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🧳 | Emirates Reopens All US Routes 5G Concerns Resolved


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Emirates Reopens All US Routes With 5G Concerns Resolved

 
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The Boston, Houston, and San Francisco routes had changed to Airbus A380s, but returned to Boeing 777s.
 

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Boeing 777

Boeing 777
Boeing 777

United Airlines Boeing 777-200ER

United airlinesBoeing 777-200ER

United States flag United airlines
Hong Kong flag Cathay Pasific Airlines
French flag Air France
United States flag American airlines
British flag British Airways
Singapore flag Singapore Airlines
Japanese flag All Nippon Airways
Qatar flag Qatar Airways
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia Airlines
Republic of Korea flag Korean Air
Japanese flag Japan Airlines
な ど
  • First flight : 1994/May 6
  • Number of production: 1445 aircraft (as of September 2016)
  • Operation start : 1995/May 6(United airlines)
  • Operational status:In operation
  • Unit cost :
    777-200ER: US $ 2.62 million
    777-200LR: US $ 2.96 million
    777-300ER: US $ 3.20 million
    777F: US $ 3.01 million

Boeing 777 (Boeing 777) IsAmerica OfBoeingLarge size developed by the companyWide bodyTwin-engineJet..非公式にInformallyTriple Seven Sometimes called (Triple Seven)[1][2].

In this section, for passenger aircraft made by Boeing, the notation "Boeing" is omitted and only numbers are used.For example, "Boeing 767If, simply "767".

Overview

History of development

1980 era, Boeing has already reigned as the world's largest airliner maker, but on the other hand chasesAirbusWas also under threat.とりわけリタイヤが進んでいた3発ワイドボディ機In particular, a XNUMX-engine wide-body aircraft that has been retiredLockheed L-1011 Tristar,McDonnell Douglas OfDC-10In the battle for successor, McDonnell Douglas alsoMD-11, TA1982 (later) Airbus announced the concept in 9A330), TA11 (laterA340) Etc. did not have a counter model.

there1986/At the end of the day, Boeing767-300と747-400In order to develop an aircraft that bridges the difference in the number of seats between the two, we have started market research on aircraft demand.Many in the worldAirlinesIn particular, among themLaunch customer OfUnited airlines,All Nippon Airways,British Airways,Japan Airlines,Cathay Pasific Airlines,American airlines,Delta Airlines,QantasAlso asked for opinions on the design of the aircraft (Working Together).And1989/May 12After approval by the board of directors of Boeing, officially the new model "767-XIt was decided that it would be proposed to the airline.

As the plan name suggests, Boeing initially planned this airliner as a derivative of the 767.cockpitWas considered to be the same as the conventional 767.However, the 767-747 made after the 400 has a more advanced cockpit, and United Airlines and All Nippon Airways, which have used many Boeing aircraft, rejected the cockpit similar to this conventional 767, and the 747 In response to a request for a -400 style cockpit, Boeing planned a cockpit based on the 747-400's cockpit layout with the latest technology.

In addition, as a result of adjusting the aircraft scale in detail with airlines, etc., the fuselage of 767 was discarded, and a large fuselage with a thicker perfect circular cross section was adopted, which can arrange 2 aisles and 9 seats sideways as standard. I decided to do it.この767-Xに対して、アメリカのユナイテッド航空がUnited Airlines of the United States against this XNUMX-X1990/May 10Ordered 34 aircraft, and the aircraft name was "Boeing 777Was changed to.Subsequently, All Nippon Airways, British Airways, and Japan Airlines also placed orders.

The world's first Boeing 777 (registration code: B-HNL) will eventually be in Hong Kong.Cathay Pasific AirlinesIt was operated in 2018, but retired from active duty in XNUMX and was donated to the Aviation Museum[3].

Features

The wingspan and fuselage length of the 777-300ER is larger than that of the 747-400, making it the largest twin-engine aircraft in the world.直径がThe diameter is737It is equipped with a jet engine that is as large and powerful as the fuselage of.Landing gearFor the first time in the Boeing airliner division, a bogie-type landing gear equipped with six tires on each of the two main landing gears has been adopted, but the front wheel steering gear takes a large steering angle during taxiing. As a result, a large lateral load and side slip of the tire occur on the main landing gear, so when the steering angle is 2 degrees or more, the axle at the end of the bogey is steered up to 6 degrees to the left and right by computer processing. Equipped with a landing gear.Since the central part of the thick fuselage was allocated to the cabin on the first floor, a large cargo compartment underneath was secured, and between the ceiling of the cabin and the upper side of the aircraftKamaboko (steamed fish cake)The mold space has front and rear, respectively.Break room for cockpit crew and cabin crewBecause it can be provided[4][5], Even on long-haul flights, there is no need to allocate seats in the cabin or cargo compartment for shift crew members.In this way, the airplane is considered to generate profits for both passengers and freight, and may be operated as a freight-only flight at night.

The 777 is the first Boeing airliner to be in flight controlFly by wireIt was adopted.しかし、同じフライ・バイ・ワイヤ方式でもサイドステックを用いたエアバス社製の機体と違い、従来型のHowever, even with the same fly-by-wire system, unlike the Airbus aircraft that used side sticks, it is a conventional type.Control stickIs left in the center of the front of the cockpit, and elements such as vibration and weight applied to the blade surface are fed back to the control stick to simulate it, and even the airlines that have operated the conventional Boeing aircraft are pilots. It is designed so that you can move to this machine with the minimum training without any discomfort.Also, the cockpit display device consists of six displays like the 747-400,Flight management equipment Traditional, including (FMC) and autopilot control display panelsCRTからliquid crystalHas been changed to[6]..のちにメーカーオプションでLater as a manufacturer optionHead up display(EFB = electro flight bag), the air route chart that was previously clipped to the control stick can be displayed on the side monitor, and the autopilot direction setting panel has been changed to landscape. Minor changes are also being made.

This aircraft is the world's first commercial aircraft, all of which are designed on a computer.機体設計にはFor airframe designCATIAWas carried out in parallel at development bases around the world, and various tests were conducted using a virtual aircraft that can be called a "virtual 777".The description language of the control software is "To giveIs adopted.

Japan isYXParticipating in the development as the second model of, accounting for 2% of the development share[7].. From the development to the first flight of large aircraft after the 1980s, the process may be delayed due to problems such as performance and equipment, but the 777 is an aircraft that was developed with the process proceeding as planned.

Seat arrangementについては、ファーストクラスはほとんどの航空会社が1-2-1の横4席配列を採用している。エコノミークラスは座席にゆとりを持たせるため、本来は3-3-3の横9席配列が主流であったが、2010年代中盤からは多くの航空会社が運賃をできるだけ抑えるため、3-4-3の横10席配列に変更する航空会社が多くなった。

By the way, the maximum cruising speed is Mach 0.86.

Working Together

777 formed a "Working Together" with Boeing, where the airlines ordered solve design problems and the airlines make individual requests (Working Together).Participatory designSee also).When trying to make the 777 with a simple expanded version of the 767, many airlines opposed it, so it was devised to incorporate the opinions of the airlines that are the users from the beginning of development.

The requests of major airlines are listed below.

United airlines
Launch customerUnited Airlines (first orderer) is basedChicagoAssuming the winter season, you can open and close the inspection access doors of each part while wearing gloves, and many of them should be at a height that you can reach without preparing a large stepladder, etc. The emergency exit was requested to be able to be opened and closed with one hand.
All Nippon Airways
The second order for All Nippon Airways isToilet bowlSince passengers often find it unpleasant to close the lid with a bang, we proposed a mechanism to close the lid slowly.
Also, due to the size of the 777 aircraft, Boeing has used the main wings to improve maneuverability at the airport.Folding functionI was thinking of making it standard equipment.しかし、全日本空輸は主翼をHowever, All Nippon Airways has the main wingsFolding functionBoeing accepted the request, as it would increase the weight of the aircraft, complicate the structure and make it difficult to maintain, and urged this feature to be an option rather than a standard.
Besides, attaching a maintenance hatch to the cabin floor,Landing gearThe tires used inBias tireSame as a passenger carRadial tire(ANAMichelinIt was also requested to change to (installed).
Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines, which placed the sixth order, requested that the 6-777ER aircraft have two air chambers in the nose gear shock absorber.At the same time, it was also requested to confirm that the expansion and contraction of the shock absorber with respect to the weight change at the time of loading and unloading the cargo is sufficiently small.
We also requested that the English used in the manuals be as plain as possible so that flight crew members and airlines outside the English-speaking world would not misread the manuals.これに際し、JALはIn this case, JAL1985/ OfFlight 123 crashSince then, we have provided a "reliability database" that stores defect information on parts.[8].
Besides, the parking brake indicator light of the nose gear,AltimeterQNH and QNE (Altimeter regulation value) Was requested and adopted.

Derived type

Boeing used the following two characteristics to clarify the variation of the 777.

  1. Aircraft size.. The 777-200 is the basic size, and the 777-300 is a derivative that has increased capacity by extending the fuselage.
  2. Cruising distance..Boeing has clarified three categories of route distances.
    • A demand --3,900nautical mileFrom 5,200 nautical miles (7,200 km to 9,200 km)
    • B demand ―― 5,800 nautical miles to 7,700 nautical miles (10,800 km to 14,250 km)
    • C demand --Over 8,000 nautical miles (14,800 km)

ボーイング社や777を運航する航空会社は777の派生型を区別するときに、モデル名である「777」と機体のサイズ(-200または-300)とを縮めてつなぎ合わせ、「772」や「773」といった表記をよく用いる。また、時には上記にあるような航続距離の3分類を表す識別子を付加する。たとえば777-200は「772」また「772A」と、航続性能を強化した777-300ERは「773ER」や「773B」「77W」(この中ではICAO model code77W registered in is the most common).These are airlinesTimetableIt is a notation that is often seen in manuals and manuals.また、A - Cの需要分類は、777の最大のライバルであるAlso, the A-C demand classification is XNUMX's biggest rival.Airbus A340It is also used when comparing and 777.

IATA or ICAO model codeでは、777-200および-200ERが"772"、777-300が"773"、777-200LRおよび777Fでは"77L"、777-300ERが"77W"となっている。

The 777 type long-distance type (-200LR, 300ER type) was developed with an engine to be equipped, unlike the previous derivative types.General ElectricOnly made of products.

777-100 (771B)

A short body model of 777-200 that was considered at the beginning of the plan.American airlinesIt was planned in response to the proposal, but the plan was canceled without the actual machine being produced.767-400ERIs said to be a model for the same market as this planning machine.

777-200 (772A)

The first model in the 777 series, with a maximum cruising range of 5,210 nautical miles (9,649 km).

August 1994, 6,Pratt & WhitneyBoeing's first test with the PW4077 engine[9]Has succeeded in the first flight.

The engine is Pratt & Whitney (PW)PW4000 series, General Electric (GE)GE90series,Rolls-Royce (RR)Trent 800 seriesUnited Airlines, the launch customer, has the PW4000, and British Airways has the GE90.[10],Cathay Pasific AirlinesBy choosing the Trent 800, the production of aircraft equipped with the engines of each manufacturer has started.The first flight, flight test, and type approval were obtained in the order of PW4000 → GE90 → Trent 800.

In Japan, All Nippon Airways in December 1995, Japan Airlines in April 12, former in April 1996Japan Air SystemIntroduced and put into service in the order of. As of 2015, both All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines, which merged with Japan Air System, operate on domestic flights.全日本空輸の一部の機体ではOn some All Nippon Airways aircraftETOPSThere are also acquisition machines (120 minutes, 180 minutes), which used to beNarita International AirportIt was in service on short-distance international flights departing from and arriving, but later all aircraft were refurbished to domestic flight specifications.なお、日本のエアライン3社が揃って同一の機材を導入した例はIn addition, there is an example in which all three Japanese airlines have introduced the same equipment.727-100Since then.All three engines are Pratt & Whitney's PW3[11]Is selected.

All Nippon AirwaysL-1011 TristarAs a successor to Japan Airlines, McDonnell DouglasDC-10As a successor, Japan Air System was introduced earlier.Airbus A300-600RIntroduced as a new flagship aircraft for domestic flights with a capacity exceeding.

Japan Air System operated in three classes (super seats / rainbow seats / ordinary seats) for the first time on domestic flights at that time, and Japan Airlines has been operating since 3.first class/ Class J / Operated in 3 classes of ordinary seats.All Nippon Airways was the first domestic airliner other than the Boeing 747 to have a two-class (super seat * / ordinary seat) layout (* the name at the time of service).The number of seats for paid flights is the largest in the world with 2 seats, which was operated on domestic flights by All Nippon Airways with a close arrangement of 10 rows of seats, which was unprecedented in the world at that time (after that, other companies also used it for domestic flights. In addition to introducing 418 horizontal rowsEmirates AirlinesSome airlines have also adopted it on international flights).In addition, it is possible to arrange 440 seats in the mono class. As of 2015, All Nippon Airways has 405 seats and Japan Airlines has 375 seats.

In addition, due to the regulation of four-engine aircraft from April 2006ItamiArrival and departureMain lineIt has become the mainstay of.

In June 2014, one 6-1 (JA777) owned by Japan Airlines was retired.This is the first aircraft to be retired on Japanese airlines, and Japan Airlines has retired from the aircraft introduced earlier.These aircraft will not be resold to other companies due to the heavy fatigue of the aircraft due to the special circumstances of Japan domestic routes that repeat takeoff and landing in a short time.For supplying spare partsWas dismantled as.On the other hand, in 2015, All Nippon Airways extended the retirement of the old 1-8981, which was introduced before Japan Airlines' first aircraft (JA777), by several years, and for adjusting supply and demand on domestic trunk lines during the busy season. It was announced that it would be used as equipment.By effectively utilizing the aircraft owned by the company, which has already been depreciated, it is expected to improve the balance of payments by about 200 billion yen per year.However, from May 90, the retirement of 2016-5 was started by All Nippon Airways.

In May 2007, it was handed over as an aircraft for Japan Airlines (aircraft number: JA5J), and production was finally discontinued, and production has been shifted to the B773-777ER / -200LR, which will be described later.The total number of production machines is 200 of them were introduced to Japanese airlines (All Nippon Airways: 88 aircraft, Japan Airlines: 31 aircraft, Japan Air System: 16 aircraft).

Occurred on January 2021, 2United Airlines Flight 328 Engine AccidentReceiveMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismOrdered to shut down the 4000 with the PW777 engine.As a result, Japan Airlines has retired all 21 777-200s ahead of schedule.

777-200ER (772)

Compared to the standard 777-200, the cruising range has been extended mainly by increasing the fuel tank capacity and correspondingly increasing the engine thrust (ER:). Eextended RIn ange), power performance and cruising performance are enhanced by diverting auxiliary equipment such as fuel tanks and oil pumps and power systems such as engines from -300.At the beginning of development, it was called -200IGW (IGW: Increased Gross Weight), but it was changed to "ER" which was already used in 767, and after that.737This will be used even in such cases.The maximum cruising range is 7,730 nautical miles (14,316 kilometers).ローンチカスタマーはLaunch customerBritish AirwaysSo, the first flight on October 1996, 10. First serviced by British Airways (GE engine-equipped aircraft) on February 7, 1997.

In Japan, All Nippon Airways began to be introduced in 1999, and Japan Airlines also introduced it in 2002.日本航空ではAt Japan AirlinesMcDonnell Douglas MD-11And the sameDC-10-40Introduced as a successor to South Korea, the People's Republic of China, Southeast Asia, etc., it has been launched on a wide range of routes from short-haul international flights to long-haul international flights such as North America and Europe, making it one of the main international flights.全日本空輸も当初は国際線で使用したが、2012年度から再度導入が開始された機体は全機が国内線専用機材として運航されておりAll Nippon Airways was initially used on international flights, but all of the aircraft that were reintroduced in XNUMX are operated exclusively for domestic flights.[12]Also, international flight specifications787With the introduction of, all aircraft were refurbished to domestic flight specifications by May 2017.

