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Washing machine

Washing machine(Sentakuki[1],British: washing machine, laundry machine) IsWashingUsed formachine.


世界So, historically, even if it was called a "washing machine," it has a history of referring to various power sources. in Japan,ShowaSince only "electric washing machines" have been sold since then, simply saying "washing machine" actually means that.

Initially it was a manual washing machine that was manually operated, but in the 19th centurySteam engineThere are many things that you can move in the middle of the 20th century.electric motor(motor) Appeared and spread, and in the latter half of the 20th century, those with a dehydrator appeared, and most of the things that automatically performed from washing to dehydration (what was called "fully automatic" at that time) became the majority. , Not only washing and dehydration but also automatic drying has appeared.

WashingOriginally, it was originally done by people's hands and feet in rivers, ponds, and springs, and washing with only people's hands and feet is a laborious task. Washing machines have a history of being developed with the aim of reducing such heavy labor,HouseworkHas contributed to the reduction of labor.

2009 ,Catholic churchIs a semi-public newspaper L'Osservatore Romano States that the washing machine was an important milestone in the liberation of women in the sense that it freed women from the hard work of housework[2].

This section mainly describes washing machines for home use, and also touches on some of those for commercial use.


WashingRemoves dirt from the cloth by rubbing or striking the cloth (separates) and cleans it. Again on the fabric石 鹸It is also practiced to make it easier to permeate and remove dirt. Originally, washing was done by hitting or rubbing clothes on rocks at the edge of rivers, ponds or springs, but then wavy grooves were added.washing boadCame to be used.Ancient romeThen, people called "fuller" put the laundry in a bucket containing fermented urine and stepped on it to wash it.[3].

Demonstration of a hand-washing machine at an open-air museum in Germany
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Machines for washing have been developed to manage the heavy labor of washing. Also, especially in Europe, there is a history of spread of plague and other infectious diseases, and in order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it has become popular to boil hot water in a stove and wash the laundry with wooden sticks. There was a demand for a machine to avoid the cumbersome task of agitating the laundry in hot water, and the task of burning hot water. Therefore, the washing machines that were first conceived in Germany and other countries used a method in which a container such as a barrel was turned sideways, hot water or laundry was put on the lid, the handle attached to the container was turned by hand, and the contents were stirred.

It is easier to remove dirt when using hot water for washing. Hot water containing soap was valuable and was reused as many times as it was. First, wash clothes that have little dirt, and gradually wash those that are very dirty. Early washing machines were wooden,金属Once it was made, it was possible to heat the washing tub with fire from below. For this reason, the washing water could be kept warm even after washing all day.

EnglandThen,1691 First patent for washing machine and dehydrator[4]. Also,1752 January "The Gentlemen's Magazine"United KingdomThe magazine has a picture of an early washing machine.GermanyThen. Jacob Christian Schäffer Devised a washing machine,1767 The design is published in[5].1782 Is patented in the United Kingdom by Henry Sidgier for a rotating drum washer.

After washing, the process of removing soapy water from the laundry was a completely different process. Originally, I used to squeeze wet clothes by hand. Two to help with this jobrollerToSpringA hand squeezing machine (or hand spinning dehydrator) was developed, in which force is applied and the roller is manually rotated through clothes. For this, it was necessary to put clothes one by one. Originally it was an independent machine, but now it is built into the washing machine, so that the squeezed soapy water can be returned to the washing tub and reused.

The United States of AmericaThen.1797 ,New HampshireNathaniel Briggs has a patent entitled "Clothes Washing". It is unknown what he specifically invented because the patent office was later burned down by a fire. The washing machine with a hand squeezer is1843 Saint JohnFirst patent for "Clothes Washer With Wringer Rolls" by John E. Turnbull[6].

Steam engine-gasoline engineThe one that rotates the drum by using the above, and the stirring type washing machine that rotates the stirring bar have come to be used.1 cylinderSlowgasoline engineWas often used.


Electric washing machine20st centuryFirst appeared in America[8].. Alba John Fisher received a patent for electric washing machine in 1910[9]Often regarded as the inventor of electric washing machines, but there were patents for electric washing machines even before Fisher.[10].

Electric washing machine1908 [11]ToAmericaInvented in 1908, sold as "Thor" by American Hurley Machine Company.

The spread of electricity in the West1930 era.

Annual sales of electric washing machines in the United States1928 Reached 913,000 units. But,World DepressionDue to the occurrence of1932 Has shipped about 600,000 units. Washing machine design1930 eraImprovements have been made, and in consideration of safety, machines such as electric motors are now covered by the housing.1940 In the United States, 2500% of the 60 million American households own electric washing machines.

Second World WarIn the meantime, washing machine manufacturers in the United States were recruited for military demand, but the development of fully automatic washing machines continued, and shortly after World War II, fully automatic washing machines were released. Bendix1947 Released the improved Bendix Deluxe ($249.50 at that time).General ElectricAlso in the same year, released a fully automatic washing machine. Other companies1950 eraUp to the beginning, we have released a series of fully automatic washing machines. There was also a semi-automatic washing machine that had a two-tub type and had to manually transfer the laundry from the washing tub to the dehydration tub.

Vacuum cleanerKnown as Hoover, it is a fully automatic washing machine that can program the washing pattern with a cartridge type before the introduction of microcomputer control. Keymatic Was being manufactured. In the washing machine slotPlasticWhen a key-shaped cartridge made of steel is inserted, the washing pattern is determined accordingly. However, since it is not particularly superior to other washing machines that are set by dialing, it is hard to say that it succeeded (there was also a problem that the cartridge could easily be lost).

Early fully automatic washing machines were mechanicaltimerUse a series ofcamI was operating various switches in time. In the 1950s, this became an electronic timer, which greatly improved the degree of freedom in setting.

EuropeThen, until the 1950s, electric washing machines were not popular. This is because the war in World War II did not restore the European consumer market until the late 1950s. Initially, electric washing machines with a hand squeezing mechanism using rollers were the mainstream.1960 eraThe two-tank type became the mainstream. The mainstream of fully automatic washing machines1970 eraIt was after that.


In Japan in 1928 (Showa 3)ToshibaThe predecessor of Tokyo Electric Co., Ltd. started importing and selling "Thor" of the Hurley Machine Company.1930 Was sold as a stirring type washing machine "Solar" by Shibaura Manufacturing Co., Ltd., the predecessor of Toshiba.[12][13]. afterwards,1953 ToSanyo ElectricLaunched a jet-type washing machine at a low price, which is the origin of the current washing machine.[14][15]It became popular all at once.

After the war(Second World WarLater) in the 1950s, Japanese electric appliance manufacturersThree kinds of sacred treasuresIt was sold to the public with the advertising phrase. From the latter half of the Showa period,White goods", and even todayHome appliancesIt is one of the representatives.

It was made in Japan that was popular in Japan during the Showa period. As of 2018, the production cost is low in Japan, except for some high value-added products, like other white goods.AsiaMost of the products are produced in the area.[16].

As an "electric washing machine" in JapanHousehold goods quality labeling methodAre subject to the application and are stipulated in the regulations for quality indication of electrical machinery[17]. Also,TV receiver,Air condition,Refrigerator と と も に2001 ThanHome Appliance Recycling LawAppropriate treatment is obligatory when disposing ofOversized trashI can no longer dispose of it.Fixed assetAsLegal useful lifeIs 6 years, but average household life is 8.4 years[18].

In some cases, potato washing,OctopusSuch as slimmingseafoodSometimes used to wash the. It is not recommended by the manufacturer and is not guaranteed, and is not recommended because it may cause failure.[19].

The generalization of spin dehydration iselectric motorSince it was developed. Spinning dewatering requires high speed and strong turning force, and the dewatering machine was made as a separate device from the washing machine. It was dehydrated by moving the washed clothes from the washing tub to the dehydration tub[20]..Such an early dehydrator had a problem that the dehydration tank itself would shake dangerously if the contents were biased.Therefore, various attempts were made to manage this shaking.First, a buffer frame was devised to absorb some imbalance, and a mechanism was devised to detect even more violent shaking and stop the rotation of the dehydrator.In this case, the contents are evenly distributed by human hands and dehydrated again.recently[When?]In many cases, a ring filled with liquid is used and it is rotated at the same time as the dehydration tank to achieve a good balance as a whole.[Source required].

