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🛏 | Enter the hot springs! ??Children's cafeteria start


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Put in a hot spring! ??Children's cafeteria start

 
If you write the contents roughly
After taking a bath, about 40 parents and children who participated filled their stomachs with free refills of curry rice.
 

On the XNUMXth, a unique "Kodomo Shokudo" opened in Fukuchi Town, Fukuoka Prefecture.It is a children's cafeteria that can also be used in hot springs.Fortune ... → Continue reading

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Curry and rice

curry > Curry and rice

Curry and riceIt is,curryTheCooked riceEat overCuisine..There are also many original-style curry rice that have evolved uniquely to Japan.

Indian cuisineBased on theUnited KingdomBorn in[1],JapanToMeijiIntroduced from England in the times[2], A uniquely changed dish in Japan[3]..In England, it is also called "Curried rice" as well as "curry and rice".JapaneseThen, omitcurryIs often called[Note 1],RamenAlongsideJapanese OfNational foodIt is a popular dish that is called[4].Elementary and junior high school lunchAlways ranked high in the menu popularity survey[5][6].

IndiaFrom curryThoromiIs getting stronger when it is transmitted from India to England.stewalikeWheat flourBecause the recipe changed to thicken[7]. Also,ソ ー スFocus onFrench cuisineThere is also a theory that it adopted the method of[8], BritishCross and blackwellProduced by the companyCurry powder FranceBecame a Western dish named curry au riz, a French dish[9]It is said that[10].

History in Japan

Cooking/meal

The book that is said to have introduced the name of the dish "curry" for the first time in JapanFukuzawa Yukichi"Revised Chinese English" (1860,MannobuIn the first year), there is a notation "Curry Koruri", which is said to be the beginning.[11].

It was in 1872 that the recipe for curry rice was first described.Meiji"Western Cuisine Guidance" published in 5 years)[12]Is. As food ingredientsLeek-Ginger-garlic-バ タ ー-shrimp-Thailand-Oyster-chicken-Red frog-Wheat flour・Curry powder"[13].. The book is from IndiaChutneyAlso posted, but not tied to curry[14].. Also published in the same yearKanagaki RobunIn "Western cuisine", "beef-chicken・Leek・Apple·flour·Yuzu・"Curry powder" is mentioned.

Keiko KosugeIs the materialFrog meatI imagine that the elements of French cuisine were incorporated from the place where[9]..However, recipes using frog meat are not very popular, and green onions (long onions) are also available.TaishoAlmost in the timesonionWas replaced by[10][15](Later).Popular as a curry ingredientpotato-carrot・Onions were “Western vegetables” that were still rare at the beginning of the Meiji era, butHokkaidoProduction gradually expanded centered on[3].. Combined with the appearance of cheap domestic curry powder[3][16], It is thought that the prototype of Japanese curry rice was completed around the Taisho era.[3].

1905 (Meiji 38),Osaka-KawaramachiSecond generation of Japanese medicine wholesaler Yabei Imamura has released the first domestically produced curry powder "bee curry".[17]..This companyBee foodAfter changing the company name, it continues to manufacture and sell curry, making it the oldest curry maker in Japan.

1906 (Meiji 39),Tokyo-Kanda"Curry Rice Seed", which is said to be the first instant curry, has been released from "Kankyodo".The content is unknown, but it is a solidified meat and curry powder, and it is said that it will be curry if you pour boiling water.[18]..Furthermore, in 1914 (Taisho 3), from "Okamoto Shoten" in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, "UKAn instant product called "Souvenir Instant Curry" is on sale[19].

In 1926 (Taisho 15)House foodIs an instant made by solidifying curry powder, wheat flour, fats and oils, and umami ingredients.Curry rouxWas released under the product name of "Home curry powder".

1945 years(Showa20 years) August,OrientalHowever, paying attention to the fact that curry is becoming popular in home cooking, curry at that time was troublesome to cook, such as mixing curry powder with fried wheat flour, so if it can be cooked easily without that trouble. Thinking that it would sell well, we completed the powdered instant curry powder "Oriental Instant Curry", which is a mixture of pre-fried wheat flour and curry powder.At that time, there was no spoon on the dining table of ordinary Japanese households, so I attached a spoon as a prize for Oriental instant curry.Western food OfspoonWas spread to ordinary households.

Solid curry roux was introduced in 1954 (Showa 29).Sb foodReleased for the first time.From the 30'stv setbyCMThe production and consumption of instant curry increased sharply due to a sales battle between manufacturing and sales companies[20]. In 1960 (Showa 35)Ezaki GlicoHas released "Glico One Touch Curry" that can be divided into blocks to adjust the amount by utilizing the production technology of chocolate bar.Current[When?]In Japanese homes, instant curry roux is often used for cooking.

2017 years(Heisei29 years), meet the needs of individual meals and shorter working hoursRetort curryDemand for roux is expanding, consumption of roux that requires cooking continues to decline, and the purchase price of retort exceeds roux for the first time.[21].

Eating out

In the early Meiji era, curry and rice were expensive and available in limited restaurants.High colorIt was cooking[16].Rokumeikan eraToKandaIt was said that Marukyu's "Marukyu" shop cost nine sen (the same shop had coffee for one sen).

1905 (Meiji 38), OsakaDosho TownYamatoya, a drug wholesaler in Japan (currentlyBee food) The second generation of Yabei Imamura developed Japan's first domestic curry powder and used it in this shop.[22].

Until the late Meiji eraWestern cuisineThe store was the main mediator of curry and rice, but from the end of the Meiji eraCafeteriaRice curry on the menuCurry udon-Curry sobaWas gradually popularized after[15].

