Christmas dinner at a restaurant that opens this year "The Steel House" in Otemachi, Kokurakita-ku
If you write the contents roughly
Starting with amuse, you can enjoy the hotel's signature course meal, which offers a total of 8 dishes including cold appetizers, soups, fish dishes, meat dishes, desserts, bread, and coffee, in a fashionable space.
Christmas at the hotel "THE STEEL HOUSE" in Otemachi, Kokurakita-ku ... → Continue reading
It is a local media that makes you want to know more about Kitakyushu.We will focus on things, things, and people in Kitakyushu, focusing on gourmet food, outing information, and event information.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
"KojienIn the "meat" section of "Meat", the first explanation is "eating meat such as fish, birds and beasts", and the second explanation is "meat of birds and beasts to be eaten". (It is a dictionary and there is no more detailed explanation).
When we say meat in Japanbirds(mainlychicken) OrbeastOften refers to the meat of.Same as birds and beastsAnimalIsFishesOften, it is customary to think of it as a "fish".When we dare to refer to the edible part of fish, we call it "fish meat" and "fish meat(Gyoniku) "is sometimes expressed.
In English, edible meatBritish: meatI call it.In English, it is sometimes called "fish meat" or "fish flesh".
SlaughterRight after筋肉It is,Postmortem rigidityTherefore, it has a hard texture and cannot be used as it is for food.Therefore, it is edible after being hardened after a certain aging (described later).Those that have undergone the hardening process by aging in this way are sometimes called meat in order to distinguish them from the muscles in the living body.
Whether the tissue associated with meat is called meat is usually in skeletal muscleBlood vesselandNerveSubcutaneous associated with tissues and skeletal muscleAdipose tissueAnd between musclesAdipose tissueIs also treated as being included in "meat" in the narrow sense.If bones are attached at the meat stage (chicken thighs with bones orSpareribsEtc.), but the definition of such cases is unclear.
Parts that are distributed as meat,Skeletal muscleAnd products other than skinLivestock by-productsOf these, edible organs are called edible organs.So-called offal, abbreviatedOffalIt has been traditionally called (offal meat).Actuallydiaphragm(Harami-Sagari), Although it is a skeletal muscle, it is classified as a viscera / by-product because it has been regarded as a part of the internal organs by the conventional business practice.Although such parts are scientifically classified as meat, they are distributed as edible by-products in commercial transactions.
Animals that become meat
Livestock meat (meat livestock meat)
Generally, domesticated mammals are called meat animals.牛,Dream Pork,sheep,goat(goat),(I.e.,reindeer, Buffalo (buffalo),yak,dog,camel,ロ バ,Mule,RabbitEtc. are used.Details of the meat are in each article (beef,豚 肉,Mutton (cotton lamb),Goat meat,horsemeat,reindeer,Buffalo,yak,Dog meat).
Pork and beef are mainly consumed, and other than that, mutton is consumed at a fraction of that of beef, which is insignificant.
Serve for food家禽(Breed birds) are called eclipse birds.Generally chicken,duck,Turkey,Guinea Fowl,ガ チ ョ ウ,Quail,Rock pigeonAnd so on.However, even other poultry are defined as eating birds when they are used for food.
Among the poultry meatchickenIt is by far the most consumed meat in the world along with cows and pigs.For other meats, turkey consumption is in the United StatesChristmasExcept for the extreme growth during this period, it is insignificant compared to chicken.
Other terrestrial animals
As wild animal meat,boar,Deer,bear,RabbitAnd so on,huntingBe eaten.In Europe such as FranceJibieIt has a tradition of being loved by people, and it is evaluated as high-class meat, and it is often served in restaurants, so hunters are also active in trying to meet that demand, and a reasonable amount is supplied.Demand is growing in Japan as well, and production and consumption are increasing.
Over 300 million heads a year in AustraliaKangaroo meatIs produced by commercial hunting.Depending on the areaEdible batThere are also.Also, non-poultry birdshuntingIt may be captured and used for food.
Various in the wildbirdsHowever, it is hunted and supplied by hunters in the world.In France, the meat of wild birds is also called "Gibier" and is loved.