Airlines that are launching on long-haul routes instead of 3- or 4-engine aircraft (American airlines,Japan Airlines,Alitalia,TAAG Angola AirlinesAnd airlines that use 4 aircraft according to the number of passengers (etc.)British Airways,KLM Royal Dutch Airlines,Asiana Airlines,Korean AirEtc.)[13]

Unlike the 777-300ER and 777-200LR, it is the only model in the 2010 family in production in the 777s that allows the choice of engine manufacturer.In Japan, All Nippon Airways will introduce the PW engine, which is the same manufacturer as -200 and -300, and Japan Airlines will introduce it later. We are trying to differentiate our operations. The number of aircraft manufactured in the 300s is increasing with GE engines that produce the most powerful thrust of the three manufacturers. As of September 2010, the number of deliveries is 3.キャパシティが比較的近いB2015-9が就航を開始したこともあり、422年787月にIn July 9, the B2013-7, which has a relatively close capacity, went into service.Asiana AirlinesNo orders have been received since the delivery of the equipment (HL8284) for.

777-200LR (77L)

Based on the 777-200ER, the cruising range is further extended (LR: Long Range).

The GE777-300B engine installed in the 90-115ER, which will be described later, is equipped with the "GE200-90B" optimized for the -110LR.[14]..This engine is clearly larger than the engine used in the conventional 777 due to the extended cruising range.

Like the 777-300ER, the wing tip is equipped with a laked wing tip, and the wingspan is equal to that.The normal cruising range is about 15,000 km or more[15]There are even manufacturer options that can extend the maximum cruising range to 9,420 nautical miles (17,446 kilometers) if equipped with a drop tank.

Launch customerPakistan International AirlinesSo, the first flight was March 2005, 3[16]Met.On November 11, the same year, he flew 10 nautical miles (11,663 kilometers) between Hong Kong and London eastward in a continuous manner over 21,600 hours and 22 minutes, breaking the world record for the cruising range of civilian aircraft.

Boeing has called this derivative because it has the longest cruising range in the world of all airliners currently in service and allows non-stop connections to most airports around the world.World Liner (Worldliner) ".The main operational airlines areEmirates Airlines,Pakistan International Airlines,Air India,Air Canada,Qatar Airways,Delta AirlinesSuch.Currently Emirates by -200LRDubaiとパナマWe operate non-stop flights that last more than 17 hours.[15]..また、この路線は現在、世界最長の航空路線となっているIn addition, this route is currently the longest air route in the world.[15].

January 2014Turkmenistan AirlinesProduction had stopped since the delivery of the aircraft (aircraft number: EZ-A779) for the aircraft, but on November 2015, 11, Crystal Cruises announced that it would purchase two business jet specifications for this aircraft. Crystal Luxury Air will operate a round-the-world tour after 17[17].. 2019年6月開催のHeld in June XNUMXParis Air ShowTurkmenistan Airlines has indicated its intention to order one aircraft of the same type.[18].

As of September 2015, 9 aircraft were produced.

In October 2018, an order was placed for one aircraft, although it was not disclosed.

777-300 (773)

Equipment for A demand with an extended fuselage of the 777-200. Designed as an alternative to the 747-100 and -200 aircraft.It is the longest passenger plane in the world as a twin-engine aircraft (73.9m, by the way, if it is not a twin-engine aircraft, the longest in the world is747-8で76.3m[19]).

The second major difference from the 777-200 is the number of doors due to the extended fuselage. -2 has 200 doors on each side (4 in total), while -8 has 300 doors on each side (5 in total).In other words, if you count the number of doors, you can distinguish between -10 and -200.

Due to its long fuselage length, at the lower rear of the fuselageTail skidEquipped with a new function called GMCS (Grand Maneuver Camera System), the main landing gear can be monitored from the cockpit so that it does not protrude from the taxiway.The maximum cruising range is 5,955 nautical miles (11,029 km).The launch customer is Cathay Pacific and the first is Cathay Pacific.1998/May 5Was handed over to.

エンジンは777-200同様に3メーカーから選択可能で、各社が777-300用に新開発した推力増強型をラインナップした。なお、本モデルではGE製エンジンを選択したエアラインがなかったため、GE90-92/94エンジンを搭載した777-300標準型の機体は存在しない。

In Japan, Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways placed an order immediately after the development decision, and introduced it in 1998, and all aircraft are operated on domestic flights.日本航空と全日本空輸ともBoth Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways747SR-100(Japan Airlines747-100SUD / -300Also introduced as a successor to).As will be described later, many airlines outside Japan operate Asian airlines, which are used for medium- and short-distance international flights.Haneda, Itami, Fukuoka, Naha and other airports, so it is a familiar aircraft in Japan.

The world's largest supply of seats for paid flights was 525 seats, which was operated by All Nippon Airways on domestic flights, which was also the world's largest twin-engine aircraft.In addition, it is possible to arrange 550 seats in the mono class. As of 2015, All Nippon Airways operates domestic flights with 514 seats, and Japan Airlines operates domestic flights with a high density specification of 500 seats, and only two Japanese companies in the world operate twin-engine aircraft with more than 500 seats. Is. 2年2014月3日をもって全日本空輸のAll Nippon Airways as of March 31, XNUMXB747-400DWith the retirement of all aircraft, the aircraft has become the largest passenger aircraft to fly on domestic flights in Japan from April 4st.[20]..なお、日本航空は2015年3月から初期に導入された機体の退役が始まっており、後継機はIn addition, Japan Airlines has begun to retire the aircraft that was introduced early in March XNUMX, and the successor aircraft isAirbus A350-900, And the successor to ANABoeing 787-10.All Nippon Airways aircraft are scheduled to be retired from 2019.

The last production of the Cathay Pacific aircraft (aircraft number: B-HNQ) delivered in July 2006 was discontinued, and production has been shifted to the B7-777ER, which will be described later.The total number of aircraft produced was 300, 60 of which were introduced to Japanese airlines (14 for both Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways). Among the 7 series, it is the only model that has not been introduced by American and European airlines (excluding Russia), and it is a major sales feature that it was introduced mainly by Asian airlines including Japan. ..

777-300ER (77W)

It is an extended cruising range of the 777-300,747-400It was designed as a model for the successor demand of the model machine.Airbus A380-800It is the third largest commercial airliner after the type and 747.The maximum cruising range is 3 nautical miles (7,880 km).The first flight2003/It's February 2th. As of 24, it holds the highest number of orders in the 2014 family and is breaking the record.

This 777-300ER is 115,300 lbf (513 kN) Produces the most powerful in the worldTurbo fan engineIsGE90-115BEquipped with an engine[21]In addition, many improvements have been made.

The wing is longer than the 777-300 standard, and the wing tip is bent backwards at an angle.Laked wing tipIs equipped.This is 777-200LR, 767-400,747-8,787 seriesHas been adopted by.

The launch customer for the 777-300ER was Japan Airlines, which was the first to place an agreement, and the two aircraft used for the test flight were both Japan Airlines aircraft.[22]Is[23]..These two aircraft are also flying to Japan as part of the world tour.試験飛行時はワールドツアーも掛けてか「世界地図」の塗装が施され、試験機としては珍しい「特別塗装機」ともなったAt the time of the test flight, a world tour was also applied, and the "world map" was painted, and it became a "special painting machine", which is rare for a test machine.[24].

In addition, the first paid operation was startedAir FranceAir France is the launch customer on the official Boeing website.最大保有機数を誇るのはThe one that boasts the largest number of aircraftMiddle EastUnited Arab Emirates (UAE) ofEmirates AirlinesIs.The company owns a total of 128 aircraft, the largest number as a single airline.DubaiとWesternIt is active on medium- and long-haul international flights, mainly on routes connecting.

By September 2011, 9, we had received orders for 30 aircraft from 37 companies and 543 aircraft by the end of the same year.May 10As the 300th machine in the seriesBiman Bangladesh AirlinesWas delivered to. As of September 2015, 9 aircraft have been delivered.

In Japan, the launch customer Japan Airlines first introduced it, and then All Nippon Airways introduced it and is operating it.さらに全日空ではFurthermore, at ANA2010 eraWe have placed an additional order for 6 new machines, and for this additional order,2015/Start receiving from2016/By now, the company has more than 777 B300-20ERs in total.両社ともこの型をBoth companies use this type747-400As the main aircraft to replace the model aircraft, it is mainly introduced on long-haul routes such as Europe, the United States / North America, but Japan AirlinesTokyo (Haneda)Some domestic flights to / from Narita[25]But it operates as an international connecting flight[26][27][28].

Most airlines promoting this type have replaced the routes in service on the 747 series or Airbus A340 series with this type (eg Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, etc.)Air France,Air Canadaetc).Also,A380,B747-8Some airlines have introduced it as a flagship model in parallel with super-large aircraft or as the latest flagship (eg).China Airline,TAM Brazilian Airlines,Turkish Airlinesetc).

Although it is a twin-engine aircraft, it is believed that it is possible to operate direct flights to most major cities in the world, and that it has proved itself to be extremely safe with a long operating record, which has led to orders.さらにエンジンはGE社製のみとしていながら、ロールス・ロイス社製のエンジンをもっぱら選定するFurthermore, although the engine is only made by GE, the engine made by Rolls-Royce is exclusively selected.British AirwaysExceptionally, it has won orders from airlines around the world.

2012 year 3 month,Emirates AirlinesMass production No. 1000 was handed over by this model for[29]。これは民間ワイドボディ旅客機では747以来の快挙(1000機目の型式は、747-400)だが、初号機の引き渡しから1000機目の引き渡しに要した期間は、747-400のそれを塗り替え最短となった。なお、エミレーツ航空には100機目の777-300ER(機体番号:A6-ENV)も受領しており[30][31]Of the 596 aircraft, 4 aircraft, which is about a quarter, will be operated by the company.

In recent years, the initial introduction of the B777-300ER, which was operated by EVA Air, has been retired from several aircraft and leased back to GE Capital, etc., and also by other airlines.COVID-19Demand for aviation has fallen due to the epidemic, and the initial introduction is approaching, so full-scale retirement is beginning to stand out. From 2020, the refurbishment to the freighter, which will be described later, began in earnest.

777-200LRF (777 Freighter)

777 typeFreighter (777 Freighter) is a freighter version based on the 777-200LR.Basically, it is a combination of a -200LR engine and airframe (structure strengthened for cargo aircraft), a -300ER fuel tank and landing gear.2005/Was announced in.The launch customer is Air France.

Maximum of 777Fpayloadである103トンは現行の主力大型貨物機747-200F(最大ペイロード 110トン)や、747-400ERF(最大ペイロード 112トン)にわずかにとどかないが、747-400ERFの後継にあたる747-8Fはさらに大きなペイロード(140トン程度)となりひとクラス上に移行するので、747-200FおよびMcDonnell DouglasMD-11FIt is an alternative to 90-ton class aircraft with a maximum payload of 100 tons.The cruising range at the maximum payload is about 9,000 kilometers, but in cases such as parcels where the volume is large but the weight is less than the maximum payload in freight transportation, the cruising range increases significantly due to excellent fuel economy, and non- It will also be possible to cross the Pacific Ocean at a stop.

The first 777F was handed over to Air France on February 2009, 2.[32]After that, 10 aircraft from 5 companies were delivered by October of the same year.[33].

MajorFreight airline OfFedEx ExpressAs of August 2007, McDonnell Douglas' freighter is the main equipment.This was a big advantage because it was possible to introduce a wide-body aircraft with higher transportation capacity at a more reasonable price than a new aircraft by modifying a used aircraft released by a major passenger airline in good condition.However, it is certain that the demand for air freight transportation will continue to grow, and it was considered indispensable to introduce large and super-large aircraft on high-demand routes in the near future.また、クルー8名を必要とするIt also requires 3 crew membersDC-10FConsidering the aged retirement of the company and the need as a substitute for MD-11F,A380-800FI ordered 10 aircraft.

However, with the A380-800F, various problems were discovered in the passenger-type A380-800, which had been developed in advance, and the delay in the delivery schedule became chronic.As a result, the freight-type delivery schedule was virtually blank, and FedEx Express, which was forced to make a major change in its corporate strategy, canceled all orders from Airbus.As an alternative, we focused on the 777F, which became the second ordering company after the launch customer Air France by ordering 15 aircraft.In addition, FedEx Express will place an additional order for the 2F, making it the largest customer in the world beyond Air France.

2015年9月現在、777型フレイターは、世界の航空会社11社から2015年10月現在160機の受注を獲得し、このうち115機が受領済みで、日本では、全日本空輸が2014-16年度中期経営計画ローリングプランでこの機材導入を検討し[34], I was also considering the BCF type of 777-200ER, which is being considered in the "Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF)" program to upgrade from a passenger plane to a freighter, but about the possibility of launching the "777BCF" on the Boeing side. , Receiving the view that there are "technical issues"[35], Asia / China and North America, due to tight demand for transportation of dangerous goods and special goods such as aircraft engines, semiconductor manufacturing equipment, lithium-ion batteries and pharmaceuticals, March 2018, 3 Introducing two new machines Announced[36]..ANA Cargo, a freight business company under its umbrellaANA Position) Will be received and operated in 2019[37]..初便就航は2019年7月2日、成田=上海(浦東)線、10月27日には成田=シカゴ線にも就航するThe first flight will be on the Narita-Shanghai (Pudong) route on July XNUMX, XNUMX, and on the Narita-Chicago route on October XNUMX.[38].

Rival is AirbusA330F.

777-300ERSF (repair machine)

General ElectricAffiliated aircraft leasing companyGE Capital Aviation Service (GECAS) and 737NG series and 747-400, 767 have a track record of refurbishment from passenger type to freight typeIsrael Aerospace Industries (IAI) announced on October 2019, 10 that it will bring the 16-777ER freighter (SF) to market and start a freighter refurbishment program.This program is a joint investment project of GECAS and IAI, and has been in operation since the start of the program.US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Israel Civil Aviation Administration (CAAI) additional type certificate (STC) 3 years, aircraft refurbishment is planned for about 4 to 5 months and is scheduled to enter service in 2022[39].

Until June 2020, 6, February of the same yearEmirates AirlinesThe 777-300ER serial number (msn) that was operated on passenger flights is "32789".Israel-Tel Aviv International AirportGECAS will be the launch customer of the 9-777ERS F, with major renovations planned at the IAI plant, including the addition of cargo doors to the main deck, the renovation of the crew room, and the strengthening of the aircraft with a 300G durable cargo barrier. It is said that the aircraft is confirmed and the option contract for 15 aircraft[40]..なお一連の777-300ERSF改修プログラムは「ビッグ・ツイン」と呼ばれているThe series of XNUMX-XNUMXERSF refurbishment programs is called "Big Twin".[41].

777-200LRMF, 777-300ERMF (both repair machines)

Established in December 2020SoftbankIn September 2021, Boeing 9-777LR and Boeing 200-777ER freighter refurbishment programs were announced by Mammoth Freighters, a grandson of the company, together with the same SoftBank group company Fortress Investment Group. bottom. As for the 300-777LR, 200 aircraft of the same type that were operated by former Delta Air Lines have been acquired, and the aircraft number: N10DN is expected to be the first refurbished aircraft.The MF attached to the model refers to "Mammoth Freighter". In the latter half of 705, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aims to obtain an additional type certificate (STC) to upgrade two passenger aircraft with GE engines, 2023-777LR and 200-777ER, to freighters and start operations.

777-8X (under development) / 777-9

Boeing is considering further improvements from the current 777.その改善として検討されている型式であり、概要は以下の通りIt is a model that is being considered as an improvement, and the outline is as follows[42].