1910 (Meiji 43), OsakaNambaA Western restaurant, "Jiyuken," has opened in the new area. 1940 (Showa 15),Sakunosuke OdaIs a novelHusband and wife』By "mixed curry" (or "special curry")[Note 2]Was introduced and became famous. The owner of the time said, "Even if the rice is cold[Note 3], And when mixed with hot curry, it becomes hot curry."[24]Based on the idea that "If you mix rice and curry anyway, you should mix it from the beginning and eat hot ...", we decided to use a method of mixing curry sauce and rice in advance, and focus on it.Raw eggIs put out[22].Worcestershire sauceIt is recommended to eat plenty of rice.

Late Taisho era (Great Kanto EarthquakeLater) is a restaurant that Tokyo people have casually used.Japanese buckwheat noodlesThe yaCurry nanban,Curry bowlJapanese and Western eclectic foods such as the ones mentioned above have come to be served, and even at popular restaurants that handle Japanese, Western and Chinese food, it is relatively inexpensive.Western foodBecame a popular menu as[16].

In 1927 (Showa 2), "ShinjukuNakamurayaOpened a coffee shop, and issued "pure Indian rice rice" for 80 sen (10 times the price of curry rice at the popular restaurant at the time). With the first full-fledged "Indian curry" in Japan[Note 4]Said it sold 1 meals a day despite the high price[25].

1929 (Showa 4), OsakaUmedaOpened inHankyu Department StoreRice curry (20 sen) in the large dining room became popular because you can enjoy authentic curry at a relatively low price.Also, customers who cannot afford to eat rice curry order only white rice and the tabletopソ ー スJust enjoy the Western-style moodSorai"(Abbreviation for sauce slice) was also popular.

in JapanIndianThe first full-scale Indian restaurant by 1949 (Showa 24)AM NileIs in TokyoGinzaOpened in "Nile restaurant".Then, in 1954 (Showa 29), TokyoAsagaya"AjantaIs open. AM Nile's sonGM NileTakes over the Nile restaurant, and the character was bought and played an active part in the media as an entertainer.

On the other hand, "European curry" was named by Koichi Murata, the founder of the curry specialty store "Bondi", which was founded in 1973 (Showa 48).Pursuing a curry sauce that fits Japanese-style chewy rice,BouillonMurata studied in France in Japan, where he had been studying European styles such asDemiglace sauceResearching curry centered on40 years ago[When?]For the first time, the name "European curry" was added to the menu ahead of other restaurants.And his name "European curry" swept the Japanese cooking world.[26].

Development in each field

Hokkaido University

1876 (Meiji 9),Sapporo agricultural school(LaterHokkaido University) Was appointed as a professorDr. ClarkIs said to have been the inventor of the term rice curry, but the word "Taiscalai (rice curry)" has already been used in the pioneering history document "Meiji 1872th Kaitekushi Kobunroku XNUMX" (XNUMX). ing. It is said that Clark banned rice food in the dormitory and made only rice curry as an exception.[27]According to a research by Yoshiko Yoshida ("Curry Narumonogatari"), the record does not exist at Hokkaido University.

The oldest material on curry rice found is the delivery record of curry powder in September 1877 (Meiji 10) and the dormitory food menu in 9 (Meiji 1881).[28]Met. At that time, Western vegetables such as carrots, potatoes and onions were not widely used in Japan at that time. The climate of Hokkaido is from Keplon and Dr. ClarkThe United States of AmericaMassachusettsIt was very similar to, and was the most suitable place to learn the technique of growing western vegetables in his area.

A variety of American vegetable cultivars were brought to the Sapporo Agricultural College one after another, and they achieved many results. Hokkaido used this opportunity to plant large-scale Western vegetables and contributed to the popularization of Western vegetables. To spread Japanese curry rice,Horace KeplonThere is also a theory that is more contributing[29].

Army/SDF

As mentioned above, the recipe for curry rice was introduced in "Western Cuisine Guidance" and "Western Cuisine Connoisseur" in 5 (Meiji 1872), but as early as 1873 (Meiji 6) the following year.Imperial Japanese Army OfOfficerTrain studentsArmy childhood schoolIntroduces "rice curry" for lunch on Saturday[10]. In 1908 (41st year of Meiji)Imperial Japanese NavyEnglish curry was also adopted in[1][30]. In 1910 (Meiji 43), "curry and rice (curry soup rice)" was adopted by the army generals in general in the Army as "military food" eaten in the daily life of the army.ConscriptionThe fact that the soldiers who left the group after the period made curry and rice familiar to them during their military life at homes and other places greatly contributed to the spread of curry and rice.[1][30][31].

"Navy Kappou Reference Book"[Note 6]According to the recipe of, the Navy's "flatfish rice"HetAdd curry powder to the fox-colored wheat flour.SoupWhile it is written that it melts[32], "Curry and Rice" of the Army ("Military Cooking Method (Meiji 43)")[Note 7]) Does not mention dashi stock. Revised in the Showa period based on the "Military Cooking Law"Army cooking method(12th year of the year)”, the curry juice remarks in Chapter 2, Cooking Method, 24, describes that “a, warm rice is put on a plate and cooked over it to make rice curry”. Is described as soup.

In the Navy,SaturdayLunch was decided to be curry rice[1][31]. this isJMSDFTaken over to[1][31]Ta.In the streets,Shift workIt is said that this is to regain the sense of the day of the week during the long voyage.[33]But this is wrong (Navy Curry #Error 3: Friday Curry to remember the day of the week)[34].. After the two-day weekly system,FridayAlthough it has been changed to, eat curry rice in all departments[1][31], Acting as a guest at the event,Ministry of DefenseThe recipe is open to the public through the official website, and the "Navy Curry" bearing the name of the town where the military port used to beRetort food,canningThe product is on sale.

Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceBut each unit has its own recipe[Note 8]There is curry rice by[Note 9], Behaved by general visitors at events, etc.[Note 10].

Second World Warrear,US Air ForceWhile imitating the former Army and Navy Air Force (Army Air Force-Navy aviation unit) Was founded by former soldiersJapan Air Self-Defense ForceHas a similar curry,baseThere is a curry arranged for each dining room.KanagawaYokosukaNavy curryEven now[When?]It is a specialty.

