Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🧳 | Emirates offers "Ice Americano" and "Affogato" on board


写真 

Emirates offers "Ice Americano" and "Affogato" on board

 
If you write the contents roughly
We offer a variety of coffees such as espresso, cappuccino and decaffeination (without decaffeination) in first class and business class.
 

Emirates offers "Ice Americano" and "Affogato" in First Class and Business Class ... → Continue reading

 TRAICY

We will deliver travel information quickly.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

business class

business class(English: Business Class) OrExecutive class(English: Executive Class) IsPassenger planeIt is a high-class guest room in the seat grade of.最上級客室に当たるCorresponds to the highest-class guest roomfirst class(F) and standard guest roomEconomy classIt is positioned between (Y).航空券の略号印字はThe abbreviation of the ticket is printedC..当時アメリカを代表する航空会社だったIt was the leading airline in the United States at that timePan American AirlinesFirst introduced Business Class, "Clipper Class (CThe theory that it was called "lipper Class)" is influential[1].ClipperIs a fast sailing ship of Pan Amcallsignwas.

Overview

Introduction

1970 eraHigh-end cabins for many international airliners up to the mid-termfirst classAnd standard guest roomEconomy classThere were only two types of classes. 2年代前半のEarly 1970sBoeing 747Due to the popularization of overseas travel due to the introduction of large aircraft such as molds, various discount fares such as "group discount fares" were introduced in economy class at that time.AmericaOn behalf ofAirlinesMetPan American AirlinesHowever, customers who board economy class at regular rates (mainly used for business trips)Company customer), As a dedicated service, installation of a dedicated compartment and expansion of seat size,In-flight meal"Clipper class』(Clipper Class) is said to have been introduced as an intermediate class.[2]..略号が「B(=Business)」ではなく「C(=Clipper)」なのもこのためであるThis is why the abbreviation is "C (= Clipper)" instead of "B (= Business)".[2].

Expansion

Then from the mid-1970s1980 eraOverBritish Airways,Japan Airlines[3],Air France,Singapore AirlinesCompetitors from all over the world have also introduced business class or intermediate class, which is the prototype of business class.

At the time of introduction, the mainstream services were to enhance in-flight meals and increase the baggage limit by about 10 kg, in addition to the slightly wider seat size and seat pitch compared to economy class. Since many passengers board at regular fares instead of group discount fares, and basically they can expect high profits because they rarely offer large discounts, each company will make the most effort to enhance its services. It became an existence to enter.

As a result, service competition between airlines has intensified.1990 eraOnce in, many airlines began to refurbish their seats and review their services once every three to five years.Carriers who entered long-haul international flights around this time often significantly strengthened their services due to poor conditions for latecomers.Virgin AtlanticImproves ground services in business class without installing first class from the beginningAll Nippon AirwaysThe number of companies introducing more challenging services such as the introduction of "Super Executive Class" by arranging 747 rows of business class seats, which was the mainstream in the Boeing 8 at that time (7 rows at the time of the final flight), has increased. ..

In the late 90's, American airlines expanded their business class seating intervals one after another, followed by Japan Airlines.

Now

The full-flat seats (2000 ° reclining, perfectly parallel to the floor) introduced by British Airways in 180 for long-haul routes have revolutionized business-class seats.The company's full flat seats were also innovative because the two adjacent seats were placed upside down.Then, starting with rival Virgin Atlantic Airlines, Liferat seats (seats that recline 2 ° but are not completely parallel to the floor) were introduced, and instead of narrowing the seat pitch a little, the width was increased.

After that, similar flat seats and life rat seats were released by Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways.Singapore AirlinesNowadays, full-flat seats (the above-mentioned front-to-back relative arrangement or diagonally oriented seats when bed is used are the mainstream, and full-flat seats facing directly in front areSouth African Airways(Limited to a small part) or life rat seats are the mainstream.

Recently, with the enhancement of business class services, not only has the number of first class routes reduced, but alsoVirgin Atlantic,Continental AirlinesMany airlines abolish first class.

For domestic and short-distance international flights

In the case of domestic flights and short-distance international flights within the region, many airlines have a two-class system of business class and economy class, or first class and economy class, but on short-distance international flights in Europe and the United States, it is on par with business class. Despite the service and seats, it is often referred to as "first class", probably because of the remnants of the two-class era.