A so-called fully automatic washing machine has a single washing tub and dehydration tub, and water is automatically taken in and out, and washing and dehydration are automatically performed.1937 ,BendixPatented the first fully automatic washing machine[21], Released a washing machine using the same year[22].. This washing machine had all the basic functions of a modern fully automatic washing machine,suspensionSince there was no mechanism, it had to be fixed to the floor so that it would not move around.

In early fully automatic washing machines, was the spinning speed of the washing/dehydrating tub a mechanical means?electric motorPower toVariable resistorIt was controlled by adjusting with. In the 1970s, electronic control became popular from higher models.1990 eraInstead of a timerMicro controllerA model that adopts appears. This is becoming popular now (in recent years).Fuzzy controlWas quickly adopted in washing machines.

recentlyClothes dryerThere is also one that can perform the function of, but with the push of a button, it is used more widely in coin-operated laundries due to its widespread use at home.

2008May 10WithMitsubishi ElectricCompletely withdrew from the production of washing machines (because of sluggish sales and continued deficit)[23].

From around the 21st century, vertical drum-type washing machines that use less water have become widespread.


One tank type
A washing machine with a washing tub only. This type existed in general washing machines until the 1960s. Squeeze the dehydrated part by hand or with the roller attached to the washing machine. Even today, this type exists in simple and small washing machines.[24].. There is also a dehydration-only machine that uses only a dehydration tank.[25].
Two-tub washing machine
The tanks for "washing" and "rinsing" are separated from the tanks for "dewatering", and each work process is performed in each layer. It is necessary to transfer the laundry between the washing tub and the dehydration tub. 1957,United Kingdom OfHoover[Avoid ambiguity]Developed by the company[13]In 1960, Sanyo Electric released a "two-tank dehydration-drying washing machine" incorporating a hot air dryer on the dehydration tank[26].. From the 1970s1980 eraMainstream until the first half. Although it is a minority at present, since washing, rinsing and dehydration can be performed in parallel at the same time, the amount that can be washed per hour is larger than that of a fully automatic washing machine, and because it is structurally simple and durable,Barber shop,gas station, There is a strong demand for commercial use in factories, etc., or as a second unit to be placed outdoors or in the soil to wash work clothes separately at farmers.In many cases, the dehydration capacity exceeds that of a one-tank type fully automatic washing machine.[27].. .. There is also a model that can help the rinse by pouring water into the dehydration tank and dehydrating while pouring water. In modern Japan, the penetration rate of fully-automatic washing machines as described below is increasing, and there are many properties that assume this in the design and construction of houses.Therefore, models with a wider width than fully-automatic washing machines are available. In many cases, it is necessary to check the space in advance in order to place a two-tank type, so be careful.
Due to the spread of fully automatic washing machines, domestic demand decreased, and Toshiba stopped production.[28], 5% is a two-tank type due to familiar elderly and ladies who are particular about washing, and there is a certain need for commercial use, so in Japan日立,AQUA3 companies continue to sell[29].. In addition, a small two-tank type is sold as the second unit to meet the needs for getting dirty things such as pets and nursing care.[30].
Mainstream in emerging countries due to low prices[28],IndonesiaSince it matches the hot and humid climate and the national character of washing carefully, even now that it has developed economicallywashing boadThe two tank type with[31].
The operation method of the above two methods was a button operation type (microcomputer control) for a period of time, but until now, it is a rotary switch type.
XNUMX-tank washing machine
Hitachi, Ltd.A variant of the two-tank washing machine that was once manufactured by.Taking advantage of the special "Karaman stick" (described later) with a stirring rod manufactured by the company, another small bucket-shaped small washing tub is installed in the center of the upper part of the washing tub. A drive shaft was passed through the inside of the "karaman stick" to drive the pulsator of a small washing tub.
Automatic two-tub type washing machine
A form in which the process from washing to rinsing, which is the process in the washing tub of a two-tub washing machine, is automated by a program timer. A model that can perform rinsing and dehydration on the side of the dehydration tank has also appeared. originallyAutomatic washing machine, But the name was changed to the current name with the advent of the fully automatic washing machine below. After the appearance of fully automatic, it became a niche product, but even in the days when Japan was booming, Matsushita "Spin rinse", Toshiba "Shower rinse", Mitsubishi "Spin shower" existed as a standard lineup. But in addition to the popularization of fully automaticBubble economyIn the process of rearranging models after the collapse, all companies that used to manufacture automatic two tanks have withdrawn. On the contrary, Hitachi, which is currently continuing production in Japan, once withdrew during the popularization period of full automation.1995 Returned to the present. Although much less labor is required than the normal two-tank type, the dehydration capacity is that of the two-tank type, which is an advantage when the room drying or the use of the dryer is constant. It used to be a mechanical program timer,1980 eraAfter the latter half, the microcomputer type became the mainstream.
Fully automatic washing machine
"Washing", "rinsing" and "dehydrating" are all done in one tank. Everything from water injection to final dehydration is done automatically.1965 In Matsushita Electric Industrial (currentlyPanasonic) Developed and sold the first machine[32]. There was a problem that the amount of water used increased, so the spread was delayed (in the early 1970s, the fully automatic washing machine penetration rate was 4.7-8.6%).[32]). Improvements have been made since the 1980s, and it has been the mainstream to date.
Washing machine with dryer (washing and drying machine)
TypicallyWashing and drying machineIt is called a fully automatic washing machine with a drying function. Some have separate dryers, while others can perform "washing," "rinsing," "dewatering," and "drying" in one tank with full automation. In the former, only the dryer is a horizontal tank.2000 eraDemand/units have increased since the first half[33]. In general, a washing machine with a dryer for home use has a smaller amount that can be dried than a washable amount. Therefore, when drying all the laundry, it is necessary to take out the laundry before drying. Even if the amount of laundry that can be dried is fully automatic, it may cause problems such as clothes being dried in a messy state or uneven drying. For this reason, it is possible to perform simple drying only by blowing air without heating, to remove moisture to some extent, and then to dry it by yourself.
heat pumpWhen the room temperature is too low, the dry function of the formula may not be able to fully exhibit the performance and may not be completely dried. In such a case, heat the room and adjust the room temperature. On the other hand, the same function of the dehumidification cooling system does not happen, but monitors the temperature of dehumidification water in real time.ThermistorIf foreign matter such as lint adheres to the sheet, the temperature cannot be accurately read, and poor drying may occur. Basically, it can be fully automated from washing to drying as long as it is a material that withstands heat and it does not interfere with wrinkles. As mentioned above, make sure to wash in an amount that considers drying.
Since the amount of water used in the drum type is small in all processes, there is a possibility that the amount of residual detergent will be excessive and the rinsing will be insufficient if the amount of detergent added is not controlled to the specified amount.
Hand-washing machine
In the early days, there were also non-electric washing machines. The laundry and water are sealed in a spherical metal washing tub and manually rotated to stir and wash. Structurally, it is similar to the current drum type washing machine. Even today, it is slightly produced for small amount of laundry, called "manual washing machine" or "simple washing machine".

Stirring method

Cylindrical type

Put a cylindrical drum containing laundry in the tub and rotate the drum to wash. It became the origin of the drum type.


A method in which a large blade, which is about the same height as the tank, is slowly inverted to create a water flow. Due to the large size of the structure, it is limited to a part for commercial use in Japan, but it is still mainstream in the United States. in Japan1922 (TaishoWas first imported in 11,1930 (Showa5 years)ToshibaManufactured as Japan's first electric washing machine. Immediately after the end of the war, Japanese manufacturers also manufactured for the troops,1947 (ShowaIn 22), the delivery was discontinued because "Japanese maids have low labor costs and can wash their hands well."It was released to the general public as a result of this, but it was over 5 yen (without a roller diaphragm). The starting salary for Japanese graduates at that time was 22,000 yen.[Needs verification]It was very expensive and didn't spread.