School lunch

After World War IIIsSchool lunchCurry rice has come to be adopted nationwide in the menu of.Curry rice appeared on the school lunch menu in 1948 (Showa 23) immediately after the end of the war when the food situation was bad.AlliesAmong them, we received a large amount of spices from India, which was a friend of Japan.[35],Sb foodCurry industry officials such as founder Minejiro Yamazaki made efforts to expand demand[36]Is related.

However, before 1976, when rice meals started, it was not as curry rice.Curry stew[Note 11]AsUdon ball(Depending on the areaSoft noodles) AndHot dog bunIt was often issued in combination with.

Curry stew is compared to curry, especially in the early daysViscosityIs low[37],cream stewAs wellmilk,Skimmed milk powderIt is characterized by the fact that a large amount of milk components are used and it is whitish.The reason why the viscosity was low wasHot dog bunIt is said that the reason is that it had a high affinity with soft noodles and that the concentration had to be reduced due to the lack of raw materials.[36]..Around 35, TV after commercial radio broadcastingCMThe battle has intensified, and curry, which was a menu for school lunches, is now being made in large numbers at home.[20].

Chronological Table

  • 1860 (MannobuFirst year)Fukuzawa YukichiIntroduced curry (Koruri) in "Revised Chinese English".
  • 1864 (Bunkyu4 years),Edo Shogunate OfYokohama Chain Port Interpretation MissionIwamatsu Taro is on boardArabianSeeing how he eats, he wrote in his diary, "Pepper is finely tasted on top of rice, and something like potato muddy is hung on it, and this is mixed by hand and eaten by hand. It's a very dirty person." It is written.
  • 1872 (Meiji5 years),Hokkaido Development CommissionerAt the Tokyo officeHorace KeplonRice curry (the notation at that time was Thai curry) was provided for the meal. Also, in the same year, curry riceRecipesBooks "Western Cuisine Guidance" (), "Western Cuisine Connoisseurs" (Kanagaki Robun) Was published.
  • 1873 (6th year of Meiji),armyChildhood schoolRice curry is added to the lunch menu of the student corps cafeteria[10].
  • 1876 (Meiji 9), at that timeSapporo agricultural schoolWas coming to Japan as the vice-principal ofWilliam Smith ClarkHowever, "Students should not eat rice, butRaisukareiIs not limited to this. ”
  • 1877 (Meiji 10), "Yonezu RyogetsudoIs the first time to put rice curry on the menu in Japan.
  • 1889 (22th year of Meiji),Kobe settlementIt is inOriental HotelCurry riceRadyard KiplingAcclaimed in the newspaper "The Pioneer."[38].
  • 1905 (Meiji 38), Osaka drug wholesaler "Yamatoya" (currentlyBee food) Manufactures and sells curry powder in Japan for the first time.
  • 1906 (Meiji 39), TokyoKanda"Integrated Hall" releases the first instant curry rice "Curry Rice Seed".
  • 1908 (41th year of Meiji),NavyDistributed by "Navy Kappou Reference Book], Of "curry rice"RecipesIs listed[39].Navy curryOccurrence of.
  • 1910 (Meiji 43), distributed by the Army, "Army cooking], The recipe for "curry, rice" appears[40].
  • 1924 (Taisho13), "Sudacho Shokudo", a simple dining room in Kanda, Tokyo (currentlyJuraku) Puts curry rice on the menu for the first time at a low price (8 sen). The starting salary for college graduates at that time was 70 yen, and the daily allowance for daily workers was 1 yen.
  • 1926 (Taisho 15), "Urakami Shoten" (currently House Foods) released curry rice "Instant Home Curry". The following year, the product name was changed to "Instant House Curry".
  • 1927 (Showa2 years), "Shinjuku Nakamuraya" in TokyoShiseido Parlor", But puts high-class curry rice (80 sen, 50 sen) on the menu.
  • 1929 (Showa 4), OsakaUmedaof"Hankyu Department StoreThe large dining room sells rice curry at a low price (25 sen).
  • 1931 (Showa 6), "C & B curry incident" occurred.BritishCross and blackwell (C & B)'s curry powder was said to be of good quality, but it was expensive, and it was cheap to refill the contents into a forged C & B can with domestic products, or to put a bulking material in a real C & B can. A fake was on the market.This led to an international affair between Britain and Japan, and counterfeit groups were arrested.However, even if the contents were replaced with domestic curry powder, the taste was the same as that of the original C & B company because the copy was highly achieved, and few people noticed it. The powder spread all at once.
  • 1932 (Showa 7), TokyoTabataYamada Shokai Co., Ltd. launched instant curry roux and applied for a manufacturing patent.
  • 1935 (Showa 10), Tokyo(I.e.[Avoid ambiguity],Adachi[Avoid ambiguity]Many stores sell "(Nanban) curry powder". At that time, the nanban curry of Kisobaya was the mainstream.
  • 1936 (Showa 11), "Tokyo Source Curry Manufacturers Association" was formed.
  • 1941 (Showa 16)- 1945 (Showa 20),Second World War(Pacific War) Prohibits non-military curry powder manufacturing and sales.
  • 1945 In November (20), Oriental completed the Oriental Instant Curry, which is a powdered instant curry that is a mixture of pre-fried wheat flour and curry powder.
  • 1946 (Showa 21) In the end of the war, the production and sale of curry powder was resumed.
  • 1949 In 24, Urakami Shoten resumes production of Karelou "Instant House Curry".
  • 1954 (Showa 29), SB Food entered the instant curry roux field.
  • 1960 In 35, House Food Industry Co., Ltd. (former Urakami Shoten) released Karelou "House India Curry". After that, the mainstream of instant curry roux became solid type. Ezaki Glico released the one-touch curry that can be divided into blocks and the amount can be adjusted by utilizing the chocolate production technology. The same year, on the radioPrivate broadcastingNext to the TV commercial battle intensified, curry, which was a school lunch menu, will be made at home. The result is a sharp increase in curry production and consumption[20].
  • 1963 (Showa 38), the sweet curry rice (later, dry and medium-spicy curry was released), which was based on the concept of "curry that both children and adults can eat deliciously together" by House Food Industry.Vermont curryWas released.
  • 1969 (44), Otsuka Foods, the first retort curry "Bon curryWas released.
  • 1972 (Showa 47), sb food "Golden curry" shows the spiciness of 3 types (sweet, medium spicy, dry)[41].
  • 1978 (Showa 53), "Curry House CoCo Ichibanya1st store opened[42].
  • 1982 (57), National School Dietitian CouncilMay 1Is designated as "Curry Day" and "Curry Lunch" is offered at elementary and junior high schools all over Japan.[43]. However, many schools had already decided their menu, and the implementation rate was only 2%.[43]. Initially, December 12, when school lunch was revived after the war, was being considered, but a week centered on January 24, which was shifted by one month due to winter holidays and suffering from winter holidays, a school lunch commemoration week, a unified menu of 1 days Did it[43]. The reason why it became curry rice was that it was the most popular in all prefectures according to a survey by the council, the ingredients were available anywhere, and it was easy to cook[43]. After that, this day is called "curry day".
  • 1986 (61), Ezaki Glico is a hot spicy curry in response to the spicy boomREADWas released, and the notation "spicy x ○ times" was adopted.[Note 12].

