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🧳 | Lufthansa, Nagoya / Chubu-Frankfurt route resumed 2022 flights a week from February 2, 28


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Lufthansa resumes Nagoya / Chubu-Frankfurt route 2022 flights a week from February 2, 28

 
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Airbus A4-340 will operate four flights a week from Nagoya / Chubu on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays, and from Frankfurt on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays.
 

Lufthansa will re-operate the Nagoya / Chubu-Frankfurt route three times a week from February 2022, 2 ... → Continue reading

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4 flights a week

Airbus A340

Airbus A340

Airbus A340 (Airbus A340) isEuropeAirbus Industry (later)Airbus) Developed and manufactured for long-haul routesWide body4 shotsjetPassenger plane.

A340 isAirbus A300Extended torso of originWide body machineSo, 4 shots under the main wing placed on the low wingTurbo fan engineEquip.Tailは低翼配置、降着装置は前輪配置で主翼間に中央脚を持つ仕様もある。A340シリーズには4つのモデルA340-200、A340-300、A340-500、A340-600が存在する。機体寸法や性能は各形式によるが、Cruise speedIs Mach 0.82 to 0.83 and has a total length of 59.40 to 75.36Meters, Overall width 60.30 to 63.45 meters,Maximum takeoff weightIs 253.5 to 380T, The number of seats is about 240 to 440. The A340 is a twin-engineAirbus A330At the same time, official development was decided, and both machines were standardized as much as possible except for the engine. The A340 was the first four-engine aircraft developed by Airbus, and the simultaneous parallel development of four-engine and twin-engine aircraft was a rare initiative in the history of aviation technology.Also, on the A4Fly by wireSystem orGlass cockpitWas introduced and the flight control system was shared with Airbus aircraft.Mutual crew qualificationIs recognized.

A340シリーズの中で、A340-200/-300は最初に開発されたA340の第1世代である。A340-200は航続力を優先した短胴型、A340-300は収容力を優先した長胴型で、それぞれLufthansaAir FranceBy1993 First service.Later, the A340-2 / -340 was developed as the second generation of the A500 to compete with the twin-engine aircraft that were expanding into long-haul routes.The capacity-enhanced A600-340 became the world's longest passenger aircraft at the time of its introduction.2002 ToVirgin AtlanticFirst service by.The cruising-enhanced A340-500 is the longest in the world at the time of its introductionCruising distanceBecome a performance aircraftEmirates AirlinesBy2003 First service.2004 ToSingapore AirlinesWith the A340-500Singapore - ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クOpened a direct flight and recorded the longest distance in the world as a civil aviation route.After that, Airbus became a new long-range aircraftA350XWBDeveloped2011 Announced the end of production of the A340. The total production of the A340 series was 377. A340 isEurope,Asia-Middle EastOperated mainly by regional airlines,Boeing 747It operates mainly on long-haul routes that do not require as much capacity. As of October 2014, there have been five aircraft loss accidents with the A10, but no fatal accidents.

In this section, the following are Airbus passenger planes andBoeingFor passenger aircraft made, the company name is omitted and only alphanumeric characters are used.For example, "A300" for "Airbus A300" and "747" for "Boeing 747".

History

Development background

米 国To compete with other aircraft manufacturersEuropeAircraft manufacturer1970 Established a corporate alliance "Airbus Industry" in December[6]..When Airbus gets the sale of its first wide-body aircraft, the A300, on track,1978 As the second product, it is a wide-body aircraft for short and medium distances.A310Started development of[7].. The A310 was called "A300B10" at the examination stage, but at that time, the aircraft plans called A300B9 (hereinafter B9) and A300B11 (hereinafter B11) were also considered as candidates for the next product.[8].. The B9 plan is a twin-engine medium-range aircraft that is an extended version of the A300's fuselage.DouglasDC-10,LockheedL-1011The B11 plan is a long-distance type with a short fuselage combined with a newly designed main wing and four engines, aiming to break into the market.707And DouglasDC-8Aimed for successor demand[8]..However, Airbus at that time did not have the funds and personnel to develop multiple models at the same time, and while the B10 plan was named A310 and official development started, the B9 and B11 plans were postponed indefinitely.[8][7].

1980 Airbus is now a single-aisle aircraft named "SA" (Single Aisle).Narrow body machine) Was researched[9]..At the same time, the plan name of the wide-body aircraft was given "TA" (Twin Aisle), which means two aisles, and the B2 plan was renamed TA9 and the B9 plan was renamed TA11.[8].1982 OfFarnborough AirshowThe development concept of TA9, TA11, and the newly added TA12 was announced at the venue.[10].. The TA9, TA11, and TA12 proposals have been changed several times, but they are generally as follows.[10][11][12][13].

  • TA9 --A medium-range twin-engine aircraft with an extended fuselage of the A300 and more than 320 seats.
  • TA11 --The body is shorter than TA9 and has about 230 seats, 10,000.KilometersA long-range four-engine aircraft with the above cruising power.
  • TA12 --Same body length and number of seats as TA11, from TA11Cruising distanceAlthough it is short, it is a long-range aircraft with a twin engine.

But around this timeSecond oil crisisAnd the commercial aircraft market was shrinking due to the recession[10]..Airbus1984 SA plan in MarchA320While officially starting development under the name, the decision to develop the TA plan was postponed.[14][10].. The TA1980 plan was withdrawn in the mid-12s, but the TA9 and TA11 plans have been improved and are common to the A320.Fly by wireIt was planned to introduce the system and install a side stick type cockpit like the A320.[15].

Inside Airbus, discussions were held on whether to develop the twin-engine TA9 or the four-engine TA4 first.[16]..Assuming the same conditions such as takeoff weight, the twin-engine aircraft should be equipped with a stronger engine than the four-engine aircraft.[17][18][Annotation 2]..Also, due to regulations created in an era when engines were unreliable, twin-engine aircraft could only fly on routes with airfields that could land within 1 minutes if one engine stopped.[19], Three- and four-engine aircraft were used on medium- and long-haul offshore routes with few alternative airfields.[20].

On the other hand, the disadvantage of the 4-engine aircraft compared to the twin-engine aircraft is that the system of the aircraft is complicated, it takes time to maintain, and the operating cost is high.[21][16]..As the reliability and performance of engines have improved, there is an increasing need for companies that want to operate low-cost twin-engine aircraft on offshore routes.1985 IsETOPSRequirements were established to allow long-distance operation of twin-engine aircraft called[19]..However, with ETOPS at that time, the degree of freedom in route setting and operation was still limited, and it took time to obtain certification.[19][12][22]..At that timeNorth AmericaAirlines preferred twin-engine aircraft, which is cost-effective, while having long-haul offshore routesAsiaAirlines needed four-engine aircraft without restrictions like twin-engine aircraft, and the opinions of European airlines were divided between the two.[16][23].

While opinions in the aviation industry were divided into twin-engine and four-engine aircraft, Airbus turned to the simultaneous development of TA4 and TA9.[16][23]..In order to reduce the total development cost, the design was advanced so that the components of both machines were shared as much as possible (details of the design process will be described later).[16][23][24].. There is a prospect of developing two machines at the same time,1986 In January, Airbus named TA1 and TA9 A11 and A330, respectively.[16]..The names of both machines were originally opposite.Airbus plans to develop the TA11 first, and because it is a new model following the A320, the TA11 was the A330 and the TA9 was the A340.[16][23]..However, when the 4-engine aircraft was A3 "3" 0 and the twin-engine aircraft was A3 "4" 0, it was pointed out that the customer would mistake both aircraft, and the 4-engine aircraft was changed to the A340.[16][23].

The first to show the intention to order the A340Lufthansaso,1987 It was January[16]..Then in the United StatesNorthwest AirlinesAlso decided to order the A340[16]By June 1987, a total of 6 airlines had ordered 10 A340s and 89 A330s.[24][25]..Airbus is expected to receive enough orders to proceed with development.Paris Air ShowOn June 1987, 6, the official development of the A5 and A340 was decided.[11][16]..Development of both aircraft was decided at the same time as sister aircraft, but based on the results of market research, it was decided to precede the development work of the A340.[18][11].

Design process

The A340 and A330 have the same fuselage cross section, the tail is common, including the tail, and the main wings are structurally and aerodynamically the same except for the engine mounting part, as well as the system andcockpitWas standardized except for the engine[26][27][28].. Simultaneous parallel development of four-engine and twin-engine aircraft has become a rare initiative in the history of aviation technology.[18]..Especially the swept wing[Annotation 3]ToPylonIt was unprecedented to use the same mainframe for a twin-engine aircraft and a four-engine aircraft in a large aircraft equipped with an engine via[29]..Let's rewind a bit and take a closer look at the A340's design process.