The goal is to improve fuel efficiency by 9% per seat, including improving the lift-drag ratio by increasing the size of the wings, improving fuel efficiency by 10% with the new engine GE1X, and changing the material of the entire aircraft.As for the aircraft, we are planning to optimize the fuselage around the new large wing and to extend and shorten the fuselage compared to the 15-777ER type (300 class 3 seat specification). The 365-777 has a shorter fuselage than the 8-777ER, and the 300-777 has a longer fuselage than the 9-777ER.As a competing modelA350-1000XWB.. 2013年後半のLate XNUMX787-9It is scheduled to be in service as a wide-body aircraft following the service of.なお、標準座席仕様は777-8Xが353席、-9Xは407席を見込んでいるThe standard seat specifications are expected to be XNUMX seats for the XNUMX-XNUMXX and XNUMX seats for the -XNUMXX.[43].

777ファミリーとしては、777-200型から777-300型への増席以来、2回目の大幅の座席数変更となる。具体的な変更点として、主翼幅が777-300ER型が64.8mであるのに対し71.3mとなる(747-8より3m広がる)。しかし2014年現在の各主要空港施設設計では駐機スペースの間隔が狭く、隣在する施設の使用にも制限する必要があるので、主翼にFolding functionThe plan is to equip it with a total width of 64.8m on the ground to accommodate the size of conventional aircraft.この主翼折りたたみ方式は従来の777でもオプション装備できる計画があったが、折りたたみ機構装備による機体重量増やメンテナンス性の低下を恐れた航空会社側から導入を敬遠された経緯があったり、また、この主翼折りたたみ方式は離陸前に必ず展開する必要があるがどの時点で展開するか、展開忘れを防止する装置を追加したりThere was a plan that this main wing folding method could be equipped as an option even with the conventional XNUMX, but there was a history that the airline company was reluctant to introduce it because of fear of increasing the weight of the aircraft and reducing maintainability due to the folding mechanism equipment, and this The main wing folding method must be deployed before takeoff, but when to deploy it, add a device to prevent forgetting to deploy[44]There are many issues to be considered, and it is unclear whether this method will be standard equipment in the process of manufacturing the aircraft in the future.

The material of the main wing is carbon fiber while the 777-300ER type is made of metal.一方で、使用エンジンは777-300ER型と同様にOn the other hand, the engine used is the same as the XNUMX-XNUMXER type.GE90Is being considered, but it will be scaled down (plan name: GE9X).This engineGenXIntroducing technology based on the above, a composite material of ceramic base material is used for the turbine section.The engine specifications are 777m in diameter and 300 pounds of thrust GE3.43-115000B installed in the 90-115ER, while GE9X is 3.25m in diameter and 15500 pounds less thrust of 99500 pounds, which is the diameter of GE90-115B. Both thrusts will be downsized.If this plan is realized, it will be the first composite material to be used and manufactured in the 777 family, which will make a big difference in the history of 777.

加えて検討の一部ではあるが、747-8や737ファミリーでも実施したように、新しい787スタイルのLED照明と大型手荷物入れなどの内装を取り入れることを予定している。コクピットではボーイングは将来型航空管制管理システムに合わせた電子機器を考えており、787のARINC 629基準を取り入れ、777にも電子化が進められる予定である。なおバッテリーは2013年1月以降に787のBattery troubleが多発したことを受け、従来のB777シリーズで販売されているタイプと同じくニッケルカドミウム電池が搭載される。777-8/-9が開発されることにより、ボーイングは、標準座席仕様・330席の787-10から同仕様・467席の747-8までの全ての座席仕様を網羅することが可能となる。

2013/May 9,LufthansaOrders 777 9-34s (7 options, up to 64)[45][46][47].

2013/May 11Owns all current 777 families at Dubai Air ShowEmirates AirlinesFrom 150 aircraft,Etihad AirwaysFrom 25 aircraft,Qatar AirwaysOfficially decided to launch the program after receiving an order for 50 aircraft from[48].

2014/May 3,All Nippon AirwaysDecided to introduce 777 300-20s as successors to the Boeing 777-9ER[49].2016/1Announced by All Nippon AirwaysA380as well as the B787Along with the series, 777-9 is the company's next-generation flagshipWide bodyIt becomes a passenger plane. 「B777-9」は"BXNUMX-XNUMX" is2017/Start of production,2020/Aim to deliver the first machine.

2020/May 1The B1-25 succeeded in its first flight (around 10:9 am on January 777, local time).

Military type

US Air Force OfKC-XInAerial refueling machineType ofKC 777Was proposed, but KC-767 (laterKC-46AAdopted as) has been defeated.

JapaneseJapan Air Self-Defense ForceOperatesJapanese Government MachineUsed as747-400Introduced 777-300ER as a successor[50],2019/Started operation in April[51]..This is the 777's first military aircraft.

In October 2015IndiaIt was reported that the Indian Republic government-only aircraft operated by the government and the Air Force was decided to be the same 777-300ER aircraft as Japan.[52].. IndiaAir IndiaWe have carried out VIP transportation using the classic 747 aircraft, but due to problems such as aging and lack of missile warning system, we introduced two new 777-300ER aircraft, dedicated to the president and the prime minister. AsIndian Air ForceWill operate[53].. In March 2018, NSSF funded the refurbishment of two aircraft. The 3-2ER will be supplied to Air India in February and then sent to the United States for modern communication and security systems. 777機は300年に準備が整う予定で、完了すれば現在VIP機として用いられている2-2型機は段階的に廃止されるThe two aircraft are scheduled to be ready in 2020, and when completed, the 747-400, which is currently used as a VIP aircraft, will be phased out.[54].

Spec.

Item \ Model777-200777-200ER777-200LR777F777-300777-300ER777-8[55]777-9[55]
Length63.7 m
(209 ft 1 in)
73.9 m
(242 ft 4 in)
69.55m
(228 ft 2 in)
76.48m
(250 ft 11 in)
Width60.9 m
(199 ft 1 in)
64.8 m
(212 ft 7 in)
60.9 m
(199 ft 1 in)
64.8 m
(212 ft 7 in)
71.3 m
(233 ft 11 in)
Torso diameterOuter diameter 6.19m Inner diameter 5.86mOuter diameter 6.19m Inner diameter 5.97m
3 passengers class約 300-365-368353407
2 passengers class400-451350-375400-425
1 passengers class440-550unpublished
Example of introducing the number of seats
(F + C + PY + Y)
JAL domestic flights
375 (14 + 0 + 82 + 279)
ANA domestic flights
405 (21 + 0 + 0 + 384)
United airlines
344 (0 + 32 + 98 + 214)
JAL international flights
236 (0 + 42 + 40 + 154)
312 (0 + 26 + 0 + 286)
ANA domestic flights
392 (28 + 0 + 0 + 364)
405 (21 + 0 + 0 + 384)
ANA International Flight * Not existing
223 (0 + 70 + 36 + 117)
306 (0 + 35 + 0 + 271)
Delta Airlines
291 (0 + 37 + 36 + 218)
Air Canada
270 (0 + 42 + 0 + 228)
Emirates Airlines
266 (8 + 42 + 0 + 218)
Qatar Airways
259 (0 + 42 + 0 + 217)
-JAL domestic flights
500 (0 + 0 + 78 + 422)
ANA domestic flights
514 (21 + 0 + 0 + 493)
Cathay Pasific Airlines
398 (0 + 42 + 0 + 356)
Singapore Airlines
284 (8 + 50 + 0 + 226)
JAL international flights
244 (8 + 49 + 40 + 147)
ANA international flights
212 (8 + 64 + 24 + 116)
212 (8 + 68 + 24 + 112)
250 (8 + 52 + 24 + 166)
264 (8 + 52 + 24 + 180)
-
Cargo compartment volume150 m in total3
8 pallets
+ LD-7 8 units or 32 LD-3
+ Bulk 17 m3
653 m in total3
Upper deck
518 m3 27 palette
Lower deck
117.5m3 10 palette
+ Bulk 17m3
Maximum payload
103.9 t
265 m in total3
8 pallets
+ LD-7 8 units or 44 LD-3
+ Bulk 17 m3
265 m in total3
14 pallets
or 44 LD-3
+ Bulk 17 m3
unpublished
Maximum takeoff weight247,210 kg297,824 kg347,452 kg347,450 kg297,560 kg351,534 kgunpublished342,000 kg
Maximum on-board fuel117,335 L171,160 L202,287 L181,280 L171,160 L181,280 Lunpublished
Cruising distance9,649 km14,316 km17,446 km9,195 km11,029 km14,594 km17,220 km15,185 km
Takeoff runway2,440 m3,380 m2,800 m2,830 m3,230 m3,050 m
engineGE90-76B
GE90-77B

PW 4074
PW 4077

Trent 875
Trent 877
Trent 884
Trent 892
GE90-85B
GE90-90B
GE90-92B
GE90-94B
PW 4084
PW 4090
Trent 892
Trent 895
GE90-110B1
GE90-110B1L
GE90-92B
PW 4090
PW4098
Trent 892
GE90-115BGE9X
Cruise speedMach number0.84unpublished

Sales record

2007, BrazilTAM AirlinesBy receiving orders for four 4-777ER aircraft from Boeing, the total number of orders for the 300 family has reached 777 since the first order in 1990, and Boeing's large private airliner division747Achieved 1000 aircraft next to the family.The 1000th aircraft in the series has been receivedEmirates AirlinesIt was a 777-300ER for.

YearsTotal202220212020201920182017201620152014201320122011201020092008200720062005200420032002200120001999199819971996199519941993199219911990
Number of orders2100275310-35153235827712175194753039110761534213323011635685468101030302428
Number of deliveries16792242645487499989998837374886183654036394761558374593213----

Order status

Boeing 777
Number of ordered machines and delivered machines
(As of the end of December 2020)[56]
Ordersdelivery残
777-2008888-
777-200ER422422-
777-200LR61601
777-3006060-
777-300ER83882018
777F23118744
777X309-309
Total20091637372

Competitor model

Operational status

Current operator (part)

As of 2020 year 11 month[57]

777-200 type

777-200LR type

777-200ER type

777-300 type

777-300ER type

777-8 type (planned)

777-9 type (planned)

777-8XF type (planned)

Retired (partial)

horizontal lineIs an airline that went bankrupt or disappeared.

Current operational status

  • It is highly almighty and can cover from 300 to 500 seats, and because it is a twin-engine engine, it is not restricted by the runway length (3-4m) of about 2500 or 3000 engines.ETOPSAccreditation improves engine reliability, resulting in 747 Classic, 747-400, DC-10, MD-11, and even Cathay Pacific, Philippine Airlines, Singapore Airlines, etc. from airlines around the world.A340With the support that is considered to be a substitute for, it has surpassed some four-engine aircraft.And, it has become more useful than the situation where the number of airlines that avoid four aircraft is increasing due to the soaring crude oil price from around 4, and Japan Airlines and Singapore Airlines, which once operated many 2004-4s, While using the 747 as its main aircraft, it retired the aging 400-777. As of 747, more than 400 aircraft have been produced and delivered, making it a best-selling aircraft.しかし就航開始から2017年が経過することもあり、1400年から20年にかけて日本航空やシンガポール航空、エミレーツ航空などは後継機としてHowever, 2013 years have passed since the start of service, and from 2014 to XNUMX, Japan Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Emirates Airlines, etc. will be the successors.A350And decided to introduce the 777-9X.Retirement began with Singapore Airlines, and Japan Airlines has retired 2014-6 from June 777 and 200-2015 from March 3.All Nippon Airways also started retiring 777-300 from May 2016.またエミレーツ航空は、5-777の全機退役を200年夏のうちに完了させ、後述の777件の事故があったIn addition, Emirates completed the retirement of all 200-2015 aircraft within the summer of 2, and there were two accidents described below.Malaysia AirlinesWas retired by the end of January 2016[108]..This was the first retirement of all 777 series aircraft.
  • Osaka International Airport(伊丹空港)では、市街地における航空機の騒音対策として2005å¹´4月から747-400/400D以外のジェットエンジンが3基以上の旅客機(747クラシックやDC-10、MD-11など)について同空港への営業運航が禁止され、さらに2006å¹´4月1日からは全てのジェットエンジンが3基以上の旅客機の営業運航が禁止された。このため、日本航空や全日本空輸は同空港とTokyo International Airport(Haneda Airport)New Chitose Airport747 is in service as a successor to 777 on the line connecting such as.
  • Japan Airlines has been in service with 747-400 so farUK,Paris,Frankfurt,MoscowEuropean routes such asBangkok,Singapore,New Delhi,SydneySoutheast Asian routes, West Asian routes, Australian routes, andChicago,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Los AngelesThe 777-200ER and 777-300ER, which are not only more economical but also equipped with various in-flight facilities, are in service on Pacific routes such as North America.All Nippon Airways also replaced the 747-400 in service with the 777-300ER.Both Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways have received ETOPS certification for flying over the ocean.All Nippon Airways was operating on the 747-400, which has many economy classes, until the end only in Paris because business class demand did not grow as expected.However, with the termination of commercial operations of the 2011-747 in 400, all European routes were replaced with the 777-300ER.
  • Japan Airlines has 10 domestic flights (777-200 777-300)starNamedStar jetIt was operated with a paint called (it became the 4th generation paint and disappeared).
  • Initially, the 777 was said to be "indistinguishable from the 767," and All Nippon Airways received three early 777-200 aircraft (JA3, 8197, 8198) at the beginning of service.Vertical tailInstead of the "ANA" logo, "777" was written. The two aircraft (JA777A and 300A) received in the early days of the 2-751 were in service with an illustration of "wind" drawn on the fuselage.This was used to appeal to the 752-777,EVA AirThe 777-300ER aircraft and the new Japanese Air Force One 2019-777ER aircraft, which will start operation in 300, are also painted in a similar manner.
  • Japanese Government Machine747-4002018/The Cabinet Secretariat, the Ministry of Defense, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force have selected the 2019 as a successor to the aircraft, which will start operation in 777.[109]In April 2014, in addition to flight performance, we emphasized the attitude toward strengthening the relationship between the Japan-US alliance, and since it is easy to secure maintenance contractors after introduction, we made final adjustments in the direction of introducing the same type of aircraft. It was reported that it was.The 4, which was a candidate for selection, was excluded from the selection due to the narrow cabin space, and the A787 XWB was excluded from the selection due to the continuity of the current aircraft being made by Boeing and the diplomatic political judgment of the Japan-US alliance.なお、350-747およびA8は当初から選定外であるThe 380-XNUMX and AXNUMX have not been selected from the beginning.[110].. 2019å¹´3月24日、航空自衛隊千歳基地にて新旧(B747-400からB777-300ERへ)の交代式典が行われたOn March XNUMX, XNUMX, an old and new (from BXNUMX-XNUMX to BXNUMX-XNUMXER) replacement ceremony was held at the Air Self-Defense Force Chitose Air Base.[111]..From April 4st of the same year, it started operation as a dedicated aircraft for the Japanese government in place of the B1-747.
  • The aforementioned passenger planes have not been diverted to freighters (BCF) so far, but in 2020New CoronavirusDue to the decline in passenger demand due to the spread of infectionAir CanadaThere is a plan to remove the seat of the B777-300ER currently owned by Transport Canada and temporarily divert it to a freighter for medical transportation etc., and permission has already been obtained from Transport Canada.[112]..As a similar initiative,Austrian AirlinesAlso carries out freight transportation using the B777-200ER aircraft, but this is operating as it is without removing the seat[113].
  • Delta Air Lines is accelerating its retirement along with the Boeing 747-400, Airbus A340, and A380 as passenger demand is declining due to the prolonged global epidemic of the new coronavirus infection. All aircraft retired with[114]In Japan, Japan Airlines will retire all 2022 flights from domestic flights by the end of 777.[115], All Nippon Airways reduced about half of its aircraft[116]The policy was set out.However, it occurred in February 2021 owned by United Airlines.Pratt & Whitney Due to a trouble with a (P & W) engine-equipped aircraft, the same type of aircraft will be suspended in Japan.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs instructed.Japan Airlines announced that it has retired all domestic 1s one year ahead of the original plan because there is no prospect of early resumption of operations due to the corona wreck.[117].