How to make and eat

How to make and materials

In the Taisho era, when curry rice began to spread as home-cooked food, wheat flour and curry powder were fried in butter to make curry rice.BonitoI was making curry sauce by stretching it with dashi stock etc.[45].Currently[When?], Instant curry sauce products that can make curry sauce just by dissolving in hot water are widespread.Curry sauce is turmeric (Turmeric) Is the original color, but it has been pointed out that the color tends to become darker over time.[46]. The reason is the curry shop in Ueno, Tokyo, which is famous for its black and spicy Kashmir curry.Delhi[Note 13]AndVon de Vaux,Gravy sauceInfluence of "European" curry shopCan be considered[Original research?].Currently[When?], As a coloring agentcaramel-Squid ink-Black sesame-cocoaAre actively used. Curry selling white, green and blue has also appeared.

NHKIs No. 3 as the top 1 hidden taste used by professionalsOyster sauce, 2nd place cocoa, 3rd placeFresh creamI told you[47].

Ingredient

Japanese curry ingredientspotato[Note 14]-carrot-onion[11]Is used. These were established around the end of the Meiji era[10]. The onions were used only after the 20th year of Meiji[15], Before that, instead of onionsLong onionWas used[10]. In addition to simmering vegetables as ingredients, they were fried and dipped.Warm vegetablesIt may be added as.In the Showa period,GreenpeaceIt was often done to scatter as a decoration.

The meat that is often used as a curry ingredient in Japan is豚 肉-beef-chickenIs[49][50][51].. According to a 2012 survey conducted by NTT DoCoMo's "Voice of Everyone", "1st place: pork, 2nd place: beef, 3rd place: chicken, 4th place: vegetables only, 5th place: seafood"[49]In the 2010 survey of Do House, "Pork 42%, beef 35%, chicken 25% are preferred in that order"[50]The result has been announced. There are differences depending on region, age, and gender[52], 50 years and older (especially men) tend to prefer beef[51].1960 era OfHigh economic growthSince then, curry rice with plenty of meat is not uncommon.

In addition to this, there are curries that use various ingredients (variations,Local currySee). Curry in JapanSpicinessThere are also curry roux and retort curry that are classified into "dry", "medium spicy", and "sweet" according to the degree of. However, there is no unified standard for the degree of pungency in Japan, and it is classified by each manufacturer.

rice

From traditional tastes in JapanJaponica riceIs generally used.India andSoutheast Asia,EuropeThen, the texture is not sticky and crunchyIndica riceIs used. in Japan1993 US uproarAt the time ofKingdom of ThailandAlthough indica rice was urgently imported from Japan, it was repelled by the Japanese due to its different flavor from japonica rice. Eventually, it became known that it goes well with tropical curry.Scented riceKnown as a type ofJasmine riceAndΛ 繝 ΛThe number of Asian restaurants that use indica rice scented with rice is increasing, and the support base is expanding to Japanese people.

Garnish

Garnish in Japanese curryFukugami pickles,RakkyoIt is common to use pickles. Depending on the storeRed ginger,pickles,Raisins,nutOrChutney,Onion slice,AcharEtc. may be added. The first idea to add Fukujinzuke wasNippon YusenIt is said to be "Takisada Sadaichi" who was a cook on the European route ship. Also, besides their garnish,saladIs often eaten as a side dish of curry. Drinks relieve spicinessmilk,LassieEtc., orWedIs attached.

Derived menu
  • Cutlet curry - cutletCurry rice topped with. There are variations such as pork, chicken and beef.
  • Curry bowl ――A dish of Japanese-style soup stock mixed with curry powder and potato starch to make curry-flavored bean paste and sprinkled on cooked rice. For similar dishesCurry nanbanThere is (curry soba).
  • Dry curry --Curry flavorFried Rice.. Or, a curry sauce made from minced meat with a little juice on top of rice.
  • Curry pilaf --Curry flavorcooked rice.. Also in IndiaPrao,BiryaniThere is a similar dish called.
  • Curry stew --Curry served at school lunch.#School lunchSee section.
  • Curry rice --Rice with curryHayashiWith sauce or currybeef bowlCurry and other sauces (ingredients and soup) are hung on the ingredients.Aigake Jindai CurrySuch. RiceAmanohashidate(When it is not a sword, it may be likened to ""dam”).
  • Stone-grilled curry --IshiyakiPibinpaLike, rice cooked in a stone pot with curry.
  • Marvo curry - Mabo tofuThe sauce with curry and curry mixed on top of the cooked rice. Retort foods are on sale.
  • Soup Curry ――It ’s a soup-like smooth curry.Sapporoで2000 eraIt became a boom.
  • It features a rough texture of spices and herbs, such as sprinkling a large amount of ――.Osakaで2010 eraIt became a boom from the second half.

how to eat

In Japan, the curry is hung on the side of the rice and laid on a plate,Source boat Curry sauce is often served in separate states in metal containers called Sauce boats or Gravy boats.In the latter case, the curry is sprinkled over rice from the sauce boat container and eaten.In Japan, the name of the container is also referred to as "sauce spot" and "gravy pot".