Since the time when the A340 was still called the TA11, the aircraft plan had been modified several times, and in 1985 two types, a long-body type and a short-body type, were proposed.[30]..The long-body type has 280 seats and a cruising range of 10,000 kilometers (5,400).nautical mile), The short-body type was a plan to reduce the number of seats to 240 and extend the cruising range to 12,000 kilometers (6,500 nautical miles).[30].. The two fuselage plans were embodied as the short-body A2-340 and the long-body A200-340.[31]..The final specifications were decided as follows, and the fuselage length of the sister aircraft A330 was the same as that of the A340-300.[31][32].

  • A340-200: Fuselage length 58.57Meters, The standard number of seats in 3 classes is 261 seats.
  • A340-300: The fuselage length is 62.84 meters, and the standard number of seats in the 3-class train is 295.

For the cross section of the fuselage of the A340, the cross section of the wide-body aircraft inherited from the A300 and A310 was used.[33]..For this reason, the seating arrangement was the same as the A300, and the interior design was basically the A310.[34].. The underfloor cargo compartment where LD-3 air cargo containers can be mounted side by side is also the same as the A300.[33].

The A340's main wings have been completely redesigned, and the aerodynamic designBritish aerospace(Hereafter, BAe) was in charge[35][36]..The aerodynamics have been modified to be suitable for long-haul flights, while inheriting those of the A310's main wings.[37].. On the A340 and A330Maximum takeoff weightAssuming that they are the same, the A4, which distributes the weight of the engine with four engines, has a smaller load on the base of the main wing, and has a stronger margin.[36][37]..Therefore, a fuel tank was added to the fuselage only for the A340, which is for long distances and requires a lot of fuel, and prepared for weight increase.Landing gearWas also added, and the strength required for the main wings of the A340 and A330 was made almost equal.[36][37].. The A340 / A330 is a system in which the engine is installed under the main wing via a pylon, and the weight, position, aerodynamic characteristics, etc. of the engine and its cowling have a profound effect on the setting of the main wing structure and aerodynamic shape. High technology was required[29]..AirbusComputerStrength calculation and aerodynamic design usingWind tunnelBy combining experimentsAirfoil, Wing thickness ratio[Annotation 4], The mounting angle, etc. were carefully examined, and the main wings of the A340 and A330 were substantially standardized except for the engine mounting part.[36][37]..In addition, improve fuel efficiency at the tip of the main wing from the beginning of design.WingletWas provided[33][37].. A340Planar shape of the main wingCompared to A300Wingspan, Receding angle, aspect ratio[Annotation 5]Both have been expanded[43]..The swept angle of the main wing is 30 degrees, which is the largest ever on Airbus aircraft.[36].

On the A340 and A330TailWas also standardized[44].Vertical tailMost of the A310 was diverted, and the commonality of production was maintained.[33][45].Horizontal stabilizerIs a newly designed primary structural member[Annotation 6]AlsoCarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was adopted[33][50].. Similar to the A310, a fuel tank was installed in the horizontal stabilizer, and a system was adopted to control the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft by moving fuel between the tanks on the main and tail wings.[33].

In order to strengthen the landing gear as the aircraft becomes larger and heavier, the main landing gear is newly designed and enlarged, and a two-wheeled central leg is available as an option in the center of the fuselage.[26][33]..As for the front landing gear, the load is smaller than that of the main landing gear, so the A310 was diverted from the viewpoint of common manufacturing and cost reduction.[26]..Landing gears other than the central leg are common to the A340 and A330.[26][33].

For the A340 engineBritishRiceDayaloneYiAn international joint venture of engine manufacturers from five countriesInternational Aero Engines(Hereafter, IAE)[51]Was proposing a V2500 "super fan"[18]..Super fans were used on the A320V2500 engineCore[Annotation 7]While usingDriving a large fan via a reduction gearVery large bypass ratio due to the introduction of new technologies such as[Annotation 8]It was an epoch-making engine concept to realize the above and improve the fuel efficiency by 15 to 20%.[54][18][16]..However, the Super Fan plan was announced by IAE in July 1986, and when the model name was decided to be A7, there was not even a mockup, let alone a prototype.[18]..Some were worried about hiring super fans, who had just begun development, but airlines that decided to order the A340, such as Lufthansa and Northwest Airlines, were looking forward to its performance.[55][16]..However, as worried, the technical issues could not be solved and development was stalled, and IAE announced in April 1987 that the super fan concept was postponed indefinitely.[55]..The A340's engine is another engine used in the A320, as the development of the Superfan has been virtually discontinued.CFM International(Hereafter, CFMI)CFM56-5Narrowed down to one type of series[55][54][16].

For the flight control system of the A340, an advanced version of the system that Airbus put into practical use on the A320 was used.[2]..The system introduces a fly-by-wire system on all control surface.[56]The A340 became the first wide-body aircraft in history to use the fly-by-wire system.[57]..This system is basically the same as that of the A320, but the flight characteristics have been adjusted and improved according to the aircraft structure and performance of the A340.[56]..The cockpit has the same basic design as the A320, with six sides.CRTSo-called displaying various information on the displayGlass cockpitAnd traditionalControl stickIt is the same as A320 to use the side stick instead of[58].. The cockpit layout of the A340 is virtually the same as that of the A330, except for the engine throttle lever.[2].

Except for the number of engines and the associated emergency response, the A340 and A330 maneuvers are basically the same,Mutual crew qualificationA qualification system called (Cross Crew Qualification, CCQ) was approved.[2]..This is a system in which pilots with one of the flight qualifications can obtain the other flight qualification in a short period of training, and in particular, the conversion training from A340 to A330 was set to one day.[2][59]..In addition, CCQ was applied even with the A320 family, which basically has the same cockpit layout.[2].

Production and testing

In the development work of the A340 and A330, the A340 also preceded the production of prototypes.[2].. The production of the A340 has the same international division of labor as the previous Airbus aircraft, and the parts are shared and manufactured in each participating country, and the final assembly is in France.ToulouseMade in[60]..Toulouse has a new facility for assembling new large aircraft A340 / A330, part of the final assembly processMech robotWas introduced[50]..The A340 / A330 have extremely high commonality in production, and both aircraft were assembled on the same line.[60].

The first A340 is the A1-340,1991 The completion ceremony was held in Toulouse on October 10, and the first flight was made on December 4 of that year.[2][34].. The first A340-200 was the fourth in total, and the first flight was1992 It was April 4st[34].

Four A340-300s and two A4-340s were introduced in the flight test, for a total of six aircraft.[34]..The flight test found some problems and made design modifications.In a test to confirm high speed, it was found that there was greater resistance than planned.[34]..First by investigating the causeSlatsWas found to be related, and the solution was sought by increasing the chord length of this slats.[34]..For this reason, the front edge of the main wing has a slight step between the mounting part of the engine pylon and the inner slat part.[34]..Also, in the slow descent test, which is one of the flight tests, the main wingBuffettThe vibration called was stronger than expected, and it was set as the target speed.MachCould not reach 0.93[2][61]..After analyzing the cause, it was found that this vibration was generated by the turbulence of the airflow in the pylon of the outer engine, and the symptomatology was exacerbated because the torsional deformation of the main wing was larger than previously expected.[2][61]..To solve this problem, a protrusion was added to the underside of the main wing near the pylon to regulate the airflow, and the design was later changed to improve the twisting characteristics of the main wing as a final measure.[2][61].

By the end of 1992, a total of 2,400 hours and 750 test flights had been carried out while addressing the problem.[62][63].. First on December 1992, 12 by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) of Europe for both A22-340 and -200 models.Type certificationWas issued[63].. Next day1993 The first delivery of the A2-2 to Lufthansa on February 340nd.[4]..Subsequently, on the 26th of the same month, the first delivery of the A340-300Air FranceMade in[63]At that time, the aircraft was just the 1,000th Airbus production aircraft.[4]..Also, on May 5 of this year, in the United StatesFederal Aviation AdministrationAlso obtained type certification from (Federal Aviation Administration, FAA)[64].

Start of service

The A340-200 first went into service on March 1993, 3, by Lufthansa.Frankfurt - ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クWas a line[4]..On the 29th of the same month, by Air FranceParisWashington DCThe A340-300 went into service for the first time on the route connecting[4].

In the 1990s, the delivery of the A340 was generally at a pace of 20 to 30 aircraft a year.[65].. The A340's operating companies have spread mainly to European airlines, and were introduced as successors to the 747 and DC-747, mainly on long-haul routes that do not require as much capacity as the 10.[34][66].1995 By July in Europe, Air France, Lufthansa,Austrian Airlines,TAP Portugal,Turkish Airlines,Virgin AtlanticHad introduced the A340[67].

Air Ranka (later) introduced the A340 for the first time in AsiaSriLankan Airlines)so,Cathay Pasific AirlinesFollowed[68][67]..In 1990 for Japanese airlinesAll Nippon AirwaysHad ordered 5 aircraft, but in January 1995 it was announced that the receipt of the aircraft would be postponed after 1, and the order was finally canceled.[34][69].