Accident / Incident

More than 777 aircraft of the 1995 family have been manufactured and operated since 1,000.運航開始当初から長らく全損事故・死亡事故は発生していなかったが、2008年にThere have been no total loss or fatal accidents for a long time since the start of operation, but in XNUMXBritish AirwaysCaused the first total loss accident, and in July 2013Asiana AirlinesIs a total loss and the first fatal accident[118]を起こした。ただし、777の全損事故は2017年8月時点で6件であり(エンジン構造起因1件、火災3件、ヒューマンエラー1件、テロによる撃墜1件、不明1件、その他インシデントで1件)、乗客と乗員が死亡した事故は前述のAsiana AirlinesAccident and2014/ OfMalaysia Airlines2 people in 540 cases[119]Is dead.Other than these three cases, no passengers or passengers have died, the number of accidents is small compared to other models that are widely used all over the world, and the survival rate of passengers after encountering an accident is high.

  • 2008/May 1,Beijing Capital International AirportDepartureLondon Heathrow AirportTo British Airways flight 38 (777-200ER,Aircraft symbol: G-YMMM) lost the output of the two engines just before landing and landed on rough terrain in front of the runway while gliding.He then dragged the fuselage for hundreds of meters and stopped just before the runway.Fortunately, no fire broke out, although the bottom of the fuselage, both engines, and part of the main wings were severely damaged and a large amount of fuel leaked.Eighteen people were injured due to the impact of landing.
  • 2011/May 7,Cairo International AirportDepartureKing Abdulaziz International AirportGoingEgypt AirFlight 667 (777-200ER, aircraft code: SU-GBP)cockpitA fire broke out and it was totally lost.The cause of the fire is unknown.
  • 2013/May 7,Incheon International AirportDepartureSan Francisco International AirportGoingAsiana AirlinesFlight 214 (777-200ER, aircraft code: HL7742) failed to land at San Francisco International Airport and burned to total loss.Three of the 307 crew and passengers on board died[120], 1 people, including one Japanese, were taken to the hospital[121].
  • 2014/May 3,Kuala Lumpur International AirportDepartureBeijing Capital International AirportGoingMalaysia AirlinesFlight 370 (777-200ER, aircraft code: 9M-MRO) lost contact with the Tower after takeoff.The aircraft was on its way to Beijing Capital International Airport.There were 12 crew members and 2 passengers, including two infants, on board the plane.[122].
  • 2014/May 7,Amsterdam-Amsterdam Schiphol AirportMalaysia Airlines Flight 17 (777-200ER, aircraft code: 9M-MRD) departing from Kuala Lumpur International AirportRussiaClose to the borderウクライナEasternDonetsk OblastDonetskCrashed near the city.ロシアのRussianInterfax communicationAs information from a senior official of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine,Surface-to-air missileShoot down with an attack.乗員と乗客、合わせて298人全員が死亡したと発表したAnnounced that a total of XNUMX people, including crew and passengers, have died[123].
  • 2015/May 9,Las Vegas McCarran International AirportDepartureLondon Gatwick International AirportBritish Airways flight 2276 (777-200ER, aircraft number: G-VIIO) was canceled because the left engine ignited during the takeoff run.Thirteen crew members and 13 passengers on this flight evacuated to the outside of the aircraft using the emergency evacuation slide used in an emergency, but seven people were slightly injured during the escape.[124][125].
  • 2016/May 5,Tokyo International AirportDepartureGimpo International AirportGoingKorean AirFlight 2708 (777-300, aircraft number: HL7534) had an engine fire accident during the takeoff run.As a result, Tokyo International Airport was completely closed for about 2 hours, and Runway C, which the aircraft was using for takeoff, was closed for about 6 hours.Shizuoka Airport,Narita AirportDue to a series of changes to the destination and return to the departure point, about 400 flights were canceled, affecting more than 7 people.
  • 2016/May 6,SingaporeDepartureMilanGoingSingapore AirlinesFlight 368 (777-300ER, aircraft number: 9V-SWB) returned to Changi International Airport about two hours after takeoff because a warning lamp indicating engine trouble turned on in the cockpit.Immediately after the emergency landing on Runway 2 of the airport, a fire broke out from the right engine.当該便は乗員2人・乗客19人の計222人が乗っていたものの、全員脱出して無事The flight had a total of 241 passengers, XNUMX crew members and XNUMX passengers, but all escaped and were safe.[126]..Due to this effect, Runway 2 was closed for about 2 hours. This is the first accident of the 777-300ER.The aircraft has since been repaired and has returned to normal operation.
  • 2016/May 8,Trivandrum International AirportDepartureDubaiGoingEmirates AirlinesFlight 521 (777-300, aircraft number: A6-EMW) slowed down due to overconfidence in the autopilot during the go-around and did not operate the throttle, and the aircraft was on the runway with the landing gear retracted. Contact.The aircraft burned and was totally damaged.A total of 18 people, including 282 crew members and 300 passengers, were on board this flight, but all of them escaped and were safe.しかし、消火活動の際に消防士1名が死亡したHowever, one firefighter died during the fire fighting.[127][128][129].. It was the first total loss accident on the 777-300, and the first accident for the company, which has been proud of no accidents since its launch.As a result, Dubai International Airport was completely closed for about five and a half hours, and destinations were changed to other airports.
  • Departure from Tokyo International Airport around 2017:9 on September 5, 11ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クGoingJapan AirlinesFlight 6 (777-300ER, aircraft number: JA743J) broke out from the 34st (left) engine while taking off from Haneda Airport 1R runway.After takeoffFuel dumpingDiverted to Haneda Airport at 12:09.Fifteen crew members and 15 passengers were not injured, after which the passengers switched to the same type of aircraft and departed again at 233:17.As a result of investigating as a serious incident by the Japan Transport Safety Board, a rupture was found in one of the 15th stage stationary blades of the low pressure turbine of the engine, and the cause of the accident was a crack caused by stress concentration due to arch binding, which accompanies the operation of the engine. It was estimated that the fracture occurred due to repeated stress.[130][131][132].
  • From Incheon International Airport to Narita International Airport at around 2018:6 on June 29, 12Korean AirFlight 703 (777-300, aircraft number: HL7573) broke one of the axles of its right main landing gear when landing at Narita Airport, and then got stuck on the taxiway.The 335 passengers and crew were not injured, and the passengers moved to the terminal building by bus about two and a half hours later, but the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism identified it as a serious incident that could lead to an accident.[133][134].
  • At around 2020:7 on July 22, 15,Pudong International AirportDepartureAddis AbabaVia to South AmericaEthiopian AirlinesFlight 3739 (777-200LRF (freighter), aircraft number: ET-ARH) broke out at the rear of the aircraft while loading luggage at Shanghai Pudong International Airport.No one was injured and the cause of the fire is unknown.Due to the fire, other flights taking off and landing at the airport were delayed.
  • August 2020, 12,NahaJapan Airlines flight 904 (777-200, aircraft number: JA8978) departing from Tokyo International Airport had a problem with the left engine immediately after takeoff and made an emergency landing at Naha Airport.Inspection after landing confirmed that two fan blades of the left engine had fallen off and the engine cowl was damaged, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism certified it as a serious incident.Instructed Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways to urgently inspect all fan blades of the Aircraft, and confirmed that there were no problems on the 2th of the same month.[135].
  • August 2021, 2,DenverDepartureHonoluluThe right engine nacelle of United Airlines flight 328 (777-200, aircraft number: N772UA), including the cowling, fell off, scattered parts on the ground, and returned to Denver Airport while revealing the combustion status of the engine. Happened[136][137]..Like the Japanese aircraft above, the engine of the aircraftPratt & Whitney PW4000Therefore, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism instructed Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways to suspend the operation of all 777s with the same specifications.[138][139][140]..United also suspended all 4000s equipped with PW777 (United is the only company in the United States that has the same aircraft).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ This name was originallyAll Nippon AirwaysIt was a registered trademark of.However,British Airways Flight 38 AccidentAccording to the record of air traffic control in Japan, the controller has the same model.Triple SevenThis name is sometimes used, albeit unofficially.
  2. ^ https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=r49T7ab17WE
  3. ^ Photo Feature: World's First Boeing 777 Retires CNN, viewed February 2018, 9.
  4. ^ The flight-crew-rest compartment, which climbs the stairs from door 1, has two business class seats, a small two-bed bed, and optional sinks and closets. Is provided.The attendant rest station for the cabin crew will be located on the ceiling of the economy class cabin, although the facilities will differ slightly depending on the derivative type. The 2-2ER, 777-200LR, and 777-200ER climb up the stairs in the central section of the aircraft, with beds on 777-300 floors and personal storage space for some flight attendants. The 6-7ER has an option to place beds with 777 to 300 or 6 beds, rising from the rear of the aircraft. The 8-10LR has an option to place beds with 777-200 floors.Since the rest room for the cabin crew consists of modules for every two beds, you can choose any two beds from 6 to 8 beds.
  5. ^ "777 Overhead Space Utilization”(English). Boeing. 2013/1/20Browse.
  6. ^ The display window of the autopilot is also digital. The color of FMC up to 747-400 was green letters on a black background, but in 777 it is white letters on a slightly bluish black background because it is a liquid crystal.
  7. ^ "International joint development (participation in aircraft development work) 40 years with Boeing and commercial aircraft". Japan Aerospace Industry Association. p. 23. 2020/7/7Browse.
  8. ^ Haneda mechanic talks about flight 123 "passing on memory" to prevent recurrence -Mainichi Shimbun December 2015, 8
  9. ^ As of 2015, it is operating as Cathay Pacific B-HNL.When reselling to Cathay, the engine was replaced from PW4077 to RR's Trent 800.
  10. ^ Despite speculation that the choice of a US company, GE's engine, despite being a British airline with Rolls-Royce, was politically involved, details are unknown.However, for the -2000ER long-range aircraft introduced after 200, the Rolls-Royce Trent 90, which has a larger thrust than the GE895, is selected.
  11. ^ Only Japan Airlines chose PW4077, and All Nippon Airways and Japan Air System chose PW4074, which has a slightly lower thrust.
  12. ^ The engine has been changed to the same PW200 as the domestic flight specification aircraft -4074.
  13. ^ However, since the introduction of the 787, both Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways have been operating on routes with high demand for short- and medium-distance routes (Shanghai, Honolulu, etc.) that take advantage of the large number of seats rather than those that take advantage of the cruising range. , All Nippon Airways no longer operates on international flights as mentioned above.
  14. ^ There is no structural difference between the -200LR "-110B" and the -300ER "-115B", and the output can be adjusted by changing the ECU settings.
  15. ^ a b c Passenger plane album (2016-2017)Ikaros Publishing. P. 129. https://www.amazon.co.jp/日本発着国際線-旅客機アルバム2016-2017-イカロス・ムック/dp/4802201737 
  16. ^ This is almost two years after the first flight of the 777-300ER.
  17. ^ Crystal Luxury Air to Take to the Skies with a Boeing 777 November17st
  18. ^ Boeing, Paris Air Show orders fall below Airbus Final orders are 737 BCF only
  19. ^ The development of the 777-777X (total length 9m) is planned as a 76.48 development type, and this will be the longest in the world when it is officially launched.
  20. ^ All Nippon Airways ordered the advanced 3-27X on March 777 of the same year, but this will be the largest once it is introduced and put into service.
  21. ^ A maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 351 metric tons was also tested.
  22. ^ JA731J, JA732J.
  23. ^ Ikaros Publishing "Monthly Airline" Vol. 295, p14
  24. ^ About the subsequent career
    • N5016R (Test Unit 2): Flying to Narita Airport.It is JA731J of Japan Airlines.
    • N5017V (Test Unit 1): Kansai Airport → Haneda Airport →New Chitose AirportFly in the order of.日本航空のJA732JとなっているIt is JAXNUMXJ of Japan Airlines
  25. ^ Narita-Itami, Tokyo- NagoyaBetween.
  26. ^ Although it operates in 4 classes when operating international flights, it operates in 2 classes because it operates domestic flights, and the service is also handled as domestic flights.First class and business class are offered as class J for a fee.
  27. ^ Since the seat monitors used on international flights cannot be used during domestic flight operations, the Sky Vision provided by the Haneda-based 777-300 will not be broadcast, and flight attendants will be able to determine what to do in the event of an emergency before takeoff. Will demonstrate using evacuation equipment.
  28. ^ Usually, the first class on long-haul international flights costs more than 100 million yen, but the Itami-Narita route costs less than 2 to 3 yen, and you can experience the first class.Previously, it operated in the same way with the 747 conventional international flight specification and the 747-400 international flight specification.Osaka International AirportIt was changed to 777-300ER due to the entry restrictions of.
  29. ^ “Boeing Celebrates 1000th 777” (English) (Press Release), Boeing, (March 2012, 3), http://boeing.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=2153 2012/11/17Browse. 
  30. ^ Emirates Welcomes its 100th Boeing 777-300ER
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  32. ^ Ionides, Nicholas. “First 777 freighter delivered to Air France". Air Transport Intelligence via. 2010/1/28Browse.
  33. ^ "777 Model Orders and Deliveries summary". Boeing (June 2009). 2010/1/28Browse.
  34. ^ ANA to consider large freighter on 777F on Pacific route
  35. ^ 777 Cargo Diversion, Boeing Executive "Technical Challenges"
  36. ^ Decided to introduce Boeing 777F
  37. ^ ANA to introduce 777F Large freighter to North America
  38. ^ ANA Cargo launches first flight of "Boeing 777F"
  39. ^ GECAS and IAI launch 777-300ER freighter program
  40. ^ GECAS ferry to IAI, refurbishment to the first 777-300ER freighter
  41. ^ Introducing the all-new 777-300ERSF
  42. ^ Ostrower, Jon (September 2011, 9). “Next generation 777 comes into focus". (English edition). 2011/10/10Browse.
  43. ^ Boeing targets year end 777X launch 2012 3 5 Mar: 54
  44. ^ Boeing 777X, wing tip folding mechanism
  45. ^ Mass introduction of next-generation machines = 1 trillion yen scale-Lufthansa, Germany 2013/09 / 19-22: 29 Jiji Press
  46. ^ Boeing Statement on Lufthansa Selection of Boeing 777X for Future Long-Haul Fleet --Sep 19, 2013
  47. ^ Modern, quiet and environmentally efficient – ​​Our new long-haul aircraft
  48. ^ Boeing Launches 777X with Record-Breaking Orders and Commitments
  49. ^ Official announcement from ANA Holdings on March 2014, 3 Retrieved February 2014, 3
  50. ^ About new government aircraft model decision --Government aircraft review committee (PDF) Cabinet Secretariat dated August 2014, 8
  51. ^ Internet connection possible, transmission and reception on board = New government aircraft debuts April 2019, 4, Jiji Press
  52. ^ Boeing To Supply India's Air Force One
  53. ^ For long haul,'Desi Air Force One' on horizon --Times of India
  54. ^ Govt releases funds to retrofit two Boeing 777 to be used as next VVIP long haul planes | India News --Times of India
  55. ^ a b Primera foto del B777-9X
  56. ^ "777 Model Summary". active.boeing.com. Boeing. 2020/7/15Browse.
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  62. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Emirates
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  64. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Iraqi-Airways
  65. ^ a b c https://www.planespotters.net/airline/PIA-Pakistan-International-Airlines
  66. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Qatar-Airways
  67. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Turkmenistan-Airlines
  68. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Air-France
  69. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/American-Airlines
  70. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Asiana-Airlines
  71. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Austrian-Airlines
  72. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/El-Al-Israel-Airlines
  73. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Japan-Airlines
  74. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Jin-Air
  75. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/KLM-Royal-Dutch-Airlines
  76. ^ a b c https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Korean-Air-Lines
  77. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/NokScoot
  78. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/TAAG-Linhas-Aereas-de-Angola-Airlines
  79. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Cathay-Pacific
  80. ^ a b https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Rossiya-Russian-Airlines
  81. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Aeroflot-Russian-Airlines
  82. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Air-Austral
  83. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Air-China
  84. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Air-New-Zealand
  85. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Biman-Bangladesh-Airlines
  86. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/China-Airlines
  87. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/China-Eastern-Airlines
  88. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/China-Southern-Airlines
  89. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/EgyptAir
  90. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Etihad-Airways
  91. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/EVA-Airways
  92. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Garuda-Indonesia
  93. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Kuwait-Airways
  94. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/LATAM-Airlines-Brasil
  95. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Philippine-Airlines
  96. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Saudi-Arabian-Airlines
  97. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Singapore-Airlines
  98. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Swiss
  99. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Turkish-Airlines
  100. ^ "Azur Air Fleet Details and History". www.planespotters.net. 2022/1/20Browse.
  101. ^ "Please verify your request". www.planespotters.net. 2022/1/20Browse.
  102. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Malaysia-Airlines
  103. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Vietnam-Airlines
  104. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Royal-Brunei-Airlines
  105. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Scoot
  106. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Gulf-Air
  107. ^ https://www.planespotters.net/airline/Kenya-Airways
  108. ^ Malaysia Airlines Berhad restructuring continues to show positive results March 4 2016
  109. ^ "B777 aircraft, the successor to the government aircraft, will be adjusted with the introduction of the axis = FY19". Newsletter. 2013/7/19Browse.
  110. ^ Final adjustment with the next government aircraft, "Boeing 777" Consideration made in the United States
  111. ^ "Chitose Air Base, Hokkaido Replacement ceremony for old and new government aircraft (NTV (NNN))”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2019/3/24Browse.
  112. ^ Air Canada removes three B3-777ER seats for temporary freighter conversion April 2020, 4 sky-budget
  113. ^ [2][Source invalid]
  114. ^ Delta Air Lines 777, Japan's last flight from Haneda to Los Angeles
  115. ^ JAL to retire all domestic flights 777 at the end of 22(Retired aircraft will be updated with Airbus A350-900 (domestic flights) and some of the 777-300s used for international flights, and international flights will be updated to Airbus A350-1000)
  116. ^ All Nippon Airways halves 25 to 30 large aircraft(The retired aircraft will be updated on the Boeing 787-10)
  117. ^ "Retirement of P & W-equipped Boeing 777”. Japan Airlines Press Release (English version) (April 2021, 4). 2021/4/5Browse.
  118. ^ This fatal accident is the first to occur during the operation of an aircraft.As a fatal accident that occurred outside of flight, on September 2001, 9,Denver International AirportSo I was refuelingBritish AirwaysThis is the first case in which a refueling hose suddenly fell off from the same type of aircraft, and a person injured by a fire that ignited the leaked fuel died."Accident description" (English). Aviation Safety Network. 2013/7/7Browse.
  119. ^ Malaysia Airlines Flight 370239 people are still missing as of July 2021 and no bodies have been found.
  120. ^ "[Asiana Aircraft Accident] Passenger Nationality Breakdown Announced Two Dead Are Chinese Nationality". msn Sankei News. (December 2013, 7). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130707/amr13070713230006-n1.htm 2013/7/7Browse. 
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  123. ^ Malaysian plane shot down in Ukraine or all passengers died 2014/7/18 1:16
  124. ^ British passenger plane burned at Vegas airport, 7 passengers evacuated minor injuries
  125. ^ Fire from British Airways aircraft just before takeoff Fire and black smoke from engine
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  127. ^ Emirates aircraft burns on the fuselage landing All are safe Aviation Wire Wednesday, August 8rd, 3:21 delivery
  128. ^ Emirates plane burns when landing One firefighter dies Dubai Asahi Shimbun Digital Delivered at 8:3 on Wednesday, August 23
  129. ^ All smoke passengers and crew escape from aircraft at Dubai International Airport August 8, 3:23 NHK NEWS WEB
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References