When eating curry and rice, there are two ways to eat, one is to put the rice and curry on a spoon and not mix, and the other is to mix the curry and rice beforehand.India,Sri LankaSuch asSouth AsiaThen, it is a manner to mix and eat by hand, and in Japan, in the era of "yellow curry" made with curry powder,Worcestershire sauceThe standard way to eat it is to sprinkle it on and mix it well.Japan in recent years[When is Japan?]Then, the former is said to be the majority, and by declaring that the way of eating after mixing is "dirty", a conflict with the latter is often caused.Insert raw eggs and other than sauceSoy sauce,mayonnaiseSuch asseasoningThere is also a direction to eat it, and there are various ways to eat[53][54]..For this reason, how to eat becomes a topic and discussions occur.[53]Used as an element of personality judgment[54].

Yatsuba Dam(Gunma) AndKurobe Dam(ToyamaAt a tourist facility near), tunnel construction workers can't sprinkle soup on rice.FallI didn't like the curry over the cooked rice, so let's immerse the cooked rice in a spoon and eat it.Table mannersMay be requested as.

Curry laid overnight

The theory that curry that has been left to rest overnight is good is widespread, and there are cases where the leftover curry is left at room temperature together with the pot at home.Certainly, the effects of the ingredients such as melting into the curry sauce and alleviating the pungent odor that Japanese people are not good at are recognized.

However, on the other hand, bacteria propagate rapidly at room temperature and survive as spores especially at high temperatures of 100 degrees or more.C. perfringensWill promote the growth of.Clostridium perfringens grows at the fastest once every 10 minutes, and the number of bacteria doubles. Therefore, after cooking, at room temperature for more than half a day (1 to 5 hours),Food poisoningIs more likely to occur. Furthermore, since most of the spice aroma, which is a major feature of Indian curry, is volatilized, it should be eaten as soon as possible after cooking, and the remaining ones should be subdivided and stored in the refrigerator.[55].

Some manufacturers argue that the curry left overnight is delicious for each ingredient, broth, and spice.[56].

Curry rice and rice curry

Curry rice is "Rice curryIt is sometimes called. There are various theories as to how the two are different and why the name "curry rice" has become mainstream.

  • The theory that the two originally refer to different things
    • Curry rice is a high-colored image of rice and curry sauce that are served separately or on a horizontally long deep plate, and rice curry is a popular one with curry on top of rice.[57].
    • Japanese styleDashiThe one using is curry rice, and the one using Western-style soup is curry rice.
    • The yellowish one is rice curry, and the brownish one is curry rice.
    • The thick one is curry rice, and the smooth one is curry rice (there is the opposite opinion).
    • "Rice curry if there is a lot of rice, curry rice if there is a lot of curry" ("CucurryA copy of the commercial that was on TV at the time of its release).
    • "High-viscosity curry sauce" "Fukujinzuke and scallions are added" "A cup of water contains a spoon" "Carrots and potatoes are large, three green peas" "When cold, the curry sauce is filmed "Carrot" and "Defining rice curry" (TV drama "Rice curry])
  • The theory that they both refer to the same thing
    • riceIt was mentioned earlier in the sense of emphasizing "rice" from the Japanese sense that the staple food is[58].

Historically, the Englishman said, "Khalid Rice (English: Curried rice) ”, And was often called“ rice curry ”in newspapers and magazines from the late Meiji era to the Taisho era.[57][58].. 1872,Hokkaido Development CommissionerThe word "Taiscaly" (rice curry) in the official document ofKarafutoThe word "curry rice" was used in the record of "Mitamura Tanaka Diary" dated January 1875, 1, and it was found that two words were used from the beginning in Japan. ing.

In the case of the pre-war army, in the Army, "curry, rice" was used in the "army cooking method" compiled by the Meiji period (established in 43) and "rice curry" was used in the "army cooking method" compiled by the Showa period. If you put the rice on a plate and cover it over it, you get a rice curry.") In the Navy, it was called "Cray rice" in the Navy Cooking Reference Book. Among the general public in the Showa period, the name "Rice Curry" of the Army type was predominant among the people who came from overwhelmingly. the sameDepartment storeThere was also an example where another restaurant had rice curry and curry rice on the menu. 『Hankyu Department StoreAccording to "History of 1959 Years", in the menu of 34 (Showa 70), rice curry in the large dining room is offered for 100 yen, and curry rice is offered for XNUMX yen in the grill.

With the post-defeat period of high economic growth, the name curry rice has risen. It is highly probable that the name "curry and rice" became popular due to the effects of advertising and mass media since the market for solid roux for household use began in the 30s during the period of high growth. In terms of time1964 Tokyo OlympicsIt is said that the name "curry and rice" became dominant from around the time of the event.[57][58].

Instant curry

Curry rice, which can be said to be a national dish, has gained popularity as an instant food in various ways.

instant·Curry roux
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications OfHousehold surveyAccording to (20-22 average), the annual consumption amount of curry roux isNiigataAbout 1800 yen, annual consumption isSaga CityIt is about 2100g. The domestic shipment value of "Kalerou" in 2004 (Heisei 16) was about 676 billion yen, and each companyshareIs about 61% of house foods, about 28% of sb foods,Ezaki GlicoIt is estimated to be about 10% (Nihon Keizai Shimbun), by 3 major companiesoligopolyHas become a market. In addition to the solid type, there are flakes and granules.
Retort curry
With a package of cooked curry[59]Is a product widely consumed in Japan[60][61],Space foodIs also adopted as[61].. In 2011Great East Japan EarthquakeAs an opportunityEmergency foodIn 2017, it exceeded the purchase price of Curry Lou.[62].. There are a wide variety of types, including local ones and supervised ones by famous stores.