Pulsator type (jet type, spiral type)

It has a blade called a washing tub and rotates it at high speed to generate a violent water flow to remove dirt, which is common in Asia.in Japan1953 (Showa28 years)OctoberToSanyo ElectricManufactured for the first time. The list price was 28,500 yen (the starting salary for university graduates was 17,000 yen), which was relatively easy to buy. In the same year, a washing machine with an output of 100 W or lessExcise taxThe development of a jet type with a pulsator on the side of the tank became popular in Japan as a result of being excluded from the target.However, the jet type was easily damaged by twisting the laundry, and the same amount of water was required regardless of whether the amount of laundry was large or small. Therefore, in 1954 (Showa 29), a spiral type with a pulsator installed on the bottom was developed. rice field.In Japan, the spiral type has been the mainstream from 1960 (Showa 35) to the present.A pulsator with a large diameter and a drying function is called a vertical type (Matsushita Electric, now Panasonic released in December 2000).In the very early days, small pulsators were the mainstream, but now they are almost the size of a washing tub.Showa - HeiseiBuilt earlyApartmentAnd rentApartmentPeople living in the washbasin entrance is 55cm-59cm and narrow, because the drum type can not be installed in the room, often buy this spiral type.

Hitachi1982 (ShowaIt was originally registered as a company with the method developed in 57.商標However, it is no longer used.A method in which the shaft of the pulsator is extended vertically and a stirring rod with wings is provided.As the name implies, it was initially developed to prevent clothing from getting entangled, but it didn't help much in this sense.After that, fashionable clothes that were limited to hand washing until thenwoolWhen a model that can be washed began to appear, by using it in combination with electronic control, it was one step ahead of the conventional pulsator.As a drawback, the washing capacity is small for the size of the main body.Due to this drawback, it became impossible to keep up with the wave of increasing capacity of household washing machines, and it was gradually abolished and became a normal swirl type.
The stirring rod method is also available from Mitsubishi Electric'sMr. stirringHowever, as a method that incorporates the characteristics of the stirring type into the pulsator method, although the style is different, Toshiba's "Most washed turn", Sanyo Electric's "Hand fir LWas present, but both have been abolished to date.
Beet wash
A method developed by Hitachi. The basic structure is similar to the spiral type, except that the pulsator having a wavy shape is directly contacted with the laundry for washing.
Double jet type
Fuji ElectricThe method developed by. It is arranged so that two pulsators face each other on the side of the washing tub to enhance the washing ability.1954 ToW361 typeWas released. The two pulsators facing each other can be prevented from twisting and uneven washing by shifting the rotation axis about 2 cm from each other.[35][36].. Its performance isLiving NotebookWas also admitted[37].
Double water flow type
A method developed by Fuji Electric.By installing one at the bottom of the washing tub with an inclination, it gives a jet and vertical vibration to the washing water and does not damage the laundry despite its high washing performance.1958 ToW261 typeHas been released[38].
Firmly pal
Instead of the double water flow type with the small pulsator until then, with feedback from the pulsator for fully automatic washing machine,1985 Mitsubishi Electric commercialized a large pulsator with almost the entire bottom of the washing tub. There is less cloth damage than the small pulsator type that produces a strong water flow locally, and the cleaning power is increased overall. "Steady Pal" was a registered trademark of Mitsubishi, but it did not reach the technical patent and spread to other companies, and is now the de facto standard for two-tub washing machines of domestic manufacturers.
Fully automatic without holes
This type was developed to overcome the problems of hygiene management due to the large amount of water used and the many invisible parts, which are the disadvantages of fully automatic washing machines. Once it was commercialized by Mitsubishi Electric, but because the control technology was still in a transitional period from the mechanical program timer to the microcomputer type and it was premature, it was input without obtaining a sufficient evaluation test, so dehydration failure etc. Only the shortcomings of the withdrawal noticed.
rear,1992 Sharp succeeded in commercializing it by adopting a "conical water tank" that facilitates drainage from the top during dehydration by making the washing tank a loose inverted spindle type, and it has also obtained a patent and is the current Sharp vertical washing machine. It is the main product.

Drum type (rotary type)

A method in which a horizontally oriented cylindrical washing tub is rotated and the laundry is raised and then repeatedly dropped to wash it by tapping to remove dirt. Load and unload laundry from the top and bottom of the drum.Laundry-Coin laundryThis method is often used in the washing machines in. Less damage to laundry and less water usage. Mainstream method in Europe. Due to its heavy weight, it is limited to household washing machines with dryers. In addition, because of the large depth, it is necessary to consider the storage location. Household size is hot and humid and soft water in JapanfatIt is disadvantageous in that it is difficult to remove sweat and dirt containing dirt. It was also manufactured in Japan in the 1950s, but at that time it was not mainstream for home use.However, by using pump-up and electronic control together and adding a heat pump type drying function, etc.2000 It began to spread in Japan from (12).

Diagonal drum type
The method developed by Panasonic. Less water consumption and less damage to clothing than the conventional vertical type. The top model of the latest model is also equipped with "Eco Navi". Although it was not released, Toshiba1956 (Showa 31) Developed Japan's first tilt drum type fully automatic washing machine.
For the autumn 2011 model, this is the first Panasonic washing machinePanasonic Shop) Limited model” has appeared (the first machine is “NA-VX1SL/R”). The number of courses is larger than the model that is also used as a mass retailerVacuum cleanerIncludes a dry filter cleaning nozzle that can be attached to and a fitting pipe (adapter) (when connecting to a vacuum cleaner made by another company other than Panasonic). Other specifications are the same as the model for NA-VX7100L/R, which also serves as a mass retailer. In addition, a small model that can be installed in a small space such as an apartment has also appeared.
Top open drum type
A drum whose rotating shaft is horizontal when viewed from the front and which opens and closes the side of the drum. Mainly used in Europe, but adopted only by Sanyo and Toshiba in Japan.2002 First released in Japan by Sanyo Electric in 14, both Sanyo Electric and Toshiba2007 It was abolished by (19).

Vibration type

A method in which the lid is pressed from above to prevent the laundry from rising and the diaphragm at the bottom of the washing tub is vibrated at high speed to remove dirt.1950 eraIt was put on the market, but it didn't spread at all due to bad dirt and vibration.


During dehydrationmotorBetween the iron plate and the iron plate in order to suppress the vibration of thepolyesterA steel plate sandwiching resin.
neural network,Fuzzy control
MicrocomputerWas used as one of the control methods by.
A control method that changes the rotation speed by adjusting the voltage of the DC motor with an inverter. Released by Toshiba in 1990. Before that, the gears were used to adjust the rotation speed of the AC motor, which was one of the noise sources.
Direct drive
It is directly connected to an inverter-controlled DC motor and eliminates the drive belt between the motor and pulsator to reduce noise.1991 Released by Mitsubishi Electric as fully automatic washing machine AW-A80V1.1997 Toshiba launched a washing machine that uses an out-rotor direct drive inverter motor to reduce the size of the motor and reduce noise (about 40dB)did.

2008 ,Leeds UniversityHas developed a washing machine that can wash with only about 280 ml of water[39].

Washing process

Since it is necessary to take washing methods that match the properties of textile products, it is common for textile products such as clothing to have a pictogram (Pictogram) Etc. indicate the handling method. in Japan2017 From products for spring and summer to ISO (International Standards Organization) Is changed to a pictorial display (:2014), and the display symbols are almost doubled from 22 types to 41 types.[40][41].Laundry displaySee.

Water injection

  • Generally, tap water is used by directly connecting a water supply hose to the tap, but there are also cases where well water or remaining hot water in a bath is used.
  • When using tap water, the faucet must be open. In many electric washing machines, water is automatically supplied and the amount of water is automatically controlled according to the amount of laundry.
  • When using the remaining hot water in the bath, a water injection pump is generally used. The water injection pump is mainlyWater savingFor the purpose ofbathTo use the remaining hot water of the laundry for washing (use tap water for rinsing)pumpThe models with bath water hose are divided into models with a pump at the tip of the hose and models with a built-in pump in the washing machine body.
  • Overseas, there are many models that have a built-in heater and can adjust the water temperature to hot water according to your preference. There is also a model that has a separate tap for hot water.