Mallard,duck,Partridge,pheasant,Grouse And so on.In Japan during the Edo period (beef and pork were not eaten at all)duck(Duck) meat "duck meat" is eaten, duck meat has a certain reputation, duck pot (duck nabe) is offered at high-end stores, duck soba (duck soba) is offered at long-established soba shops etc. ing.
- Marine mammals
- A whale,Dolphin,Sea lion,sealSuch,Marine mammalsEdible part of.seafoodIt is classified as, and may not be classified as meat.
- ワ ニ,ヘ ビ,カ メMeat such as is sometimes bred and eaten in addition to the wild.
- カ エ ルIs also cultivated, and meat such as thighs may be used for food.
- seafood,crustaceanThe edible meat of aquatic organisms is often not called meat.
Ingredients and functions
This section describes the main ingredients of meat and their effects on nutrition, taste and aroma, as well as health functions.
- Meat protein is mainlyMuscle fiberThe proteins that make up, the proteins that are dissolved in, andConnective tissueIt is divided into the proteins that make up.
- Most of the lipids in meatNeutral lipidHowever, most of them are distributed in "intermuscular adipose tissue" and "intramuscular adipose tissue" (so-called marbling).Due to the presence of marbling, the fat content varies widely, with beef loin (longissimus chest muscle) exceeding 40% and pork loin exceeding 10% in recent years.It also contains phospholipids, which are localized in membranes such as cell membranes.
- Of particular importance to the inorganic substances in meat鉄Is.actuallyHem ironIn the form ofMyoglobinandhemoglobinExists as.
- Especially in porkVitamin B1It is well known that it contains a large amount of (thiamine).
家禽Beef, pork, sheep, horse, goat meat, not including (birds) or fishRed meatIt is said that high intakes are not the best diet to stay healthy than bird fish beans due to the increased risk of colorectal cancer, heart disease and diabetes...Included in meatHem ironIs a carcinogenN-Nitroso compound(NitrosamineEtc.).
Marbled meatBecause the fat content is too high, depending on your health condition (lack of exercise, etc.), you may be instructed not to eat extremely fat meat.Animal fatToo much intakeLifestyle-related diseasesIt is regarded as a problem because of the relationship with.
- More vegetable oils than animal fats "Dietary Guidelines for Health Promotion" 1985
- Stop taking too much fat and get a good balance of fat from animals, plants and fish "Dietary Guidelines" 2000
Pork is an excellent source of vitamin B1, which Japanese people tend to lack.
Sensory properties and ingredients
The sensory characteristics of meat, such as taste, aroma, and appearance, are brought about by the ingredients contained.
- As a taste ingredient of meat,acidityPresentLactic acidIncludingOrganic acid,UmamiPresentamino acid,Nucleic acid(Inosinic acid)andpeptide,SaltyPresentInorganic saltKind,sweet tastePresentReducing sugarand so on.In reality, umami and sourness are considered to be important.The taste of fat is also assumed, but it is not clear whether it is a taste or aroma.
- The "meat-like aroma" that characterizes meat is brought about by multiple components, and it is believed that there is no so-called core component.The ingredients differ depending on the type of meat, and the current situation is that it cannot be explained unconditionally.Regarding the bad smell of meat, it is derived from so-called sexual odor derived from males and feces.IndoleThe odor of the system and the oxidative odor generated by storage are known, and the identification of each component is in progress.
- It is considered that the texture of meat is mainly brought about by the proteins that make up muscle fibers and the proteins that make up intramuscular connective tissue.
- The red color that characterizes meatMyoglobinIt is due to.The color of myoglobin varies depending on the type of derivative, but the preferred bright red color is due to oxymyoglobin, which is myoglobin bound to oxygen.When oxymyoglobin is further oxidizedMetmyoglobinHowever, this metmyoglobin has a brown color that consumers do not like.This is why the color deteriorates when the meat is left unattended..
- Differences in sensory characteristics depending on the breed
- It is thought that the taste, aroma, and texture differ depending on the animal species, but the actual difference is the aroma and texture, and it has been clarified that the taste does not differ between animals.
MeatFunctional foodAlthough there are not many examples of treating it as, there is an example of introducing the above-mentioned good absorption of iron as functionality.