OthercanningProducts andfreeze dryPortable curry etc. (by freeze-drying) are supported.

Eating out

Curry rice is also a staple menu at restaurants.Keio Electric RailwayAlong the lineJRThe location of the stand-up soba shop in the curry and rice specialty storeCurry shop C & CIs occupied. Chain storesCurry House CoCo Ichibanya,Curry kingAnd so on,Go-go curryIsHideki MatsuiSometimes it becomes news overseas due to the relationship with the players. In 2013 (Heisei 25), "Curry House CoCo Ichibanya" became "the largest chain of curry restaurants in the world".Guinness World RecordsCertified by[63].

Curry and rice around Japan

Local curry

1990 eraFrom the latter halfTown revitalizationFor the purpose of, curries using special products of each region of Japan are being sold one after another, and they are called "local curry".Curry is relatively inexpensive and easy to get used to, and it can be used to appeal to local specialties as well as tourist attractions, so it is widely used throughout the country as a material for regional PR.[65]..Many products are named after the place.

In some regions, ingredients that have been abundant in the region since the early Showa period (Hokkaido - Octopus,Fukushima - Sea snail,Kumamoto - horsemeatCurry using (etc.) is eaten[3]There are products that follow that trend, but there are also many specialties that have been newly created on the boom of town revitalization.

Okinawa

27 years after the warUnder U.S. military ruleWas inOkinawaThen, unlike mainland Japan, "yellow curry" using roux made from curry powder based on prewar recipes is still active.[66].. The cooking method is not pre-made, but there are many styles in which vegetables and meat are fried after an order is placed, soup and Japanese-style soup stock are added and simmered for a while, and the roux made by frying wheat flour and curry powder is melted. Also, as standard vegetables, onions, carrots, potatoes, etc.green pepperIs a big feature.

Event

Hibiya ParkIt is inMatsumotoroCalled "10 Yen Curry Charity" on September 9th every yearCharityWe offer curry rice for 10 yen. On November 1971, 46 (Showa 11), in the so-called "Hibiya Riot Struggle"CoreIt was burnt down by the Molotov cocktail thrown by the firebomb, but it is a commemorative event for rebuilding it on September 1973, 48 (Showa 9). "25 yen curry" is autumnSeason wordsIt is also.

Curry rice of each country

India Pakistan

British Indian EmpireIt is,Second World WarLater in 1947 with IndiaPakistanToSeparated and independentdid. In IndiaVegetarianMany peoplebeansCurry sauce using vegetables such as is the mainstream.Also common in IndiaHinduismSo beef is abundant in PakistanMuslimThen the porkTabooBecause it is chickenLamb-Goat meatIs used. The spices used are extremely diverse, and even ordinary households mix spices that are difficult to obtain in Japan.

United Kingdom

IndiaColonyBritain was the oldest country in Europe and America that was familiar with curry.[67], Pub,club house[Avoid ambiguity],Student cafeteriaTraditionally, there is a menu called curry and rice.Curries range from classic pub styles to authentic immigrants to new dishes tailored to the tastes of the British.[68]..Above all1960 eraWas born inChicken tikka masala TheNational foodIt is widely supported and is said to bein recent years[When?]It is also common as a menu for Indian restaurants overseas, including Japan.

Chugoku

It is written as "咖哩" (curly) or "coffee" (same pronunciation).Chinese cuisineThe grated rice is curryChūkadonIt's easy to understand.ChugokuIn addition to Western-style and Indian-style curries offered at hotel restaurants, Japanese restaurants andJapanese-styleJapanese curry is served at the Ramen shop (Japanese style ramen shop).Japanese-style curry rice was a dish that was not very familiar to ordinary Chinese people, but it is gradually spreading due to the advancement of curry house CoCo Ichibanya.

Hong Kong

Long under the British ruleHong KongThen,Tea bowlThere are quite a few restaurants that serve curry rice at cafe restaurants called. In that case, it is less thick than Japanese ones,coconutThere are many stores that sell products with the flavor of, and it is common to see curry and white rice in separate containers. In addition, the Japanese food boom has frequently occurred in Hong Kong, and Japanese-style curry and rice are spreading. On the other hand, since there are many South Asian residents such as India, there are many stores that inherit the authentic taste.

Taiwan

TaiwanToJapanese ruleCurry and rice were brought in,Japanese-styleUnder the name of "Curry Fan"even now[When?]You can easily eat at food stalls and cafeterias.It is similar to curry rice from the Japanese colonial era, which is thickened with potato starch and has few ingredients.In recent years[When?]CocoichiHas made inroads, and Japanese curry roux have also penetrated.

South Korea

Korean PeninsulaAlsoJapanese ruleCurry rice was handed down to, and in the local language, "curry rice (카레밥, Curry rice) ". South KoreaCurry is a strong yellowish curry made from curry powder and wheat flour roux, as in prewar Japan, and is generally juicy and sweet.

BibimbapMix rice and curry well before eating.For garnishKimchiAnd Ta Kwan (Sukean pickled,in recent years[When?]Proper language(Called Tanmuji) is used in the ceremony, and it is Japanese style at restaurants.Miso Soup,BonitoDashi soup is often included.Just as there is hayashi rice as a similar dish to curry rice in Japan, Jajangmyeon (a dish alongside curry rice in Korea)ChajangThere is rice).The weights of curry sauce and chajan sauce are almost the same for retort foods.

Since Heisei, major Japanese chain stores have opened and become popular.[69].

north korea

north koreaCurry rice was also transmitted to Japan, and was brought into the prewar Japanese colonial era like South Korea.Currently[When?]It is also well established as home cooking.Japanese-made curry roux is sold at department stores in Pyongyang.

