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🧳 | VietJet Air goes into service in Moscow From 7 cities in Vietnam next July


VietJet Air goes into service in Moscow From 7 cities in Vietnam next July

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We are investing in the latest aircraft and will continue to expand our intercontinental flight network.

VietJet Air has announced that it will fly to Moscow.At the recital held in Moscow, Nguyen Su from Vietnam ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


aircraft(This isBritish: aircraft[1]) IsatmosphereInsideFlightTomachine OfGeneric termIs[2].


"Light aircraft" (balloon,airshipEtc.) and "heavy aircraft" (グ ラ イ ダ ー,airplaneEtc.)[1][2].. A light aircraft is one that utilizes the fact that gas, which is lighter than air, has static buoyancy.WingsWorking air dynamicsLiftIs to use[1].airplane,Rotorcraft,Glider,airshipEtc. are included.

The aircraftShipthe same asCitizenshipIs registered and alwaysAircraft symbolIt is obligatory to display it in an easily visible position (fuselage, wing, etc.)[1]..As a result, the country / region to which the aircraft belongs andJurisdiction-Diplomatic protectionIs identified where is[1].

Legal definition

Aircraft are legally given different definitions for different purposes. In the following, a typical definition from the perspective of aviation administration is illustrated.

Definition by ICAO
Chicago Convention(International Civil Aviation Convention) does not have a general definition of aircraft,International Civil Aviation OrganizationIn some of its annexes to the Convention (ICAO), "the bearing capacity in the atmosphere is defined as thereactionAny equipment you can get from[3] I am trying. In addition, the phrase "other than the reaction of air on the surface of the earth" is1967 May 11It was added toHovercraftWill be excluded.
U.S. Aviation Administrative Definition
米 国 OfUnited States CodePart 49, Part VII, Part A (Air Traffic and Safety) states "any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in, the air. , Or any designed device)” (49 USC §40102(a)(6)). On the other hand, in Federal Regulations Vol. 14 Chapter 1 (Federal Aviation Bureau of the Ministry of Transport), "a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air" is used or used. Device intended to be)' (14 CFR §1.1).
Japanese Aviation Administration Definition
Japan OfAviation lawThen, "People can ride and serve for aviationairplane,Rotorcraft,Glideras well as the airshipOtherCabinet Order"Equipment that can be used for aviation as specified in". (Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Civil Aviation Law) However, there is currently no equipment that falls under the Cabinet Order. Also,balloon,Unmanned aerial vehicle(Aviation Law, Article 2, paragraph 22),rocketEtc. are not included in the aircraft because they are out of this definition[1].

Classification of aircraft

There are various taxonomies. Generally the aircraftdensity 空 気LighterLight aircraftAnd heavier than airHeavy aircraftIt is roughly divided into two. Besides, based on the operator of the aircraft and the purpose of operation, etc.Commercial aircraft"/"Military aircraftThere is a method to classify. In addition, "manned aircraft"/"Drone(Unmanned aerial vehicle)"are categorized. AlsoengineDepending on the type ofTurbine(Machine)"/"piston(Machine)" (or "Reciprocating(Machine)”).

By principle

Light aircraft

volumeThe big "Enjoy (風 船Something like that)hydrogen,heliumLighter than the atmosphere, such as heated airgasAn aircraft that makes the average specific gravity of the aircraft lighter than air by filling it with buoyancy (static lift).[4].. LTA (Lighter-Than-Air) aircraft[5] Also called aerostat.

Light airship
A light aircraft that has a propulsion device and can be operated. Has a rigid skeleton structureRigid airship(ZeppelinEtc.) and have no skeletonAirshipThere is.Also, although it is a blimp, at the bottomkeelhaveSemi-rigid airshipAlso exists[6].
A light aircraft that does not have a propulsion device.burnerUse the air heated byhot air balloonAnd use hydrogen, helium, etc.Gas balloonThere is.

Heavy aircraft

Wingsaroundatmosphere OfItineraryCaused byLiftAn aircraft that floats and flies with (dynamic lift). Depending on the wing type, it is divided into fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing aircraft. With HTA (Heavier-Than-Air) aircraft or aerodyne.