In the early 21st century, mainlyLivestockAnimals raised bySlaughterhouseSent to (slaughterhouse)slaughter(Slaughtered, slaughtered birds) and dismantled to produce meat..And if necessary, aging, ham, etc.Processed meatIt becomes a raw material of.
It was often delivered directly to the chef of a restaurant that serves gibier (wildlife hunting meat) dishes, but there are also vendors that specialize in the dismantling and aging of gibier.
Fattening is the feeding and management of livestock for the purpose of obtaining meat.Fattening is rarely performed immediately after birth, and generally, those grown up to the age suitable for fattening are used for fattening.During the fattening period, management is carried out so that not only the meat is sufficiently produced but also the meat quality is sufficiently improved.To get 1 kg of beef, 10 times as much grain is needed.
originallyDairy cowHowever, even if the cattle are scrapped and shipped as meat, they may be fattened for a certain period of time without being shipped as they are and then edible.
Meat quality varies depending on genetic factors, feed components, and feeding environment.
Aging isPostmortem rigidityThis is a manufacturing process that is performed because raw meat cannot be used for food.The stiff meat becomes softer again when stored at a lower temperature (Hardening) The flavor increases.It is thought that this is because the muscle source fibers are fragmented by the proteolytic enzyme protease remaining in the muscle cells, but Ca in the muscle is also considered.2+There is also a theory that ions are involved..Aging is basically done at the carcass stage.
The time required for aging varies depending on the breed. When stored at 2-5 ° C, cattle are hardened in 7-10 days, pigs in 3-5 days, and chickens in about half a day.In the case of cattle, etc., not only the hardening but also the unique aroma generated by aging is sufficiently generated, so that the cow may be aged for a longer period of time even after being sufficiently hardened..
The distribution form of meat is largeCarcass,Carcass,Partial meat,MeatIt is divided into.Also,Processed goodsIt may be distributed as.
- The body of a slaughtered or slaughtered animal is called a slaughtered body.Both before and after removing the internal organs are called slaughtered bodies.
- From carcasses in meat and livestock内 臓And so onLivestock by-productsThe carcass from which the part corresponding to is removed is called carcass, and in many cases, the carcass is cut to the left and right at the midline.In Japan, rating and auction are performed at the carcass stage.In bovine carcass,kidneyAnd whether or not to leave the peripheral fat on is different from country to country, and in Japan it is common to leave the kidney and peripheral fat on.
- Partial meat
- The carcass is further cut for each part, and it is unnecessaryfat,boneThe meat that has been removed is called partial meat.There is a trading standard for partial meat for each breed of cattle, pigs, etc., and it is prepared based on that standard.The standard for partial meat differs from country to country in the position and name of the cut, and is standardized based on the historical business practices of each country.
- Partial meat,retailSlices, diced, shredded, etc.Minced meatThe meat prepared in such a way is called meat.
- Processed goods
- Meat is often processed into hams and sausages, and meat is often distributed and retailed in the form of prepared foods.
Meat may be transported as it is, as a carcass or partial meat as a chilled meat, or as a frozen meat.Partial meat is often shipped in vacuum packaging.
When transported by living body, it is basically transported from the farmer to the market (slaughterhouse).
Meat is rated according to objective standards, and the price is formed by the result.Rating standards have been established in several countries, of whichThe United States of America,Australia,JapanDescribes things.
The United States of America
In the United States, the USDA rating system[Annotation 1]Has been established, and beef is rated on a scale of eight.Unlike Japan, pork has established standards for crossbreeding (marbled meat).
In Australia, ratings are based on a standard called Meat Standard Australia (MSA).Unlike Japan and the United States, it is characterized by being rated at the stage of partial meat, not carcass.
In Japan, Japanese meat rating standards for beef and pork[Annotation 2] Rating is done by.
- Beef rating
- The beef rating is determined by determining the "yield grade" for good meat quality from A to C (A is the best) and the "meat quality grade" for good meat quality from 1 to 5 (5 is the best). Do it with.The yield grade is determined from the size of loin and the thickness of subcutaneous fat, and the meat quality grade is determined from the appearance of the incised surface of the carcass cut between the 6th and 7th thoracic vertebrae.The meat quality grade is judged by crossbreeding (so-called marbling), meat color, fat color, meat texture and tightness.This rating method has a problem that it is regarded as low grade of lean meat having high quality but low fat.