Hawaii

Japanese from the early Meiji periodImmigrationA lot ofHawaiiSo not only Japanese restaurants but also popular restaurants and traditional restaurantsHawaiian foodCurry rice is also on the menu of the storeOften[Original research?]..Yellow curry from the Meiji and Taisho eras in Japan is the mainstream,In recent years[When?]Curry House CoCo Ichibanya's advance andThailand,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euDue to the increase in immigrants from Japan, various curries are being eaten.

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注 釈

  1. ^ Generally "curry tonight!" The local curry is simply curry.
  2. ^ The sideline "Senba Jiken" is called "Indian Curry", but the "Jiyuken" side treats the store as "irrelevant".[23].
  3. ^ As a cause, he explained, "At that time, there was no machine to keep rice warm and we could not serve hot curry to customers."
  4. ^ Known as Indian Independence MovementLars Behari BoseWas devised a recipe and was advertised as "the taste of love and revolution" at that time.
  5. ^ "Navy Kappou Reference Book] Can be seen printed on the left half of the place mat.
  6. ^ "First rice cleaning, beef (chicken) onions, carrots, potatoes, squares, frying pans," heads", "heads" Fox soup roasted "Karei powder" with "soup" Nite thin trono ku ku sushi no reni before ni sliced ​​sliced ​​meat vegetables with a small amount of roasted chicken It can be cooked under low heat and stewed over the rice. The soup is cooked in a bowl. The soup is cooked in a dish. The dish is cooked in a bowl. "Katedashi Sumotos" with "Chatsune".
  7. ^ p117 "No. 1 Curry, Rice (Curry soup over rice) Put a small amount of tallow or lard in a pan, put onions and curry powder as finely chopped as possible in it, and cook well, and then cook it well. Mix with the cut meat, add hot water, add salt, add a little vinegar, and simmer for about 1 hour. Pour this into rice and use it. Rice should be cooked as hard as possible. (Caution) It is poisonous when the hardware is soaked in the curry for a long time. Also, this dish should not be used every day. It should be moderately once or twice a week. "Original text vertical writing.Changed to hiragana, new font, etc., and supplemented punctuation.See the source below for the original text.
  8. ^ For curry souppig bones,chicken carcass・ Using soup stock based on various vegetables, etc., garrisonNutritionistIn addition to the designation of ingredients and cooking method, there is an arrangement by the person in charge of the food group who actually cooks, and the deciding factor of the cooking method and taste differs depending on the person in charge.Although they should be the same ingredients, there are cases where the taste changes significantly when the person in charge of cooking changes.
  9. ^ We mainly utilize materials that make the best use of regional characteristics, and as a representativeAsahikawa station2th Division"Hokuchin (heavy snow) curry" etc. exist.
  10. ^ The Hokuchin Curry at Asahikawa Camp is usually served on Fridays, but it may be served according to the day of arrival when senior officials of the Ministry of Defense arrive, and local officials also visit. It may behave in some cases.So that it can be enjoyed by people other than those involvedBell foodIt is reproduced as a retort curry by the company, and can be purchased at the Asahikawa Garrison Welfare Center and the Hokuchin Memorial Museum, as well as at the Bell Shokuhin website.
  11. ^ Curry stew is an English sailor who wants to eat stew doesn't last long on the voyagemilkInstead of using the spice (curry powder) that has a long shelf life, it is said that the dish was made from the same ingredients as stew.[1][30][31].
  12. ^ The expression "spicy ○ times" is said to be "Boltz", an Indian curry specialty store founded in Tokyo in 1974.[44].
  13. ^ Hiroshi OnoDescribed the blackness as "a performance to make it look mysterious" ("The last luxury weekend is curry weather" Kodansha Alpha Bunko, p147-158).
  14. ^ There are some people who have a resistance to curry rice with potatoes and denialists.[48].

