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🧳 | Limited to the main store of "Sils Maria", the origin of raw chocolate!Blissful parfait meal [Yokohama]


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Limited to the main store of "Sils Maria", the origin of raw chocolate!Blissful parfait meal [Yokohama]

 
If you write the contents roughly
Drinks include cacao tea made from cacao beans, hot chocolate, tea and coffee.
 

Yokohama Bashamichi area dotted with gas lights and history museums.In an exotic city, the store where raw chocolate originated, "Shi ... → Continue reading

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Cacao

Cacao(Kakaa・ Ke Kea[2],West: cacao,scientific name: Theobroma cacao) IsMallow family(Cronquist system,New Engler systemThen.Sterculiaceae)ofevergreenIs.Also called cacao tree or cocoa tree.学名のScientific name Theobroma TheGreek languageso"神 (theos) food (broma) "[3].チ ョ コ レ ー ト,cocoaIt is cultivated as a raw material for.

Linnaeusof"(English edition)''(1753 ) Is one of the species listed in[4].

Overview

Tree height is 4.5-10Metersdegree.The growth of this species requires regular rainfall, well-drained soil and a moist climate.elevationAbout 300 metersHilly areaIt grows naturally in.Central americaからSouth America Of熱 帯It is native to the area.

It blooms about 4 years old and is white with a diameter of about 3 cm (it is red to yellow depending on the variety).CaulifloryWear in tufts.The fruiting rate is less than 1%.The flowering season depends on the anniversary in the place of origin and the temperature in the place of cultivation.JapanThen.Okinawa[5],Ogasawara Islands[6]It is cultivated in Japan and often blooms after May.Tokyo UniversityTree Arts InstituteSpaWe are continuing experiments to grow cacao with waste heat to produce chocolate, and on July 2021, 7, it will be a hot spring resort.IshikawaKaga CityAnnounced a plan to work on creating a "cacao forest" jointly with[7].

fruitRipe in about 6 months and 15-30 in lengthCentimeterCauliflory, 8-10 cm in diameter, hangs directly from the trunk and is called the cacao pod.形は卵型が多いが、品種によって長楕円形、偏卵型、三角形などで、外皮の色もMost of the shapes are egg-shaped, but depending on the breed, they are oblong, oval, triangular, etc., and the color of the exodermis is alsored,黄色,greenAnd so on.中に20から60個ほどのAbout XNUMX to XNUMX insideseedAnd this isCocoa beans (cacao beans).Seeds are 40-50%Contains the fat content of.The pulp is called pulp.

The harvest time varies depending on the production area, but it is generally twice a year.dry seasonとrainy seasonThe fruits harvested in Japan are about a week excluding the peel.fermentationThe cacao beans taken out are used as raw materials for cocoa and chocolate.

Variety

Of the cacao currently cultivatedVarietyThere are three known systems.

FORASTERO

West AfricaとSoutheast AsiaIt is produced in large numbers in Japan and has become the mainstream. South America OfAmazon riverOriginated in the basin[8]..It grows quickly and has excellent disease resistance, making it easy to cultivate.The fruits are yellow.Its surface is smooth[9].PolyphenolThe content is high, and the inside of the beans ispurpleso,BitternessIs strong but suitable for milk chocolate[10].ガーナ,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,BrazilThere are varieties such as.Forastello is "foreign"[11], "A stranger"[12]By the meaning ofTrinidadThis species was introduced to the area after the destruction of cacao, which is thought to be the Criollo species, and was called for the first time at that time.[11].

Criollo

Originated in Central America[8]. ベネズエラ,メキシコAnd so on, it is produced slightly.It is called "flavor beans" because of its unique scent.It is distributed from Mexico to Venezuela and has been used since ancient times.It was almost destroyed in the middle of the 19th century because it was vulnerable to pests and unsuitable for large-scale cultivation.The fruits are red and yellow.Its surface has warts and deep grooves[13].. It has the lowest polyphenol content of the three, less bitterness and astringency, and the inside of the beans is white (or whitish).[14].CrioloAndSpaniards born in the colonyIt was named as a native species.[12].

Trinitario species (TRINITARIO)

Venezuela,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt is cultivated in Central and South America.After the cocoa on Trinidad was wiped out by illness or hurricane, the Forastero species was introduced there and allegedly crossed with the surviving Criollo species.[15]..Easy to cultivate and excellent in quality.The fruit is large[13].

