/10Browse. 
  2. ^ A similar example of "sales in a narrow sense" here is "sales sales".
  3. ^ Even if the general customer is notified of "closed today" or "temporarily closed", the company will be treated as a business.
  4. ^ National Tax Agency. “Significance of sales”. Laws, etc.> Questions and Answers> Stamp Duty (National Tax Agency). https://www.nta.go.jp/law/shitsugi/inshi/19/01.htm 2021/7/10Browse. 
  5. ^ National Tax Agency. “Significance of sales”. Laws, etc.> Questions and Answers> Stamp Duty (National Tax Agency). https://www.nta.go.jp/law/shitsugi/inshi/19/01.htm 2021/7/10Browse. 
  6. ^ Hiroshi Kaneko et al., “Literary Dictionary of Law (new edition)” (Yuhikaku, 1994)

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