Short-distance international flights

For medium- and short-haul international flights with few night flights, seats with a maximum reclining angle of 130 to 150 degrees are often used instead of the flat seats that are often used on long-haul flights, but Japan Airlines' Jakarta line and Singapore In some cases, such as the line (1 hour time difference from Japan) and the New Delhi line (3 and a half hours), flat seats are used despite the intra-regional medium-distance line with a flight time of about 6-8 hours. is there.In addition, some aircraft on the company's Beijing, Hong Kong, and Bangkok routes, and short-haul international flights with a flight time of about 2-3 hours, such as Delta's Narita-Hong Kong route, have also been introduced.多くは長距離路線のMany are on long-haul routesOperationThere are many cases.

Domestic flights

JapanOn domestic flights, each company has been "" since the 1980s.Super seatWas introduced, but it could be classified as one of the intermediate classes based on the service content.However, it is treated as first class on the face of the ticket.

By the way, onceJapan Air SystemIt is,Boeing 777In the advanced guest room "Super seat, The lower class "economy seat" and the middle class "Rainbow seatIt is very popular because it has a three-class system and can be used for an additional 3 yen to the economy fee.After the merger with Japan Airlines, both "Super Seat" and "Rainbow Seat" were operated as "Class J" (there is no difference in service).Currently, the repair of all aircraft has been completed, and the seats from the beginning have disappeared.

Japan Airlines' "Class J" was developed based on the concept of this rainbow seat, and is an intermediate class seat that can be used for an additional charge of 1000 yen, the same as the seat.However, the abolition of the larger super seats allowed senior business passengers to escape to ANA, and the company has the largest leather seats on domestic flights and in-flight meals in partnership with famous restaurants and restaurants. With the introduction of "First Class" in December 2007, which provides in-flight services such as meals, lounges and dedicated counters, and airport services such as priority gates and priority boarding, there are 12 regular seats, intermediate seats, and advanced seats. It is a class.

All Nippon Airways continued to introduce super seats, but as Japan Airlines changed its concept to cheaper class J, Super Seat Premium, which aims for a higher quality, and after the introduction of Japan Airlines' first class, "Premium classHowever, due to these changes in content, the service content is being transformed into a type of senior seat.Skymark (the proper name is "Cygnus class"), which was the last to introduce super seats in Japan, later abolished these classes.It mentions the possibility of increasing the number of large aircraft deployed in multiple classes with the entry of international flights, but it is unclear whether it will be introduced on domestic flights as well.


Designation

As shown below, the names of the intermediate classes differ depending on the airline, but these intermediate classes are collectively referred to.business classorExecutive classIt is often called by the name of.

In addition, in the description on the ticket, the business class is "CIs written as "Clipper Class" of Pan Am Airlines (CThe theory that the acronym of lipper Class) was used as it is[2]And "Club Class" (CThere is a theory that it is an acronym for lub Class) (however, in addition to C class, alphabets such as J, I, Z, and D are also business class notations).

Service contents

Due to intensifying service competition in recent years, some airlines have enhanced airport lounges and in-flight massages.HigherMany airlines are trying to further strengthen their services, such as introducing a pick-up service at.Regarding in-flight services such as in-flight meals and seats, there are many cases where there is a difference between long-haul routes and short- and medium-distance routes.

On the ground

Pick-up, baggage delivery

  • Private transfer from city to airportHigherOffering such as
    • Many airlines are between the airport and the city centerHigherOffers free transportation by.
  • Free baggage delivery service between your home (or hotel) and the airport

Inside the airport

  • Use of dedicated check-in counter
  • designatedSecurity gateの 使用
  • Relaxed baggage weight restrictions
  • A tag that gives priority to receiving baggage upon arrival
    • You can receive baggage next to first class
  • Departure / transit airport dedicatedLoungeCan be used
    • You can use your own lounge or a lounge operated by a partner airline or airport company
  • Priority boarding information on board
    • You will be guided after the first class or at the same time as the first class.However, this also means the hard operation that the current airplane has the center of gravity in front.In other words, the aircraft is usually parked with one front landing gear and four main landing gears (front wheels), and since there is no tail wheel, depending on the model, if you board from the rear seat with economy class, the front wheels will rise. The tail of the fuselage may reach the ground.
  • Mileage serviceExtra mileage accrual

In-flight

Even on board, it's more advanced than economy classServicesWill be provided.

  • slipper,Eye mask,make upDedicated for tools, shavings, toothpaste sets, etc.Amenity setOffer of.
  • Providing a welcome drink (drink service before takeoff).
  • In-flight mealAlso, special meals are offered.
    • Ceramics and glass are often used as the material for tableware, not plastic or paper.
    • In-flight meals on long-haul routesServicesHas improved significantly,RestaurantsAs large asTablewareServe one plate at a time.AppetizerからDessertThe service takes time, and you can choose from 3 to 5 main dishes, and sometimes you can also choose an appetizer.
    • On medium-distance routes, except for some airlines, there is a one-tray service (one tray provides all the main dishes from the appetizer) or a mini-course service (only the appetizer and main dish are separated), but there are about three types of main dishes. You can choose from.In addition, as with long-haul routes, desert wagon services may be provided.
    • Most in-flight meals are one-tray services on short-haul routes, but there are also cases of mini-course services.Depending on the flight time, it may not be served or cold meal (unheated meal) may be served.