- Pork rating
- Pork is rated at the carcass stage, but unlike beef, it is not incised.Based on the weight of the carcass, the appearance of the carcass, the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, etc., it is rated as 5 grades from the highest to the outside.
Processed meatThe meat is calledsaveMay be processed to increase sex and market value.The main processed products areHam-sausageIs.As a processing method that enhances storage stability and sensory propertiesSalted,heating,Smoke,fermentation, Drying, etc. are used.
- SaltedMainly toNitriteSalt is used.Nitrous acid reacts with the pigment of meat to produce a beautiful processed meat color andClostridium botulinumSuppresses the growth of and improves the storage stability.
- sausageDuring manufacturing, heat treatment with boiling is performed to improve storage stability and texture.
- sausage,Ham,bacon,SmokedBy smoking like meat, it becomes difficult for germs to adhere to the surface.At the same time, it has the effect of lowering the water activity to improve the storage stability, and further imparting a unique aroma to improve the flavor.
- mainlyLactic acid fermentationBy performing this, the growth of various germs is suppressed as lactic acid acidity, and a unique fermented aroma is imparted to improve the flavor.mainlyfermentationsausageIt is done in.
- Improves storage stability by reducing water content.jerky,SaiboshiDried meat such as.
In addition to heating, there is a cooking operation for the purpose of imparting texture, flavor, and aroma.In this article, we will describe the contents of these cooking operations that are particularly specific to meat.For general remarks調理Describe in.
The significance of cooking meat is as follows.
- Ensuring hygiene
- When partial meat is processed into meat, contact with processing equipment and contact with air due to an increase in surface area increase.BacteriaMay be contaminated with.Therefore, hygiene is ensured by killing these bacteria by heating.In addition to these bacteria, some livestock species such as pigs and chickens cause food poisoning.ウ イ ル ス,ParasiteHeating may be particularly recommended as it can be a source of infection.Detail isPork #Danger of raw foodandchickenDescribe each in.
- Improved texture
- Raw meat is difficult to chew and has a texture that is extremely difficult to eat depending on the part, but by heatingproteinDenatures and becomes easier to eat.The relationship between the degree of heating and the texture differs depending on the part, and there are parts that are hard and difficult to eat if overheated, and parts that are finally easy to eat after heating for a long time.
- Add flavor
- It is known that heating produces new tastes or taste-modifying ingredients.Its body is caused by heatingpeptideIt has been clarified that it enhances meat-like taste and suppresses sourness.
- Add aroma
- The heating produces a unique aroma of meat.This may occur solely from the ingredients of the meat or by reacting with secondary ingredients such as seasonings.For example, it has been clarified that the heated aroma of marbled Japanese beef belongs to the former.
- The surface of the meat is slightly scratched by an open flame.ScorchThen, a fragrant scent (a kind of smoked taste (kunmi) made from the meat itself as a kind of smoked preparation, a smoky scent) is generated.
- Choice of degree of cooking
- In Europe and the United States, as far as beef that has been processed and distributed hygienically, the level of heating is changed to "Weldan", "Medium", "Medium rare", and "Rare" according to each person's preference. Even with "rare", it is common sense to cook only the surface that is likely to be contaminated with bacteria.Even in Europe and the United States, it is common sense to use "weldun" for beef, which may be contaminated with bacteria, regardless of each person's taste.
Meat itself contains a taste component, but in many cases, it is seasoned for the purpose of imparting taste and aroma.In addition, some seasonings may bring about an improvement in texture.
Raw food immediately after hunting
PolarInuitEssential from fresh vegetable foods without farmingvitaminIn areas and ethnic groups that could not ingest the seals, when hunting seals and the like in order to obtain essential vitamins, the belly of the seal immediately after killing was treated on the spot, and it was fresh and before the bacteria had propagated. Eat on the spotFood culture:Also exists.
- raw food
- Depending on the type of meat, there are some that cannot be eaten raw due to the presence of parasites and pathogens.