  • It may be necessary to classify clothes before washing to prevent color transfer.
  • Pretreatment such as stain removal may be required.
  • Put the appropriate amount of detergent into the washing machine.
  • Some have a function of pre-washing.


  • This process removes the detergent.
  • In this process, some washing machines have a function of automatically washing the washing tub every time so that dirt is not accumulated in the washing tub.


  • In the case of the two tank type, it is necessary to transfer the clothes to the dehydration tank.
  • At one time, an external roller squeezing machine was used, but most of the electric washing machines use centrifugal dehydration.
    • Roller wringer
      The clothes are sandwiched between two rubber rollers and the handle is turned to squeeze the clothes. If the thickness was not uniform, it could not be dehydrated completely, and the buttons on the clothes could crack. Used in hand-cranked washing machines and early electric washing machines.
    • Centrifugal dehydrator
      Rotate the tub and centrifuge to shake off water in the laundry to dehydrate it. In 1874 Robert Pilkington made a manual rotary,1903 WL Dolier invents the electric drive system. It is a two-tub type washing machine and is installed in the washing machine body. The current mainstream.


  • Some have a drying function, and dry the water that could not be removed by centrifugal dehydration.
  • Some have the ability to automatically remove dirt from the dryer using a small amount of water, but these models require the faucet to be open during the drying process.

注意 点

Electric shockPrevention of
When installing the washing machine, be sure to ground (Ground) Is necessary.
Infant fall
If the washing tub is full of water, be careful of falling children. In preparation for the fall of an infant, if the lid is opened while driving, the buzzer will continue to sound, and if the lid remains open for a certain period of time, it will have the function of forcibly draining the water in the washing tub, or the lid when driving. Some are locked and cannot be opened.
In the case of a drum-type washing machine, the door may close and the child may die when the child gets inside. As a countermeasure, a mechanism has been developed that prevents the door from opening easily and allows the door to be opened from the inside, but not all drum-type washing machines are equipped with this mechanism.[42].
Regular washing of the washing tub
Detergent remains and hair and the like remains in the washing tub, so it is desirable to regularly wash with a cleaning agent such as a dedicated cleaner.MoldIt may cause stains.[43]
Check pockets etc. before throwing in
tissue,Mobile phone-smartphone,billThere is a risk that you will wash without noticing[44]Therefore, it is preferable to always check.


Manufacturer, brand


Currently in production

Panasonic is currently the only major domestic electrical machine manufacturer that produces a single-use machine for a bath pump that is used in combination with a conventional washing machine that does not have a bus pump, and other companies affiliated with the electronics industry mainly sell "Koshin" and "Sendak" products. (The extension bath water hose for the machine equipped with a bath pump and the bath water hose with a replacement filter are manufactured as genuine products by each manufacturer and can be purchased as a service route).

Diagonal drum type is affiliated store "Panasonic ShopLimited models will also be sold in 2011 starting with the "NA-VX710SL/SR". The current 2-tank model is the dial-operated "NA-W40G2" only, and the button-operated 2-tank washing machine "Aizuma-go" series and the vertical washer-dryer "Lab" series are discontinued (current model is Drum type produces "Spin Dancing" series and vertical type produces "Eco Wash" series). Bus pumps are also manufactured (current model is "N-30P" only).
Hitachi Global Life Solutions(OldHitachi Appliance
Hitachi, Ltd.Subsidiary of. The drum type washer/dryer is called "Niagara washingBig drumThe vertical washer/dryer is based on the "Niagara washing/BEAT WASH, And "White Promise" series, 2 tank type washing machine "Aozora" series respectively (2 tank type "Aozora" series is currently the only button-operated model produced in Japan). From December 2012 (vertical washing machine "white promise" NW-12SY/8SYOEMModel)Mitsubishi Electric StoreAlso started production of the vertical washing machine "MAW-70AP/60AP" for
Toshiba(Toshiba lifestyle
Drum type washer/dryer produces "ZABOON" series. Of the vertical washing machines1990 eraThe model that was produced in the first half had a built-in clock function, and the reserved laundry end time could be set in units of "○ hour △ minute" (during washing, the total remaining time of all washing, rinsing, and dehydration processes Is displayed, and the time is displayed while the power is turned off and the plug is plugged into the outlet.However, if the plug is removed, the clock will be reset to "0:00", so it will be necessary to adjust the clock each time it is reused. ). However, the clock function of the current model has been abolished, and the scheduled washing end time has been changed to a simple timer that sets in "○ hours later" unit (total process of washing, dehydration, rinsing, and drying on the LCD or FL display) Show remaining time). In addition, as part of the unprofitable department restructuring due to poor performance caused by the discovery of a series of fraudulent accounting problems, the production of the two-tub washing machine was completely completed in March 2016 (in Japan The major electronics manufacturer is the fourth after Sharp, Mitsubishi, and Sanyo). Therefore, the affiliated store "Toshiba storeThe two-tank washing machine supplied to the company has been changed to Panasonic, Hitachi Appliances, Haier and other products. After that, Toshiba's white goods divisionAesthetic groupHave been sold to the company ("TOSHIBA" brand still exists in Japan).
The production of 2-tank washing machine2007 It's been finished for a while, and currently only drum type and vertical type washer/dryers are produced. Affiliated storeSharp friend shopThe two-tank washing machine supplied to the company has been changed to Panasonic, Hitachi Appliances, Haier and other products.
Aqua(Former Haier Aqua Sales → Haier Asia)
A Haier subsidiary that inherited the washing machine business of Sanyo Electric, which became a wholly owned subsidiary of Panasonic. Sold under the "AQUA" brand. The drum type was withdrawn in 2015.
We develop, manufacture, and sell large-scale washing machines, dryers, and washer-dryers for commercial use such as coin laundry and laundry. Launch of a mattress dryer for use in 2020[45].

Withdraw from production

Mitsubishi Electric
The industry's first washer/dryer with a variable drum angle function "Moving Drum" series was released in May 2007, but due to a series of recalls due to malfunctions, the product was discontinued just three months after its release, and the number of shipments also dropped. As a result, the deficit of the entire washing machine business expanded, so in-house production of washing machines ended in October 5 only. Currently affiliated storesMitsubishi Electric StoreOnly the vertical type "MAW-70BP" sold onlyHitachi Global Life SolutionsSold in the form of production consignment to.The two-tank and drum-type washing machines supplied to the "Mitsubishi Electric Store" are Panasonic Hitachi Global Life Solutions Sharp.HaierHave changed to other companies' products.
Sanyo Electric
The subsidiary Sanyo Aqua produced washing machines, but the production was discontinued in September 2011 due to the abolition of the "SANYO" trademark due to Panasonic becoming a wholly owned subsidiary. As mentioned above, Sanyo's washing machine business was sold to Haier and inherited the "AQUA" brand from the Sanyo era.Smile Smile No.1 Shop] To change to the Panasonic shopAffiliate electronics storeThere are some stores that sell Haier products).
White goods including washing machines1990 Withdrawal by.Currently, only PCs and related products and lighting fixtures & lamps are produced (lighting fixtures & lamps are subsidiaries "NEC writingIs manufactured).
Fujitsu general
Currently, the only white goods produced are white air conditioners, the No Clear series, and other white goods production including washing machines withdrew in the 1990s.

Besides Japan

Home appliance manufacturer in China. In Japan2002 Started import and sale by "Sanyo Haier", a joint venture with Sanyo Electric (currently inherited by Haier Japan Sales). It is sold under the "Haier" brand, and its main products are simple and inexpensive.
LG Electronics
No. 1 in world share[46]2012 ,2017 ToThe United States of AmericaからAnti-dumping tariff measuresProduction bases are being moved to each country[47].
American home appliance manufacturer.MayTag,AmanaIt is sold under many brands.
Samsung electronics
Manufactured washing machines from the beginning. KenmoreOEM. Similar to LG, it has moved production bases to each country.
German manufacturer. White goods are sold as luxury brands in the United States and Japan.
Indian manufacturer
Have the HotPoint brand
German manufacturer
Home appliance manufacturer in China. We also sell white goods as a low-priced brand to Japan.