History

The place of originMesoamericaThen.1900 BCUsed from around the timeOlmec civilizationWhat has been regarded as cultivated food since the time ofEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfRio AzulRuins, etc.Maya civilization,AztecOf the ruinsEarthenware,mural, I know from the stone monument.ベリーズCarbonized cocoa beans believed to be from the Chicanel period (400 to 1 BC) have been found at the Quercio site in[16]..Also, as evidence of the use of cocoa in the 1100 BC, from fragments of jars of that era found in the Urua Valley of Honduras.TheobromineとcaffeineHas been detected[17]..It is believed that beverages were made from cocoa pulp during this period.[18].

Cacao is called Cacau in Maya[19]. this isOlmec civilizationSeems to have been spoken inMixe-ZoqueIt is a loanword from, and it seems that the original pronunciation was Kawakawa.[20].

In Maya and Aztecs, cocoa beans were drunk as drinks, as well as offerings to God and valuables.currencyWas also used as[21]..As an example of the monetary value of cocoa beans, the price in Mexico in 1545 was female.TurkeyThere are 100 cocoa beans, 200 male turkeys, 100 wild rabbits, etc. According to the history of Motolina's indio written in 1541, 2 cocoa nuts are 4000 or 5 Spanish gold coins.PesoWas[22]..Counterfeit money was also made by stuffing other things in the cocoa bean skin from which the contents were taken out.[23]..Cocoa beans continued to be used as a currency during the colonial era[24].

1502 ,ColumbusIs the current on the XNUMXth voyageホンジュラスGet cacao seeds nearby andスペインI'm taking it home.However, the usage was unknown, and no one realized its value.1519 ,Conquistador OfHernan Cortez TheAztecLearn how to use cacao.sugar,SpicesChocolate torr (chocolate)upper classWelcomed to1526 A cultivated land was built on Trinidad Island.

Cacao as a beverageEuropeAs the first record brought to1544 OfQ'eqchi MayaCrown Prince Felipe of Spain (laterフ ェ リ ペ 2 世) There is a visit.FranceThe queen married from SpainAnne DoutlishThere is an anecdote that spread17st centuryCocoa drinks became popular in the 1660sMartiniqueStarted cultivation in.

After that, cacao cultivation expanded,1830 From aroundWest Africa OfPortugalAreaSao Tome IslandIt will be cultivated in such places.19st centuryCentral American in the middlePlantationHowever, when the production volume dropped sharply due to the disease, Africa replaced and became the main producer.さらにfurtherThe United KingdomBut from SpainleaseInFernando Po Island(CurrentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Started plantation management1879 ToGold Coast(Currentガーナ)Tetteh QuarshiHas introduced. 1890 eraAt the end, FranceIvory Coast(Currentコ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル) Organized a colonial company to encourage production.

IndonesiaBy Spain in 1560JavaIt is transmitted to, but the production spread20st centuryAnd especially1980 Production has increased 30 years after the market crash.

Number

edible
Cacao mass - endospermPartCrushing-RoastAnd mashed.A common ingredient for cocoa and chocolate.
Cocoa butter(Cacao butter) --Isolated from cocoa massfatMinutes.Chocolate liquor contains about 55% fat.
cocoa powder ――It is made by degreasing and crushing cocoa mass, and the color is dark brown.About 300 from 1 seedskilogramI can take it.
チ ョ コ レ ー ト --Chocolate liquor with cocoa butter, sugar,ミ ル クIt is made by adding such things.
Mole - ソ ー ス.

In addition, cacao powder, "cacao nibs" that are fermented, roasted, peeled and crushed, cacaosyrupAnd fermented cacaovinegarIs being used as an ingredient and seasoning[25].

Medicinal
Theobromine --Diuretic and muscle relaxing effects.
caffeine --Awakening effect.
Cocoa butter - Human capital Ofbody temperatureAs a vegetable oil that dissolves insuppository,ointmentEven though.
currency
It was written down by Columbus, which is also the reason why the Spaniards started cultivation.1520 AroundEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNikaraoThen,RabbitOne bird was trading for 1 cocoa beans and one slave was trading for 10 cocoa beans.19st centuryIt became obsolete when money was introduced into.

Health

Cacao is type IAllergiesOf the causative substanceTyramine,nickelIncluding,Chocolate allergyCauses.なお、チラミンはIn addition, tyramineblood pressure,Heart rateHas the effect of raising chocolate, and eating too much chocolatenosebleedWill come outPopular beliefHowever, in reality, it does not have a strong effect to cause bleeding in healthy people.

生産

Worldwide cocoa bean production in 2012 was approximately 500 millionTIs[26]..The breakdown of the top producing countries for the current year is shown below.