In the US,1992 Northwest Airlines has canceled orders for the A340 due to poor business conditions[70]After that, no airlines introduced the A340.[34]..In other areas, by July 1995Mauritius Airlines,Kuwait Airlines,バーレーン OfGulf AirAndAir CanadaHad introduced the A340[67].

Airbus has gradually increased the maximum takeoff weight for both the A340-200 / -300 to improve cruising power.[34]..On the other hand, the engine thrust of the A340 was 151 kilonewtons at the maximum, and it was regarded as a rival at that time.McDonnell Douglas MD-11The surplus thrust was small and the climbing performance was inferior.[71].. A340Cruise speedIs Mach 0.82, which is slower than the 0.85 and MD-747, which have a cruising speed of Mach 11 or higher.[71][72]..In addition, on routes where these multiple models are operated in a mixed manner, there were frequent cases where the A340 was overtaken by the 747 and MD-11, and complaints from airlines continued, so the flight route was changed according to the cruising speed. Measures taken to separate[71].

2nd generation development

The sister aircraft, the A330, succeeded in its first flight in November 340, about a year later than the A1, and obtained type certification in October 1992 and entered service for the first time in January 11.[4]..Airbus offered a segregation of four-engine aircraft for long-haul and twin-engine aircraft for short- and medium-range.[73], Airlines were looking for longer range twin-engine aircraft[74][74].. A new twin-engine wide-body aircraft developed by Boeing in June 1995.777Started service on the route[75].. The 777 was twin-engined but had excellent cruising performance, and an advanced version with a cruising range of 340 kilometers comparable to the A200-14,000 was also planned.[3][75].. In November 1995, Airbus also decided to develop the A11-330, which aims to improve cruising performance by shortening and reducing the weight of the twin-engine A330 and increasing the fuel load accordingly.[74]..In addition, the expansion of the ETOPS system expanded the operational range of twin-engine aircraft, and twin-engine aircraft were eroding the A340 market.[54]..Under these circumstances, Airbus is considering making the A777 even larger and longer as an aircraft that can compete with the 747 and aim for successor demand for the 340 early model.1996 Full-scale research work started in April[76][77]..Airbus, which continued the detailed design, decided to develop the ultra-long-distance type A340-500 and the long-body type A340-600.1997 Officially announced at the Paris Air Show on June 6th[3][76]..The aircraft plans for the two second-generation models were as follows:[54].

  • A340-500: With the same capacity as the A340-300, but with a cruising range of more than the A340-200.
  • A340-600: Increase the number of seats by about 340% while maintaining the same cruising power as the A300-3.

In response to this new aircraft plan, Virgin Atlantic first indicated its intention to order both the A340-600 and Air Canada, followed by the A340-500 / -600.Egypt AirAnd Lufthansa also decided to order the A340-600[76]..These 4 companiesLaunch customerAirbus officially decided to develop the A1997-12 / -8 on December 340, 500.[76].. Although it was decided to develop two models at the same time, it was decided that the development work would precede the A2-340 and the A600-340 would be delayed by half a year.[76].

In the A340-500 / -600 (hereinafter referred to as the 2nd generation), the fuselage was extended, the main and tail wings were enlarged, the engine was changed, and the landing gear was strengthened.[3].. The A340 2nd generation fuselage used the same cross section as the A340-200 / -300 (hereafter 1st generation).[76]..The fuselage length has been extended by 340 meters on the A300-340 and 500 meters on the A3.2-340 compared to the A600-10.6.[81][82].. With a total length of 340 meters, the A600-75.36 has become the longest passenger aircraft in the world.[83][84].

The main wing was not a completely new design, but a method of expanding the chord direction by sandwiching an additional structure with respect to the first generation main wing was adopted.[78][85][76]..In addition, the wing tip was extended and the winglets were reviewed.[76]..These wing changes have increased the wing area by about 1.2 times, increased the wingspan to 3.15 meters, increased the receding angle to 31.1 degrees, and the aspect ratio.[Annotation 5]And wing thickness ratio[Annotation 4]Has decreased[3][76]..The vertical stabilizer and horizontal stabilizer have also been enlarged with the extension of the fuselage.[3].

The fuel tank capacity inside the main wing has expanded with the increase in size of the main wing, and the ultra-long-distance A340-500 has an additional tank inside the fuselage.[85][86]..The fuel capacity of the entire aircraft increased by 340 percent for the A300-340 and 500 percent for the A52-340 compared to the A600-38.[35]..The maximum takeoff weight has also been increased, and the A340-500 has reached a standard cruising range of 16,057 kilometers (8,670 nautical miles), making it the world's longest cruising range aircraft.[87][88].

The engine has a large thrustRolls-Royce(Less than,Rr) Company(English editionReplaced by series[3].. The A340-500 / -600 is the first Airbus airlinerRrIt became a model equipped only with the company's engine[89]..Flight performance has improved due to changes in the main wings and increased engine thrust, the cruising speed has been raised to Mach 0.83, and climbing performance has also improved.[3][76][71].

In order to cope with the increase in weight, the central leg is standard equipment and changed to a 4-wheel type[3]..At the same time, in order to reduce the weight of the aircraft, some structural members are new.Aluminum alloyWas introduced andComposite materialThe range of adoption of is further expanded, and the rearPressure bulkheadAnd fuselage longitudinal material[Annotation 9]CFRP was also adopted[92][93][94]..The cockpit has exactly the same layout as the first generation, but the display is from a cathode ray tubeLiquid crystal displayChanged to, which was also fed back to the A340-200 / -300[95]..Some modifications to the flight control software have been made to match the extension of the fuselage.[96].

The cabin design is basically the same as the A340-200 / -300, but the overhead bins (luggage racks on the seats) have been improved to increase the volume and reduce the feeling of oppression.[87]..With the extension of the fuselage, the cargo compartment also became larger, and the standard specification capacity of LD-3 containers was 340 for the A500-30 and 340 for the A600-42.[97][98]..Modules such as passenger restroom compartments and crew rest compartments that can be placed under the floor have also been developed for airlines that do not require that much cargo capacity.[97].

The A340-2 preceded the production and testing of the A340 600nd generation.2001 The first A4-23 made its maiden flight on April 340.[99].. Units 340 and 600 of the A1-2 were used for development tests and tests for type certification, and Unit 3 was equipped with complete passenger equipment for cabin-related tests, cold climate tests, route verification tests, etc. Dedicated[99].. When the A340-600 test begins,payloadAnd the problem that the cruising range performance does not reach the planned value has come to light[100]..The main cause of the problem was that the weight of the aircraft was higher than expected at the time of design, especiallyBAE SystemsCompany[Annotation 10]Was attributed to the main wing that was in charge of design and manufacturing[100]..Although this problem was pointed out during development, it was expected that it would be offset by the improvement in aerodynamic performance of the main wing, and manufacturing and testing had started.[100]..After all, the weight was reduced by reviewing the structure of the main wing etc.[100], The production of the development machine was temporarily delayed by one month from the original plan, but the schedule was revised as the problem was solved, and Airbus said that the impact was minimized.[89]..In addition, early flight tests of the A340-600 pointed out the problem of uncomfortable riding in front of the fuselage when flying in eddy, but later the computer automatically suppressed the vibration.Aileron,RudderImprovements have been made to operate[96].. A340-6002002 Obtained JAA type certificate on May 5st[102]First delivery to Virgin Atlantic on July 7, the same year[32].

The first A340-500 flew on February 1, 340, before the A600-2002 certificate was issued.[99].. Initially, two aircraft were planned to be used for the A340-500 type certification test, but the A2-340 test, which had preceded it, went smoothly, and the A600-340 / -500 are common. Only Unit 600 was actually used in the test because of its sexuality.[99].. The A340-500 test focused on items specific to the same type, and the type certificate was issued by JAA on December 340, 600, about half a year after the acquisition of the A2002-12 certificate.[32].. The first delivery of the A340-500 was scheduled for early 2003 to Air Canada, but was postponed due to the deterioration of Air Canada's business conditions, resulting in the first delivery.2003 March 10Emirates AirlinesMade against[32].

2nd generation in service

On August 2002, 8, Virgin Atlantic's London-New York route began service on the A1-340, which was subsequently launched on the company's London-Tokyo route.[103][104].. Virgin Atlantic Airlines, which became the first operator of the A340-600, faced various problems peculiar to the initial introduction of the new aircraft, and the departure reliability from the year when the flight started to the following year 2003[Annotation 11]Did not reach a sufficient level[106]..AirbusRrThe company is related to fuel supply systems and engines,GalleyWorked on solving problems such as facilities and entertainment systems in guest rooms[107]..Airbus also worked to expand its support system and renewed its technical support team dispatched to Virgin Atlantic.[108].. It took a long time to deliver the A340-600 to the second and subsequent companies, and the problem was alleviated at the subsequent operating companies.[107].. The A340-600 received orders mainly from airlines that operated the A340-200 / -300, and was introduced mainly in the form of strengthening long-haul routes and replacing aircraft that operated on the 747.[109].