Fixed wing aircraft
An aircraft that has wings for lift and is fixed to the airframe, and obtains lift by moving in the atmosphere. Airframe with variable wing plane shape (Variable wing aircraft) Is also included.
A fixed wing aircraft equipped with a propulsion device. To create propulsionengineIs a manned aircraftJet engine,Piston engineSuch asInternal combustion engineIs the main. Generally not 1,500 although not classified by ICAOkgA single-engine reciprocating aircraft with a seating capacity of 2-6 people is called a light aircraft.JapanAccording to the aviation law of Japan, a navigation aircraft with a simple structure equipped with a landing (water) device and a power unit is not an airplaneUltralight motiveClassify.
Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft
An airplane that can take off and land vertically like a helicopter. Some jet planes have their engine nozzles facing downwards, and some have lift engines for vertical takeoff and landing separately from those for propulsion. Vertical takeoff and landing by tilting the rotorTilt rotor machineEtc. also have the characteristics of a rotary wing aircraft. Also, although you cannot take off verticallyShort-range takeoff vertical landing aircraft (STOVL)There is also what is called.
グ ラ イ ダ ー(Glider)
Fixed-wing aircraft that do not have power. Towing by another plane or on the groundwinchTake off by external power such as cable winding by, and glide after takeoff.[7]..Those equipped with a propulsion device for takeoff and re-climbingMotor gliderCalled. The crew is limited to 2 people.
Paragliding,hang glidingIs not an aircraft under Japanese aviation law.
Heavy airship
The entire hullLifting bodyNext, the propeller and other parts of the hull will gain propulsionLiftTo surface.
An aircraft that floats in the air due to lift generated by its rotating wings.
The one that drives the rotor with the power of the engine. Propulsion is obtained by slightly tilting the axis of the rotor.
Auto gyro
An aircraft whose power is not transmitted to the rotor blades. It has a propulsion device for forward movement.
Orniopter(Flapping machine)
The one that gains lift by flapping its wings. It exists in radio control. Manned aircraft have yet to successfully take off without auxiliary power[Note 1].
Heavy aircraft without lift
thrustBy directing downwards, it is levitated by the force of the jet.

By size

Air traffic controlThen.Backward turbulenceWhen determining flight intervals forMaximum takeoff weightIs divided into 4 stages[11].

Light (British: Light)
Less than 7t,Light aircraftFrom a small single-engine machine such asBeechcraft King AirTwin-engined business machines such as

Medium(British: Medium)

7t to less than 136t,Regional jetからBoeing 737,Airbus A320Such asNarrow body machineIs applicable.
heavy(British: Heavy)
136t or more,Boeing 747,Airbus A350Such asWide body machineIs applicable.
Supermarket(British: Incredibly)
Airbus A380Dedicated category.

Since most of the aircraft in this category are of medium size, it is planned to be subdivided into 6 stages in "Coordinated Decision Making (ACDM)" aimed at improving operational efficiency of air traffic control.[12].

By use

Based on the operator of the aircraft and the purpose of operation,Commercial aircraft"When"Military aircraftAnd civilian airplanesPassenger planeとFreighterDivided into.



Airplanes are one of the main weapons and the three majorServiceone ofair forceIs the core[13]..It is not only the Air Force that owns military aircraftNavy,armyAlso have each[14]..Military aircraftFighter,BomberWith airplanes for battle, such asTransport aircraftThere are airplanes that are not used for direct combat.


The plane isAutomobile,列車,ShipAt the same time, it is one of the main means of transportation in modern society, and a transportation system that combines these four types has been constructed.[15].. For passenger transportation over 700km, the advantage of the fastest airplane among the major transportation systems has been established.[16]..For this reason, large aircraft are mainly used for transportation between nations and long-distance metropolitan areas, but on the other hand, there are many routes that fly between small cities and remote islands due to their speed, and in this case small aircraft are often used.[17]..Small between small citiesRegional jetHowever, smaller propeller planes are used on remote islands.[18], In some remote islands where the land is too small to build an airport, helicopter regular passenger routes are also available.[19]..In the case of freight transportation, airplanes are often used for freight that requires expensive and rapid transportation due to the high operating cost.[15].

General aviation

Civil aviation other than regular route transportationGeneral aviationCollectively called (general aviation).In parts of the Australian continent, which are extremely sparsely populated and vast, many individuals own small planes and use them like private cars.[20]..Also overseas bigCompany,wealthy classBecause of its mobility, it is for personal movement, etc.Business jetOften owns, and its use is skyrocketing[21].

