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🧳 | Honolulu Century Challenge, an online bicycle event that rediscovers the possibilities of bicycles and travel 1…


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Honolulu Century Challenge, an online bicycle event that rediscovers the possibilities of bicycles and travel 1…

 
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At the Global Ride Event Secretariat (Minato-ku, Tokyo), online rotation to rediscover the possibilities of bicycles and travel in a fun way ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

screenshot

screenshot,Screen capture,Screen dumpIsComputer OfmonitorOr other visual outputdeviceAn image showing the whole or part of what is displayed above. For short,ScreenshotAlso called.

Overview

Most refer to the image data obtained by the OS or running software. In some cases, the screen may be directly shot by a camera (direct shot), or the video signal output from the computer may be recorded by an external recording device.

Screenshots are from the software manual (Instruction Manuals) Is used when one user needs to retrieve the entire screen or a part of the screen, such as when one user shows what is on the screen to another user.

The following four words are used as words that have almost the same meaning, but may be distinguished as follows.

  • Screenshot- BMP,PNG,JPEGData recorded on the display in a general-purpose format such as.
  • snap shot(snapshot)-Synonymous with screenshot, but it also means consistent data inside the system at a given point in time.
  • Screen dump- (English edition)Internal data temporarily acquired by (X Window Dump) etc.
  • Screen capture-Data that records changes in the screen as a movie.

History

Before the popularization of screenshots, the goodness or badness of game programs had to be determined by referring to the written features (complaints). 1970 eraSince then, screenshots have been used to introduce and promote computer games, allowing game players to imagine what they will be playing. However, there were some things that could not be judged, such as using more detailed images of higher-end models despite the low-resolution platform software. For example Commodore64 An image of the high-end model Commodore Amiga version was sometimes used as a screenshot of the game software. This is due to complaints from consumers, and the manufacturer has come to clearly indicate which version of the image.

Hobby computerWas called a "microcomputer"1980 (ShowaAround 55, it refers to printing a screenshot or a screenshot.hard copyI was calling." Originally, this term refers to the recording/reproduction of data on a computer into a physical medium that can be used by humans, such as paper, without a computer, or a printed matter etc. Copying electronic data as is is called "soft copy")[1].. Therefore, in the original sense, it can be said that printing (printing) part or all of the screen display on paper is a kind of hard copy, but not printing as image data. "Printing screen display" and "hard copy" are gradually treated as synonyms, and strictly speaking, "screen shot as image data" which is soft copy is also called hard copy. .. It should be noted that in the original English, such confusion did not occur, and the word hard copy refers to a copy output on paper etc.[2].

1990 eraThen, instead of the video drawn by the operation of the game machine, the pre-rendered video created as a video in advance by a high-performance CG workstation is used as the event scene at the turning point of the game. This video is sometimes introduced as if it were a screenshot of the operation screen, and it is confusing to the consumer due to the difference from the actual operation screen. Similarly, due to complaints from consumers, the usage of screenshots in reviews was improved, and annotations such as "screen during gameplay" were displayed.

Even today, graphical screen shots are used not only for game software, but also for download sites for various application programs, which are used as a basis for making decisions when purchasing.

Screenshots on the internet

LiveJournal ,MSN MessengerScreenshots are becoming more popular, with images associated with icons on forums relating to movie and TV shows and their fan art production being used.

In addition, game consoles and websites equipped with the function of taking and posting screenshots (Wii U,Nintendo 3DS OfMiiverse[3],PS4Shares are also established, and screenshots and video postings of games are being accepted, provided that they are "for non-profit purposes" and "clearly indicate rights".

How to take a screenshot

Mac OS X

Command key,Shift key, 3 keys at the same time (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3), you can take a screenshot of the whole screen. Also, press the Command key, Shift key, and 4 key at the same time (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4), you can take a screenshot of the specified range on the screen. After that, you can select the windows to be shot individually by pressing the space key.

The captured image is saved on the desktop,ControlIf you operate these shortcut keys while holding down the key,ClipboardStored in. These shortcuts also work on Classic OS before Mac OS X.