The A340-500 route went into service in October 2003 by Emirates, which received the first aircraft, and on December 10, 12, the company used the A1-340 to fly between Dubai and Sydney for 500 hours. Opened a direct flight[110][111][112].2004 IsSingapore AirlinesEstablished Singapore-Los Angeles direct flights and Singapore-New York direct flights one after another using A340-500[110][113]..At the time of opening, both routes recorded the longest direct distance in the world as a direct flight of civil aviation, and in particular, the flight from Singapore to New York was about 16,600 kilometers and took nearly 19 hours.[114][110][115].

2005 By the first half of the year, the A340-500 / -600 was introduced by a total of nine airlines in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Africa and North America, and was also adopted as a government aircraft, with 9 aircraft in operation.[109]..In addition to responding to the above-mentioned problems raised by the operating company, Airbus has also modified the design of each part and improved the wing fuselage fairing (cover that smoothly connects the surface of the wing and fuselage). Was broken[32]..The maximum takeoff weight has also been increased to improve cruising power, extending the cruising range of the A340-500 to 16,668 kilometers (9,000 nautical miles).[32].

Subsequent development

When the production and delivery of the A1-340 / -500, which exceeds the first-generation capacity and cruising capacity, began in earnest, orders for the A600 were concentrated on the second-generation aircraft.[116]..Among the first generation, the A1-340 did not receive orders, and the production of the same model was cut off at the end of the aircraft that first flew in December 200, which coincided with the development decision of the second generation.[117][118].. The A340-300 continued to be produced and delivered even after the introduction of the second generation,2008 The aircraft that first flew in September became the final production aircraft[117].. From the first half to the middle of the 2000s, the A340 continued to deliver more than 20 aircraft each year for the entire series, but since 2007 the number of deliveries has dropped to the 10s.[65].

Boeing has developed the 777-777ER and 300-777LR one after another as advanced models with enhanced cruising power of the twin-engine 200, and started service in May 2004 and March 5, respectively.[119].. The 777-300ER has 3 seats in three classes, a cruising range of 381 kilometers, and the A14,490-340.[Annotation 12]Had a capacity and cruising capacity comparable to[120].. The 777-200LR has a cruising range of 17,395 kilometers, surpassing the A340-500, and the A340-500 has lost the title of the longest cruising range performance in the world.[120].. Due to the gradual revision of ETOPS, the range of twin-engine aircraft that can be operated has continued to expand, and it is said that twin-engine aircraft can be operated on any route in the world.[121]..Also, in the process of revision discussion, the reliability and performance of the engine have improved, and equipment such as medical equipment and fire extinguishing equipment has come to be emphasized as a factor that determines the upper limit of flight time to the alternative airfield.[122][123].. FAA announced a new rule in 2007 to limit the flight time to alternative airfields for 3 and 4 aircraft based on fire extinguishing equipment and oxygen supply equipment. Was decided[122].. In 777, when the 200-2005LR set a world record for long-haul flights, the number of orders received was 777 for the 118 and 340 for the A14.[124].

Airbus also proposed a pure cargo version of the A340-600, but the plan was shelved due to lack of orders.[32]..In 2005, we adopted the design of the A350 (the aircraft plan before it became the A350XWB), which Airbus was considering developing, and at the same time conducted research on the advanced version of the A340, which adopted a new engine and improved its performance. Was reported to be[125]..After that, Airbus decided to renew the development plan of the A350 and officially decided to develop the new twin-engine A2006 XWB family on December 12, 1.[126]..When the plan for the A350 XWB, which incorporates the latest technology and improves operational economy, is announced, the A350-1000 has a capacity and cruising capacity that are almost comparable to the A340-600, so customers are interested in the A340. Got away[127]..Some airlines, such as Emirates and Virgin Atlantic, have canceled orders for the awaiting A340.[128][129].2011 On November 11th, Airbus announced that it would discontinue orders for all A10 types and discontinue production.[32]..Although the A340 2nd generation was fully developed, sales did not grow as much as Airbus expected, with 340 A500-34s and 340 A600-97s, for a total of 131 aircraft.[3][32].. The total production of the A340 series was 377, which was about 777/1 of the 3 that appeared later.[3].

In 2013, Airbus also acknowledged that the A340-600 was inferior to the 777-300ER in operating economy, 4,000.nautical mileWhen flying on a (7,400 km) route, the A340-600 will consume 12 percent more fuel.[130][Annotation 13].. As a result, the A340 was defeated by a competitor with excellent fuel efficiency.[131]The development of the A340 and A330 was one of the catalysts for Airbus to enter full-scale competition with Boeing.[132].. In the development of the A340, by adopting a product strategy of sharing various systems not only with the sister aircraft A330 but also with the small twin-engine A320, Airbus distributed the development cost among several models and developed it as a completely new development. We were able to introduce an advanced fly-by-wire system and a complete glass cockpit to the small A320, which was costly and risky.[133]..Airbus1988 To A320, 1993 to A340, A330,A321[Annotation 14]Started delivery of new models one after another[135], Became a passenger aircraft manufacturer with a product lineup from small aircraft for short distances to large aircraft for long distances. Until the early 1980s, Airbus' share of the commercial aircraft market was either reaching or not reaching 20 percent of the number of aircraft delivered.[135]In 1999, Airbus surpassed Boeing in the number of orders for the first time, and in 2003, Airbus took the top spot in the world in terms of both orders and deliveries.[136]..The commercial aircraft sector, excluding regional aircraft, became an oligopoly between Airbus and Boeing, and Airbus grew to compete with Boeing.[136].

Features of the aircraft

Shape/Structure

The A340 is a wide-body aircraft with two aisles in the cabin, with a cantilevered main wing in the low wing position.MonoplaneAnd under the main wingTurbo fan engine4 shots.Horizontal stabilizerIs placed on the lower wing and on the tail of the fuselageAuxiliary power unitAsGas turbine engineIs built in[55][74][137][138].Landing gearIs a front wheel arrangement, with a central leg depending on the specifications[55][74]..The first-generation A1-340 / -200 was designed to maximize commonality with its sister A300.[24]..The second-generation A2-340 / -500, which was later developed, had improvements such as an extension of the fuselage, expansion of the main and tail wings, and engine changes.[77][3].

For the fuselage cross section of the A340, the design of the perfect circular cross section with a diameter of 300 meters (5.64 inches) developed for the A222 was used as it is, and the capacity was increased by extending the fuselage length.[139].. The shortest fuselage on the A340 is the A340-200, which has a total length of 59.4 meters.[117]..The larger the model name number, the longer the fuselage length, and the longest fuselage A340-600 has a total length of 75.36 meters.747-8 Was the longest jet airliner in the world until it was completed.[140][84]..With a long fuselage, the A340-500 / -600 on the groundTaxiingSince it is necessary to pay attention to maneuvering at the time, a camera was installed on the top of the vertical stabilizer and a function to display an image on the cockpit display was added to assist the pilot's maneuvering.[89][96].

Table 1: Main specifications of the wing plane
Wingspan (m)Wing area (m2)Receding angle (degrees) on the 1/4 chord
A340-200 / -30060.30361.630
A340-500 / -60063.45439.431.1
Source:Hamada 2013a, p. 96,Hamada 2013b, p. 97

The main wing of the A340 istaperAt the tip of the wing with a swept wing withWingletHave[55].Wing plane shapeThe main parameters of are as shown in Table 1, and the size differs between the 1st generation (A340-200 / -300) and the 2nd generation (A340-500 / -600).[76].. Almost the same as 747-200WingspanThe wing area is about two-thirds, and the aspect ratio[Annotation 5]Is a big wing[36].

Of the main wingAirfoilIs basically thick in the first half and thin in the second half, but it changes continuously from the base on the fuselage side to the tip of the wing.[141][36]..Especially in the outer wing, the latter half is shaped like a large scoop.[61], This is an airfoil device called rear loading that can generate lift even in the latter half of the wing.[142][143]..Looking at the wing thickness ratio, which is the maximum wing thickness divided by the chord length for the first-generation wing, it changes continuously and finely, with a maximum of 1% at the base of the wing, and the inner and outer wings. 15.25% at the border, 11.27% at the edge of the outer wing, 9.86% at the winglet, 10.60% on average.[144][36][141]..It is presumed that the characteristics of these wings are designed to maximize the fuel tank volume inside the wings.[61].

The 2nd generation wing is not a completely new design, and the chord direction has been expanded by inserting an additional structure with a taper between the front girder and the front edge of the 1st generation wing structure.[76][3]..In addition, in the 2nd generation main wing, the wing tip side has been extended, the winglet has been slightly enlarged, and the mounting angle has also been changed.[76]..Due to the expansion of the main wing, the fuel tank volume in the wing has increased by 1% compared to the first generation.[61].