Another characteristic of in-flight meals is that for flights to and from Japan, even foreign airlinesJapaneseCan be selected, or for flights to / from South KoreaGochujangAccording to the food culture of the country of departure and arrival, such asCuisineIs often provided.中東のMiddle eastIslamStandards for companies in each countryIslamOften cooked.特殊な事情のある利用者向けには、事前に申し込めばビジネスクラス専用のイスラムやFor users with special circumstances, if you apply in advance, Islam for business classHindu, Kosher, etc.VegSpecial meals such as low calorie and allergy treatment are also offered.

  • Depending on the airline and flight route,Cup Noodle,rice ball,sandwichLight meals such ascake,ice creamThere are also free services such as.
  • On many airlines, such as on long-haul routesbarCorners etc. are provided.
  • Alcoholic beverages will be provided free of charge (Cheap airline,United airlines,Delta AirlinesFor example, alcoholic beverages are provided for a fee in economy class even on international flights).
  • Wide choice of wine list, even if alcohol is free in economy classsparkling winenotChampagneHigh-quality alcoholic beverages are offered compared to economy class, such as the provision of brandy and liqueurs after meals.
  • lavatoryDifferentiation.The equipment is different from the economy class, and some companies have hand towels and amenities.
  • The seat isaviationAlthough it depends on the company and route, a large dedicated seat with a reclining angle of 130-180 degrees and an on-demand 9-23 inch personal monitor will be prepared.座席によっては、電動/油圧アシストやDepending on the seat, electric / hydraulic assist orMassageEquipped with functions.The average seat front-to-back spacing (seat pitch) is 110cmAbout 190 cm and 78 cm-85 cm are standardEconomy classWider thanJapanRailroad carGreen carThe distance between the front and back of the seat is 105 to 130 cm).In addition, the business class of many airlines on routes within Europe isEconomy classThe next seat is only used as a table, not much different from the seat in.
    • As an example of seat pitch and monitor,
China Southern Airlines"Business class" seats (short, medium and long distance routes) are 109 cm / monitor 9 inches[4]
All Nippon Airways"ANA BUSINESS CRADLE" seat (short, medium and long distance routes) is 150 cm / monitor 12.1 inches[5]
Japan Airlines"JAL Sky Recliner" sheet (short, medium and long distance routes) is 130 cm / monitor 10.6 inches[6]
China Airline"Dynasty class" seat (short, medium and long distance routes) is 132 cm / monitor 10.4 inches[7]
Singapore Airlines"Business Class" seats (for long-haul routesA380,A340-500, 777-300ER) is 140 cm / monitor 15.4 inches[8]
Singapore Airlines"Business Class" seats (for medium and long haul routesA330-300(Installed in) is 152 cm / monitor 15.4 inches[9]
Delta Airlines"Business Elite" (long-haul route) is 152 cm / monitor 10.4 inches[10]
Etihad Airways"Pearl Business Class" seat (long-haul route) is 185 cm / monitor 23 inches[11]
British Airways"Club World" seat (long-distance route) is 187 cm / monitor 10.4 inches[12]
Japan Airlines"JAL Business Class" seat (long-distance route) is 188 cm / monitor 23 inches[13]
Virgin Atlantic"Upper class" seat (long-distance route) is 202 cm / monitor 10.4 inches[14]

For short- and medium-distance seats, the mainstream is a larger economy class seat with a larger reclining angle, or a longer-distance business class seat with a smaller reclining angle.

In recent years, the following are the mainstream outlines of long-distance line business class seats.Basically, compared to first class full flat seats, there are many methods to save space at the expense of seat pitch and seat layout.

seat

Normal seat

It is a seat adopted by business class in the early days, and there is no difference from the economy except for the seat width and seat pitch.There are disadvantages that some seats are difficult to get out of the aisle due to layout reasons and that the seats do not become flat even if they are tilted down, but there is an advantage that space efficiency is good because there is no need to make the seat pitch extremely wide. is there.For this reason, long-distance lines where comfort is important have been shifted to flat seats, but they are still used on short-distance lines where sleep is not important.

ANA, which is the top seat on domestic flightsPremium class, JALfirst classIs also of this type, and when used as an alternative to short-haul international flights, it is used as business class.