- Raw pork is (really) frequent in parasites and can be life-threatening.You should always heat until the whole is cooked well.
- Also, for non-distributed game meat (deer meat and wild boar meat), if you do not heat it properly,Hepatitis EVirus,Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coliOr there is a risk of food poisoning due to parasites.In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare cautions against disinfecting used tongs and other tools..
- In the case of beef, if the fresh meat can be handled hygienically, a thorough bacterial test was performed, and the surface side of the meat (which is contaminated with bacteria) was thoroughly removed, and the remaining part was eaten raw. It is possible.However, there are many dishonest restaurants that do not carry out thorough inspections, even if they say that they are inspecting them.
- The Japanese Red Cross Society is from people infected with hepatitis E by eating raw meat such as deer.transfusionTo prevent accidents, we decided not to donate blood for 6 months after eating raw or grilled meat and internal organs of pigs, wild boars, and deer..
Main meat dishes
Science and technology related to meat
In countries that treat meat more like a staple food, meat science forms a field.Several specialized international academic journals have also been published (the most prominent one is Meat Science).), Also every year at the International Meat Science and Technology Conference Is being held.
Japan Meat Study Group, though small in Japan There is an academic organization called.
Meat production statistics
Beef, pork, and chicken are by far the most produced meats in the world, and these three types account for the majority of meat production.There is a considerable difference between the number of these three animals and the amount of meat produced by the three species, with pigs having the smallest difference, but cattle.milk, ChickenChicken eggsThis is because pigs are bred almost exclusively for meat production, whereas pigs are bred for meat production only, while they have another important role of food production.However, dairy cow varieties (dairy cows) and chicken egg-producing varieties are of course edible, and dairy cows with poor milk production performance and those that stop laying eggs are often regarded as meat.Among them, chickens have long been the main breeding purpose for egg production.Beef cattle (broiler) Has been bred in earnest since the beginning of the 20th century, and until then, almost all abandoned chickens were used for meat.Even in JapanShowaUntil the latter half of the 30s, few meat-only breeds were produced, and when it came to chicken, waste chicken was used..
Global meat production in 2010 was 2 million tons.The production volume of each type is 9611 million tons for pork, 1 million tons for chicken, and 937 million tons for beef.The next largest producer of meat is sheep (8685 million tons), followed by turkey (turkey) at 6428 million tons. 824th place goat is 5 million tons, 539th placeduckIs 419 million tons, 8th placeBuffaloIs 350 million tons, 9th placeガ チ ョ ウandGuinea Fowl255 million tons, 10th placeRabbitIt is 168 million tons.Below, horses (71 tons),camel(39 tons),ロ バ(20 tons),MuleThe order is (6 tons).In addition to this, there are a total of 194 million tons of wild animal meat obtained by hunting rather than domestic animals, and if this is put into the above ranking, hunting meat will outperform rabbits in 10th place..
Production in Japan
In Japan's domestic production, the occupancy rate of the above three types is even higher, and the total production of the three types of beef, pork, and chicken amounts to 3% of the total meat production.The most produced meat in Japan is chicken, which produced 99.7 million tons in 2010.The next largest was pork, which produced 142 million tons in the same year. The third highest production was beef, which amounted to 129 tons.In addition to this, there were four species of horse, sheep, goat, and turkey in descending order of statistically significant meat production in Japan, but all except that horse meat produced 3 tons. Only 51 to tens of tons, very small production..Of these, horsesKyushu regionConsumption is by far the highest, GoatNansei IslandsConsumption is almost limited to It is also a feature.
World production forecast
The production of the three main meats is projected to be 2018 million tons for pork, 11994 million tons for chicken, and 12030 million tons for beef in 7422, and chicken is predicted to be the most produced meat by overtaking pigs. Has been.. Over the 1970 years from 2010 to 40, beef production increased by 62.5%, pork production by 205%, and chicken production by 545%...The production of all varieties is on the rise, but the production of chickens is on the rise.This is because it can be bred intensively in a narrow space compared to cows and pigs, it is cheaper than these two species and it is easy to increase the number of heads, and there are fewer broilers as edible chickens than pigs and cows.feedIt is efficient because it grows in size.furtherReligiousAs a background,HinduismBeef food that is contraindicated inIslamUnlike pork, which is contraindicated in Japan, there are few religions that contraindicate chicken (except for denominations that ban the whole meat diet), so there is demand everywhere in the world and there is little regional bias. That can be mentioned.