Related item

外部 リンク

Airbus A380

Airbus A380-800

United Arab Emirates flag Emirates Airlines
United Arab Emirates flag Etihad Airways
Singapore flag Singapore Airlines
Flag of the People's Republic of China China Southern Airlines
Republic of Korea flag Korean Air
Republic of Korea flag Asiana Airlines
Japanese flag All Nippon Airways
Qatar flag Qatar Airways
Australian flag Qantas な ど
  • First flight: 2005/4/27
  • Start of production: 2002/1/24
  • Operation start: 2007/10/25
  • Operational status:In operation
  • Unit cost: US $ 4 million

Airbus A380(Airbus A380) IsEurope OfAirbusDeveloped and manufactured by the companyTurbo fan engineThe4 shotsEquipped super largeWide body machine..世界初の総2階建World's first total XNUMX storiesPassenger planeBut also[Note 1]As a passenger plane (number of passengers), it is the largest model in the world.Also, in the aircraftAn-225 MuriyaIt is the second largest in the world after. The A2 was a large aircraft called a "jumbo jet" at the time of its completion.Boeing 747In terms of the number of passengers, it became the world's largest and largest ever super-large aircraft.[Note 2].

Overview

Production started2002/May 1It was because the prototype flew for the first time2005/May 4[1]..また、型式証明の取得は2006年12月であったIn addition, the acquisition of type certification was in December XNUMX.[1]..It took 16 years from the initial concept to the first flight.As of the end of 10, 2015 years after the first flight,Airbus TheMiddle East,Southeast AsiaIt has won more than 300 orders, mainly in the region, and at this point it was announced that it had reached the break-even point for the A380 project as a whole and succeeded in turning the entire plan into the black.[Source required].

Aiming for a super giant machine with a total of two stories and 800 seats[1], A380 in early 1990A3XXDevelopment started as.一度に大量のA lot at oncepassengerBy transporting空港The main aim was to alleviate congestion, improve the economics of air transportation, and at the same time make it easier for airlines to make profits.[1]..エアバス社のほかにもBesides AirbusBoeingCompany andMcDonnell DouglasAs a next-generation large passenger aircraft Boeing 747-XとMcDonnell Douglas MD-12However, development was frozen in both cases.この後、ボーイング社は総2階建のAfter this, Boeing became a two-story building.NLAAttempts were made to develop, but this was also discontinued.SukhoibyKR-860There was a plan.かつてOnceLockheedThe company also planned a two-story passenger plane, but it was finished at the conceptual stage.

The A380-800 has a total length of about 73 m, a total width of about 80 m, a maximum takeoff weight of 560 tons, and a cruising range of 15,400 km.[1]..The cruising speed is 1,050 km / h, the maximum speed is 1,185 km / h, and the cruising range is 15,200 km.Jet engineIt is,Engine Alliance GP7200OrRolls-Royce Trent 900To use.座席定員は、全席をSeat capacity is all seatsEconomy classIf you set it to, the maximum number will be 853.[1].

Due to the large size of the aircraft, the complicated electrical wiring with a total length of 500 km was not in time, so mass production was delayed by one and a half years from the original plan, October 1, 2007.Launch customerIsSingapore AirlinesThe first A380 was handed over to[1]..When Singapore Airlines introduces the A380,SydneyIncludingUK,Tokyo,North AmericaIt was put into service all over the world. 2020年現在で、シンガポール航空を含め、エミレーツ航空など15の航空会社がA380を保有しているAs of XNUMX, XNUMX airlines, including Singapore Airlines, including Emirates, own the AXNUMX.[Note 3]..In particular, Emirates introduced the A380, which is an order of magnitude more than other companies, and the number of aircraft in operation easily exceeded 100, which was the only salvation for the A380, which did not improve sales compared to other models. ..

As of September 380, a total of 2020 A9s have been produced, all of which are A251-380 types.Airbus also has an extended fuselage-800 type,Cargo typeWe planned multiple derivative types such as, but all of them ended at the planning stage and did not reach development.

After 2018, the plans of each airline that was planning to introduce it were reviewed one after another, and on February 2019, 2, Airbus CEO Tom Enders will stop production of the A14 and will not deliver it after 380 Announced that"Airbus and Emirates reach agreement on A380 fleet, sign new widebody orders" (English). Airbus. 2019/2/14Browse.

On December 2021, 12, the delivery of the final unit (MSN: 16, registration code: A272-EVS) for Emirates Airlines completed all orders, ending 6 years of production.With the end of production of the same type of aircraft, the four-engine aircraft will disappear from the aircraft produced in the commercial aircraft division of Airbus.

As of September 2020, there have been seven aircraft loss accidents or incidents with the A9, but no fatal accidents or total aircraft loss accidents.

Development history

Western giant machine development competition

By the end of the 1980s, there was a demand for a successor to the early Boeing 747.[2]..Airbus is an aircraft with a transportation capacity that can compete with the Boeing 747.1989/からUHCA(Ultra High Capacity Aircraft) Work has begun to realize the concept.Boeing reacts sensitively to this,1991/Announced three types of plans, including the 747 improved version, and started to prevent UHCA (for details)Background of the development of the Boeing 747-8(See)[3]..In response to this movement, Airbus is composed (at that time)Aerospatial,THE A,BAe,HOME4 companies in collaboration with Boeing1993/In January, apart from UHCA, it announced the idea of ​​a large-scale transportation mechanism called VLCT (Very Large Commercial Transport).当初、ボーイングとエアバスによる市場調査では、1種類の機種があっても揃って成功する規模の市場は無いと判断されていたInitially, market research by Boeing and Airbus determined that even with two models, there was no market that would succeed together.[2]..しかしライバル同士の意見がかみ合わず、エアバスはHowever, the opinions of rivals did not fit, and Airbus1994/June, UHCAA3XXVLCT was canceled after announcing that it had started the plan as (530 seats-570 seats 100 type and 630 seats-680 seats 200 type concept)[4].

Boeing countered this by announcing the 747-500X and 747-600X in the same year, showing its readiness to confront.[5](747X plan). 747X計画はさまざまに変遷する流動的なものであったが、その間にもボーイング社はエアバス社に対する露骨なThe XNUMXX project was mobile and mobile, while Boeing was explicit about Airbus.Negative campaignWe tried to reduce the image of A3XX (Sonic cruiserSee).But Airbus went ahead with the plan.

2000/May 12, Airbus won orders for 62 aircraft, so A3XXA380Announced that it has entered development as[6]..Boeing postponed 747X plan the following year,Sonic cruiserAlthough we announced the plan,2003/Freeze the plan and expand its development capacity to medium-sized machinesBoeing 787Focused on[7]..しかし、その後ボーイング社は、A380とHowever, after that, Boeing announced that it was an AXNUMX.777-300ER,A340-600Because it fills the gap747-400ER,747-8Started development of large machines such as model (plan name 747Advanced).

Schedule delays and orders

The first A380 is2005/May 1Ceremony for completion was held at the head office factory in Toulouse[8].

On June 6, Airbus announced that it would "delay delivery by two to six months."The problems were insufficient strength of the main wings and overweight due to in-flight wiring.前者は直ちに改善されたが、後者の解決は困難であったThe former improved immediately, but the latter was difficult to resolve.[9].. The A380 has a maximum capacity of 853 seats, and the wires drawn individually are approximately 563km in total.[10]The connection and storage took longer than expected, and the wiring of the audio equipment placed in the seats as part of the service increased the weight more than expected, and it took time to respond.

As of the 18thAmerican International Group (AIG) Leasing DivisionInternational Lease Finance 16 including (International Lease Finance Corporation, ILFC)AirlinesHas ordered the A380, which has 27 aircraft.Freighter159 including[11]Climbed up.エアバス社AirbusCEONoel Foljar has expressed his hope of "selling 500 of these aircraft."

In the scheduleLaunch customer OfSingapore Airlines The2006/Fourth Quarter-Received the first A4 at the end of the year,Qantas The2007/January,Emirates Airlines The2008/Earlier, the A380 was to be handed over. A380型機の最初の路線就航は2006年末のThe first AXNUMX will be in service at the end of XNUMXUKDepartureSingaporeviaSydneyTo Singapore Airlines, followed by Singapore Airlines from SingaporeHong KongviaSan FranciscoLine, from SingaporeNaritaviaLos Angelesline,Paris,FrankfurtA direct flight to was scheduled to enter service.Qantas also announced that it will launch the A380 on the Los Angeles-Sydney flight.By this time, Airbus had announced that it would deliver four aircraft a month.

But 2006May 6, Airbus announced that delivery will be delayed again by 6-7 months[12]..The reason is the delay in production, but it is said that it takes time to install the wiring in the machine in order to correspond to the interior specifications that differ for each customer.社内で使用しているUsed in-houseCADsoftCATIAHowever, while Germany and Spain used version 4, the change to version 5 in the UK and France caused problems in data sharing, and the cable length did not correspond to the design change.[13]..Regarding the number of delivery machines, 25 machines per year (planned)2009/From 45 aircraft a year) to 2007 aircraft in 9, and 2008-5 aircraft smaller than planned after 9.This caused an even greater delay in receipt, worsening the airline's sentiment.Airbus has negotiated extensive compensation with affected airlines and sought to avoid airliner cancellations by offering cheaper leasing packages.また、引き渡し延期をめぐっては、エアバス親会社のAlso, regarding the postponement of delivery, the Airbus parent companyEADSIn addition to the plunge in shares, executives from both EADS and Airbus sold large numbers of shares before the announcement.insiderA problem has been discovered, former EADS CEO Noel Forger has been arrested, and 10 others have been accused by French authorities.

In addition, 2006May 9Announced a delay in the delivery schedule for the third time by EADS.続くContinueMay 10"We have been informed by Airbus that the A380 project will be delayed by another 10 months and the aircraft will be delivered in August 2008," said Emirates Airlines, the largest ordering company.エミレーツ航空は同声明の中で「当社にとって極めて深刻な問題で(契約に関する)すべての選択肢を見直している」としていたが、その後8年Emirates said in the statement, "It's a very serious problem for us and we're reviewing all our options (on contracts)," but then in 2007.May 5The cancellation of the contract was avoided by receiving an additional order for 4 aircraft.その後、2007年Then in XNUMXMay 6Made inParis Air ShowIn, eight additional aircraft were ordered, and at the Dubai Air Show in November 8, an additional order for 2013 aircraft was decided, bringing the total to 11 aircraft, making it the largest customer of the aircraft.

2006/May 11, Was planning to introduce a cargo typeFedexRevealed that the order was cancelled.次いで2007年Then in XNUMXMay 3Was planning to introduce a freight typeUnited parcel service (UPS) canceled the order because Airbus announced that it would prioritize the production of passenger aircraft as part of its reconstruction plan, fearing further delays in delivery (UPS later placed a new order for the B747-8F).Furthermore, ILFC, which had ordered both passenger and freight models, has also announced that it will cancel orders for freight models only and receive delivery for passenger models only.

At this point, Airbus lost all 80 freight-type orders, including options, and suspended freight-type development.旅客型の受注件数は基本設計から半世紀が経過し、大型化に限界があるボーイング747の発展形であるHalf a century has passed since the basic design of the number of passenger-type orders received, and it is a development of the Boeing XNUMX, which has a limit to its size.Boeing 747-8Although the number of orders has exceeded the number of orders received, the cargo type has fallen far behind the Boeing 747-8.[Note 4][Note 5][14][15].

Test flight

2005/May 4ToFrance OfToulouseFirst flight in[16].