Rye flat sheet

The seat itself is a flat seat from the top of the head to the toes, but the seat and the floor are not completely parallel, and the foot side is slightly lower. 2000年にIn XNUMXVirgin AtlanticIt was the first to be introduced by the airline, and since then it has been adopted mainly by long-distance line seats by airlines around the world.

While it is possible to extend to the toes and sleep, it is placed diagonally to the aisle so that it sinks under the seat in front, so there is no need to earn much seat pitch (complete). The seat length is just over 180 cm when stretched out, while the seat pitch is just over 150 cm), allowing more seats to be placed on a fully flat seat.On the other hand, because it is not completely parallel to the floor, it may feel like it slides down slightly during sleep, or the toes may feel cramped.LufthansaThen, in order to prevent this, the seat is refracted in an S shape, and the lumbar region is parallel to the floor surface to achieve a sense of stability.The seat arrangement itself is the same as the above-mentioned normal seat except for small differences such as reclining function, and the disadvantage is that not all seats can go directly to the aisle.

Japan Airlines andAir FranceIn most cases, the seats are reclining toward the front, including those of All Nippon Airways, but Delta Air Lines andKLM Royal Dutch AirlinesIn the seats of some of the equipment, the style is such that it collapses slightly to the rear like the previous seats.

2000 eraIt is the main seat in the business class of the aircraft manufacturer in recent years.Mock upIt is also adopted in.Even in Japan2000 All Nippon Airways2002 Introduced by Japan AirlinesGovernment machineThe attendant seats have also introduced this type of seat.But,2010 eraMany companies have shifted to fully flattened next-generation seats so that they can spend more comfortably, and have become a minor seat for long-haul flights where comfort is of high importance.最も、このタイプを改良することでより快適にしているものの開発も進んでいることから、近距離向けとして依然このタイプのものを継続して採用する会社も存在し、特に拡大しつつあるMost of all, since the development of what makes this type more comfortable by improving it is progressing, there are still companies that continue to adopt this type for short distances, and it is expanding in particular.LCCIn some places, this type of seat is introduced in the senior audience seats as a differentiation from other companies.

Full flat sheet (front and back relative type)

In 1999British AirwaysAppeared in, thenUnited airlinesIt is adopted in such as.In the method of arranging the seats facing the nose in front of and behind the seats, left and right, etc., the narrow feet and the wide crown, or the narrow feet are next to each other, so the space of the feet should be turned to another part. It is easy to take a wide space withBoeing 747It has become possible to increase the number of rows from 7 rows to 8 rows.

This creates a margin in the number of seats, realizes a seat length of over 180 cm, and realizes a completely full flat seat.In addition, there is an advantage that all seats can go directly to the aisle.On the other hand, depending on the layout, the width of the seat tends to be cramped, half of the seats have to be rear-facing seats, which is not the mainstream in general aircraft, and the rear-facing seats are harder to fill than the general front-facing seats. It has the drawback of.

There are no examples of introduction in Japan until the appearance of the new seat "The Room", which is almost a private room for ANA, probably because half of them have a backward layout.By the way, in "The Room", the part where the legs of the facing seats fit in when fully flat is used as a side table, and when using it as a seat, by securing a sufficient width for two people, it becomes the first class "THE Suite". It is as comfortable as it is.

In 2018Qatar AirwaysThe "Qsuite" introduced by the company is an almost private room specification seat with a door, and because it uses a movable partition, it becomes a double bed if the partition is moved, and the central 4 seats become a quad design for 4 people. Sheet,Sky traxWon first place in the world in the company's business class category.

It is the first seat in the world to achieve full flatness in business class, but due to the above problems, it is behind the herringbone type and staggered type, and British Airways' new business seat is this type. It has not yet escaped from the minority, such as disappearing.

Full flat sheet (herringbone type)

A method of arranging seats diagonally to the aisle.The slanted orientation significantly reduces the seat pitch, allows for a very large amount of space on the crown, and allows all seats to go directly into the aisle.However, the disadvantages are that all seats are diagonally oriented and there are no adjacent seats, and that dead space may increase.By the way, there are many types of seats that are used by tilting the seat when seated and exposing the sleeping surface on the opposite side.

Virgin AtlanticWas first adopted in 2006.After thatAir New ZealandThe adoption is progressing mainly in such cases. Since the latter half of the 2000s, it has become one of the mainstream new business class seats that will replace the Life Rat seat, but since the 1s it has been staggered.On the other hand, since 2010, Japan Airlines has adopted it in parallel with the staggered type, and depending on the model, the legs of adjacent seats are staggered up and down to make effective use of space.因みに、2016年に就航予定の日本航空系LCCのBy the way, Japan Airlines LCC scheduled to enter service in 2020ZIPAIRHowever, although it is simpler than the parent company's equivalent (such as omitting individual displays), it is adopted as a seat equivalent to business class.