Meat production is flat or declining in developed countries due to sluggish demand, but in developing countries, meat consumption is rapidly expanding due to economic growth and the accompanying improvement in living standards.As a result, meat production continues to increase rapidly, and the above-mentioned global expansion of meat production is mainly due to the increase in production in developing countries.
|1||The United States of America||123|
For countries with high per capita meat consumptionNorth America,Western EuropeAndOceaniaDeveloped countries are listed.This is due to two factors: the economic conditions of high income levels and the ability to eat plenty of meat, and the dietary culture that favors meat.Although meat consumption is high in these countries, per capita consumption has almost reached the upper limit and consumption has leveled off.On the other hand, per capita meat consumption in emerging countries is lower than that in developed countries, but meat consumption tends to increase rapidly in line with economic growth.Meat consumption in Japan is 2013 kg per person in 30 The consumption is only about one-fourth to one-third that of other developed countries, which is by far the lowest (however, of high-energy vegetable foods such as sugar and fruits). Consumption is also by far the lowest in Japan).In addition, the breakdown of this meat consumption is 4 kg of chicken, 1 kg of pork, and 3 kg of beef per Japanese person..
Differences in consumption of each meat species by religious area or region
Meat refers to the meat of animals that are eaten, but there are cultural traditions that have been nurtured in each region of the world.It is not uncommon for meat that is prized in one area to be completely inedible in another and not even treated as food.Even the most common meats in the world, beef, pork and chicken, have such regional differences.The most prominent of these differences is religioustabooIt is a limitation by.Beef, for example, is the most preferred meat in many parts of the world,IndiaInHinduismNot only do many people not eat beef at all because they use cows as holy beasts, but there are even moves to prevent the production and distribution of beef by legal restrictions and violent means..
The same can be said for pork,IslamThere are many areas where it is not treated as meat because it is an abomination for unclean food.
Apart from these disciplines, there are cases in which there is simply no custom of eating a particular species due to cultural traditions and it is not considered meat in the area.
On the contrary, there are cases where a very specific type of meat is preferred for a certain area.Turkey is the world's fifth-largest producer of meat, but production and consumption are biased towards North America, where it originates, especially in the United States, with 5% of total production produced in the United States in 2010...Mutton is not a very high consumption meat in any region, with the exception of Oceania, especiallyNew ZealandThe consumption is outstandingly high, and the consumption is not so inferior to the three types of beef, pork and chicken.AustraliaAlthough not as much as New Zealand, mutton consumption tends to be higher than in other countries..
Without using the body of birds and beastsbeans"Plant meat" that has a taste similar to meat and processed meat products is being developed and sold...Meat shortage predicted in the future, health consciousnessVegetarianExpect consumer demand to avoid poultry and meat.
Not only processed foods developed with these modern technologies, but also the technology to make meat-like dishes from vegetable ingredients is Japanese.Vegetarian foodAnd Greater ChinaTaiwanese foodEtc.).
The part that becomes meat without killing the animal細胞TheTissue cultureBy doing, industrially produceCultured meatIs being researched.Although it is technically realized, it is not widely used because it has a bad taste and high cost.
- ^ "Meat" "Kojien"
- ^ Be careful of raw meat! Saitama Prefecture Homepage (viewed on February 2018, 3)
- ^ a b International Cancer Research Institute (2015-10-26). IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat (Report) . "WHO report says eating processed meat is carcinogenic: Understanding the findings". (September 2015, 11). 2017/5/6Browse.
- ^ Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health and Medical Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare, "Dietary Guidelines for Health Promotion-Commentary and Guidance Guidelines," First Publication, May 1986.ISBN 978-4-8041-0327-3
- ^ "Dietary Guidelines" supervised by the National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 2st publication, 2003nd edition, September 9.ISBN 978-4-8041-1076-9.