1Cote d'Ivoire flag コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル165.0 million tons (33%)
2Indonesian flag Indonesia93.6 million tons (19%)
3 ã‚¬ãƒ¼ãƒŠ87.9 million tons (18%)
4Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu38.3 tons (08%)
5Cameroon flag カ メ ル ー ン25.6 tons (05%)
6Brazilian flag Brazil25.3 tons (05%)
7Ecuador flag エクアドル13.3 tons (03%)
8Mexican flag メキシコ8.3 tons (02%)

As a characteristic of cacao productionbanana,coffeeOther tropicals such asCommodity cropUnlike large scalePlantationIt is mentioned that production in Japan is not common.This can be attributed to the botanical properties of cocoa.カカオの木はThe cacao treeShade treeTherefore, it is necessary to grow it in the shade of other trees until it grows large.In other words, it is difficult to cultivate a single crop in a large area at once, and it is difficult to obtain the merit of scale.On the other hand, it is suitable for mixed planting with growing trees such as plantain banana, so it is extremely suitable for self-sufficient small-scale farmers to grow as a commercial crop in one hand.[27]..ガーナにおいては、労働者が未開発の土地を開発する契約を地主と結び、バナナやIn Ghana, workers have signed contracts with landowners to develop undeveloped land, such as bananas.CassavaWhile growing the main food crops such as, grow the cacao tree in the shade, and when the cacao grows and becomes sufficiently profitable, the development area is split in half and half is for the landlord and the other half is for the workers The contract was once popular and became the driving force for the growth of cacao production.

Child labor in the production area

Historically for cocoa productionslaveLabor has been used a lot.古くは、アジア人のIn the old days, AsianscoolieHowever, even recently, child slaves have been used as a labor force in West Africa.2001 In the worst form in Octoberchild labourForbid ""U.S. CongressmanWas signed between the Chocolate Manufacturers Association.

But even after that, 90 of the cocoa farms in Côte d'Ivoire%However, it is said that they are using slaves, including children, for maintenance in some way.[28]..カカオの価格が下落すると、西アフリカの農民がしわ寄せを受けることとなるFalling cocoa prices will wrinkle West African farmers[29]..58% of Côte d'Ivoire producers are in extreme poverty due to too low prices in favor of chocolate makers, and only 7 growers earn enough to live comfortably. %.そのような状況の中、生産者の子どもが労働力とならざるをえないUnder such circumstances, the producer's children have no choice but to become a labor force.[30].

Price control movements seeking returns to farmers

2019 November, in GhanaNana Akufo-AdAt the investment forum in Africa, the president appealed that there was little reward for cocoa bean growers.Together with Côte d'Ivoire, it announced that it will promote bean price control.演説では「チョコレート産業は1000億ドル規模だが、農家が労働と引き換えに手にする額は60億ドルにすぎない」として各国への理解を求めたIn his speech, he sought the understanding of each country, saying, "The chocolate industry is worth $ XNUMX billion, but farmers get only $ XNUMX billion in exchange for labor."[31].

Economy

Few countries participate in the cocoa bean trade.MalaysiaBecause it has excellent processing abilityIndonesiaIt imports cacao and other products and exports products.

The price of cocoa beans is the same except for some countries such as Ghana, which has a purchase system.UK(Mainly from Africa)ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クProducts (mainly from Central and South America)Futures marketThe international market is in control.Price per ton is 500 in a few yearslb(945Dollar) To £ 3,000 ($ 5672), producers have been hit by volatile global markets.Only 3-4% of the cocoa futures market has physical exchanges, 7-9 times the actual amount traded.