The layout initially adopted by Virgin Atlantic Airlines was to turn the legs toward the aisle, but due to the difficulty in viewing, the reverse herringbone with the head facing the aisle became the mainstream of the herringbone layout. At the time of the renewal, Virgin Atlantic also introduced a specification in which the aisle side remains the same and only the window side is changed to reverse herringbone.

Full flat sheet (wide type)

Singapore AirlinesIt is used in some equipment, and the width is widened to improve the comfort when seated, but the height is narrower than other seats.Due to the wide width, the 1-2-1 arrangement allows you to go directly to the aisle from all seats.On the other hand, in order to maintain a certain number of seats, the crown of the front seat and the foot of the rear seat take up half the space during sleep to fill the pitch.Therefore, during sleep, the sleep is diagonally oriented as above, but it is more vertically oriented with respect to the nose than the herringbone type.

Full flat sheet (normal placement type)

As in the first class, the seat pitch is simply extended to a full flat system while maintaining the normal type seating arrangement as before.Unlike the three types in the previous section, there is no sacrifice in space and layout for each seat, but the number of seats is very small by not omitting the space, so for now it is limited to large aircraft. ..It has the demerit that some seats cannot go directly to the aisle because it is not an irregular arrangement, and it has the merit that it is convenient for couples because the seats are adjacent to each other.

South African AirwaysHowever, other companies that were concerned about the decrease in the number of seats had adopted one of the methods described in the previous section, but each company adopted flat seats and there was a big difference in service. What's gone, super-large aircraftA380Has been in serviceAir France,Korean AirHas been adopted in new seats since 2010.In addition, Japan Airlines has adopted it in a form that mixes it with the staggered type (window side staggered type, central normal arrangement type), and both personal use and couple use are compatible.

Full flat sheet (staggered type)

In a staggered sense, the seats are staggered by half in each column.Also, when viewed in a column, there is a space of several tens of centimeters between the head of the front customer and the toes of the back customer, and this space can be used as a side table by the customers in the next row or to the aisle. It is used for the exit.Therefore, the occupied space per customer looks like a katakana "to".Thanks to this side space, the 1-2-4 arrangement allows any seat to enter the aisle, and a high partition can be placed between all seats to protect privacy.

A feature of this layout is that the feet of the front row seats and the heads of the back row seats are adjacent to each other, making it easier to arrange more seats than regular seats of the same size.However, it should be noted that this advantage is a comparison with full flat seats with the same comfort, and the number of seats may be reduced if the seats are changed as part of the upgrade of the seats.By the way, the window side is completely staggered, but the layout of the central part has the feature that the central part can be output from either the left or right in the case of the 2-3-2 arrangement, and the business use in the case of the 2-4-2 arrangement. In the case of mainstream, the layout is completely staggered to prioritize independence, and in the case of mainstream tourism, the layout is adjacent to each other to accommodate couples such as couples.In addition, some airlines, such as Japan Airlines, have installed partitions that can be opened and closed between adjacent seats to achieve both independence and couple use.

Emirates AirlinesWas first adopted for long-haul routes, and then other companies have made transitions from other seats, making it one of the mainstream in the 2010s.In Japan, it was adopted by All Nippon Airways in 1 and by Japan Airlines in 2010, and has become the new business class standard for Japanese airlines to replace the Life Rat Seat.

Customer base

  • Many business travelers and high-income earners use it for sightseeing.なお、エコノミークラスほどではないが、時期や便によっては割引Not as much as economy class, but discounted depending on the season and flightAirline ticketIs also on sale.You can also upgrade from the economy based on the number of miles you have accumulated through mileage service.In addition, some group (package) tours use business class, and some can be changed (upgraded) to business class at an additional charge.
  • Economy classOverbookingAs a result of (insufficient seats due to overbooking), you may be sent to business class.これはthis isInvoluntary upgradeIt is called (Involuntary Upgrade) and is often targeted mainly at passengers who are good at it (such as senior mileage members at the company).In this case, seats and in-flight services will be in business class, but other services normally associated with business class (Airport loungeUse, etc.) does not apply.
  • Similar to the above, it is a special case, but if the economy class is full of tourists but there are many vacant spaces in the business class, the economy class passengers who paid the normal fare (or tickets with a low discount rate) (Economy class passengers) may be sent to business class.It is provided as an optional service of airline companies, but in recent years, airline schedule optimization for cost efficiency has progressed, and it has become less common.