Related item



[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Often pronounced "Sentatsu",Japanese input systemHowever, it can be converted with "Sentaki".
  2. ^ Vatican's praise for washing machine. The Hindu... 10 March 2009.
  3. ^ The power of detergent-the science of enzymes 3rd Shohashiken Bio Cafe, Living and Bio Plaza 21
  4. ^ Mothers and Daughters of Invention: Notes for a Revised History of Technology, Autumn Stanley, Rutgers University Press, 1995, p. 301
  5. ^ Die bequeme und höchstvortheil hafte Waschmaschine Deuches Museum
  6. ^ Mario Theriault, Great Maritme Inventions 1833-1950, Goose Lane, 2001, p. 28
  7. ^ From "The Wonders of Industry" by Louis Figie, Volume 2 (1873)
  8. ^ "Electric Washing Machine the Latest. Housewives can do Washing in one-third the Time," Des Moines Daily Capitol, November 12, 1904, p. 13.
  9. ^ United States Patent No. 966,677
  10. ^ United States Patent No. 921,195 な ど
  11. ^ There are various theories as described below, the patent of TJ Winans in 1906 (1907 Co. Nineteen Hundred Washer Company, now Whirlpool Co. released in 1900, which has a pulley but the power source is not written in the patent drawing), 1908 Oliver B. Woodrow's patent (claimed as "washing machine with motor or other power source"), 1910 Alva J. Fisher's patent (1908 as "Thor" from Hurley Machine Company) Released).
  12. ^ Developed by introducing technology from Hurley Machine Company
  13. ^ a b Toshiba No. 1930 Monogatari "XNUMX Japan's first electric washing machine" Toshiba Future Science Museum
  14. ^ Washing Machine "First" Story 1950s Sanyo Electric Official[Broken link]
  15. ^ NHKof"Project X"The first year of home appliances, the strongest salesman stands-the game is a washing machine-"2002 (14)May 7Was broadcast on. (Project X 4K restore version2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 5Broadcast NHK)
  16. ^ Sanyo Electric is all made in Japan, including two-tank washing machines.[When?][Source required].
  17. ^ "Electric machinery and equipment quality indication regulations”. Consumer Affairs Agency. 2013/5/23Browse.
  18. ^ Economic Statistics Department, Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office “Consumption Trend Survey (nationwide, monthly) March 21 Survey Results” April 3, 2009
  19. ^ How to cook octopus[Broken link]
  20. ^ 1919 laundry factory illustration. You can see the horizontal washing machine and the vertical dehydrator. - Don't Waste Waste, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 73, Scanned by Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73
  21. ^ United States Patent No. 2,165,884
  22. ^ http://www.oldewash.com/cf/images/IMAGES/327.jpg
  23. ^ "Mitsubishi Electric withdraws from washing machine business << Additional >> | Nikkei Crosstech (xTECH)”. Nikkei BP. 2022/1/2Browse.
  24. ^ It's just a bucket N-BK2 ASCII24 June 2001, 6, etc.
  25. ^ Home Appliance Mini Review/Thomas "High Speed ​​Dehydrator" Home Appliance Watch (Impress watch) January 2008, 1,Home appliances mini review / Somera "high speed dehydrator C-14LSS" Home Appliance Watch (Impress watch) November 2007, 11, etc.
  26. ^ Washing Machine "First" Story 1960s Sanyo Electric Official
  27. ^ The fully automatic type has a weak centrifugal force and a long dewatering time (it takes about 3 to 10 minutes) because it is integrated with the washing tub. Dehydration is easy to complete in 1 minutes)
  28. ^ a b [Economic Inside] Will Toshiba also give up? 1 to 4 washing machine manufacturers fall in the "white goods kingdom" falling sun (XNUMX/XNUMX page)-Sankei News
  29. ^ Two-tank type if you are particular about washing: yomiDr. / Yomiuri Shimbun -Yomiuri Shimbun
  30. ^ Reason why two-tank washing machine sells now is powerful for caring for pets and nursing care|MONO TRENDY|NIKKEI STYLE
  31. ^ [60 second commentary] The reason why the two-tank type with a washboard became a big hit - Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  32. ^ a b History of washing machines/clothes dryers Panasonic official
  33. ^ Actual Usability of Washing and Drying Machine -Search for Problems from Consumer Life Consultation- (PDF) National Life Center
  34. ^ Nippon_Style
  35. ^ Yoichiro Sasaki "New electric washing machine (W361 type) (PDF) "Fuji time signalVol. 27, No. 4, Fuji Electric, 1954, pp. 77-78.
  36. ^ Teruo Sadaishi "Popular type double jet electric washing machine (PDF) "Fuji time signalVol. 28, No. 2, Fuji Electric, 1955, pp. 34-40.
  37. ^ "Household goods (PDF) "Fuji time signalVol. 36, No. 1, Fuji Electric, 1963, p. 110.
  38. ^ Yoichiro Sasaki "Double water flow type W261 type electric washing machine (PDF) "Fuji time signalVol. 31, No. 2, Fuji Electric, 1958, pp. 76-77.
  39. ^ Ûniversity University of Leeds creating a washing machine that needs but 2% of the water / electricity requirements of a conventional washing machine
  40. ^ Changing picture display Senken plus
  41. ^ Comparison table of JIS L0001 (ISO3758) and JIS L0217 symbols Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  42. ^ "A boy dies in a drum-type washing machine "The last time I said "Good night""”. Iza (June 2015, 6). As of August 26, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/1/28Browse.
  43. ^ "Do you do it properly? How to clean a drum type washing machine" (Japanese). Taskle | Website for solving daily worries. https://taskle.jp/media/articles/27 2018/9/26Browse. 
  44. ^ 11 Common Laundry Mistakes -Eco Nuts Organic Soap Nuts
  45. ^ "Released a coin dryer-only gas dryer.”(Japanese). www.tosei-corporation.co.jp. 2020/6/16Browse.
  46. ^ [New home appliance technology you want to know about] Making the white goods sector the global No. 2015 brand in 1-What is LG Electronics' strategy?
  47. ^ “American ITC, anti-dumping tax on washing machines made in China by two Korean companies”. Reuters(July 2017, 1). http://jp.reuters.com/article/usitc-tariff-korea-idJPKBN14V047 2017/1/13Browse. 

外部 リンク


Electronicmicrorange(Denshi microwave oven,British: microwave oven(Microwave oven, literally translated as "Microwaveoven")), Or simply microwave(Denshi range),Electron micro(Denshi Micro),Microwave,rangeormicro, IsElectromagnetic wave(Radio wave),moistureIncludingFoodEtc.FeverMakeCooking equipment.

JapanThe name "microwave oven" in December 1961 (Showa 36),Express trainBuffet (Sahashi type 153)soToshibaWhen testing and operating the product ofNational railwayIt is said that the person in charge of[1].. After that, it was used in commercial products and became a popular name.

EnglishThen. microwave oven(Microwave oven or microwave oven), often microwave(Microwave or microwave) ormicrophoneAbbreviated as (micro)[2].electronic rangeAlso called[3][4].


ThingtemperatureIs about the momentum of a molecule, but a microwave ovenMicrowaveIrradiatepolarityWater with分子Directly gives energy to the molecule to vibrate and rotate the molecule to raise the temperature, so-calledMicrowave heatingAre using.

Other cooking utensils that consume electricity and heatElectric stove,Electromagnetic cookerThere is an electric stoveJoule heatGenerated by heating the heating element withInfraredThe food is heated by, and the principle of heat generation is different. Since infrared rays and microwaves have different wavelengths, their properties are also different. Infrared rays mainly heat the surface of a substance (heating to the inside is due to heat conduction).