2006/From November A11 MSN380 (Rolls-Royce Trent 900 typeEquipped with serial number 2: F-WXXL)空港 OfRunway,Taxiway, PBB (Passenger boarding bridge) Was tested and a world tour was conducted as part of the PR.The journey departs from Toulouse and goes around 4 cities in four parts, with the first flightSingapore(May 11),Republic of Korea, Seoul(May 11) Called at the port. 2回目にSecond timeHong Kong(May 11)WhenNarita(May 11 - May 11), The third timePeople's Republic of ChinaCentered onGuangzhou(May 11),Beijing,andShanghai(May 11) To fly. In the 4th timeJohannesburg, South Africa(May 11)South PolePassing over the skySydney, Australia(May 11) Called at the port.The Pacific OceanAcrossVancouver, CanadaAfter flying on (November 11th)North poleI passed over the sky and returned to Toulouse.

Due to the success of this flightMay 12ToEuropean Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) andUS Federal Aviation Administration Obtained (FAA) type certificate at the same time[17]..At this time, he pointed out that the FAA did not equip American aircraft with the fuel tank explosion prevention device required.There is no obligation to equip European aircraft, and Airbus insists that it has a different structure from American aircraft (Boeing aircraft) and does not need to equip it.However, FAA standards may apply when adopted by US airlines.

The aircraft will be on the A2007 MSN380 (manufacturer serial number 007: F-WWJB) as part of the "World Tour 7".2007/May 6I came to Narita Airport again andMay 6Headed to Sydney.

Also, using the A380 MSN009 (manufacturer serial number 9: F-WWEA),Engine AllianceCompanyGP7000 engineA test flight was conducted to obtain the type certificate of the A380 equipped with. 2007年XNUMXMay 9Fromコロンビア Ofボ ゴ タWe made intermittent test flights to North America, South America, and the Middle East.May 10ToKansai airportCalled at the port and then returned to Toulouse[18]..The A380-861 equipped with this engine obtained type certification in December 2007.

Delivery and service

2007/May 10After 30 months of testing since its first flight, the aircraft was handed over to its first destination, Singapore Airlines.[19].. same yearMay 10Singapore Airlines officials such as pilots and engineers boardAirbushead office(Toulouse) To Singapore.そして同年And the same yearMay 10Inaugurated as SQ380 flight between Singapore and Sydney.この初号便の座席はThe seat of this first flighteBaybyInternet auctionSold at, the proceeds are donated to charity.In addition, the "world's largest airliner currently in operation" has replaced the Boeing 747 with the A380.

As a result, the first delivery was delayed by a year and a half from the original schedule. 1年2007月末での受注数は11機であるが、一説によれば遅れに伴う補償費用や生産設備の稼働率低下、人海戦術に伴う人件費増大等によってエアバスは193億As of the end of November 60, the number of orders received was XNUMX, but according to one theory, Airbus received XNUMX billion due to compensation costs due to delays, a decrease in the operating rate of production equipment, and an increase in labor costs due to human wave tactics.EuroThe project cost has increased (about 1 trillion yen), and the euro's appreciation against the US dollar has led to the deterioration of the A380's profitable line from the initial 270 aircraft to about 420 aircraft.[20]Is said.

On November 2007, 11, AirbusSaudi ArabiaPrince'sAl WaleedAnnounced that it has signed a sales contract to purchase the A380 as a private aircraft. It has two dining rooms, a game room, a master bedroom, etc., and costs $ 2 million for the aircraft and $ 3 million for refurbishment.A missile defense system is also included.エアバス社では"The Flying Palace"(空飛ぶ宮殿)と呼んでいるAirbus calls it "The Flying Palace"[21]..This aircraft was originallyEtihad AirwaysIt was the second flight test that was scheduled to be delivered to.

It seemed that the A380 had made a good start with the start of regular service by Singapore Airlines, but on May 2008, 5, Airbus readjusted its mass production plan and started Wave 13 (pre-mass production stage). Announced to revise the delivery plan in 1 (after the transition to mass production).As a result, it was confirmed that the rapid mass production planned in 2 became unattainable, and there was a slight delay in the transition to Wave 2006.This is because the work in Wave 2 took longer than expected.

As for the future outlook, Airbus announced on the same day as follows.

  • Number of planned A380 delivery machines
    • 2008: 13 aircraft → 12 aircraft (1 aircraft reduced)
    • 2009: 25 aircraft → 21 aircraft (4 aircraft reduced)

The number of delivery machines after this will be decided by discussions with customers in the future.After that, prior to the delivery of the first aircraft for Qantas and the 2008th aircraft manufactured in September 9, Airbus maintained 14 and 2008 aircraft delivered in 2009 and 12, and 21 to 2010 aircraft in 30. Announced that it will be between. On December 40, 2008, the 12th aircraft for Emirates Airlines in 30 was delivered.なお、2008年後半に顕在化したIn addition, it became apparent in the latter half of 12.World financial crisisTherefore, airline companies have requested Airbus to slow down the delivery pace, and in response to this, in May 2009, it was announced again that the number of deliveries during 5 will be reduced to 2009.

2008/May 7The A380-861 was handed over to Emirates at the new Jürgen Thomas Delivery Center at Airbus' Hamburg facility. This is the sixth A380 to be delivered to an airline, and Emirates is the second airline to receive the A6, as all five have been delivered to Singapore Airlines.

The delivery machine first went into service on the Dubai-New York (John F. Kennedy) route on August 8, the same year.Other long-haul routes include London, Sydney, and Auckland, but the number of destinations is expected to increase as the number of aircraft increases in the future. In March 1, Emirates decided to withdraw the A2009 from the Dubai-New York (John F. Kennedy) route due to poor profitability and changed to the Boeing 3-380ER.

The aircraft was flying for training and training of crew and maintenance personnel between commercial operations, but in September of the same year, an electronic device trouble of unknown cause occurred and the flight work was interrupted.Commercial operations resumed on September 9, the same year.

2008/May 9The A380-842 (total manufacturing unit 14) for the company was handed over to Qantas Australia, and arrived in Sydney on September 9, the same year.After about a month of proficiency training, the airline began commercial operations on the Melbourne-Los Angeles route on October 21, the same year.

2013/May 3, The 100th A380 was handed over to Malaysia Airlines[22]..This is Malaysia Airlines' sixth aircraft.However, in May 6, the company suggested the release of the A2015 in the near future, partly due to poor performance.[23].. 2016年2月、同社CEOは、売却を延期し、少なくとも2018年まで同型機保有総数は現在の6機のまま据え置く、と述べたIn February XNUMX, the company's CEO said it would postpone the sale and keep the total number of aircraft owned by the same model at the current six until at least XNUMX.[24]..On November 11, the same year, the A30 was transferred to a new airline and announced a flight plan for the Islamic Mecca pilgrimage.[25].

On November 2017, 11, the company's 3th A100 (aircraft number: A380-EUV) was handed over to Emirates Airlines.[26][27]. In 2018(UAE)Since the 100th anniversary of the birth of the first President of Zayed, it is a special painting machine that depicts him in addition to the "100th A380" logo.

Main routes (as of June 2020)(Note) If the city names are the same, the airports are the same.

  • Singapore Airlines-Departure:Singapore
  • Lufthansa - Point of departure:Frankfurt
  • Emirates-Departure:Dubai
    • Destination: LondonManchester・ Paris ・ Zurich ・ Frankfurt ・ Dusseldorf ・ Munich ・ Madrid ・ Barcelona ・ Amsterdam ・ Rome ・ Milan ・ Sydney ・ Brisbane ・ Melbourne ・ Perth ・ Beijing ・ Shanghai ・ Hong Kong ・ Osaka / Kansai ・ Narita ・Toronto・ San Francisco ・ Los Angeles ・ New York ・ Dallas ・ Houston ・ Bangkok ・ Kuala Lumpur ・ Singapore ・ Seoul ・Jeddah・ Kuwait Mumbai Mauritius
    • Destinations beyond: Sydney- Auckland・ Bangkok ――Hong Kong ・ Brisbane ――Akland Melbourne ――Aakland
  • Qantas-Departure:Sydney-Melbourne
    • Destination: (Sydney, Melbourne)-London, Los Angeles, Dallas
    • Destinations beyond: (Sydney, Melbourne) -Dubai-London
  • Korean Air - Point of departure:Seoul
    • Destination: Los Angeles, New YorkAtlanta・ Paris / Hong Kong
  • China Southern Airlines --Departure: BeijingGuangzhou
  • Malaysia Airlines - Point of departure:Kuala Lumpur
    • Destination: London / Sydney
  • Thai Airways - Point of departure:Bangkok
  • British Airways - Point of departure:UK
    • Destinations: Los Angeles, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Washington, Singapore
  • Asiana Airlines --Departure: Seoul
    • Destinations: Los Angeles, New York, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Narita
  • Qatar Airways --Departure: Doha
    • Destination: London, Paris, Bangkok
  • Etihad Airways --Departure: Abu Dhabi
    • Destination: London
  • ANA --Departure: Narita

Service to Japan

JapanThe route is2008/May 5Singapore Airlines first launched on the Singapore-Tokyo / Narita route.But due to bad weatherChubu International AirportAvoid landing (Divert), And then arrived at Narita about 4 hours later.The day was the 30th anniversary of the opening of Narita Airport.

after that,2010/May 6From the arrival flight, Lufthansa on the Frankfurt-Tokyo / Narita route (has not boarded Narita since returning to the Haneda route in March 2014, and has virtually withdrawn as of January 3).2011/May 6More Korean AirSeoul/Incheon --Tokyo / Narita Line (Outbound: KE701[Note 7]・復路:702便)でそれぞれ運航開始。・ Return flight: Flight XNUMX).同年same yearMay 7Singapore Airlines is Singapore-Tokyo / Narita- Los AngelesStarted operation on the line instead of the Boeing 777-300ER,Distant rightIt went into service for the first time on this flight.2012/The Emirates Airlines entered service on the Dubai-Tokyo / Narita route from July 7, and the A1 departed for the first time at Narita Airport's Terminal 2 Building (gate 380), but on May 66, 2013, the A5 The service has ended.And in 31 (?), It went into service again.

On the other hand, 2010May 9Air France started operations on the Paris-Tokyo / Narita route from the arrival flight, but in 2014May 5The equipment was changed to the Boeing 777-300ER.大韓航空もデイリー運航から曜日限定運航に切り替え、2012年4月以降は全便他機材に切り替えたが、2012年Korean Air also switched from daily operations to day-only operations, and after April XNUMX, switched to all flights and other aircraft, but in XNUMXMay 10から2013/May 3Until then, the A380 has been revived (outbound: KE705, inbound: 706, but may be operated by other aircraft).

2012 on Singapore AirlinesMay 8 - May 8In commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Osaka's service, it operated on the Singapore-Osaka / Kansai (outbound route: SQ618, return route: SQ619 flight) route.KIXThe A380 was the first regular passenger flight to enter service.なお、当路線では2013年・2014年にも8月中旬In addition, on this route, in XNUMX and XNUMX, mid-August[28][29][30][31]Operates in.Also,2014/May 8-May 8To commemorate the 25th anniversary of Nagoya's service, the Singapore-Nagoya / Chubu (outbound: SQ672 / return: SQ671) route also operated, and the A380 was the first regular passenger flight to enter service at Chubu International Airport.[32][33].

Thai Airways International 2013May 1From Bangkok-Started operation on the Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: TG676, inbound: TG677).さらに同年The same yearMay 12From, the morning departure flight on the Tokyo / Narita line has also been changed to the A380 (outward route: TG641 flight, return route: TG640 flight), and the Bangkok-Osaka / Kansai line (outbound route: TG622, return route: TG623 flight) has also started.2015/I changed the aircraft to B5-747 from May and operated it,2016/May 5Re-introduced from October 10th[34], It became B2017-1 around January 747[Source required], As of September 2017, the A9 operates evening flights departing from Narita and its return flights, and evening flights departing from Kansai International Airport and its return flights.[35].

Asiana Airlines 2014May 6From Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita Line (outbound: OZ102, return: OZ101), same yearMay 7From Seoul / Incheon-Osaka / Kansai Line (outbound: OZ112, inbound: OZ111), same yearMay 8Was temporarily put in[36][37]..そして、2016年10月30日から11月9日の間、ソウル/仁川 - 東京/成田線(往路:OZ102・復路:OZ101便)で期間限定投入され、2年ぶりに日本に同社のA380が飛来したThen, from October XNUMXth to November XNUMXth, XNUMX, the company's AXNUMX will be launched in Japan for the first time in two years on the Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: OZXNUMX, inbound: OZXNUMX). Came in[38].. 2017年10月29日から2018年3月24日まで、再度ソウル/仁川 - 東京/成田線(往路:OZ102・復路:OZ101便)にA380を投入しているFrom October XNUMX, XNUMX to March XNUMX, XNUMX, the AXNUMX has been launched again on the Seoul / Incheon-Tokyo / Narita line (outbound: OZXNUMX, inbound: OZXNUMX).[39].

2016 due to changes in Singapore Airlines route plansMay 10With this, the A11 service on the Los Angeles-Tokyo / Narita-Singapore route (SQ12 / 380) has ended.[40]..The line became B777-300ER from the next day, but there is no announcement that the Tokyo / Narita line-Singapore line (SQ637 / 638) will become A380.The company also has a Haneda line, so it is highly likely that the A380 has virtually withdrawn from the Tokyo / Narita line.この後、大阪/関西線については同年12月4日から2017年始にかけて期間限定で運用されているAfter this, the Osaka / Kansai Line will be in operation for a limited time from December XNUMXth to the beginning of XNUMX.[41].

Malaysia Airlines introduced the A380, which is used only on the London route, to the Narita route for a limited time from August to September 2017, and operated it on the Tokyo / Narita route-Kuala Lumpur route (MH8 / 9).[42]..In addition, the final match will be held on December 2015, 12 and December 14, 20.FIFA Club World Cup 2015To participate inFC BarcelonaThe Barcelona-Tokyo / Narita direct charter flight with (European representative) players and supporters became the A380 as a result of the club's leaders sticking to the large number of VIP seats, and the logo of Malaysia Airlines' sixth aircraft and the 6th A380 in total. It was an entry machine[43][44].

As mentioned above, there were many airlines that were active in entering Japan at the time of the first service of this aircraft, but as of March 2017, there are airlines that will withdraw or switch from daily to seasonal or limited time. It is increasing.しかし、エミレーツ航空が3年2017月3日からドバイ - 東京/成田線にA26を再就航させHowever, Emirates will relaunch the A380 on the Dubai-Tokyo / Narita route from March XNUMX, XNUMX.[45], The number of foreign-affiliated A380s that regularly enter Japan is two, including Thai Airways International.

Trends of Japanese airlines

Since Japan had introduced the most Boeing 380s in the world, which are called large passenger planes like the A747,Japan AirlinesAndAll Nippon AirwaysWas said to have the potential to introduce the A380. 2010年10月、羽田にデモフライトした際、エアバス側の意向でAt the intention of Airbus during the demo flight to Haneda in October XNUMXNew Chitose AirportA conformance test was also conducted at.

Sky mark

Sky markは国際線参入の一環として2010年11月8日に同機購入に基本合意し、2011年2月17日に6機(うち2機はオプション)の購入契約を正式に締結した。この正式契約成立により、日本の航空会社として初めてエアバスA380が導入され、同時に日本籍で初めてエアバス社製・四発ワイドボディ機が登録されることになり、契約通りに進めば2014年に2機導入の予定であり[46][47][48]In addition to launching flights to London, Frankfurt and New York, it has announced plans to introduce nine additional aircraft after 2018.[49]..A test flight of the aircraft painted in Skymark color was also conducted, but when Skymark offered to change the contract due to management deterioration, Airbus refused and the purchase contract broke down.It was revealed that negotiations were underway regarding purchase cancellation[50][51].