Fourth class

Premium economy class

As a result of the enhancement of various business class services as described above, the service content of business class and economy class (and the business class fare and economy class regular fare and economy class discounted fare) has become too different. ,Virgin AtlanticBeginning with (1992), each company introduced it on medium- and long-haul flights.

There are various types of fares, from those that can only be used with regular economy fares or similar fares, to those that can be used even with discounted fares by paying a slight difference.

Regarding seats, from those that develop dedicated seats such as Japan Airlines and British Airways and offer them in a dedicated compartment, those that divert old business class seats, to United Airlines and Scandinavian Airlines. In addition, there are various services depending on the airline, such as those that are differentiated from economy class by simply widening the front-rear distance with seats equivalent to economy class.In most cases, the front-rear width of the seat is around 100 cm.In addition, some business-focused routes are only available in business class and premium economy class (eg Singapore Airlines and some ANA routes).

In-flight meals are often equivalent to economy class,ChampagneMany companies make a difference by offering food and light meals.また、空港ラウンジの使用や特設カウンターの提供、機内アメニティの提供を行なうケースもあるIn some cases, airport lounges are used, special counters are provided, and in-flight amenities are provided.[15].

More than 10 years have passed since its introduction, and at first it was only a difference in seats like the early business class, but the seat width was expanded, the seat spacing was expanded, the soft service was expanded, and finally the seat arrangement was like Air New Zealand. The service aspect is expanding year by year as in the former business class, such as making major changes to itself and arranging all seats so that they are on the aisle or window side.

Premium economy-equipped flight operators (some)

Transportation other than aviation

There are also examples of using the name "business class" on railroads and buses.

Train

In EuropeSecond class carSecond class carThere are many examples of adoption as a high-class service in Asia and North America.

TaiwanInTaiwan High Speed ​​Rail Of700T typeIn JapanGreen carA Chinese translation of business class for a considerable number of roomsCommercial vehicleIn addition to calling it (2 + 2 array)Taiwan Railway Management BureauCruising train "Asterisk"Is operated as a commercial seat for all seats.ChugokuButHigh speed trainThe highest class of 1 + 1 arrangement above the 2st class seat is called the business seat.Also,Beijing Subway Daoxing Machine Line,Shenzhen Subway Line 11Business class is also linked to.

Also in North America米 国Amtrak OfAcela ExpressThe business class (2 + 2 arrangement) is adopted as the grade next to the first class.カナダVIA Rail(English edition)But there are similar services.

bus

Taiwan highway bus operatorHexin passenger transport,ArachonIs developing a 1 + 1 array of commercial services.The names of Ho-Hsin Bus Traffic are different from those of "Platinum Class" and "First Class Business Class", and those of Aloha Bus are "President's Seat". It has become established as a distinction from competing competitors and railways.

Source/Footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Related item

Decaf

Decaf(English: decaf / díːkæ̀f / (decaffeinated), an abbreviation for decaffeinated, "decaffeinated"French: dé caféination /de.ka.fe.i.na.sjɔ̃/caffeineCaffeine is removed from foods and drinks that contain caffeine, or caffeine is not added to foods and drinks that normally contain caffeine.Decaffeination,Caffeine-less,Caffeine freeAlso called.

Especially when you just call it "decaf"Caffeineless coffeeOften refers to (described later).However, other drinks containing caffeine (tea,ColaEtc.) are also manufactured in Decaf.

Caffeineless coffee

Caffeineless coffeeWas decaffeinatedcoffee(Beans, extract,Instant coffee).Often referred to simply as "decaf".In Europe and the United States, decaffeinated coffee is widely accepted by people who want to avoid decaffeination for health reasons, and decaffeinated coffee occupies about 10% of the world coffee market.[1]..However, caffeine-less coffee currently produced is inevitably lost in ingredients other than caffeine during the manufacturing process, and is inferior to ordinary coffee in terms of taste and aroma, so except when you want to avoid caffeine intake. It is rarely selected.

EuropeThere is a certain standard for decaffeination, and the name decaffeination cannot be used except for coffee beans with a caffeine content of 0.2% or less (0.3% or less for instant coffee).Western-derived products are also imported into Japan, but their demand is low and there is no regulation on caffeine content.

The invention of decaffeination also made it possible to clarify the role of caffeine in coffee.For example, caffeine is not the only bitter ingredient in coffee, and various types of coffeePharmacologyAs for the actionCentral nervous systemCompare caffeine-less coffee with regular coffee because the excitatory effect is largely due to caffeine, and some other effects (such as intestinal peristalsis promoting effect) are due to ingredients other than caffeine. It has been clarified from the experiments conducted.