On the other hand, in a microwave oven using microwaves, although the inside of a substance is heated by radiation from infrared rays, electromagnetic waves do not contain water molecules and are transmitted.ガ ラ ス,ChinaIs not heated (also, it may be indirectly heated by heat conduction from the heated part).

As a source of electromagnetic waves,MagnetronTo sayVacuum tubeIs used.

The high frequency output is about 500-700W for home use,convenience storeFor commercial use and as kitchen equipment, it is about 1500-3000W. Since there is a loss when converting electric power to electromagnetic waves, if the inverter type output (warming power) is 1000 W, the power consumption of the microwave oven itself will be about 1450 W.

in JapanHousehold goods quality labeling methodSubject to the application of electrical machinery and equipment, which is stipulated in the quality labeling regulations.[5]. Also,Radio ActIt corresponds to the above, and it is subject to the type confirmation system because it is a device with a high frequency output exceeding 50 W.[6].. Of electromagnetic wavesfrequencyAt 2450MHzISM bandIt shares one of the frequencies無線 LAN,Wi-Fi, 2400MHz band directly belowAmateur radioWhen you operate the microwave oven, etc.Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsnoticeFrequency allocation planIn the footnoteinterferenceMust be accepted”.

Household penetration rateIn Japan1970 eraOver 10% in the middle[7],1980 era40% level in the middle stage[7]To over 50%[8], In the latter half of the 60% range[7]From 70% level[8]And,1990 eraThe middle stage is in the 80% range[7]From around 90%[8]And in the latter half, it was in the mid 90% range[7][8]And,2000 era90% in the middle half to the second half[7][8]Is kept. Worldwide, household appliances are popular because they are economically developed and the electricity situation is good.Developed countryCheap, in many areas ofCheap editionFrom modelMultifunctionalIt has been widely distributed, even to high-performance models, and is widely used because of its convenience.


Discovery of the principle

In 1945,The United States of America OfRaytheonWorked at the companyradarInstallation engineer,Percy SpencerInvented by

  • In his pocket stood in front of the magnetronChocolate barAccidentally discovered that was melted
  • The sandwich that had been left alone was cooked by itself

Legendary episodes such as, etc. are transmitted, but in reality it was developed by the result of careful observation by multiple staff[9].

The first microwave cooked food was carefully selected,popcornMet. Spencer microwave oven patents corn recipes using paper bags[9]..The next ingredient selected isChicken eggsUsedBoiled eggIt was made, but this isExploding eggFailed due to.

on the other hand,Imperial Japanese Navy The1944 Around (Showa 19)Navy Technical Research InstituteAnd Shimada Laboratory (currentlyShimada Rika Kogyo(Predecessor of),MicrowaveTo remotely attack aircraft andRay weaponWas doing research[10].. The first experiment targetsweet potatoso,Soft potatoIt is said that it became like[11].. Then from a distance of 5mRabbitAlthough it succeeded in killing the weapon, it could not be made larger than that, and its development as a weapon was stalled.[12].Yamato battleshipUsing the swivel part of the secondary armament removed fromparabolic antennaConstruction was also carried out, but Shimada Laboratory was not put into practical use as a weapon due to air raid damage.Second World WarReached the end of the war[11].

Was one of the developersShigeru NakajimaLost his military research job after the war, built a machine to roast coffee beans with microwaves, and delivered it to a coffee shop in Tokyo to surpass the glue.[11]..However, this "microwave oven" was never commercialized.


RaytheonAbout microwave cooking1945 ToPatentTaking[13],1947 Launched its first product on. Height 180 cm, weight 340 kg. The power consumption was 3000W. This product sold very well, and other companies also entered the market one after another.


  • 1951 (Showa 26) According to a newspaper article on July 7, "Frozen whaling in the Southern Ocean"Whale meatAs a technology for thawing the fish while keeping it fresh” Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology) Is researching "technology for irradiating frozen whale meat with ultra-high frequency and thawing it". According to this article, since the technology for thawing whale meat has already been established, the method for thawing whale meat will be announced at the 8th International Frozen Foods Conference held in London, England from August 29 of the same year. There is an article to that effect. From this, it can be seen that at this point, commercial frozen meat thawing technology had been established to some extent in Japan.
  • 1959 (34) Tokyo Shibaura Electric (currently Toshiba) Developed the first domestic microwave oven[14].
  • 1961 (Showa 36) Kokusai Electric (currently Hitachi Kokusai Electric) Released Japan's first commercial microwave oven[15].
  • 1962 (Showa 37) Hayakawa Electric Industry (currently sharp) Manufactured Japan's first mass-produced microwave oven "R-10" (54 yen)[16].
  • 1963 (Showa 38) Matsushita Electric Industrial (current) Panasonic) Manufactured the microwave oven "NE-100F" (115 million yen), which became a pioneer product for the popularization of microwave ovens.[17].
  • 1964 (Showa 39)Tokaido Shinkansen-Shinkansen 0 series OfBuffet carEquipped with a microwave oven.
  • 1965 (40) "NE-500" from Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (currently Panasonic) for general households[18]Was first released.
  • 1966 (Showa 41) Hayakawa Denki Kogyo (currently Sharp) is the first domestically produced product.TurntableReleased microwave oven "R-600" (198,000 yen) that adopted the method[19].
  • 1972 (47)Ministry of Post(Current Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) systematized type designation[21]Was done. Manufacturers or importers should provide information regarding the technical conditions of the radio law.Postal minister(Current Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications), and the Minister of Post andnoticeBy doing so, the designation of the model designation was made an ellipse with a horizontal diameter of 3 cm and a vertical diameter of 1.5 cm.
  • 1977Mitsubishi Electric ovenReleased integrated microwave oven.
  • 1985 (Showa 60) Transferred to type confirmation system[22]did. This is to notify the manufacturer or importer of the type by notifying the manufacturer of the self-confirmation that the technical conditions are met.
  • 2006 (18) The model confirmation display is an ellipse with a horizontal length of 2 cm or more or a rectangle with a horizontal side of 5 mm or more.[23]Was taken.
  • 2017 (29) The type confirmation can be displayed by electromagnetic display, and the type confirmation can be done.AnnouncementDecided to[24].

Market reaction

The advent of microwave ovens, which cook without heating, baffled people in the 1950s. Microwave ovens were expensive at the beginning of the sale, and they began to spread to general households in the latter half of the 500s when the price could be suppressed to $ 1970.[9].. In 1970, it was reported that some products leaked microwaves exceeding the allowable amount in the United States[25]Dissatisfaction with microwave ovens such as health anxiety about microwaves was deeply rooted in 1998.United KingdomSurvey shows that 10 percent of consumers say "never buy a microwave oven"[9].

At first, in Japan, there was no understanding of why it is necessary to spend high money to purchase a cooking device that is only useful for warming cold foods and thawing frozen foods. It was not easily accepted by the people.

Therefore, the manufacturer may have a microwave ovenpottery-Simmered dishes-Steamed food-Fried food-Stir fry-BoiledI tried to advertise and sell it as if it was a versatile cooker that could perform all kinds of functions.

In contrast, the magazine "Living NotebookIs1975 から1976 I put up a special feature over the article, published an article entitled "Microwave oven-this strange and stupid product", and criticized "What can the manufacturer sell?" At that time, the product test of "Kurashi no Tebo" was highly trusted by consumers, and the recognition that "microwave ovens are not universal cookers" impressed consumers. In the same issue of "Kurashi no Tebo", we published an article about tips for warming deliciously chilled food using a steamer. Due to the impact of this campaign, the negative image of microwave ovens will remain in part until later years.

However, the convenience of being able to warm the dish with the touch of a button was a great advantage.High economic growthOn the other hand, life becomes richer,Nuclear FamilyAndIndividual dietAs the "family culture surrounding a dining table and eating together" represented by, became a thing of the past, the need for a means to easily warm foods increased and spread.