Microsoft Windows

⎙ PrintScreenPress the key to take a screenshot of the entire screen and store it in the clipboard. Also,SystemRequestPressing the keys, Alt and Print Screen at the same time (⎇ Other+⎙ PrintScreen), you can shoot only the current active window.

However,laptop,Tablet pcDepending on the model Fn+⎙ PrtSc,⇧ Shift+⎙ PrtSc,Ctrl+⎙ PrtSc,⊞ WinThere may be a + volume down button [4].. For screenshots taken this wayMouse pointerIs not included. Normally, it is stored in the clipboard but not saved.OSAttached topaint, Etc.

Windows XP In relation to video overlay,Windows Media Player(Confirmed Ver.11) From the video of the target screenshot⎙ PrintScreenEven if you capture using the key, the important image isBlackIt is displayed in a different image state. A simple workaround is to use another video overlay application program on your PC (eg:WinDVD There is a method in which an appropriate moving image is reproduced in advance by using () and the like and a still image of the moving image can be taken in by executing it.
In some cases, the application program itself has a function to capture still images of moving images.[5].

online gameSome of them have a function to take a screenshot by a specific operation and automatically save it as image data in a specified folder. It is not easy to use with the shooting function provided in the OS, so it is possible to automatically shoot, process and save screenshots.Utility softwareHas been created.
OneDriveThere is also a feature that automatically saves screenshots in OneDrive.

Windows Vista After that,Snipping ToolThis is a standard utility for taking screenshots, and you can easily take screenshots of specified windows and areas.DirectX Also supports Windows Media Encoder API.

Windows 8 After that,⊞ Win+⎙ PrtScYou can take a screenshot by pressing the keys at the same time. The captured image is stored in the "Screenshots" folder in the picture.PNGIt is saved in the format.

iOS

For models with a home button, you can take a screenshot by holding down the sleep button and pressing the home button, and for models without a home button, holding down the side button and pressing the volume up button.The images you take are stored in the photo app.A preview is displayed in the lower left until a certain period of time has passed after shooting or the user swipes, and you can crop or markup by tapping.

Android

AndroidOn smartphones and tablets, some versions up to version 3.0 or 2.3 allow you to shoot by pressing the power button and home button at the same time. However, this function cannot be used in some versions before 3.0/2.3. Many models after version 4.0, including those upgraded from versions 3.0 and 2.3 and below, have the power button and volume down.[6]You can shoot by pressing at the same time. However, some models do not have a combination of volume down button + power button, and there are exceptions that the manufacturer implements independently. For example, slide the navigation bar at the bottom of the screen (three icons of "Back", "Home", and "Switch applications") to display the sub-navigation bar that includes a screenshot execution button. Press buttons at the same time, etc.[7].

X Window System

X Window System The method of taking screenshots varies greatly from platform to platform, as it itself is not a desktop environment and only contains very basic programs.xwd (1) Although is the most "standard" way of taking screenshots with the X Window System, most people use other tools bundled for convenience.

  • X Window System Is a utility to dump X Window System images on a system running xwd (1) And xwd creates an XWD image. For example, to get a screenshot with a file named hoge.xwd:
$ xwd -root> hoge.xwd
  • Ksnapshot The KDE Is a standard utility that takes screenshots with. In KDE ⎙ PrintScreen Pressing a key launches KSnapshot and is set to take a screenshot of the entire screen.
  • GNOME screenshot The GNOME Is a standard utility that takes screenshots with.

Take screenshots in video

Mac OS X

QuickTime You can take a picture by starting Player and selecting "Record new screen" from the "File" menu. Note that voice cannot be recorded with this method.

iOS

iOS 11In the case of, you can shoot by adding the "Screen recording" icon to the control center in the settings and then tapping the icon. You can also add voice to the voice of the main unit with a microphone. Recordings are saved in the "Photos" app.

Other OS

None of the current major operating systems have the ability to take screenshots in video. To take a screenshot in the video,BandicamVarious application software has been developed.