The moving blades of the main wingHigh lift device,Aileron,SpoilerAlthough there are differences in dimensions between the two generations, the number and arrangement are the same.[145][146]..The high-lift device is arranged with 7 slats on the front edge and 2 flaps on the trailing edge.[144]..The slats are tapered toward the wing tip, and the drive system is divided into one on the fuselage side and the remaining six.[28]..The flap is a single-piece, relatively simple Fowler-type flap.[144][28]..The aileron is divided into two parts only on the wing tip side of the trailing edge, and there is no high-speed aileron on the inner side.[144][28].Fly by wireWith the introduction of the aileron, in addition to its original role, it will be controlled to play the role of a flap during takeoff and landing, and the role of a ground spoiler after landing.[37]..There are 6 spoilers,Air brakeIn addition to having a role as a ground spoiler, the outer 5 piecesrollAlso used for maneuvering[144].

TailIs also different between the 1st and 2nd generations, and the 2nd generation is larger.[3]..1th generationHorizontal stabilizerIs a newly designed A340 / A330 with a movable horizontal stabilizer and oneElevatorConsists of and has a wingspan of 19.4 meters[33][147][148]..1th generationVertical tailThe A310 was slightly reinforced, but the same production jig was used.[33]..Vertical stabilizer and oneRudderConsists of[147], Height is 8.3 meters[148]..The same vertical stabilizer as the small A310 is relatively small on the large A340, and it only cancels when one engine stops and the left and right thrusts are out of balance.MomentWill take some time to generate with the rudder[45]..Airbus supports this with a maneuvering system, which is equipped with a function that automatically controls the spoiler and aileron of the main wing to adjust the moment when the engine stops.[45]..The 2nd generation horizontal stabilizer has been redesigned to have a larger area than the 1st generation and has a wingspan of 22.39 meters.[86][77][82]..The second-generation vertical stabilizer uses a tail height reduced by 2 meters, which was developed for the A330-200, and is 0.5 meters higher than the first-generation one.[86][77]..The rudder of the horizontal stabilizer and the elevator of the vertical stabilizer are one each even in the second generation.[149].

In both generations, a fuel tank is installed inside the horizontal stabilizer, and a system that moves fuel to and from the main wing tank and controls the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft is installed.[33][45]..This system is similar to the one put into practical use on the A310, and can suppress the trim drag generated when maintaining the aircraft attitude.[45][33].

The landing gear has a front leg at the nose, a main landing gear at the base of the left and right main wings, and a central leg at the center of the fuselage depending on the specifications.[33].. Common to the entire A340 series, the main landing gear is a 4-wheel bogie type that retracts inward, and the front landing gear is a 2-wheel type that is stored forward.[33][150][151]..The design of the A300 / A310 was used as it was for the front legs.[26]..The main landing gear is newly designed for the A340 / A330, and the pedestal has been extended to accommodate the larger aircraft.[26]..Therefore, on the ground, the main landing gear is higher than the front landing gear, and the nose is slightly lowered.[26]..The central leg is optional on the A340-200 / -300 and is pulled backwards on a two-wheeled basis.[33]..The heavier A340-500 / -600 has a central leg as standard equipment, reinforced with four wheels, and the pull-in direction has changed to the front.[89][3]..In addition, a steering function has been added to this central leg so that it passively turns according to the movement of the aircraft.[89]..On the main landing gear and the second generation center legAnti-skid functionEquipped with carbon disc brakes with[150][151].

For aircraft with a long fuselage, there is a limit to the raising angle at takeoff so that the rear part of the fuselage does not touch the ground, but the larger the raising angle, the better the takeoff performance.[152]..Therefore, Airbus developed a main landing gear called a locking bogey and adopted it in the A340 / A330.[152]..In this method, the combination of bogie wheels and struts lifts only the front wheels of the main landing gear and grounds the rear wheels to the runway as much as possible, which makes it possible to raise the aircraft and increase the angle. Ta[152]..When raising with the locking bogie main landing gear, the rear wheel that is in contact with the ground serves as a fulcrum and a large load is applied, but on the other hand, the lift of the main wing also increases due to the increased raising angle, so the actual load on the wheel increases. Airbus says not[153].

radarElectrical equipment such as communication equipment, seats, etc.GalleyThe composition of the interior parts such as, and the structural materials of the A340 excluding the engine is 80% metal by weight.Composite material18%, other ingredients 2%[154]..The highest percentage of metals usedAluminum alloy67% of the total, followed bySteelIs 7%,Titanium alloyIs 6 percent (weight ratio)[154].. In the second generation of the A340, a new aluminum alloy was adopted for the fuselage skin and piping.[93][94], The area where composite materials are used is expanding[155][92].. The composite materials used in the A340 includeCarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic (AFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) are listed, and the main parts of use are as follows († is the part of use added from A340-500 / -600).[156][157][89][57][155][92][Annotation 15].

  • CFRP: For wing body fairings, wing blades, track railsFairing, Winglets, engineCowling,Rudder,Elevator, Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, landing gear storage door, rearPressure bulkhead, Fuselage longitudinal material[Annotation 9]
  • AFRP: NoseRadome
  • GFRP: Leading edge of vertical stabilizer and trailing edge of fixing part

In addition, two new technologies, called superplastic molding and diffusion bonding, have been adopted as part of the airframe manufacturing process.[144].

Flight system

The A340 cockpit has a common layout throughout the series[95], The pilots required for flightCaptainCopilotTwo people[158]..This layout follows that developed on the A320 and is virtually identical to its sister A330, except for the engine throttle lever.[2]..There is no control stick in front of the cockpit, and the side sticks on the window side of each cockpitpitchrollTo steer[159][56]..Six color displays are arranged on the front, so-calledGlass cockpitHas been[2]..A cathode ray tube was used for this display when the A340-200 / -300 was introduced, but when the A340-500 / -600 was developed.Liquid crystal display Replaced by (LCD) and later changed to LCD on the A340-200 / -300[95].

The flight control system of the A340 is based on the fly-by-wire flight control system of the A320, with changes and improvements tailored to the A340's aircraft.[2][63][56]..In this system, the pilot can use the side sticksRudder pedalThe information that you operated is input to the flight control computer.[2]..The command value calculated by the flight control computer is transmitted to each rotor blade by an electric signal, and the rotor blade is driven by the hydraulic actuator.[2]..Even during pilot maneuvering, the computer controls each blade after calculating that the load and speed applied to the aircraft do not exceed the permissible value or stall.[2][56].. The A340 is equipped with five flight control computers, three of which are separated from the primary computer and the remaining two are separated from the secondary computer.[2][56]..Since the primary computer and the secondary computer have different hardware logic, the software is also different and expensive.RedundancyThe system is designed to have[2][56]..It also has a mechanical flight control system as a backup for the horizontal stabilizer and rudder.[56][57].

The A340 series has the same operating qualifications for all models and does not require model conversion training.[57]..For Airbus aircraft with a common cockpit layout and systemMutual crew qualification(CCQ) system is set, from small A340 to large A330 including sister aircraft of A320 / AXNUMXA380Up to, pilots who are qualified to operate any model can acquire qualifications for other models through short-term conversion training.[117][2]。CCQによる転換訓練の期間は、A340からA330では1日、A330からA340では3日間であるほか、A320ファミリーからA340へは9日間、A340からA320へは8日間とされている[59][117].. It is said that the reason why the training period from A340 to A330 is longer than the training period from A330 to A340 is that it is a shift from twin-engine to four-engine system and more learning is required.[59].

Guest room/freight room

Since the A340 uses the same fuselage cross section as the A300, the seating arrangement is basically the same as the A300.[160][33]..The door arrangement of the guest room is symmetrical, and there is one set of doors for getting on and off at the front, rear, and front of the main wing.[161][162]..The A340-200 / -300 / -500 has one emergency exit on the left and right behind the main wing, and the A1-340 has one emergency exit on the left and right on the main wing.[161][162].

Two passages in the room, standardEconomy classThe seating arrangement is 2-4-2-8AbreastSo, it is also possible to close the interval to 3 abrest of 3-3-9.[33][4]..The seating arrangement, galley and restroom arrangement can be flexibly arranged and specified according to the airline's request.[34]..In the seating example presented by Airbus,first classIs 2-2-2, 6 abrest,business classIs 2-3-2, butSwiss International Airlines,Thai AirwaysSome airlines have introduced full flat seats in first class to make them 1-2-1 4 abreasts, and some airlines have business class 2-2-2 6 abreasts.[163]..In addition, the A340-500 used by Singapore Airlines for the longest route in the world was operated as business class with all seats abolished economy class.[115].. Since many airlines introduced the A340 as equipment for long-haul flights, there were conspicuous cases of adopting three-class seating arrangements.[99]..On the other hand, it is not uncommon for airlines to operate in two classes, economy and business, by advancing the upgrade of business class.[45].. For airlines that are promoting two-class, it will be between business and economyPremium economyMany airlines are operating as a three-class configuration with the addition of[45].