- ^ About the formulation of "dietary habits guidelines" (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
- ^ Koichi Chikuni, "Meat characteristics and utilizationJournal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science 2007 Vol. 40, No. 1, p.33-36, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1995.40.1_33
- ^ Masaaki Ishida, "Improvement of Hygiene and Productivity in Slaughterhouses," Bulletin of Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, No. 21, January 1999, pp. 1-17, NOT 110000506896.
- ^ Takaaki Mitsuhashi "Read the back of the economic news! TAC Publishing, 2009, p. 213.
- ^ "Modern Food Science (2nd Edition)" Sankyo Publishing, 1992, pp.260-261,ISBN 978-4-7827-0277-2
- ^ Masanori Matsuishi, Takanori Nishimura, Katsuhiro Yamamoto, "Meat Function and Science", "Food and Health Science Series" p71 Asakura Shoten, April 2015, 4, First Edition, 5st Edition
- ^ USDA quality standards
- ^ Let's heat the game (wild bird and beast meat) well and eat it Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ Request for cooperation in safety measures against hepatitis E virus Announcement of the Japanese Red Cross Society on March 2018, 3
- ^ Elsevia Science Meat Science Magazine
- ^ International Congress of Meat Science and Technology
- ^ Japan Meat Study Group
- ^ 2014 – Facts and figures about the animals we eat, page 46, download as pdf
- ^ 2014 – Facts and figures about the animals we eat, page 48, download as pdf
- ^ "Animal Science of Chickens" (Animal Science 5) p123 Shin Okamoto University of Tokyo Press November 2001, 11 First Edition
- ^ a b "Meat Function and Science" (Food and Health Science Series) p19 Masanori Matsuishi, Takanori Nishimura, Katsuhiro Yamamoto ed. Asakura Shoten April 2015, 4 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "Meat Function and Science" (Food and Health Science Series) p24 Masanori Matsuishi, Takanori Nishimura, Katsuhiro Yamamoto ed. Asakura Shoten April 2015, 4 First Edition First Edition
- ^ a b "Meat Function and Science" (Food and Health Science Series) p25 Masanori Matsuishi, Takanori Nishimura, Katsuhiro Yamamoto ed. Asakura Shoten April 2015, 4 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "What will happen to meat production in the world? Issue
- ^ "Globalization of Meat and Chicken Egg Production Prospects for 2021" p1 Hans Wilhelm Wundtfolst, Anna Wilke Translated by Michio Sugiyama and Shunzo Oshima Translated by Mitsuko Hiramitsu, Takako Washimi, Ayako Tanahashi, Norie Matsuno, Yuki Takayama Tsukuba Shobo June 2011, 6 20st edition 1st print issued
- ^ FAO (2009): FAOSTAT. Rom.
- ^ a b https://www.alic.go.jp/koho/kikaku03_000814.html "Meat consumption trends" Agricultural and Livestock Industries Corporation July 2015, 7 Retrieved April 6, 2016
- ^ Injunction of beef trade ban India Supreme Court Nihon Keizai Shimbun News Site (July 2017, 7) Read December 13, 2018
- ^ "Meat Function and Science" (Food and Health Science Series) p9-10 Masanori Matsuishi, Takanori Nishimura, Katsuhiro Yamamoto ed. Asakura Shoten April 2015, 4 First Edition First Edition
- ^ Meat-like with pea, Mitsui & Co., in the limelight of vegetable protein Nihon Keizai Shimbun, electronic version (October 2017, 10)
- ^ "Plant meat" was "almost" the taste of meatNikkei BusinessOnline (May 2017, 5) Viewed August 17, 2018
- ^ Mari Kitamura, Kaori Yara (supervised by Japanese version) "Food Mechanism and Function Picture Book" Sogensha, January 2020, 1, p. 24
- beef,豚 肉,chicken,horsemeat,Lamb,venison,pork,Whale meat,Bear meat,Goat meat,Kangaroo meat
- Hold - Oil residue (food)
- 筋肉 - Skeletal muscle
- Livestock - 家畜 - Slaughterhouse - slaughter - Chemical factory
- Poultry processing hygiene manager - Law on regulation of poultry processing business and poultry inspection
- Food - Foodstuff
- Animal husbandry
- Meat camouflage case,Pink slime
- Japanese beef carnival history