In addition to transportation and transportation, aircraft are often used for scenic flights.TheseTourismSmall aircraft and helicopters are mainly used for flights[22]..Sightseeing flights by airships are also carried out in some countries, but in Japan in 2007Nippon AirshipAlthough the airship sightseeing flight was started by[23], The company went bankrupt in 2010 and stopped operation[24].

Pesticide,fertilizer,seedEtc. are efficiently sprayed on agricultural landAgricultural machineIs also used all over the world.Many people use small planes, but in JapanYamaha MotorDeveloped the world's first industrial unmanned helicopter in 1987[25], Used in about 4% of paddy fields in Japan, and is widely used[26].AdsAirships are sometimes used for this purpose, and have long been the main use of airships after World War II.[27]..In Japan as Japan's first advertising airship in 1968Kid ColorSince the inaugurationRainbowVarious advertising airships were once in service[28].

Take an aircraftSports TheSky sportsIs collectively referred to asAerobatic flight,Air race,Hot air balloon competition,グ ラ イ ダ ーbyGliding competition,sky divingVarious sports are included.Glider competition has existed for a long time in Sky Sports, and various flight methods were developed and further developed in the 1930s.It is a competition that is popular mainly in Europe, and the world championship is held once every two years.[29]..In hot air balloon competition, since 1973Hot air balloon world championshipIs now held every other year, and domestic races are also held in Japan[30]..Aerobatic flights around the worldAir showIt is often held as an attraction, but the military shows its skillpublic relationsTo utilizeAerobatic corpsOften in possession of JapaneseJapan Air Self-Defense ForceAlsoBlue ImpulseI have an acrobatics team called[31]..The air race was first held in France in 1909 and has been held all over the world since then.[32]..These sky sports were founded in 1905International Aviation FederationIs in charge, and the headquarters isSwitzerland OfLausanneIs located in[32].

Weather observationAircraft are also used in Japan, and in addition to receiving meteorological data of the area from commercial aircraft and using it for observation.[33], A balloon equipped with an observation device for observing the upper atmosphere.Radio sondeIs being skipped in various places[34].


Aircraft engineeringAviation engineeringSay In recent years, there are many areas that overlap with somethingSpace engineeringAlong withAerospace engineeringIs considered a division of.


Balloons and gliders

Human beings have longed to fly in the sky, and although various flying machines were conceived, it took a long time to realize them.The machine that flew in the sky for the first time with a person actually on boardFrance OfMontgolfier BrothersInvented byhot air balloonso,1783 The manned flight was successful on November 11st.Almost at the same timeJacques CharlesByGas balloonWas also invented and succeeded in manned flight on December 10, 12 days after the first flight of Montgolfier.The success of the balloon caused a temporary boom,French RevolutionLater, it was temporarily used by the French army for military purposes, but it was soon discontinued because it could not move freely in the air.[35]..On the other hand, in the 19th centuryGeorge CayleyConducted aviation research in the 1890sOtto LillienthalHowever, flight research gradually progressed, such as repeating glider experiments.However, power airplanes at that time were still in the research stage, and non-powered aircraft such as balloons and gliders were the mainstream.[36].

The appearance of an airplane

1903 ToThe United States of America OfWright brothersFly by power, so-calledairplaneInvented[37]..Airplanes developed rapidly and began in 1914.World War IThen a fierce aerial battle was held[38]..After World War I, the surplus airplanes became popular for commercial flights by the private sector, and in 1919, regular passenger operations by airships and airplanes began.[39]..In addition, the performance of airplanes has made great strides, and in 1927Charles Lindbergh Transatlantic solo non-landing flightSucceeded[37]..During this period, not only ordinary airplanes but also other aircraft were aimed at commercialization, and in the 1930s on long-haul routes.Flying boatIs often adopted[40]Also, airships were one of the important means of air transportation.But the airship was in 1937Hindenburg explosionIt will not be used after that[41]Also, flying boats were replaced by airplanes in the 1940s.[40].. In 1936, it was Germany's first practical helicopter.Focke-WulfFw 61Is being developed[42].