The manufacturing method is roughly divided into removing caffeine from the refined green coffee beans.Caffeine removal methodAnd does not contain caffeine from the beginningCaffeineless coffee treeThere are two approaches to the method of making.However, as of 2, the latter method is still under development and has not been put into practical use.

Caffeine removal method

This is a method of removing caffeine from refined raw beans.In principle, raw beansOrganic solvent-Wed-Supercritical fluidCaffeine is selectively extracted by immersing it in a solvent such as carbon dioxide.Basically, it is extracted by utilizing the property that caffeine is relatively fat-soluble, and even in the case of the water extraction method, only caffeine is selectively extracted from the components once extracted in water. The method of removal is adopted.The extracted caffeine is purified and used for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes.

The decaffeination method was the first decaffeinated manufacturing method to be developed, and an alternative method has not yet been put into practical use.However, although various decaffeination methods have been devised, there is a limit to the selectivity of caffeine extraction, and loss of other water-soluble and fat-soluble components is unavoidable.In particular, the loss of a large amount of aroma components has been regarded as a problem.

Organic solvent extraction

Organic solventIt is called extraction, or chemical method, chemical process. The world's first decaffeination method, developed in Germany in 1906, is also organic solvent extraction.

Raw coffee beans swollen with steam are filled in an extraction tank, and caffeine is extracted through an organic solvent.In the presence of sufficient water, the components are distributed between the water and the organic solvent, but caffeine is relatively hydrophobic, so it is selectively distributed to the organic solvent side. It is used for extraction and removal.

The solvent used is

  1. Being able to extract enough caffeine
  2. Low loss of water-soluble components other than caffeine
  3. Easy solvent removal after extraction
  4. Do not chemically react with caffeine or other molecules during extraction

Is required, it is required to be a solvent to satisfy the conditions 1 and 2, and it is required to have a low boiling point for the condition 3.Previously, as a condition for this conditionbenzene(Boiling point 80.1 ℃),Chloroform(61-62 ℃),Trichlorethylene(86.7 ° C) was used, but since the possibility of these organic solvents remaining was regarded as a problem, it is now used as a non-polar solvent with a lower boiling point.Dichloromethane(39.75 ° C) is often used.

Although it is an inexpensive method, it has the disadvantages that it is inferior in flavor due to the large loss of components other than caffeine, and that consumers tend to have safety concerns because the organic solvent is brought into direct contact with the raw beans.

Water extraction

It is called the Swiss water method because of the name of water extraction, water method, water process, or more specific method. It was developed in 1941 and was patented in the United States in 1943, the following year.

Caffeine is extracted together with the water-soluble components by passing water through a tank filled with green coffee beans, and then caffeine is extracted and removed from the extracted aqueous phase with an organic solvent.After removing the caffeine, the aqueous phase is circulated to the raw bean tank again after removing the residual organic solvent, and the water-soluble components other than caffeine not extracted by the organic solvent are returned to the raw beans again. It is a mechanism.

This method has the following advantages.

  1. Safety is improved because the organic solvent does not come into direct contact with raw beans.
  2. Since it is extracted with an organic solvent only from the components extracted with water, it is a two-step selection, and the loss of components other than caffeine can be suppressed.
  3. It is economical because the organic solvent used can be easily recovered.

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

Supercritical carbon dioxide extractionSupercritical fluidIn the state ofcarbon dioxideExtracts caffeine with.Applying to decaffeination was developed in 1974 and is a relatively new method.

The substance is usuallygas,liquid,solid OfThree statesHowever, by applying a certain pressure and temperature, it becomes a state called supercritical fluid that has both gas and liquid properties.Since this supercritical fluid has both the diffusivity of gas and the solubility of liquid, it is excellent in both permeability to the inside of coffee beans and extraction efficiency of components.Further, by changing the temperature and pressure conditions, it is possible to select the conditions suitable for the extraction of various hydrophilic to hydrophobic components.

Carbon dioxide becomes supercritical carbon dioxide at 31.1 ° C or higher and 73.8 atm or higher.This condition is closer to normal temperature and pressure than other substances (for example, 374 ° C or higher and 220 atm or higher in water), and its formation is relatively easy, and it causes a chemical reaction with other substances even in the supercritical state. It has the property of being difficult (supercritical water is extremely reactive).In addition, it is extremely easy to remove carbon dioxide by returning it to normal temperature and pressure after extraction, and even if it remains, it is not necessary to consider its toxicity, there is no need for waste liquid treatment, and combustion like an organic solvent. It is said to be an extremely excellent decaffeination method that compensates for the shortcomings of the organic solvent extraction method in various respects, such as the fact that it has no properties and does not require the worry of fire.