Manufacturers are also making efforts to improve performance, such as by reading the weight and temperature of food with a sensor so that optimum heating can be performed without spoiling the taste Has arrived.Frozen foodSpread and improve quality, can store frozen foodsRefrigerator with freezerAssuming the spread of food and cooking in a microwave ovenmanufactured foodHas come to be sold, and the penetration rate has increased along with the increase in convenience.Also, accompanying itmass productionCommoditizationThe fall in prices due to the above has boosted further spread.

Built-in vending machine

1970 OfJapan World ExpositionA microwave oven was installed around the venue.Hamburger vending machineAppeared and became a hot topic.

This vending machine sold only hamburgers stored in a paper box, and when purchased, the products were automatically put into the built-in microwave oven, heated, and then provided."Bread is steamed, meat is dry", which was a little bit bland compared to a fresh hamburger hamburger chain.[Source required].. In addition, I had to wait about 1 minute including the heating time from coin insertion to product receipt.

However, because it is automatic, it is possible to provide warm food easily even at midnight, and by freezing the food stock, the risk of inventory and food deterioration is almost eliminated.Drive in,highway Ofservice areaThe installation has proceeded mainly.

These vending machines with built-in microwave ovens have steadily penetrated into society with the help of the subsequent increase in the number of installations and the development of frozen foods, and various variations have appeared. CurrentlyGrilled rice ball,Fried chicken,French fries,TakoyakiThere are also models that sell such as.

The situation since the 2000s

In Japan in the 2000s, the penetration rate is in the high 90% range, and a single-function microwave oven that only heats can be purchased for 1 yen or less. Functional types have also appeared.

Due to such a situation, many foods that can be eaten as they are when they are heated in a microwave oven are lined up in stores.convenience storeFrozen food with good flavor and simpleBox lunch,Side dishNow that you have more than one of these items, a menu for microwave ovens is a standard product in the snack food corner. They are eaten by being warmed on the spot or warmed by taking them home. Also,supermarketWith the increase in the handling of products that use microwave ovens such as bento and side dishes at food stores such asHalf boardThe industrial market is also expanding[26].

2005 In April, Sharp announced that the world's first cumulative production of its own microwave oven reached 4 million units.[27].

Japanese companies

Commercial use is Panasonic's monopoly.Other than Panasonic, SharpNester(Hoshizakisubsidiary.(Toshiba's business is succeeded), but only small production.

Withdraw from production
  • Sanyo Electric(Ended in 2011 due to becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of Panasonic. It also produced commercial use)


There are the following two types of conditions inside the warehouse.

  • A method with a turntable to prevent uneven irradiation and absorption of microwaves
  • A method with a flat interior, which is mainly used for high-output and multifunctional products

In the flat type, the irradiation antenna is rotating.In commercial microwave ovens, there are products that heat the food evenly without rotating it by increasing the output or diffusely reflecting it inside.

The microwave oven has a basic structure,Commercial power frequencyIts ability and output can be affected.For this reason, in order to perform more efficient heating and finely control the output,InverterThere is also a product that has the function of avoiding the influence from the power supply. Such products areAlternating currentOnce powerDCToConvertAfter that, the voltage is converted into high voltage at a predetermined AC frequency higher than the commercial power frequency, so that it is not affected by the power frequency (so-called Hertz-free).

However, old-fashioned products that do not have such functions and "heat only" etc.Cheap productsHowever, this is not the only case, and there are products that are affected by different commercial power supply frequencies in western Japan and eastern Japan, for example.movingIt becomes a problem.In this case, the parts will be replaced and repaired according to the area of ​​use in the form of repair by the manufacturer for a fee.In addition, on the consumer side, the conventional product is discarded and replaced by a new one because it "does not match the power frequency of the relocation destination".

Generally, if the one for 50Hz is used at 60Hz, the output will exceed the rating, and in the opposite case, an overcurrent will occur in the internal transformer, resulting in burning or blowing of the thermal fuse.Taking this as a counter-product, the circuit is designed for 50Hz, and when it is detected that it is being used at 60Hz, the magnetron is automatically set to intermittent operation to adjust the output in "time average". There are also products that are hertz-free by doing so.Further, in order to change the output in a conventional circuit (for example, a model with a rating of 500 W outputs 200 W), intermittent operation is a general method, and the instantaneous output does not change.Therefore, the same result can be obtained for both 500W and 200W in a very short operating time.

Many products with other functions added to the microwave oven have also appeared. A typical example isovenMicrowave oven with function "Microwave oven". The function of "baking" that cannot be done in the microwave oven is performed by the oven function using heating wire or gas combustion, and the advantages of both the oven and the microwave oven are mixed.steam, Or adjust the heating time automatically while measuring the temperature of the food,MultifunctionalA microwave oven has also appeared.

Cooking method

Cooking in a microwave oven is generally started by placing the food on one side of the turntable in the refrigerator and closing the door (microwaves are not sufficiently irradiated in the center). In particular, with a model that controls the temperature of a food item while checking it with an infrared sensor, normal cooking may not be possible unless the food item is placed in the refrigerator.

Regarding the cooking method of the microwave oven, even if it is not a sophisticated microwave oven but a single-function microwave oven, it can be boiled or boiled in addition to the usage of "warming cold foods and ingredients" and "thawing frozen foods". such asCookwareThere is also a position as. In the multi-functional range, it is necessary to select the function suitable for each food and dish as the cooking method.

When doing warm in the microwave, usually in a bowlWrapI will do it. This will occur when the food is warmed upwater vaporAs a secondary use ofevaporationThe dryness of the ingredients due toSteamAn effect similar to can be obtained at the same time. However, do not wrap foods (such as bread and fried foods) that would be softened when the water content is highCooking SheetIt is also devised to spread extra water vapor to prevent food from being softened by dew condensation on the plate.

Vegetables, Especially hard to pass the fireRoot vegetablesKind ofWarm vegetablesCan be made. This is also done as a preparation of ingredients. Cooking goods such as range packs that can make hot vegetables more easily are coming out.cakeThings like can also be made using a microwave oven. TextureSteamed cakeSimilar to

It can be cooked, but the surface of the material is dry and non-scoring, so it cannot be cooked. However, cooking utensils for microwave ovensFrozen foodInside, you can cook pottery dishes like "the ones that have been devised to be browned" using only the cooking function of the microwave oven.Frozen foodAndGrilled fish,friedPackaging materials that can be cooked are also commercialized.


Expression of cooking by microwave oven

"In the microwave調理MeaningColloquialismExists in each country.

The sound of heating a cup of black tea for 225 seconds with the Panasonic microwave NN-E20M. The sound that indicates the completion of cooking with this model is not "chin" but "pee, pee, pee."

If you can't watch this audio or video well,Help: Playing audio/video
  • JapanThen, as a signal sound to notify the completion of cooking, a mechanism that makes a "chin" sound (with a mechanical timerbell) Was incorporated into many products for a while,JapaneseAnd "Chin"[28][29][30]Or "to rent"[31][32]Sometimes expressed as.

When the microwave oven was introduced, the act of cooking was not named, but it was a spontaneous expression on a nationwide scale derived from the above-mentioned signal sounds.[29][30].Agency for Cultural AffairsIn 2013Public opinion poll on Japanese language,” 90.4% said they use “Chin”. The results of this survey show that the word "chinsu" is widely used in Japanese.[33].

  • The early microwave ovens in Japan did not have a device for issuing a cue sound to signal the completion of cooking, so the purchaser commented that "I do not notice that cooking is over and the cooked food gets cold." Hayakawa Electric (currentlysharp) It also reached members of the microwave oven development team[34].
    • That memberUnionSponsoredCyclingIt was a hint that the sound of the bell was impressive when I participated inelectromagnetSpringAn improved model has been developed that has a mechanism for ringing a bell[34].. In addition, "Because there were many bicycle stores in the neighborhood of the laboratory, researchers at the time went to the store to buy the bell,AluminumThe cost was reduced with a bell that was squeezed, and the strength of the sound was adjusted using a spring and attached to the microwave oven. "MainspringThere was also an explanation from the Sharp Public Relations Office, saying, "The structure is such that the bell is integrated to make a beeping sound."[35].
  • 1970 eraLatter half,Matsushita Electric(Current Panasonic) Is the microwave oven "ElecBy the way, I tried to popularize and establish the cooking act as "elec", but it did not take root and eventually stayed within a very limited range.[29][36].
  • One of the industry terms used in the food industry is “range up”. It is meant to be warmed in a microwave oven, and is used, for example, to "range up and thaw before baking." However Range up. IsEnglishAs completely incomprehensible and completeJapanglish.
  • ChineseThen, there is an expression by a similar onomatopoeia, but "turn" which means "turn" (Juan:繁体字: ,Simplified characters: turn,pinyin: zhuǎnThe verb) is also used to mean heating in the microwave.
  • Verbized in English microwave Using,Let's microwave some ○○ is used.[37]..Add a suffix that means it is possible to support microwave cookingmicrowaveableIt is expressed as.