Shooting by an external program

problem

Hardware overlay

Video recording on the game screen or media player may fail. This is displayed on the display by superimposing images drawn on hardware such as a graphic card (Hardware overlayBecause). Images drawn on hardware such as graphic cards cannot be extracted and saved.

However, disabling hardware overlays may be a tradeoff for performance. Most modern computers do not do hardware overlays (have no graphics card), so the operating system is designed to work properly even when hardware overlays are disabled. It is disabled by setting the slider of the hardware accelerator to "None".

DVDIn the video content recorded in,Content scramble systemIt is protected by (CSS), and the image data cannot be extracted as a screenshot by ordinary means. Also, because DVD players with satisfactory performance generally use a hardware overlay playback method, it is difficult to shoot for the reasons described above.

Save as data

Taking a screenshot of a movie is an effective method for recording and displaying a computer operation quickly and in an easy-to-understand manner. It becomes a problem.

The drawing on the display is originally 30 frames per second, but in most cases, if you just record the movement of the desktop, you do not need such a high frame rate, and processing required for movie playback by shooting at a low frame rate The speed can also be suppressed. However, the situation varies depending on the environment of each device and the processing capacity.

Copyright

Computer gamesCapture and draw manga/anime characterswallpaperTaking and publishing screenshots including, etc.CopyrightWill infringe. This is a problem that has also been advocated by The Trusted Computing Group. The group has also made it possible to prevent screenshots from being taken programmatically.

Also, since there is no fair use in Japan, even screenshots containing OS standard wallpapers and some icons are infringing.

In 2019, the Cultural Council Copyright Subcommittee pointed out that screenshots of videos and still images posted without permission are illegal[8].

In some electronic books, in order to prevent uploading and printing of images on the Internet, a dedicated viewer may be used, and the viewer may be provided with a function of suppressing screenshots.

However, even if these measures are taken, the screen shot cannot be taken in the normal procedure, and there is a possibility that it will be avoided by using some means.

Examples of shooting prevention measures

Examples of ways to prevent screenshots from being taken include:⎙ PrintScreenIt disables itself and disables shooting, and it is also installed as one of the functions of commercially available security software.

Konami 1996 (Heisei8 years)1997 Game released in (9)Tokimeki MemorialIn the collection of desktop accessories ("Glimmer Treasure Box" and 4 other works) with the theme ", the clipboard is constantly monitored at startup,⎙ PrintScreenWhen the press of is detected, the function of automatically replacing the contents of the clipboard with another image works, and it is impossible to take a screenshot.

Security

In some cases, "screenshots" are used as a means to quickly take out confidential documents that are prohibited from being taken out. In this case, for a document file that is prohibited to be taken out, printing or taking out the file may be suppressed. However, since the screenshot plays the role of "converting a document into an image", make it an "image".dropboxIt tries to get around this regulation by connecting to. In addition to such intentional means,Exposed virusScreenshots may be taken due to such factors, which may cause information leakage.Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank, which develops online banking services[9]And Mitsubishi UFJ Bank, etc. as security measures software for Internet banking that also monitors screenshots(English edition)Is recommended. Rapport monitors the screenshots, displays in a pop-up window whether the operation was intended by the user when the button is pressed, and asks the user to confirm whether the screenshot is allowed.

Examples of shooting prevention measures

footnote

  1. ^ "What is a hard copy?-- IT glossary e-Words”. Incept Co., Ltd. NovemberBrowse.
  2. ^ "hard copy-Wiktionary". NovemberBrowse.
  3. ^ The service will end on November 2017, 11.
  4. ^ Use SHIFT+PRINTSCREEN in Setup Video Problems
  5. ^ WinDVD Pro 12 Source next, Viewed May 2021, 6.
  6. ^ Below the volume is the bottom button when the terminal is viewed from the front.
  7. ^ "Screen Capture Tool Take a picture of the phone screen". NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ "New "Squash" is also illegal... Cautions for copyright infringement”(Japanese). AbemaTIMES (September 2019, 1). NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ https://www.smtb.jp/personal/blind/db/sec/rapport.html

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