2014/May 7, Fuel costs soared due to yen depreciation in the first half of 2014Cheap airline Due to the rise of (LCC) and other factors, the management fell into the red, and Skymark asked Airbus to postpone the introduction of two aircraft and cancel the contract for four aircraft.Then, the Airbus side requested Skymark to join "under the umbrella of a major airline", and if it refused this and canceled the contract, "penaltyWill be chargedBloombergIs reported[52]did.これを受けてスカイマークは「当社の経営の主体性を揺るがすような主張は受け入れられない」とする声明を発表したが、この声明を受けたエアバス側は「スカイマークとの協議および同社の機体に対する姿勢を受け」て契約協議の終了を通知In response to this, Skymark issued a statement stating that "claims that would shake the independence of our management are unacceptable," but Airbus, which received this statement, said, "Consultation with Skymark and its attitude toward the aircraft. Received "and notified the end of contract consultation[53][54]In addition, the maximum amount of 700 billion yen is stated as "holding relief measures for all rights and infringement of rights".penaltyWas charged[55].

However, with the prospect of selling the aircraft that was planned to be sold to Skymark to another airline, it is said that it will agree to reduce it to at least 2014 billion yen in October 10.Asahi ShimbunIs reported[56]..その後、スカイマーク側の経営不振による資金不足もあり、2014年12月の時点でスカイマークとの契約が解除された機体がまだ他社に納入されていないことが会員制写真投稿サイトのAfter that, due to lack of funds due to poor management on the Skymark side, as of December XNUMX, the aircraft whose contract with Skymark was canceled has not yet been delivered to other companies.Airliners.netHas been confirmed in[57]..In addition, although there is no fact that the penalty negotiations have been finally agreed, it was reported that the Airbus side started proceedings with the British Commercial Court on December 12, and Skymark spokesman confirmed this.[58]..スカイマーク向けに製造された2機は、2016年にエミレーツ航空へ売却されたTwo aircraft manufactured for Skymark were sold to Emirates in XNUMX[59][60].

All Nippon Airways

All Nippon AirwaysInitially, about the pros and cons of introducing the A3802008/I was planning to come to a conclusion within, but in December 2008Deterioration of the world economyReceived, "Boeing 747-8At the same time, the introduction plan for large aircraft will be temporarily frozen. "The reason was due to the global financial recession, and it was said that "the new large aircraft review committee will not be abolished but will be restarted at the right time."

Although there has been no progress for a while, on March 2014, 3, the company decided to order five models of equipment at the same time.Among them, in addition to the existing Boeing 27-5ER as a large aircraft,Boeing 777-9Is newly added[61].. In addition to the fact that the introduction of all Boeing 2014s was retired from the company on March 3, 31, there was no progress in the introduction, and "one new large aircraft" was selected as 747-1.The story of ANA introducing the Airbus A777 ended here.

However, after it was decided that ANA would take over Skymark's deficit and the penalty for Airbus.2016/In January, ANA's parent companyANA HoldingsHowever, when three A380s are introducedNihon Keizai ShimbunMore reported[62][63].

The Airbus A380 was ordered on the condition that All Nippon Airways would take over the penalty for Skymark's Airbus, but this aircraft was not for Skymark, which was initially expected, but for ANA.[64]..At that time, it was scheduled to be delivered around 2018, and it was reported that it will be launched on All Nippon Airways' Hawaii route, and if successful, it may lead to additional orders.[65].. On January 2016, 1, ANA Holdings officially announced the introduction of three A29s.After that, a special paint design and nickname "FLYING HONU" were decided.[66][67][68].. The first aircraft was received on March 2019, 3, and on May 21, 1, the aircraft went into service on the Narita-Honolulu route three times a week.In addition, it received Unit 5 in the first quarter of 24 and went into service on July 3, 2019.There are 1 seats, which is currently the largest number of paid seats in Japan, and is located on the 2nd floor.first class8 seats,business class56 seats,Premium economy73 seatsEconomy classAll classes except are introduced.

HoweverCOVID-19の影響により全機運航停止となり、定期的に遊覧チャーター飛行などで運航している。さらに2019年10月に初飛行した最終号機である3号機は2020年10月にエアバス書類上は引き渡しが完了しているものの、同社の大幅赤字と多額の借入金のために、引き取りを延期し、仏トゥルーズで約1年整備保管されていたが、2021年10月に引き取り、同月16日に初飛行から2年、引き渡しから1年経過して来日となった[69][70].

Origin of the name

According to the original naming convention, it was supposed to follow A340 and A350, but this model suddenly became A380.The reason is as follows.

  • Because the standard seats of 340 seats, which is twice the standard seats of 300 seats of the A227-2, have been changed from "550" of 340 to "40" which is a multiple.[2].
  • To emphasize that the cruising range has been improved to 8,000 miles (about 12,800 km)

Aircraft

shape

The A380 has low wings and a receding angle.Wing, Normal formatTail, Main wingPylonGeneral jets such as engines mounted onPassenger planeHas the same characteristics as.The upper part of the Boeing 747 has only a two-story bulge, but the A2 has a total of two floors, so there are no steps.

As an option by the airline, an external camera can be attached to the apex of the front edge of the vertical stabilizer, and the in-flight monitor displays images from a height of 24 m.

At Airbus, there are final assembly plants for each part of the aircraft from assembly plants in each country.Toulouse,HamburgUntilAirbus BelugaHowever, the A380's fuselage section and main wings are too large to be stowed, so it is transported by ship and land.The volume of the cargo compartment was expanded as a successor to the Beluga whale.Airbus Beluga XLCan not be installed in (up to A350).

Guest room

The maximum width of the first floor (main deck) of the two-story guest room is 2 m, which is 1 cm wider than the maximum width of the main deck guest room of the Boeing 6.58-747.また上部デッキの客室最大幅は400mでエアバス社の従来のワイドボディ機の客室最大幅45.7mよりわずかに広いIn addition, the maximum cabin width of the upper deck is 5.92 m, which is slightly wider than the maximum cabin width of 5.62 m for Airbus' conventional wide-body aircraft.[71]..ボーイング747と違い2階席も通路が2つあるUnlike the Boeing XNUMX, there are two aisles on the second floor.[Note 8].

Store / service equipment

Airbus takes advantage of the size of its guest roomsLounge,waterfall,bar,Duty free shop,shower roomIt is also possible to provide such as, actuallyEmirates Airlines Thefirst classA shower room for users was set up.しかし、飛行中は不測のBut unforeseen during the flightTurbulenceIt is not desirable for passengers to be constantly standing to minimize the risk of injury or death to the aircraft.[Note 9]..There is an opinion that even if it is made, it will be obsolete soon, but Emirates AirlinesBurj Al ArabandPalm JumeirahWe have introduced a bar with the decoration of.

The use of customer service facilities was also considered during the development of the Boeing 747, and although lounges were realized by some airlines, they were subsequently abolished in order to increase the number of seats.

Number of seats

The total area of ​​the cabin is about 747 times that of the B400-1.5, and the number of seats isFirst-Advance Your Career-EconomyThe standard seat specification, which consists of three classes, is also about 3 times.エアバスでは「従来の大型機と比べて同じ座席仕様でありながら、1.3人当たりの占有面積が広くなる」を同機のセールスポイントとしているThe selling point of Airbus is that "although it has the same seating specifications as the conventional large aircraft, it occupies a larger area per person."[Note 10].Etihad AirwaysSo, taking advantage of this, by installing a bed for each seat instead of using one aisle, we have introduced a class "Residence" that is even higher than the normal first class.

Since the cabin of the seat has a total of two floors, straight and spiral stairs are provided at the front (near the L2 / R1 door of the main deck) and the rear of the cabin, respectively, and the front stairs are for adults. There is a range where two people can easily pass each other.なお、1年に最前部階段の位置を従来のメインデッキのL2/R2017ドア付近からL1/R1ドア付近への設計変更が可能になることが発表されたIn 2, it was announced that the position of the front stairs could be changed from the vicinity of the L2 / RXNUMX door of the conventional main deck to the vicinity of the LXNUMX / RXNUMX door.[72]..As an example, it will be possible to increase the number of seats from 4 seats in 497 classes to 78 seats, an increase of 575 seats.更に2018年4月には、新造機だけでなく既存機にも適用可能な「キャビン・フレックス」オプションが導入されたFurthermore, in April XNUMX, the "Cabin Flex" option was introduced, which can be applied not only to new machines but also to existing machines.[73]..This will allow up to 2 seats in Premium Economy and 3 seats in Business Class by not functioning Door 11 on the 7nd floor.

This is an unprecedented number of seats in the private passenger sector.例としてAs an exampleAle AustralIs a mono-class (economy class only) specification with a total of 840 seats, and there was a plan to break the record as the world's largest number of paid seats, but the order was canceled[74].. 2クラス仕様では2015年11月4日にエミレーツ航空が中距離2クラス仕様・615席(ビジネス58席・エコノミー席557席)を受領した事で、2クラス仕様における世界最多有償座席数であったIn the XNUMX-class specification, Emirates Airlines received XNUMX seats in the medium-distance XNUMX-class specification (XNUMX business seats and XNUMX economy seats) on November XNUMX, XNUMX, which was the largest number of paid seats in the world in the XNUMX-class specification.ANA OfBoeing 747-400D (all aircraft retired as of March 2014, 3)It surpassed 569 seats and set a new record. As of July 2016, it has the largest number of paid seats in the world in two classes and the world's first paid 7 seats.標準座席仕様では、2年600月2011日まで、エールフランスが12席With standard seat specifications, Air France will have 12 seats until December 538, XNUMX.[Note 11]As, it was offered for a fee. It is the first 3 seats in the 500-class specification and sets the record for the largest number of paid seats in the world.

Since the latter half of the 2000s, there are airlines that have introduced higher-grade economy class (premium economy, etc.) and made it a 4-class specification, but Air France has 2018 seats as of 516.[Note 12]As a paid offer.この仕様においても初の500席台であり、当時世界最多有償座席数の記録を更新していたが、2019年3月20日にEven with this specification, it was the first XNUMX seats, and at that time it was breaking the record of the world's largest number of paid seats, but on March XNUMX, XNUMXAll Nippon AirwaysWith 520 seats (8 first seats, 56 business seats, 73 premium economy seats, 383 economy seats), the number of paid seats in 4 classes was the highest in the world.

Cockpit

The cockpit and crew rest area are located in front of the two-story cabin, and are located on the mezzanine floor, which is slightly higher than the first floor between the first floor called the main deck and the second floor called the upper deck. Are[Note 13]..This is designed with consideration for ensuring visibility and compatibility with other Airbus aircraft.

The cockpit has five seats, including spare seats. Control devices are arranged around the two seats, the captain's seat on the front left and the sub-driver's seat on the right, so that two passengers can operate.操縦室後半には間隔を開けて5つまたは2つの座席が備わっているThe second half of the cockpit has two or three seats spaced apart[Note 14].

This unit is an LCD (Liquid crystal display)Glass cockpitIs equipped with.ただし、エアバス社の従来のグラスコックピットと違う点は、一辺8インチの正方形のLCD6面から、縦8インチ横6インチの縦長のLCDが8面へと増えたことであるHowever, what is different from Airbus' conventional glass cockpit is that the number of vertically long LCDs, which are XNUMX inches long and XNUMX inches wide, has increased from XNUMX square LCDs on each side to XNUMX inches.[75]This makes it possible to reduce the number of documents brought into the cockpit.The steering form is the companyAirbus A320Has been adopted sinceSide stickIt is a method.

engine

You can choose one from the engines manufactured by the two companies.これらはいずれも主翼下面にパイロンを介して左右に2つずつ合計1基が取りつけられる高バイパス比All of these have a high bypass ratio where a total of 2 units can be attached to the underside of the main wing via pylon, 4 on each side.Turbo fan engineIs. 1つはOne isRolls-Royce HoldingsMadeTrent 900, The other isEngine Alliance(GE-P & WMade by a joint venture)GP7270Is.トレント 900はA380が初飛行した時のエンジンであり、最初は数多く販売されたが、その後GP7200の販売も伸びてきており、トレント 900の発注と肩を並べるまでになっているThe Trent XNUMX was the engine when the AXNUMX first flew, and was sold in large numbers at first, but sales of the GPXNUMX have also increased since then, and it is now on par with the order for the Trent XNUMX.[Note 15]..The Rolls-Royce Trent 380 series is represented by the A900-380X, and the Engine Alliance GP84 series is represented by the A7200-380X by engine manufacturer.

At the time of landing gliding, four engines such as the Boeing 747 have all four engines.Reverse injection deviceHowever, the A380 uses only the two inner 2nd and 3rd engines.The reverse operating lever in the cockpit is also only for the 2nd and 2rd engines.At the beginning of the plan, the A3 had sufficient braking performance, so there was no plan to adopt a thrust reverser.重量軽減と信頼性向上のため、逆噴射装置では民間機では初となる電気で作動するETRAS (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System) を採用しているIn order to reduce weight and improve reliability, the thrust reverser uses ETRAS (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System), which is the first in a civilian aircraft to operate with electricity.[76].

Achieves low noise and low carbon dioxide emissions, and has the strictest operational regulations in the worldLondon Heathrow AirportBut it can be operated 24 hours a day.このことから広告では「環境にやさしい飛行機」であることを売りにしているFor this reason, the advertisement sells that it is an "environmentally friendly airplane."[Note 16].

タ イ ヤ

Support the giantLanding gear Ofタ イ ヤは、ノーズギア2本、ボディギア12本(6輪ボギー×2)、ウイングギア8本(4輪ボギー×2)の計22本である。なお、ボーイング747のタイヤはノーズギア2本、ボディギア8本、ウイングギア8本の計18本、ボーイング777ではノーズギア2本、ボディギア12本の計14本である。

  • Tires are manufactured byBridgestoneIs[77]..初号機にはブリヂストンのタイヤが採用されたBridgestone tires were used for the first machine[78]. Also,Emirates AirlinesFor equipment forMichelinWas reported to manufacture tires[79].

Airport correspondence

Air traffic controlThen.Backward turbulenceWhen determining the flight interval in consideration ofMaximum takeoff weightWe usually treat over £ 300,000 (136t) as heavy.[80]However, with the advent of the A380, a new Super category was established.[81]..For this reason, it requires more space than conventional large jet aircraft such as the 747 when waiting for landing in the air or taking off and gliding, which is a bottleneck in improving the efficiency of airport utilization.

International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) has set a new airfield grade "Code F" for new large aircraft such as the A380, and has set detailed standards for the development of basic facilities such as runways and taxiways.それまではUntil thenBoeing 747-400Code E, which assumes a large jet aircraft such as a model aircraft, was the highest rank.

At passenger handling facilities, due to the characteristics of the new aircraft, which has a total of two floors, when boarding an aircraft using a fixed gatePBBThe operation of (passenger boarding bridge: boarding bridge) is a major issue.エアバス社によれば、現在世界の空港で広く採用されている、1機あたり2本のPBBで十分対応可能であるが、メインデッキ2本使用で140分、アッパーデッキ、メインデッキ各1本、計2本使用で90分のターンアラウンド(便間作業)タイムを設定しているAccording to Airbus, two PBBs per aircraft, which are currently widely used at airports around the world, are sufficient, but using two main decks takes XNUMX minutes, one upper deck and one main deck. A XNUMX-minute turnaround (inter-flight work) time is set using a total of two.[82]..If a total of three PBBs, one upper deck and two main decks, can be used, the time required for getting on and off and the work time such as cleaning the cabin will be shortened, further improving passenger convenience.このほか、ゲートラウンジの拡張や、駐機中の航空機に電気や空調を供給するIn addition, the gate lounge will be expanded and electricity and air conditioning will be supplied to parked aircraft.Shorepower(GPU) capacity needs to be improved[Note 17].

Japanese airportThen,Narita International Airportが2020年時点で第1ターミナルビルの15番・26番・45番・46番・54番、第2ターミナルビルの66番、96番が対応している。Tokyo International Airport(Haneda Airport) corresponds to Spot 3 of Terminal 107 (However, due to the problem of wake turbulence during the busy daytime, regular entryMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs not approved, but it is expected to be operated urgently by alternative landing when Narita Airport is closed.[83].. Detail isHaneda Airport slotsSee).KIXApplies to Terminal 1 international flights 11 and 31[Note 18].Capital AreaOther than that, as of November 2014Chubu International Airport,New Chitose Airport[Note 19]Is an operational airport.However, due to irregular operations such as not loading cargo on charter flights, reducing fuel due to domestic short-distance flights, and operating the runway taxi down, it is limited to open spots with less hindrance around the tarmac.Naha Airport,Shimojishima AirportBut it is possible to operate.