After World War II, in the late 1950sBoeing 707Even on passenger planesJetBecomes mainstream[40]In 1969, the world's firstWide body machineIsBoeing 747Is in service[40], Passenger airplanes have become larger and faster[43]..Furthermore, in 1968, the Soviet UnionTu-144, By England and France in 1969Concorde Supersonic airlinerAlthough it was developed as a high-speed engine, the Tu-144 was soon discontinued, and Concorde was discontinued in 1976 due to various problems such as noise and poor fuel economy. Since then, supersonic passenger aircraft have been manufactured. It has not been[44].. In 2003, Concorde ended its operation, and the operation of supersonic passenger planes itself disappeared.[45]..While the speedup has settled down, efficiency has been further improved by increasing the size and improving fuel efficiency.[44].

Relationship with ship

Aviation laws, terms, customs,ShipMany are derived from. For example, the following examples can be given.

  • Passenger planeLet's compare it to a passenger ship,ship)[46],kitchenToGalley』I call it.
  • EnglishLet’s call the conductor “Captain (captain)”. (JapaneseThen the aircraftCaptain, The shipCaptain)
  • The crew memberscrew)” and is called an “air crew.Flight attendantIs called a stewardess because it is a passenger ship crew member.
  • On the left side of the aircraftPortside(port side), right side of the aircraft toStarboard side(starboard side)".
  • In the air, drive on the right as you would at sea.Starboard boat priority principleThere is a rule based on, and a red light on the port side and a green light on the starboard side.
  • Set the departure/arrival location to "empty"HarborCall it "(air"port")". Even if there are doors on both sides, there is no legal provision, and basically you get on and off from the port side as well as a ship. Most of the models that open the canopy and board are hinged on the right side.
  • Charter contractSimilar toAircraft leasingIs performed.

A manufacturer that manufactures both aircraft and shipsKawasaki Heavy Industries(Since 1918),Third(Starting entry in 2015),Tsuneishi Holdings(Acquired aircraft manufacturer in 2015) and so on.

Take off and land on land runwaysAmphibious aircraftIs basically treated as an aircraft.

Aviation industry

Although there are many companies in the aviation industry, the oligopoly is quite advanced, especially the production of large passenger planes in the United States.BoeingAnd EuropeanAirbusIs almost concentrated in the two major companies[47]..However, in the case of airplanes, each part is distributed and produced all over the world.[48]..The two companies have made little progress in manufacturing small passenger planes.Regional jetIs in BrazilEmbraerAnd canadaBombardier AerospaceHas been competing for many years as two major companies[49]..For smaller airplanes, in addition to Embraer and Bombardier,Cessna,Gulfstream AerospaceSome companies are manufacturing[50].

Aircraft use only certified parts and are basically made to order, so even a small aircraft takes time to deliver and is expensive. For this reason, the second-hand market is developing, with manufacturers selling refurbished certified second-hand machines and a large number of vendors specializing in second-hand machines. As long as there are parts that haveBoeingとAirbusOf the two major companies have set up organizations to promote reuse (AFRA,PAMELA). Also, buying and selling parts[51], Many companies develop and sell repair parts and upgrade parts for discontinued aircraft[Note 2].

Buying and selling large passenger aircraftAirlinesHowever, large aircraft are very expensive, it takes several years to deliver them, and it is difficult to adjust to meet demand, so it enters between manufacturers and airlines.Aircraft leasingLarge relationships with financial institutions, such as the existence of many specialized companies[52].. In addition to affirmations, contracts have a unique style such as temporarily contracting for additional purchases, fixing them according to financial conditions and demand, and buying and selling purchase rights between airlines. Since it takes a long time to complete, there is a case where the airline company's management deteriorates after ordering and the aircraft that cannot be paid and is retained by the manufacturer is sold as a new old machine.[53].. Aircraft have a mechanical lifeLegal useful lifeBecause there is a large difference in sales, even parts can be sold, so a large market is formed with many transactions as tax saving, such as a company irrelevant to the aviation industry operating an aircraft leasing business for tax saving[51].. Small machines andBusiness jet TheFractional ownershipThis has activated the market for individuals.

Aircraft costs a lot of money to maintain and store, and a large number of qualified specialists are needed.Therefore, in addition to the manufacturers that manufacture aircraft and many companies that manufacture each component, maintenance and storage operations are also required. Professional media that provides information to specialized companies, temporary staffing companies that dispatch pilots and mechanics, airlines and leasing companies[54] Forms the aviation industry.