The interior of the A340 1st generation cabin basically uses the A310 design, with overhead bins on the left, right and center seats.[45]..There was nothing new in the interior space,[34],newAir conditionerIs equipped to improve the quietness of the room[164]..The basic seating arrangement remains the same in the second generation, but the interior has been improved to include LED lighting and a new entertainment system for seats, and overhead bins with increased volume and less oppressive feeling have been used. Or[87][86]..In addition to the fixed standard overhead bin in the center row, you can also select a pivot type that lowers only when opening and closing. In first class and business class, the ceiling height is increased without installing a bottle in the center row. It is also possible to take it high[87].

The underfloor cargo compartment is divided into two front and rear compartments with the main wing in between, and two LD-2 air cargo containers can be mounted in parallel in each compartment.[34][165][98]..Furthermore, at the rearmost part, there is a section for bulk cargo.[34][165][98]..The cargo compartment door is on the starboard side, with large outward-opening doors in the front and rear cargo compartments where containers can be loaded, and small inward-opening doors in the bulk cargo compartment.[166][167].

Airbus has developed an additional central tank (ACT) that can be mounted in the underfloor cargo compartment according to the container standard, and the A340-200 / -300 has a specification that can be equipped with ACT.[34][168].. The A340-500 / -600 no longer has an ACT setting, but there is a module in the underfloor cargo compartment that allows passengers to have a restroom, a occupant's restroom, and a galley.[169][35][170]..By adopting these modules, space on the main deck will be created, and it will be possible to increase the number of seats and install lounges, etc.[87]..There is an example of Lufthansa that actually adopted this underfloor cargo room restroom layout, which is almost unique.[171].

Relationship with the A330

As mentioned in the "History" section, the first generation of the A340 and the A1 (A330-330) were decided to be officially developed at the same time as sister aircraft, and the components of both aircraft were shared as much as possible.The fuselage cross section is the same between the two aircraft, and the tail is also common, including the tail wings.[26][18]..The main wings are structurally the same except for the engine mounting part, and are aerodynamically exactly the same.[27][28].. The A330 engine is installed at the position corresponding to the inner wing side engine (340nd and 2rd engines) of the A3.[26]..The leading edge of the main wing of the engine mounting part has no slats and is a fixed leading edge, and the A340 has two fixed parts on one side and the A2 has one fixed part.[26]..Also, the landing gear is the same for the A340 and A330 except for the central leg.[33][26]..The flight control system and cockpit are basically the same, the difference is related to the engine, the A340 has four engine throttle levers, and the A4 has two.[10][57].

Comparing the A340 and A330 models, the A340-300 and A330-300 have the same fuselage length, the only difference being related to the number of engines.[26].. Both the A340-200 and A330-200 were developed as short-body types, but the A330-200 has a shorter body length.[172], The total length is 340 meters for the A200-59.40 and 330 meters for the A200-58.82.[173]..Another difference is that the height of the vertical stabilizer has been increased on the A330-200.[174].. In the second generation of the A340, the main wings and tail wings have been expanded and the fuselage length has also been extended.[77], Has less in common with the A1 than the first generation.

Airbus has positioned the four-engine A4 for long-haul routes and the twin-engine A340 for short- and medium-haul routes.[73]..In fact, the first flights of the A340-200 and A340-300 were transatlantic routes connecting Germany and France with the United States, and the A330 first served domestic flights in France.[4]..After that, the extended cruising range A330-200 was developed, and the range of operation of the A330 by ETOPS was gradually expanded, and the A330 is now in service on long-haul routes.[175].. For both the A340 and A330, options have been developed to increase the maximum takeoff weight even after the start of delivery, and the cruising capacity and capacity are gradually improving.[176]Comparing the standard number of seats and cruising range based on the data as of 2004, the short distance is A13,000 and the long distance is A330 with a boundary of about 340 kilometers.[72][177].

Series composition

Table 2: List of model names and equipped engines
ModelengineType certification acquisition
A340-211CFMI CFM56-5C2November
A340-212CFMI CFM56-5C3November
A340-213CFMI CFM56-5C4November
A340-311CFMI CFM56-5C2November
A340-312CFMI CFM56-5C3November
A340-313CFMI CFM56-5C4November
A340-541RR Trent 553-61 / 553A2-61November
A340-542RR Trent 556A2-61November
A340-642RR Trent 556-61 / 556A2-61November
A340-643RR Trent 560A2-61November
  • Source:EASA 2019, pp. 12, 18, 25, 31, 39, 46, 53, 60
  • CFMI: CFM International,Rr: Rolls-Royce

The A340 series consists of four models: A340-200, -300, -500, and -600.[4]..The first-generation A1-340 and A200-340 officially began development in 300 and began service on routes in 1987, respectively.[178][72]。第2世代のA340-500とA340-600は1997年に正式な開発が開始され、A340-600が2002年、A340-500が2003年に初就航した[179][111].. There is no cargo type on the A340[32],Business machineSpecifications are available for all models[180].

The first generation of the A340 engine is from CFMICFM56-5Series, 2nd generationRrOnly the company's Trent 500 series[181], Each engine has a detailed model, and as shown in Table 2, the last two digits of the model name of the A340 are assigned according to the equipped engine.

A340-200

The A340-200 is the first generation of the A340, which was developed at the same time as the A300-340, and was launched by Lufthansa in 1.[182].. It has the shortest fuselage in the A340 series, and the standard number of seats is about 3 to 240 in 260 class configurations.[183], Up to 3 LD-26 containers can be loaded in the underfloor cargo compartment[165]..The engine is equipped with CFMI's CFM56-5C series.[4].. Initially, the A340-200 had a maximum takeoff weight of 253.5 tons, but soon 260 tons became the standard specification, with a standard cruising range of 13,399 kilometers.[34].

After that, three ACTs were installed in the underfloor cargo compartment to increase the fuel capacity and the maximum takeoff weight was raised to 3 tons, and the first flight was made on December 275, 1997.[184]..This 275 ton spec has a range performance of 8,000 nautical miles (14,816 kilometers) and was named after it the A340-8000.[185][117]..At Airbus, the standard specification of the A340-200 was changed to the A340-8000 specification, and it was marketed to an airline that was considering opening a long-haul route, but it did not lead to an order, and only one aircraft was produced with this specification. Met[185][186]。航空会社からの発注は、A340-200よりも収容力の大きいA340-300に集中し、加えて航続力・収容力ともにA340-200を上回るA340-500/-600が開発されるとA340-200の受注は途絶え、合計28機で生産を終えた[117][185].

A340-300

Table 3: Maximum takeoff weight and range of the A340-300
Maximum takeoff weightCruising distance
Standard specifications260 tons12,001 km(6,480 nautical miles)
Options271 tons13,099 km (7,073 nautical miles)
275 tons13,520 km (7,300 nautical miles)
Enhanced type276.5 tons13,705 km (7,400 nautical miles)
Source:Aoki 2010, p. 40,Aoki 2010, p. 41,Ase 2010, p. 50

Development of the A340-300 began at the same time as the A340-200, and it was the first model in the A340 series to complete the aircraft.[182].. First serviced by Air France in 1993[4].. The A340-300 is positioned as a long-body type in the first generation of the A340, and has the same body length as the twin-engine sister aircraft A1-330.[11][26]..The standard number of seats is 3 in 295 classes, and the number of LD-3 containers that can be installed in the underfloor cargo compartment is 32.[11][165]..The engine will be equipped with the CFM340-200C series, the same as the A56-5.[4]..As with the A340-200, the standard maximum takeoff weight was initially 253.5 tons and later increased to 260 tons.[34].. As shown in Table 340, the A300-3 also developed an option to increase the maximum takeoff weight and standard cruising range, and the 275-ton specification was equipped with one ACT in the underfloor cargo compartment to increase the fuel capacity.[34].

Later, the "A276.5-56 Enhanced Type" was developed, which raised the maximum takeoff weight to 5 tons and replaced the engine with the CFM4-340C300 / P.[Annotation 16][4][185][17].. ACT is also available for the A340-300 augmented version[185][17]However, it was also possible to allocate the increase in takeoff weight not to the increase in onboard fuel but to the increase in cargo loading capacity and number of seats.[185].. After the development of the A340-500 / -600, sales of the A340-300 augmented model continued, but orders gradually disappeared, and the aircraft that first flew on September 2008, 9 was finally produced with a total of 17 aircraft. Finished[185][17][186].

A340-500

The A340-500 was decided to be developed at the same time as the A340-2 as the second generation of the A340, and is a long-range type with the longest cruising power in the A600 series.[187].. First serviced by Emirates in 2003[110][112]..The fuselage length has been extended by 340 meters compared to the A300-3.2, and the main and tail wings have been enlarged.[3][85]..The standard number of seats is 3 in 313 classes, and the total number of LD-3 containers that can be installed in the underfloor cargo compartments in the front and rear is 30.[3][98]..The engine to equipRrThe company's Trent 500 series[89].