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Curry rice birth secret story - Yokosuka 2018/4/12
  2. ^ Kodansha"A dictionary of Japanese, Western, Chinese, and ethnic cuisines from around the world".Curry and rice”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2021/11/21Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e Where did the curry come from? - Ministry of Agriculture
  4. ^ ""Curry and Rice" questionnaire”. Net Research Dims Drive. 2008/10/16Browse.
  5. ^ "My favorite menu was "curry" and "agepan" Memories of "school lunch" questionnaire”(Japanese). Mitsubishi Electric Engineering (September 2009, 8). 2011/6/5Browse.
  6. ^ "Meal lunch menu, Agepan VS soft noodles”(Japanese). oricon gourmet. Oricon (September 2007, 3). 2011/6/5Browse.
  7. ^ Yuko Shibukawa (March 2011, 3). “There is a reason why Japanese people like curry so much”(Japanese). Japan Business Press.As of August 2016, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/12/28Browse.
  8. ^ Masakatsu Miyazaki "Japanese History of" Food "You Should Know" p211 ・Kadokawa Sophia Library.
  9. ^ a b Keiko Kosuge "Japanese Western Food"Shinchosha Co., Ltd.1983 pp.28-30
  10. ^ a b c d e f Japanese history of curry Meiji era -House food
  11. ^ a b "Birth of curry rice" Keiko Kosuge, p78.
  12. ^ Keigakudo master, "Western Cuisine Instruction" p30, 1872, Tokyo, Tokyo Shorin Gankanaya [1]
  13. ^ Read "Western Cuisine" and "Western Cuisine" KikkomanInternational Food Culture Research Center
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ a b c What is curry? -All Japan Curry Industry Cooperative
  16. ^ a b c Curry Q & A: When did curry spread to Japanese families in earnest?[Broken link] --S & B Curry.com (S & B Foods)
  17. ^ "The first introducer is Yukichi Fukuzawa," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, September 2015, 9, morning edition
  18. ^ Yuko Shibukawa "There is a reason why Japanese people like curry like this" JBPRESS Food Research Institute, March 2011, 3.
  19. ^ Sugiharame "There is a secret story about the birth of Japanese curry, curry! When was the retort released? Introducing the recipes of those days" Latte/Column, LATTE Corporation.
  20. ^ a b c "Mystery of Curry Rice" Jinsuke Mizuno, p62-72.
  21. ^ What is the first move in the INTAGE curry market? ??Consumer needs in changing markets
  22. ^ a b Until curry and rice become national food -Kikkoman International Research Center for Food Culture
  23. ^ Real free eaves
  24. ^ "Until the specialty curry”. Jiyuken official site. 2019/7/6Browse.
  25. ^ Hiroshi Ono et al. "Creating the ultimate curry at the Yokohama Curry Museum!" p.99 Treasure Island, February 2001.
  26. ^ livedoorNEWSEuropean-style curry is filled with the taste of Japanese people's admiration Jinsuke Mizuno
  27. ^ "Keiji DormitoryHistory” (1933)
  28. ^ "3. About Dr. Clark and Curry Rice". Q. FAQ about Dr. Clark Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Hokkaido University. National University Corporation Hokkaido University (November 2011). 2013/10/13Browse.
  29. ^ "Cross-legged trainee" Naomaru Kaneda
  30. ^ a b c Hit Secret!: Yokosuka Navy Dry Curry[Broken link] - Maruha Nichiro Food
  31. ^ a b c d e "Welfare Magazine" 2004 Winter
  32. ^ "Navy Cooking Reference Book"
  33. ^ Tweets by miyagipco (370743148667883521)
  34. ^ Katsutoshi Kawano, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff of the Self-Defense Forces, "Friday is Curry" by the JMSDF was different! ?? NHK Political Magazine, March 2019, 3, NHK
  35. ^ "379th "Curry" Everyone loves it! Curry is a great treat for the Showa era”(Japanese). Food Kingdom. TV Asahi (September 2011, 6). 2011/6/8Browse.
  36. ^ a b Tsutomu Kushima (February 2003, 2). “Curry stew mystery”(Japanese). Maboroshi Second Elementary School.Imagination channel. Pp. 5. 2011/6/8Browse.
  37. ^ Yukichi Abe. “Cooked rice will change the table after XNUMX years”(Japanese). Food and agriculture cheering party. Noyama Fishing Village Cultural Association. 2011/6/8Browse.[Broken link]
  38. ^ OLD PHOTOS of JAPAN Oriental Hotel 1910s Kobe
  39. ^ Naofumi Takamori, p.28
  40. ^ [3]Ministry of ArmyAdjutantRyuichi Yamada, Tōhō, "Military Cooking Law", 43rd year of Meiji era, p. 117. (Modern digital library ID.000000486561)
  41. ^ Golden Curry S & B Curry History
  42. ^ Ichibanya Company Information History
  43. ^ a b c d Fuji Television Network, IncTrivia Promotion Committee "Fountain of trivia~ Hee no Hon ~ 3 ”Kodansha, 2003.
  44. ^ Boltz, the originator of "○ double curry" that drove the spicy boom of the 1980s, still existedFebruary 2019, 2
  45. ^ Kazuko Koizumi, "Showa no Chabudai" p.28.
  46. ^ Inoue Takehisa "Curry Trivia" p124 "The fashion of curry was more in appearance than in taste"
  47. ^ Start tomorrow! Life improvement committee "I want to eat in summer! The secret of curry"[Broken link] NHK Retrieved September 2012, 9.
  48. ^ Is "potato" necessary for curry!? Net users have a heated debate - Gadget communication 2011/2/20
    Does Curry Need a "Potato"? A Large 2000 Questionnaire -Gadget Communications February 2011, 2
  49. ^ a b Ranking of meat used for curry at home (Survey period: January 2012, 1-February 25, 2) -Daily Amoeba News March 2012, 3
  50. ^ a b Announcement of the survey results of "Modern Curry Questionnaire" (Survey period: January 2010, 1-January 13, 1)[Broken link] -Do House January 2010, 1
  51. ^ a b Curry meat is "Nishigyu Higashi Pork" -Garbagenews.com January 2010, 1
  52. ^ "Which are you, beef or pork?". Curry such story that story. House food. 2012/6/2Browse.
  53. ^ a b "The right way to eat curry" Mix? Do not mix? "Eternal discussion" - J-CAST 2010/3/14
  54. ^ a b Broadcasted on August 2012, 3Tuesday Surprise"You can understand the character of you by how to eat curry rice!
  55. ^ Seed story when eating curry! About curry MEN-ZINE
  56. ^ "Curry Science | Why is curry delicious overnight?"(July 2020, 3). http://cp.glico.jp/story/curry/science1.html 
  57. ^ a b c Curry Q & A: Which is correct, rice curry or curry rice?[Broken link] --S & B Curry.com (Sb food)
  58. ^ a b c "This is Useful! Encyclopedia of Differences" p.179 PHP Research Institute 1997 (Introduced as one of various theories)
  59. ^ Japan Canned Food Association[Broken link]
  60. ^ "Curry and Rice" questionnaire 35.4% of people use retort pouch curry, and 1% live alone
  61. ^ a b Space curry[Broken link] The product name of the retort curry is "curry".
  62. ^ Curry retort market exceeds Lou, background such as an increase in elderly households – Mainichi Shimbun Article dated February 2018, 2 Viewed June 1, 2018
  63. ^ Ichibanya / Guinness World Records Certified for the World's Largest Curry Chain | Distribution News Store Management Strategy | January 2013, 01[Broken link]
  64. ^ Minakami Dam Curry -Minakami Onsen Ryokan Cooperative
  65. ^ "Local curry and metropolitan area also participate in the war Seasoned with special products and famous places". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2014, 11). 2021/7/1Browse.
  66. ^ Explore the yellow curry color code
  67. ^ The British Curry --HISTORIC UK
  68. ^ What's the future of curry in the pub? --Morning Advertiser
  69. ^ Curry rice also had a hard time - Toyo Keizai Daily 2011/10/7

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