footnote

  1. ^ "Kakaa". Digital Daijisen(Koto bank). OctoberBrowse.
  2. ^ Naobumi OchiaiAuthor/Yaichi HagaRenovation "Cacao" "Kotosen: Nihon Daijiten" Volume XNUMX,Okura Bookstore, 1921, 673 pages.
  3. ^ Naoko Takeda 2010, p. 4.
  4. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1753) (Latin). Species Plantarum. Holmia [Stockholm]: Laurentius Salvius. P. 782. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358803 
  5. ^ "Integrated production from chocolate making and cacao bean processing popular in Okinawa"Asahi ShimbunDigital (March 2019, 2) Retrieved April 6, 2019
  6. ^ "Challenge to cacao from Tokyo / Cultivate 500 trees in Ogasawara" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition December 2018, 12 (NIKKEI The STYLE)
  7. ^ "Cacao with hot spring heat ♨ Challenge to produce for the first time in Honshu / Ishikawa / Kaga City Todai Jugeiken, with two private companies" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』April 2021, 7 8 pages
  8. ^ a b "World History of Chocolate" Page 5
  9. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 137
  10. ^ "Chocolate World History" pages 3, "Chocolate Natural History" pages 98, "Cacao and Chocolate Science Romance" pp. 137-138
  11. ^ a b "History of Chocolate" p. 278
  12. ^ a b "Chocolate Museum", page 111
  13. ^ a b "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 138
  14. ^ "Chocolate World History" page 3, "Chocolate Natural History" page 111, "Cacao and Chocolate Science Romance" page 138
  15. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 139
  16. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 49
  17. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" pp. 55-56
  18. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 56
  19. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 84
  20. ^ "Chocolate Natural History" pages 84, 86, "History of Chocolate" pages 51
  21. ^ World History of Chocolate, pp. 18-24
  22. ^ "Chocolate Museum", pages 68 and 70
  23. ^ "Chocolate Natural History" page 71, "Chocolate History" page 138
  24. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 71
  25. ^ "Cacao is the protagonist. It's not just chocolate as a secret ingredient ... but also for syrup.Marinated, Meat dishes, snacks ""Nikkei MJMay 2020, 5 (trend side)
  26. ^ Edited by Yano Tsuneta Memorial "Japan National Census 2014/15 Edition ”(Kenta Yano Memorial, 2014) 176 pages
  27. ^ Carol Off 2007, p. 125.
  28. ^ "Truevision TV Slavery --a global investigation”(English). As of September 2004, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.OctoberBrowse.
  29. ^ "Bittersweet Chocolate”(English). As of September 2008, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.OctoberBrowse.
  30. ^ ""Chocolate: Unreported" Bitter "Reality"”. Global News View (GNV), Virgil Hawkins. OctoberBrowse.
  31. ^ "Chocolate industry less sweet farmer" "Yomiuri Shimbun』April 2020, 2 28 pages

References

hot chocolate

hot chocolate(British: hot chocolate) Isミ ル ク,チ ョ コ レ ー トandcocoa powder,sugarIt is a drink that is mainly made with such products, and is usually served warm.Hot cocoa,Chocolate drinkTomo.16st centuryToAmericaからEuropeIt was brought to and gained popularity.Instead of regular chocolateWhite chocolateWhat usesWhite hot chocolateCalled.

In JapancocoaWhen I say it, I often refer to hot chocolate made with cocoa powder.

History

CacaoThe first to use the fruit in history wasB.C.From 1500 to 400AmericaThe oldest civilizationMesoamericaIndigenous peopleOlmecPeople are likely.laterMaya civilizationPeople are nowメキシコ,TabascoI was drinking a drink based on cacao nuts harvested from a large farm located in the area.In this era, the cacao fruit was also used as a currency.

By EuropeansAmericaAfter the discovery ofChristopher Columbus Thenew worldReturned with the fruit of cacao.But Europeans at the time were only interested in more useful trading tools.

However, after that1517 ToHernan Cortez VeracruzLand on the coast of nearby Mexico.HeAztec KingdomAnd the kingMoctezuma IIThe capital of the Aztecs at that time, trying to see its famous wealth at a glanceTenochtitlanHeaded for.Moctezuma II offered Cortez his favorite "chocolate" in gold. "That chocolate torrvanillaIt has a spice flavor and is stickyhoneyIt was made with a small amount of foam, which gradually melted in the mouth and removed the coldness. "Moctezuma II took his "chocolate" that had been poured into the gobletharemThere is also the idea that it was a kind of aphrodisiac because it was drunk before entering.

Then Cortez1528 And equipment to make a large amount of cocoa nuts and chocolate drinksGalleonAnd returned to Spain.EmperorKarl ISoon after adopting this beverage, "chocolate" became a fashionable drink among the upper class of Spain.In addition, cacao was given as a dowry when Spanish royalty humans married other European aristocrats.It took almost a century for chocolate drinks to become popular throughout Europe, as the Spaniards kept this delicious drink a secret.

development of

Beverage chocolate was originally ground cocoa nuts and water, andCayenne pepper,vanilla,Pimiento[Avoid ambiguity]It was a cold drink mixed with spices like.Latercloves,cinnamonCondiments such as are also used.People drank this cold chocolate in a large container, so they could taste its aroma.By the time chocolate was brought to Europe, it had a pungent condiment.Cane sugarIt was replaced by, and was supposed to be served warmly.