Safety and accident


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In addition, as a mere fantasyMagnus effectuseRotor airplaneIt seems that the idea of ​​"getting thrust by a rotating cylinder instead of a fixed wing" is a fancy, but there is no successful example.
  2. ^ For example Learjet Maintenance and Parts-Banyan Air Service -Out of production obsoleteLear jetA company that replaces machines with new engines that meet modern noise standards and sells and installs its own winglets.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Britannica Encyclopedia"aircraft"
  2. ^ a b Kojien Fifth Edition p.889 “Aircraft”
  3. ^ From the Japanese translation of the foundation
  4. ^ "History and Technology of Airships" p1 Mitsuo Makino Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on August 22, 8
  5. ^ "History and Technology of Airships" p2 Mitsuo Makino Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on August 22, 8
  6. ^ "History and Technology of Airships" p8-9 Mitsuo Makino Narishando Bookstore First edition published on August 22, 8
  7. ^ "Thorough Illustrated Mechanism of Airplanes" p48 Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Editorial Department Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Published February 2009, 2
  8. ^ "Classification of aircraft”.“ Sky Day ”/“ Sky Season ”Executive Committee. 2016/5/26Browse.
  9. ^ "Aviation practical encyclopedia". Japan AirlinesCo., Ltd. 2016/5/26Browse.
  10. ^ Even the same aircraft can be divided into VTOL, STOVL, and V / STOL due to differences in operation.
  11. ^ Aviation trivia (25) A380 and 787-8 are the same large aircraft! What is the correct standard for large aircraft, medium aircraft, and small aircraft? -Mynavi news
  12. ^ Close-up! Air traffic controller Tetsuya Murayama Icarus Publishing 2018 ISBN-978 4802206242 p122
  13. ^ "Understanding! Basic knowledge of military aircraft" p88-89 Atsushi Tsubota Ikaros Publishing December 2008, 12
  14. ^ "Understanding! Basic knowledge of military aircraft" p96-105 Atsushi Tsubota Ikaros Publishing December 2008, 12
  15. ^ a b "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  16. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  17. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p87-88 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  18. ^ "Regional jet that connects regions and people" p33-37 Yohei Suzuki Diamond, Inc. July 2014, 7 First print issued
  19. ^ https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG0401A_U3A001C1CR0000/ "Izu remote island knot 20 years Japan's only helicopter regular route, supporting life" Nihon Keizai Shimbun October 2013, 10 Retrieved March 5, 2021
  20. ^ "Thorough Illustrated Mechanism of Airplanes" p50 Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Editorial Department Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Published February 2009, 2
  21. ^ "Aviation Industry and Lifeline" (Deregulation and Transportation Rights 3) p154-161 Hajime Tozaki Gakubunsha September 2011, 9 29st Edition 1st Print Issued
  22. ^ "Sightseeing Travel and Fun Vehicles" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 5) p75-76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore First Edition December 22, 12
  23. ^ https://ascii.jp/elem/000/000/077/77763/ "Aerial walk gracefully on an airship!" Airship sightseeing cruise "is now in operation! ASCII.jp October 2007, 10 Retrieved March 24, 2021
  24. ^ https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG3103L_R30C10A5CC1000/ "Nippon Airship filed for bankruptcy 2 months after starting sightseeing in Tokyo" Nihon Keizai Shimbun May 2010, 5 Retrieved March 31, 2021
  25. ^ https://news.mynavi.jp/article/20131024-yamaha_uav/ "Yamaha Contributes to Offensive Agriculture with the Latest Industrial Unmanned Helicopter Model" FAZER "for the First Time in 10 Years" Mynavi News 2013/10/24 Retrieved March 2021, 3
  26. ^ https://newswitch.jp/p/21020 "Protecting the forest" Industrial unmanned helicopter, a new business form from Yamaha facing social issues From pesticide spraying to "the last one mile in the sky" New Switch (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun) February 2020, 02 18 2021 Viewed on 3th of March
  27. ^ "History and Technology of Airships" p117 Mitsuo Makino Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on August 22, 8
  28. ^ "History and Technology of Airships" p123-125 Mitsuo Makino Narishando Bookstore First edition published on August 22, 8