In modern times, "chin" is used as a signal sound mainly for single-function types in the popular price range, and for products with high output and multifunction,Piezoelectric elementUsedElectronic soundIs used.

Radio leak

There are about 4% of microwave ovens that leak strong electromagnetic waves momentarily when the door is opened during cooking, and in 1970, they were taken up by the Diet (House of Representatives Price Special Committee). Have been regarded as a problem[38].

Microwave incident

  • 2005 January,The United States of AmericaOhioDaytonSo, it seems that a 25-year-old mother put her baby daughter in the microwave, pressed the switch, and heated it for more than 2 minutes.As a result, he died due to internal organ damage caused by high-temperature heat.Arrested and charged with murder and sentenced to life imprisonment on September 2008, 9[39]. Also2007 October,United States of AmericaArkansasAt Joshua Mauldin, a 19-year-old father puts his 2-year-old daughter in the microwave, presses a switch, and whole bodyBurnThriceWas arrested for seriously injuring him.In March 2011, a 3-year-old mother suffering from epilepsy in California was sentenced to life imprisonment on November 34, 2, for killing her two-month-old daughter by heating it in the microwave. Are[40].
  • Aum ShinrikyoCorpse incineratorMicrowave heatingBecause it was a method, it was likened to a microwave oven.[41].
  • Product Liability LawAbouturban legendAs "housekeepingCatThere was a thing called "dry in a microwave oven" (common name "Cat range").The content is that after washing a cat owned by an American housewife, when using a microwave oven to dry the hair, the cat died, and the housewife said, "Dry the cat in the instruction manual of the microwave oven. "Don't do it" is not written, "he insisted that it was a failure of the manufacturer, and the company was defeated and paid a large amount of compensation, and as a result, the microwave ovenInstruction ManualsIt is a story that he came to write a note saying "Please do not put pets" in.However, there is no record that such a proceeding actually took place, and it ridiculed the American litigation society.urban legendIs.There is no obligation under Japanese or American law to add such a note to a microwave oven.As an example that actually happened,2007 In 12 monthCanadaAlbertaFour 13-15 year old boys robbed at Camrose killed a resident's cat by heating it in the microwave.[42]And2014 ToUnited KingdomA woman was sentenced to 1 weeks in prison and banned from keeping animals for life for a woman who died by heating the cat in the microwave for about 14 minute as a punishment for attacking the goldfish that she kept in Japan. There is a case[43].


Related item


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Business Limited Express Men Running Kodama p.160 Shunichi Fukuhara JTB 2003 ISBN 4533050115
  2. ^ Microwave oven Dictionary.com
  3. ^ microwave oven Britannica.com
  4. ^ electronic oven - Weblio dictionary
  5. ^ "Electric machinery and equipment quality indication regulations”. Consumer Affairs Agency. 2013/5/23Browse.
  6. ^ Radio Law Article 100 andRadio Law Enforcement RegulationsArticle 46-7
  7. ^ a b c d e f Consumption trend survey (monthly national survey, April 16 survey) / Penetration rate of major durable goods (all households)[Microsoft Excelformat〕 - Cabinet Office
  8. ^ a b c d e What is the penetration rate 25 years ago? Graph the trend of penetration rates for microwave ovens and room air conditioners. -Garbagenews.com January 2010, 8
  9. ^ a b c d Bee Wilson, “Kitchen History: Human Food Culture Changed by Cooking Tools,” Translated by Mayuko Sanada, Kawade Shobo Shinsha 2014 ISBN 9784309022604 pp. 140-145.
  10. ^ # Hearing Japanese Navy History p.70,# Navy Technical Research Institute p. 267
  11. ^ a b c # Hearing Japanese Navy History p. 71
  12. ^ # Navy Technical Research Institute p. 268
  13. ^ Bibliographic data: US 2495429 (A) / Method of treating foodstuffs -Espacenet Patent search (English)
  14. ^ Company Profile (History and History) -Toshiba Corporate Information
  15. ^ History -Hitachi Kokusai Electric Company Information
  16. ^ Microwave R-10 - National Science Museum History of industrial technology
  17. ^ Domestic mass production first microwave oven NE-1F -National Science Museum History of Industrial Technology
  18. ^ Range history -Panasonic development story
  19. ^ Sharp's history chronology 1961 to 1970 -Sharp company information
  20. ^ Range history (Panasonic)
  21. ^ Amendment to the Enforcement Regulations of the Radio Law by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ordinance No. 47 of 13
  22. ^ Amendment to the Enforcement Regulations of the Radio Law by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ordinance No. 60 of 81
  23. ^ Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 18 in 119
  24. ^ Amendment to the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 29 in 35
  25. ^ "Part of the radiation from the microwave oven exceeds the permissible amount" "Chuoku Shimbun" January 45, 1, page 6
  26. ^ Management Policy "Background of Growth" (Rock Field)
    Top Interview / New Japan Trading - Teraoka Seiko・From New Balance 61 Issued April 2008, 4
  27. ^ Sharp News Release April 2005("The world's first microwave oven achieves 1 million worldwide production" 2005.4.20)
  28. ^ Chin -Japanese slang dictionary
  29. ^ a b c Koba no Koba / "Chin" -Yomiuri Shimbun February 1999, 4
  30. ^ a b Chin - Sanseido Web Dictionary
  31. ^ It's easy and tasty, but it's the best ♡ 15 savory side dishes made with only lentin LOCARI
  32. ^ Just put all the ingredients in and ♪ ♪ Zero feeling of omission! Full meat dish in the microwave Nadia
  33. ^ Penetrated to XNUMX% of "Chinsuru" = Misuse of idioms increased-Public opinion poll on Japanese language / Agency for Cultural Affairs Jiji Dotcom December 2014, 9
  34. ^ a b Vol.19 The microwave oven is introduced "Chin" at home The wall of 10 yen Showa 36 (1/2) -Doraku (Asahi Shimbun) / Asahi Shimbun evening edition June 2010, 6
  35. ^ "Surprising things that created the "chin" of the microwave oven". Evening Fuji. Sankei Shimbun-Fan communications (February 2005, 1). As of February 10, 2005オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012/5/22Browse.
  36. ^ ◆Language story 515 "Electrical" (postscript) - Toshihiko Michiura(Yomiuri Televisionannouncer) Circumstances of the Heisei era December 2001, 12, December 20, 12
  37. ^ ◆Language story 515 "Electrical" (Additional) - Toshihiko Michiura(Yomiuri Televisionannouncer) Heisei Word Circumstances June 2003, 6
  38. ^ Radio wave leakage from microwave ovens No compulsory measures can be taken "Asahi Shimbun" February 1975, 1970 (2) Morning edition 27th edition 12th page
  39. ^ Life sentence for mother who killed daughter in microwave oven-US- LivedoorNews (IANS) 2008 May 9
  40. ^ Heat your child in the microwave and sentence your mother to life imprisonment
  41. ^ Tokyo Kirara "Aum Shinrikyo University Dictionary" p.73
  42. ^ Killing a cat in the microwave, blaming on the net
  43. ^ A woman who cooked her cat in the microwave!The ruling given for the pain given was ... = UK
  44. ^ "smartphone? microwave? Vegetables? The case where the new vehicle on the Yamanote line is too similar to various vehicles”. J Town Net. 2020/7/21Browse.

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