The mashed cacao fruit contained a lot of oil and was difficult to dissolve in hot water as it was.1828 In addition, it is the oil content from the cocoa fruit.Cocoa butterSeparatedcocoa powderThe first machine to produce NetherlandsでVan HortenDeveloped by the founder of the company.In addition, Van Houten's second-generation owner succeeded in adding alkali to produce what is now known as Dutch Process Cocoa, a low-sour, easy-to-drink processed cocoa.The new shape of cocoa was easy to mix with warm milk and hot water.

Hot chocolateThe United KingdomAfter being introduced to, as a pleasure after dinnermilkHas come to be added.The first "chocolate house" is1657 ToUKOpened in.Hot chocolate is believed to have been a beverage for the elite because of its high price.18st centuryBy the time there was a store called "Chocolate House"A coffee shopBecame popular as well.

Mid 19th century1847 , British Fry Co., Ltd. devised the first chocolate to eat using cocoa powder and cocoa butter, which is a by-product of producing cocoa powder.

In this way, "hot chocolate"Retro NimIt is one of (names given later), and originally "chocolate" meant drinks.Later, the British invented the solid-eating "chocolate" and became popular, so the term "hot chocolate" was coined to distinguish between chocolate for drinks and chocolate for eating.

Americans often use the two terms "hot chocolate" and "hot cocoa" interchangeably.However, in other countries there are differences in meaning between "hot cocoa" and "hot chocolate."Hot cocoa is made from cocoa powder, sugar and concentrate.Hot chocolate, on the other hand, is made by pouring hot water or warm milk directly into a chocolate bar that is already mixed with cocoa or cocoa butter and sugar, or by chopping dark, semi-sweet or bitter-sweet chocolate into small pieces and adding sugar. Add to the milk and stir to make.American hot cocoa powder often eliminates the need for milk, etc.Dairy productsMay be included.As an idea in modern AmericamarshmallowSome hot cocoa foods come with small marshmallows.

In the UK, "hot chocolate" is made by mixing warm milk with powder containing chocolate, sugar and powdered milk.On the other hand, "cocoa" refers to a beverage that is usually made from warm milk and cocoa powder and then sweetened with sugar.

In Italy, "chocolate" refers to solid chocolate, and "chocolate" refers to drinks made from cocoa (powder).

ベルギーSome inCafeSo, when you order "warme chocolade" or "chocolat chaud", you'll get a boiled cup of milk and bittersweet chocolate chips to melt in it in a small container. Is done.This drink is usuallySpeculaasOr served with Belgian chocolate.

ポーランドThen, hot chocolate (Goronza Czechrada) was founded in the middle of the 19th century.Warsaw OfWedelWhat was served at the company's cafe was established as one of the "warsaw tastes",Second World WarAtGermanbyWarsaw Great DestructionとCommunismWedel's companynationalizationAt one point, this tradition was cut off.It was state-owned after the warWedelCompany1989 OfDemocratization of PolandByPrivatizationAfter that, the main store, Wedel Café, reopened, and since then, it has been rapidly expanding stores in the city and in Japan as if trying to regain the elegant tradition of prewar Warsaw.Wedel's hot chocolate is very thick and viscous, some like thick cocoa, and some can almost be called chocolate paste.The latter is served in a tall glass, but it is too viscous to drink as it is.spoonThe more you scoop up and eat.However, it is not as sweet as I expected, but rather a gentle sweetness.Apple,Strawberryな どfruit OfGlasseSomething like that can be used as an accentspices,HerbsSome are scented with.France OfCharles de GaulleThe president likes it and takes the trouble to fly from WarsawParisCafé Bricre'sPonchiki(Pączki, Polish donut) in WarsawSpecialtyPopular as.

Position in modern society

Today, hot chocolate is drunk all over the world and is especially popular in Europe (European ones are quite rich and made directly from solid chocolate).イタリアChocolates like the cioccolata densa are ubiquitous in bars and restaurants in the country.Restaurants OfPastry chef,ChocolatierDue to the influence of, this European style has gradually penetrated into American culture, traditionally regarded as a winter drink and associated with ethnic images such as snowstorms and sledding.Usually most of them are made quickly by pouring a bag of powder containing cocoa powder, sugar and dry milk and hot or warm milk, and topped with marshmallows as it is still lightly sweet.But hot chocolatecoffee,Black teaUnlike other hot drinks, it is usually not drunk all year round.

In Spain, with hot chocolateChurroIs a traditional breakfast.This Spanish-style hot chocolate is thick and contains warm, soft chunks of chocolate.todayMadridIn cities like this, Spaniards sometimes eat churros in dark hot chocolate.

References

The following is the translation sourceEnglish editionReferences from.

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