  29. ^ https://www.ssf.or.jp/ssf_eyes/dictionary/glider.html "Glider" Sasakawa Sports Foundation Sports Dictionary Viewed May 2021, 5
  30. ^ https://www.ssf.or.jp/ssf_eyes/dictionary/ballooning.html "Balloon" Sasakawa Sports Foundation Sports Dictionary Viewed May 2021, 5
  31. ^ https://www.mod.go.jp/asdf/pr_report/blueimpulse/about/index.html "What is Blue Impulse?" Retrieved May 2021, 5 by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force
  32. ^ a b https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/221556?page=2 "Air racing, behind the scenes of'Finally held in France'" Toyo Keizai Online 2018/05/23 Viewed May 2021, 5
  33. ^ https://www.nhk.or.jp/politics/articles/lastweek/35340.html "Technology development delays in less than half of aircraft meteorological observation data" NHK April 2020, 4 Retrieved June 30, 2021
  34. ^ "The Story of the Meteorological Agency" p72-73 Takehiko Furukawa Chuko Shinsho Published September 2015, 9
  35. ^ "Visual History Picture Book: Airplanes in the World" p14-17 by Riccardo Nikkori Translated by Izumi Nakagawa, Katsuya Ishii and Koji Umehara Kawade Shobo Shinsha First Edition published on August 2014, 8
  36. ^ "Visual History Picture Book: Airplanes in the World" p18-19 by Riccardo Nikkori Translated by Izumi Nakagawa, Katsuya Ishii and Koji Umehara Kawade Shobo Shinsha First Edition published on August 2014, 8
  37. ^ a b "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p16 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  38. ^ "Visual History Picture Book: Airplanes in the World" p50-60 by Riccardo Nikkori Translated by Izumi Nakagawa, Katsuya Ishii and Koji Umehara Kawade Shobo Shinsha First Edition published on August 2014, 8
  39. ^ "Visual History Picture Book: Airplanes in the World" p64 by Riccardo Nikkori Translated by Izumi Nakagawa, Katsuya Ishii and Koji Umehara Kawade Shobo Shinsha First Edition published on August 2014, 8
  40. ^ a b c d "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  41. ^ "[Detailed Data Test] The Goodyear Blimp Comfortable and Extreme Air Travel Quiet than a family car city ride, a ride closer to a ship than an airplane" --AUTOCAR JAPAN 2020/12/19 Retrieved December 2021, 12
  42. ^ "Visual History Picture Book: Airplanes in the World" p171 by Riccardo Nikkori Translated by Izumi Nakagawa, Katsuya Ishii and Koji Umehara Kawade Shobo Shinsha First Edition published on August 2014, 8
  43. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p71 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  44. ^ a b "Thorough Illustrated Mechanism of Airplanes" p30 Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Editorial Department Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Published February 2009, 2
  45. ^ "World Civil Aviation Picture Book Passenger Aircraft / Airport / Airlines" p30 by Andrias Fecker, supervised by Yoshitomo Aoki, translated by Masako Uehara, Hara Shobo, November 2013, 11, first edition, first edition published
  46. ^ [Working car] Towing car-Working car at the airport that supports JAL's scheduled operation Vol.1 ~ (2/2) | Working car [Autoc One]
  47. ^ "Thorough Illustrated Mechanism of Airplanes" p130 Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Editorial Department Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Published February 2009, 2
  48. ^ "Thorough Illustrated Mechanism of Airplanes" p140 Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Editorial Department Shinsei Publishing Co., Ltd. Published February 2009, 2
  49. ^ "All about the Aircraft Industry" p273-275 Hiroaki Nakamura Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd. December 2012, 12 7st edition 1st print
  50. ^ "All about the Aircraft Industry" p281-283 Hiroaki Nakamura Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd. December 2012, 12 7st edition 1st print
  51. ^ a b Real value of used Boeing 747 "old government machine costs about 30 billion yen" - GentoshaGold online
  52. ^ 7th Aircraft Finance - Hitotsubashi UniversitySumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationEndowed lecture
  53. ^ US Air Force purchases former Trans-Aero 747-8 for next presidential aircraft Cost reduction with new old aircraft -Aviation Wire August 2017, 8
  54. ^ Boeing 747, Japan's former government-only aircraft, will reach the second-hand market for 30 billion yen - CNN

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