Various pressure, temperature and bean wetting methods have been devised for efficient extraction and removal of caffeine.As selective extraction, the optimum conditions such as swelling raw beans with steam as a pretreatment to adjust the water content and the conditions of 150 to 180 ° C and 120 to 180 atm are being studied.

Caffeineless coffee tree

Since the loss of flavor is regarded as a problem in the decaffeination method, as an alternative method, caffeine is not included from the beginning.Coffee treeAttempts have been made to breed.Caffeine-less coffee has a large market in Europe and the United States, so it is attracting attention from the bio-venture business side as well.

In 2004,Genetic recombinationBy artificial mating that uses the method ofbreedingIn two cases, we have succeeded in producing decaffeinated coffee tree.However, there are still many issues to be solved and it has not been put into practical use.

gene recombination

Genetically modified caffeine-less coffee tree was launched in 2003Nara Institute of Science and TechnologyFirst created by a group of professors[2]..Designed to suppress the expression essential for caffeine biosynthesis using genetic engineering techniquessiRNA,AgrobacteriumFor coffee treesGene transferBy doing so, the synthesis of caffeine and its precursors, methylxanthines, was suppressed.

One of the reasons that made this achievement possible is that the identification of the gene for caffeine synthase was finally successful.Although the existence of enzyme activity was known for caffeine synthase, cloning was difficult due to the difficulty of isolation.This caffeine synthaseOchamizu UniversityAshihara et al.'S group isolated from tea for the first time in the world in 2001.[3]After that, Sano et al. Succeeded in isolation from coffee trees.[4]..Only with the gene sequence obtained at this time was this research possible.

However, the coffee tree used at this time is a Robusta coffee that is inferior in commercial value (Coffea canephora) Met.In addition, although the caffeine content was reported to be lower than usual, the total amount was only reduced to about one-third, which did not reach the standard value for decaffeination in Europe and the United States.

breeding

Attempts to make decaffeinated coffee trees by breeding as usual have been made for a long time, but there have been few successful cases.However, in 2004, a research group of Fazuori et al. In Brazil reported that they succeeded in producing a variety with an extremely low caffeine content of 1987% (in the dry weight of raw beans) by breeding that had been continued since 0.076.[1].

This varietyArabicaMundo Novo (a variety of seeds with high commercial value)C. arabica It is attracting attention because it originates from'Mundo Novo') and meets the decaffeination standards of Europe and the United States, but although the amount of caffeine is actually small, it is a biosynthetic intermediate immediately before that.TheobromineIs accumulating more than usual.

History

  • 1819 GermanFriedlieb Ferdinand RungeIsolates caffeine from coffee
  • 1903 Germany devises decaffeination technology
  • 1941 Berry and Walters develop water extraction method
  • 1974 Development of caffeine extraction method using supercritical carbon dioxide
  • 1978 Industrialization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at HAG, West Germany
  • 2000 Ashihara et al. Identify gene for caffeine synthase in cha[3]
  • 2001 Sano et al. Identify gene for caffeine synthase in coffee tree[4]
  • 2003 Sano et al. Succeeded in producing decaffeinated coffee tree using genetic recombination technology[2]
  • 2004 Succeeded in breeding arabica coffee tree with low caffeine content in Brazil[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Maria B. Silvarolla; Paulo Mazzafera and Luiz C. Fazuoli (2004). “Plant biochemistry: a naturally decaffeinated arabica coffee.”. Nature 429: 826. two:10.1038 / 429826a. PMID 15215853. 
  2. ^ a b Shinjiro Ogita; Hirotaka Uefuji, Yube Yamaguchi, Nozomu Koizumi and Hiroshi Sano (2003). “RNA interference: Producing decaffeinated coffee plants.”. Nature 423: 823. two:10.1038 / 423823a. PMID 12815419. 
  3. ^ a b Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno, Alan Crozier, Tatsuhito Fujimura and Hiroshi Ashihara (2000). “Plant biotechnology: Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves.”. Nature 406: 956-957. two:10.1038/35023072. PMID 10984041. 
  4. ^ a b Mikihiro Ogawa; Yuka Herai, Nozomu Koizumi, Tomonobu Kusano and Hiroshi Sano (2001). “7-Methylxanthine methyltransferase of coffee plants. Gene isolation and encoder properties.”. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 8213-8218. two:10.1074 / jbc.M009480200. PMID 11108716. 

Related item


 

Back to Top
Close