In addition to expanding the fuel tank capacity inside the main wing by increasing the size of the main wing, the fuel capacity of the entire fuselage has increased to about 340 times that of the A300-1.5 due to the addition of tanks inside the fuselage.[35][85][86]..On the other hand, the setting of the additional fuel tank ACT has disappeared.[35]..Maximum takeoff weight has been increased from the original 368 tons to 372 tons.[87]..In addition, a 380 ton specification was prepared as an option, and finally the 380 ton specification became the standard type.[87][88]..The standard cruising range was initially 16,020 kilometers (8,650 nautical miles), and with the introduction of the 380 ton specification, it increased to 16,668 kilometers (9,000 nautical miles).[87][88].. The A340-500 was the longest-range aircraft in the world until the introduction of the 777-200LR.[99][188].

The A340-500, which sells long flights, has been designed to avoid emergency landings as much as possible.[110]..Equipped with medical equipment that can communicate directly with the medical center, crew members trained to use defibrillators are now on board.[110]..In addition, a surveillance camera is installed in the cargo compartment so that it is possible to check whether a malfunction has occurred or whether a fire has actually occurred when the fire alarm is activated.[110]..In addition, Singapore Airlines' A340-500, which operates on the longest route in the world, will fly on routes with limited landing airfields, so the body will be placed in case a passenger dies during the flight. Had a dedicated compartment[189]..Normally, if a passenger dies during the flight, a row of seats will be used to keep the body dignified, but this dedicated compartment is a facility in case it is not possible to secure an appropriate seating space. Ta[189].

Delivery of the A340-500 took place from 2004 to 2012[3]..There wasn't as much demand as Airbus expected, with a total of 34 aircraft sold.[3]..Five of these were produced with corporate / executive specifications[32].

A340-600

Table 4: Maximum takeoff weight and range of the A340-600
Maximum takeoff weightCruising distance
365 tons13,890 km(7,500 nautical miles)
368 tons14,168 km (7,650 nautical miles)
380 tons14,631 km (7,900 nautical miles)
Source:Aoki 2010, p. 31

It has the longest fuselage in the A340 series and made its maiden flight in 2011.747-8 Was the longest passenger plane in the world until[3][190].. Virgin Atlantic launched routes in 2002[103]..The standard number of seats is 2 in 419 classes and 3 in 380 classes.[3]..The number of LD-3 containers that can be installed in the front and rear underfloor cargo compartments is 42.[98]..The engine is the same as the A340-500RrEquipped with the company's Trent 500 series[89].

Developed first in the second generation, it has the same main and tail wings as the A2-340.[3].. The fuel tank capacity has increased because it uses the same main wings as the A340-500, but the tank inside the fuselage is smaller than the A340-500, and the fuel capacity of the entire fuselage is about 340% less than the A500-1.[35][85][86]..Also, like the A340-500, there is no additional tank ACT setting.[35]..Maximum takeoff weight has been increased from the original 365 tons to 368 tons[87]..In addition, like the A340-500, a 380 ton option was set, which was finally standardized.[87][88]..As the takeoff weight increased, the standard cruising range was also expanded as shown in Table 4.[87].

Delivery of the A340-600 took place from 2002 to 2010[3].. The A340-600 wasn't accepted by the market as much as Airbus expected, with a total production of 97 aircraft.[3]..Of these, two were produced with business machine specifications.[32].

Operational status and characteristics

The A340 entered service mainly on long-haul routes that do not require as much capacity as the 747.[34]..Especially in 2004Singapore AirlinesOpened using the A340-500Singapore --The New York route became the longest direct flight in the world, but when the company later ordered additional A380s and A350 XWBs, Airbus took over all of the company's A340-500s, so the route was launched in November 2013. Paused[191][192][Annotation 17].

According to July 2018 statistics, a total of 7 A30s are in operation at 159 commercial airlines.[1]..About two-thirds of the total, 3 aircraft, are operated by European airlines.[1]..The rest are 27 in Africa, 16 in the Middle East, 11 in Asia / Oceania, 5 in South American airlines, and are not operated by North American airlines.[1]..In North America, Air Canada operated the A340-300 and A340-500, but by 2009 they had given up.[194][195]..An order was placed by Northwest Airlines in the United States, but it was canceled, and no airline introduced the A340 until the end of production.[34].

As of July 2018, the Lufthansa Group is the airline with the largest number of A7s in operation.[1]..Group companiesLufthansa City LineOperates 32 aircraft including[1].. Airlines operating 5 or more aircraft (number of aircraft in parentheses) are in EuropeIberian airlines (17),Scandinavian Airlines (8), Virgin Atlantic (7),Swiss International Airlines (6),TAP Portugal (5) can be mentioned[1]..In africaSouth African Airways (17),Mauritius Airlines (5), in Asia and OceaniaAir Tahiti Nui (5), in the Middle EastMahan airlines (11)[1].

The number of A340s operating has continued to increase since the start of delivery in 1993, but has been declining since peaking in the latter half of the 2000s.[196]..In particular, the A340-200 is from Venezuela as of September 2021.Conviasa AirlinesIs in operation only one[197].. Among the airlines with the highest number of A2000s in operation in the late 340s, European airlinesAir FranceAnd in the Middle EastEmirates Airlines,of AsiaCathay Pasific AirlinesIn 2018, Air France is retiring, leaving only three aircraft, and the latter two companies are no longer in operation.[195][198][1].

Regarding Japanese airlines, All Nippon Airways ordered five A1990s in 5, but they were finally canceled, and even after that, they were not introduced by Japanese airlines until the end of production.[199][198][200][201].

In addition, the A340 has also been adopted by VIP transport aircraft and private VIP aircraft operators.[117]..As a government VIP transport aircraftFrance,Germany,トルコ,Saudi Arabia,(I.e.Used in[202][203].

Number of orders/delivery

A total of 340 A377s were produced and delivered.

Table 5: Orders received/delivered each year (cancellations are subtracted from the initial ordering year)[65]
YearsTotal201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001
Number of orders37720216231281117272
Number of deliveries377204101311242428331622
2000199919981997199619951994199319921991199019891988
Number of orders19224520257251620166432
Number of deliveries192024332819252200000

Major accidents / incidents

As of March 2019, the following six aircraft loss accidents have occurred with the A3, but no fatal accidents have occurred.[204].

Main specifications

Table 6: Main specifications of each model
A340-200A340-300A340-500A340-600
Number of flight crew2 people
Standard number of seats (3 classes)239-263 seats[183]295 seat[117]310 seat[32]380 seat[32]
Standard number of seats (2 classes)300 seat[183]335 seat[183]359 seat[97]419 seat[97]
Maximum number of seats (1 classes)375 seats (420 seats)† 1375 seats (440 seats)† 1375 seat440 seat
Underfloor cargo compartment volume† 2132.4 m3[213]158.4 m3[214]149.7cm3[215]201.7cm3[216]
Length59.39 m63.66 m67.33 m74.77 m
Width60.30 m63.45 m
Height16.83 m16.63 m17.11 m17.29 m
Main wing area361.6 m2[117]439.4 m2[32]
Torso diameter5.64 m
Room width5.28 m[217]
Room manager40.06 m[185]50.35 m[185]53.56 m[116]60.98 m[116]
Maximum fuel-free weight (MZFW)169,000 - 173,000 kg174,000 - 183,000 kg218,000 - 232,000 kg242,000 - 251,000 kg
Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW)253,500 - 275,000 kg253,500 - 276,500 kg368,000 - 380,000 kg365,000 - 380,000 kg
Takeoff runway† 32,990 m[183]3,000 m[183]3,050 m[183]3,100 m[183]
Cruise speedMach0.82[183]Mach 0.83[183]
Maximum cruising speedMach 0.86[217]
Cruising distance13,399 - 14,816 km (7,235 --8,000 nmi)[184][4]12,001 - 13,705 km (6,480 -7,400 nmi)[184][4]16,057 - 16,668 km (8,670-9,000 nmi)[88]13,890 - 14,631 km (7,500-7,900 nmi)[88]
Engine (x4)CFM International CFM56-5C[4]Rolls-Royce Trent 500[3]
Thrust (x4)151 kN249 kN
  • Source: Unless otherwise stated,EASA 2019by.
  • † 1 When equipped with a Type A emergency exit.
  • † 2 Effective volume when the LD-3 cargo container is installed in the front and rear cargo compartments.
  • † 3 Standard sea level,International standard atmosphereValue in.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Including group companies.
  2. ^ Since the number of engines is halved in a twin-engine aircraft, it is not enough to simply double the engine thrust.Passenger aircraft are required to be able to take off safely with the remaining engines even if one engine stops during takeoff.Therefore, a twin-engine engine is required to have enough thrust to take off with only one engine, and in the case of a four-engine engine, it is sufficient if three engines can generate takeoff thrust.Assuming that the thrust required for takeoff and ascent is T, the thrusts required for one twin-engine and four-engine engine are T and T / 2, respectively.As a result, when comparing the total thrust, the twin-engine (1T) is 1 times that of the four-engine (4T / 3).[17][18].
  3. ^ A wing with a receding angle that tilts backwards.Detail isWing plane shapeSee.
  4. ^ a b The value obtained by dividing the thickness of the wing by the chord length (length before and after the wing)[38]. Determined based on aerodynamic characteristics, strength and weight, fuel tank capacity inside the wing, etc.[39].
  5. ^ a b c Aspect ratio is a value obtained by dividing the square of the wing width by the area and indicating the slenderness ratio of the wing.[40]. Larger aspect ratioInductive resistance(Resistance due to lift generation) is reduced, which is advantageous for efficient flight.[40][41][42].
  6. ^ The primary structural member is a structural member that mainly handles the transmission of flight load, ground load, and pressurization load.[46], Such as the members of the girder structure of the main wing[47], The highest safety reliability among structural materials is required[48]..On the other hand, the secondary structure member is a member that does not transmit the main load.[49]The front and trailing edges of the main wing, which exert an aerodynamic function and transmit local loads such as wind pressure to the primary structure, correspond to each other.[47].
  7. ^ The core is the internal combustion engine that generates the engine driving force for the turbofan engine.[52].. Detail isTurbo fan engineSee.
  8. ^ In a turbofan engine, the sucked air is divided into air that is burned and ejected through the core and air that is discharged (bypassed) without passing through the core.[52]..The bypass ratio is the air flow rate that bypasses the core divided by the air flow rate that passes through the core. Generally, the larger this value, the higher the propulsion efficiency.[52][53].. Detail isTurbo fan engineSee.
  9. ^ a b A structural member that extends in the front-rear direction of the fuselage and forms part of the semi-monocoque structure of the fuselage.[90][91].
  10. ^ BAe acquired Marconi Electronic Systems in November 1999 and changed its name[101]
  11. ^ Percentage of departures for paid flights without delays or flight cancellations due to equipment troubles, etc.[105]
  12. ^ Standard seating capacity 3 in 380 classes, cruising range 14,631 kilometers[32].
  13. ^ However, Boeing claims the difference is even greater, with the 777-300ER consuming 34 percent less fuel.[130]
  14. ^ An advanced version of the A320 with an extended fuselage[134].
  15. ^ Aoki 2010According to p. 38, composite materials were also used for floor panels, but no specific material name was given.
  16. ^ The 275 ton specification and the A340-300 augmented version are the A340-300.ESometimes called[4]
  17. ^ Singapore Airlines TheA350 ULRWas introduced and the route was restarted in October 2018.[193].

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  202. ^ "Airbus A340-300”. German Air Force. As of December 2013, 12オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
  203. ^ "What are the world's government-only aircraft and popular aircraft?". BUSINESS INSIDER JAPAN (September 2019, 5). NovemberBrowse.
  204. ^ "Airbus A340 Statistics”(English). Aviation Safety Network (February 2019, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  205. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A340-211 F-GNIA Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG) accident details - Aviation Safety Network. NovemberBrowse.
  206. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A340-312 4R-ADD Colombo-Bandaranayake International Airport (CMB) Accident Details - Aviation Safety Network. NovemberBrowse.
  207. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A340-313X F-GLZQ Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ) Accident Details - Aviation Safety Network. NovemberBrowse.
  208. ^ Transportation Safety Board of Canada, ed. (2007) (English) (PDF), Runway Overrun and Fire, Air France Airbus A340-313 F-GLZQ, Toronto / Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Ontario, 02 August 2005, Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, http://publications.gc.ca/pub?id=345179&sl=0 
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References

Book

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "AIRBUS JET STORY" Ikaros Publishing, 2010.ISBN 978-4-86320-277-1. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Passenger Airliner Yearbook 2014-2015" Ikaros Publishing, 2014.ISBN 978-4-86320-820-9. 
  • Shinji Kuze "History of Passenger Aircraft Development in Shape and Speed: From Pre-Light to Super-Large and Supersonic Aircraft" Japan Aviation Technology Association, 2006.ISBN 4902151146. 
  • Kenichi Lee, "Airplane Design Method," Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., 2011.ISBN 978-4-339-04619-9. 
  • The Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, "19 Edition of the World Aerospace Industry," The Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, 2007.ISSN 09101535. 
  • Japan Aircraft Development Association, "25 Civil Aviation Data Collection" Japan Aircraft Development Association, 2014.National bibliographic number:22406794. 
  • Japan Aircraft Development Association, "29 Civil Aviation Data Collection" Japan Aircraft Development Association, 2018. 
  • Obert, Ed (2009) (English), Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft, ISBN 978-1-58603-970-7 

Papers, journal articles, etc.

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "A330 / A340 Series" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Passenger Airliner Model Series; Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Icarus MOOK>, 2003, pp. 66-82.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "A340 Program From its Planning to Birth and Development" Airline, Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 16-17, 2012a.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "A340 Technical Long-range four-engine aircraft full of advanced technology" "Airline" Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 18-19, 2012b.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Konan Aze "AIRBUS JET CATALOGUE" "Airline" Vol. 30, No. 8, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 48-63, 2010.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Konan Aze "A340 Checkpoint 02 Underfloor Toilet" "Airline" Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, p. 22, 2012.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Sho Tobita "A340 Checkpoint 03 A340 Climbing Performance & Speed" "Airline" Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, p. 22, 2012a.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Sho Tobita "Behind the Discontinuation of A340" "Airline" Vol. 32, No. 2, Ikaros Publishing, p. 23, 2012b.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Takakichi Nakazawa; Mikinari Ibaragi "Overview of the use of aluminum alloys in aircraft and the future (Special feature: Challenge of lightweight metal materials for weight reduction of transportation equipment)" "JFA: Japan Forging Association" Vol. 45 Japan Forging Association, 17- 27 pages, 2014.ISSN 1347-5746 . 
  • Kazuhiro Hamada "JET AIRLINER TECHNICAL ANALYSIS --AIRBUS A330 / A340 (PART1)" "Airline" Vol. 33, No. 9, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 92-97, 2013a.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Kazuhiro Hamada "JET AIRLINER TECHNICAL ANALYSIS --AIRBUS A330 / A340 (PART2)" "Airline" Vol. 33, No. 10, Ikaros Publishing, pp. 92-97, 2013b.ISSN 0285-3035 . 
  • Akio Yamazaki, "A330 / A340—The Coming Frontal Showdown," Aviation Information, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 72-77, 2009a.ISSN 0450-6669 . 
  • Akio Yamazaki, "The Appearance of 747 Eaters-The Dawn of the AB War," Aviation Information, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 80–85, 2009b.ISSN 0450-6669 . 
  • Akio Yamazaki, "Boeing of Counterattack," Aviation Information, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 86–89, 2009c.ISSN 0450-6669 . 
  • Fuminori Yamazaki, "New Developments in Aircraft Technology in the American Commercial Aircraft Industry," Ritsumeikan Business Administration, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 217-244, 2009.ISSN 04852206. NOT 110007530635. 
  • Beauclair, Nicole (2002), “Airbus technology key”, Interavia 57 (666): 16-18, ISSN 14233215 
  • Brière, Dominique; Traverse, Pascal (1993), “AIRBUS A320 / A330 / A340 electrical flight controls --A family of fault-tolerant systems” (English), Digest of Papers FTCS-23. The Twenty-Third International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing (IEEE): 616-623, two:10.1109 / FTCS.1993.627364 
  • Kingsley-Jones, Max; Sobie, Brendan (2005), “THE LONG HELLO” (English), Flight International 167 (4983): 30-31,35-39, ISSN 00153710, http://search.proquest.com/docview/225107322 NovemberBrowse. 
  • Kingsley-Jones, Max (2014), “Airbus and Rolls-Royce plan to revitalise A340's appeal” (English), Flight International 184 (5420): 10-11, ISSN 00153710, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1477203849 NovemberBrowse. 
  • Pacchione, M .; Telgkamp, ​​J. (2006), “Challenges of the metallic fuselage”, Proceedings of the 25th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences-ICAS: Paper ICAS 2006-4.5.1, http://www.icas.org/ICAS_ARCHIVE/ICAS2006/ABSTRACTS/195.HTM NovemberBrowse. 
  • Pora, Jérôme (2001), “Composite materials in the airbus A380–from history to future”, Proc. of ICCM13, Plenary lecture, CD-ROM 
  • Thomas, Geoff (1992), “New Airbus Industrie'Airliners on Course for Long-Haul Era.” (English) (DjVu), ICAO Journal (International Civil Aviation Organization) 47 (1): 4-7, ISSN 1014-8876  

Online resources

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