Sydney International AirportIn order to support the A380, measures such as solidifying the ground and reducing the boarding bridge were taken.As a result, spot operation was barely reached, and there were scenes in which other aircraft waited for the spot to open.

In addition, Brazilで2014 FIFA World CupIs expected to increase in demand for Air France during the tournamentSao Paulo International AirportThe aircraft was planned to be put into service, but when the Brazilian government aviation authorities investigated the airport in advance, it is possible that some of the above-mentioned airfield grade code F regulations were not met, and there is a prospect of renovation work. Since it is not possible, the authorities have announced a policy of not permitting the service of the same type of aircraft to the airport during the tournament (repair after the tournament).[84], Some airports cannot handle it sufficiently.

If the number of airlines ordering the A380 (other passenger planes with a total of 2nd floor seats) increases, it can be expected that the facilities on the airport side will be renovated. Since it is not possible to spend money on repairs, it is not possible to carry out repairs for this machine.CountryIt remains at the representative international airports and the main hub airports for international flights. Since the introduction of the A380, fuel-efficient twin-engine medium-sized aircraft have become the mainstream, and Boeing has become the A380.777-300ERDeveloped to fill the gap747-8Even so, it was so sluggish that there were no orders, and in February 2019, it announced the discontinuation of production of the A2.

生産中止になったことから、今後A380の運用の増加が見込めず、運航効率の良い中小型機やA380のような3クラス500席級の4発エンジン大型機ではなく、B777やA350のような3クラス300~400席級の大型機がトレンドとなっている航空情勢下で、A380を凌駕する超大型旅客機が登場する可能性は極めて低いため、空港側が新たにA380のような超大型機に対応できるように改修する可能性も極めて低い。

Participation of Japanese companies

380 Japanese companies are participating in the production of the A21[85].

2002/Underfloor in AprilVertical tailAs a member in charge ofToho Tenax,Jamco,Sumitomo Metal Industries,Toray4 companies entered, in JuneMitsubishi Heavy Industries(Front and rear cargo doors),SUBARU(Vertical tail front edge / tip, fairing),Japanese plane(Horizontal stabilizerEnd), in OctoberShinmeiwa Industry,Yokohama Rubber,NikkisoBut,2003/In 2 monthYokogawa,Casio calculator,Makino Milling MachineBut in JuneBridgestone,Mitsubishi RayonDecided to participate.とくに日本のEspecially in JapanCarbon fiberThe technology is focused on and is often used in major parts such as frames.

Derived type

The A380 is a derivative of several types (FreighterI was also planning to develop a mold, long-distance type, etc.2021/Since production was discontinued in Japan, only one type, the A380-800, which is a basic passenger specification type, was operated as an actual aircraft.

A380-800 type machine

It is a basic passenger specification, and Singapore Airlines started commercial flight on October 2007, 10.

List of model names and equipped engines
ModelengineType certification acquisition
A380-841RR Trent 970-84 / 970B-842006/12/12
A380-842RR Trent 972-84 / 972B-842006/12/12
A380-861EA GP72702007/12/14

For the time being, we will sell and deliver only this type,

  • Reduction of aircraft weight
  • AvionicsImprovement (newly developedA350A design that enhances commonality with is expected)
  • More efficient engine installation (also considering the newly developed Trent XWB equipment for the A350)
  • Extension of cruising range by increasing maximum takeoff weight

A gradual performance improvement program is also being considered.The first-stage production machine incorporating these improvements is expected to be delivered from around 2012.この機体はThis aircraftAirbusSimilar to the company's new engine replacement program, the A380A320neo and A321neoIt will be added to a series of "neo series" such as, and will be a new model that has been improved as "A380neo".2016/ToUAEEmirates has announced the "A380neo" improvement mechanism, and the company is ready to order additional avionics-based improved aircraft even if the engine is not replaced.

2015/It was reported that they were considering ordering two aircraft in June.United airlinesIncluding, the number of airlines that have introduced the A380-800 is 14 worldwide.この発注が実現に至った場合、ユナイテッド航空がIf this order is fulfilled, United Airlines willThe United States of AmericaThis is the first order for the A380-800 aircraft as an airline company.アジアではIn AsiaRepublic of SingaporeFlag carrierSingapore AirlinesBut for the entire A380 seriesLaunch customerReceived the first machine asSingaporeIn addition to being active on routes from Europe to the United States and Oceania, it also has the largest number of aircraft in the Asian region.その他にOtherThai AirwaysEtc., with a special regular flight for each prosperous seasonJapan OfNarita International AirportWe have a regular commuter pass.

Currently, Emirates is the largest customer of the A380-800.2016/3In JapanSky markWe have a contract to purchase two additional aircraft to take over the equipment that was in the process of being manufactured.

A380plus type machine (planned)

The first type announced to start development research as an advanced type of the basic type -800 type. An efficiency-enhancing model of the A2017-6, which was announced at the Paris Air Show 18 on June 2017, 380 (local time).At the same air show, a concept model (existing A800-380 with a large winglet described later attached as a mockup) was exhibited, improving efficiency and economy compared to the basic model, and making the winglet larger in appearance. However, the wing tip has been changed to a shape that divides into upper and lower parts (800 m above, 3.5 m below, and 1.2 m above and below).Other wing and aerodynamic reviews are also underway, with fuel consumption expected to be reduced by up to 4.7%.In addition, by reviewing the stairs to the second floor seats, crew rests, sidewalls, etc., the cabin has been optimized so that it can increase up to 4 seats compared to the basic type (Airbus "Cabin enablers"). (Called)[88]..Specifically, the standard number of seats on the A380-800 is 4 in 497 classes, but it can be increased to 575 by introducing "Cabin enablers".In addition, the maximum takeoff weight will be increased to 578 tons, and the cruising range will be extended by 300 nm (555.6 km).If the maximum number of seats is increased to 78, the cruising range will be 380 nm, which is the same as that of the A800-8200.In addition, Airbus says it can extend maintenance intervals to reduce maintenance costs.開発が正式決定すれば初のA380発展型となるが、同年11月に最大顧客のエミレーツ航空が提案を受け入れなかったことが明らかになっているIf the development is officially decided, it will be the first AXNUMX development type, but in November of the same year it was revealed that Emirates Airlines, the largest customer, did not accept the proposal.[89].. With the company's announcement of discontinuation of production on February 2019, 2, the plan ended without any development.

A380-800F aircraft (planned)

A freighter type has also been proposed to cargo airlines.The freighter type is said to have little merit because it cannot carry heavy objects, and Boeing explained that the 380F and 777-747F have less loss than the A8F.

Although the cargo volume is large only for the world's largest passenger and freighter, the cargo capacity is small for the size of the aircraft, long cargo cannot be loaded because the nose part does not open, and it cannot be loaded on the second floor without a dedicated loader. There are many disadvantages compared to the 2 freight type, which is a rival for high-speed freight transportation. Not only will it not be possible to do what the 747 freight type can do, but it will also have to prepare new equipment that was not necessary for the 747 freight type, so it is significantly inferior in economic efficiency and is not attracting attention as a freighter.

In fact, Emirates has ordered the A380 as a passenger plane, but the 747-8F as a freighter.In addition, FedEx, UPS, and ILFC, which handle relatively light cargo, ordered the A380-800F, but because the passenger type caused delivery delays many times, FedEx canceled the order first due to concerns about delivery delays for the cargo type as well. Then, in March 2007, UPS (ordered 3-2016F in 747) and ILFC canceled.As a result, Airbus lost all orders for freighters, and as of June 8, there were no actual aircraft, including test aircraft, and development of freighters was suspended.Development was scheduled to resume once the company that placed the order came out, but the company announced the end of production on February 2017, 6, so the plan ended without reaching development.

Cargo refurbishment by Lufthansa Technik

2020/In 5 monthNew coronavirus infectionPassenger demand is decreasing and freight demand is increasing due to the influence ofLufthansaRemodeling and maintenance of aircraft at a subsidiary ofLufthansa TechnikWas requested to refurbish the A380 passenger type for cargo[90][91]..顧客(航空会社)名は明らかにされなかったが、後にThe customer (airline) name was not revealed, but laterPortugal OfHi flyFormer Singapore Airlines leased A380 aircraft (Aircraft symbol9H-MIP) was the target of this modification, multiple media reports[92][93].

To cope with the influence of COVID-19, we have already loaded cargo on passenger plane seats.[94], There are cases where the seat itself is removed and cargo is loaded.[95]..しかし、ルフトハンザ・テクニークによれば、この改修は単に座席の撤去に留まるものではないというBut according to Lufthansa Technik, the refurbishment goes beyond simply removing seats.[90].

However, it is reported that cargo doors will not be installed, and it is necessary to use narrow passenger doors when loading cargo.また、2階部分の床板が貨物の重量を想定していないため、貨物機としては問題が多いとの指摘もあるIn addition, it has been pointed out that there are many problems as a freighter because the floorboards on the second floor do not assume the weight of cargo.[90].

2020年5月19日、ハイフライ・マルタのA380機体記号9H-MIPが5/14~18にかけてポルトガルのベージャ空軍基地から中国の天津、ドミニカのラス・アメリカス空港を経由し世界一周運用で運航された事が発表され、COVID-19対応で中国からドミニカへ約15tの医療用物資を輸送したとされ[96]Later, it was announced that the A380 was a partially removed aircraft.[97]..In November of the same year, due to the COVID-11 epidemic, the passenger charter business → freight charter business was changed to the aircraft specifications, but it was announced that it would be returned at the end of the same year due to the decrease in demand for super-large aircraft.[98].

Plan-only derived type

None of the following variants have an ordering airline. With the company's announcement of discontinuation of production on February 2019, 2, the plan ended without any development.

  • A380-700 (A380 shortened fuselage type)
  • A380-800C (combi type with a part of the main deck as the cargo compartment, 397 seats-454 seats)
  • A380-800R (A380-800 long-haul type. Proposed for ultra-long-haul routes such as British Airways, Qantas, and Singapore Airlines)
  • A380-800S (Short-distance type of A380-800)
  • A380-900 (A380 extended fuselage. Standard seating configuration with 3 seats in 656 classes. Emirates and Virgin Atlantic were interested)
  • A380-900S (Short-distance type of A380-900)
  • A380neo (There was a report considering engine replacement as a successor to the A380, and the president of Emirates Airlines showed interest in December 2014.[99])

end of production

As mentioned above, the A380 is too large and the routes that are profitable are limited, and in addition to the sluggish orders for large four-engine aircraft due to the increase in size and performance improvement of twin-engine aircraft, 4/2014 If we have not been able to win any new orders from airlines for the second consecutive year (only leasing companies have been able to win orders) and this trend will continue in the future.2018/Also suggested that production could be discontinued[100].. 2016年7月12日には、2018年以降の生産ペースを年27機から12機へ大幅に引き下げると発表したOn July XNUMX, XNUMX, it announced that it would significantly reduce the production pace after XNUMX from XNUMX aircraft to XNUMX aircraft a year.[101].

But,2016/In May, it was reported that Emirates, the world's largest A5 operator and operating 380 A104-380 aircraft as the major ultra-large aircraft on international flights connecting all over the world, is ready to place additional orders. It was. Reuters CommunicationsIs EmiratesCEO"The total number of orders will be" 200 or more fixed orders "", and Airbus has already announced the entire plan.SurplusAlong with further boosting the A380 project, which has been announced to be achieved, the production system for total double-decker machinery will be improved.2020 eraIt was decided to continue until.

On the other hand, the development of the "A380neo" with a completely redesigned engine is also in view, and it was expected that it would be decided in the near future.[102]..As part of the development of the new generation type as described above, the development survey of "A2017plus" was announced in June 6. The A380plus is equipped with a new large winglet that can reduce fuel consumption by up to 380%, and has improved aerodynamic performance by improving the main wing. Announced that it could reduce the cost per seat by 4%. The A2017plus has increased its maximum takeoff weight to 4 tons, and announced that it can transport up to 380 more people with the same cruising range of 13 nautical miles, or extend the cruising range by 380 nautical miles.[103].

In addition, Singapore Airlines, which has relatively quick aircraft renewal since 2017, has started replacing some aircraft, and received the remaining 5 aircraft with new in-flight specifications and returned the 5 aircraft in operation to the leasing company, and the rest It was planned to upgrade the 14 aircraft owned by Singapore to new in-flight specifications and finally operate with 19 new in-flight specifications.[104]..リース会社は2018年までにシンガポール航空からの退役機の引受先を探していたが交渉は難航しており、少なくとも2機が今後Leasing companies were looking for an underwriter for retired aircraft from Singapore Airlines by XNUMX, but negotiations have been difficult and at least two will be in the futureParts removalExpected to be dismantled for[105].

Due to the possibility of additional orders from Emirates Airlines, it was decided to continue production for the time being, but in 2019, the direction of the clouds began to become suspicious.[106]..This is because it was reported that Emirates is considering switching to the downsized A20 family, A350neo, etc. for some or all of the 330 aircraft ordered most recently.

In February 2019, Qantas Australia canceled eight aircraft awaiting receipt.[107].. On February 2019, 2, Emirates Airlines, which was the line of trust, canceled 14 of the order backlogs,A330-900 40 aircraft,A350-900 Announced to place an alternative order for 30 aircraft[108]Finally, Airbus announced that it will discontinue production of the A380 in 2021.[109]..As a result, production of the A380 will be discontinued with only one type of passenger basic type 800, and derivative types such as the A1plus and A380-380F that Airbus envisioned in the future will remain as planned without being developed. finished.

As of March 2019, the total net orders were 3 aircraft (orders from commercial airlines: 251 aircraft, orders from other companies: none).Airbus is a B251 (mainlyBoeing 747-400) We were planning to receive orders for 700-750 aircraft by becoming the flagship of the world's airlines to replace the type aircraft, but the number of orders will be significantly lower than the plan.[Note 20]..There will also be no orders from airlines in North America, South America and the continent of Africa.However, looking at the global aviation situation, it has indicated its intention to shift to twin-engine aircraft and downsizing, and some airlines (eg Air France have announced that all aircraft will be retired by 2022.[110]), There was a release plan.In 2020,Impact of COVID-XNUMXAnnounces that Air France will retire ahead of schedule from 2022, when it was originally scheduled to retire.[111], And Emirates is also considering retiring some A380s[112]In addition, the unreceived A380 has also begun negotiations with Airbus in the direction of cancellation.[113].

このように2020年に入ると、2月に起き始めた新型コロナウイルスの世界的な感染も相まって、世界のエアラインがこぞって運航停止を強いられた。その関係でA380最大オペレータであるエミレーツ航空のような最大手航空会社でさえも放出の計画が始まっており、他の世界のA380オペレータも退役の計画(例:ルフトハンザドイツ航空、カタール航空等)を示しており、各航空会社では段々と双発化そしてダウンサイジング(主にB777-300ER/-8X/9X,A350-900/-1000)の風潮が強まっている。その中で欧米No.1規模を誇るエールフランスが当初の予定(2022年)から前倒しして6月26日をもって全機退役、そして奇しくも時期同じくしてエミレーツ航空向けの最終号機となる機首と前部胴体がトゥールーズへ運ばれた[114].

In September 2020, the assembly of the final aircraft was completed, and the aircraft production was completed with this. On October 9, 2021, the third aircraft (registration code: JA10A) for ANA, which had been handed over on documents but had been put on hold (stored at the Airbus factory), was accepted and a delivery flight was carried out. Arrived in Japan[115]..With this delivery, delivery to airlines other than Emirates has been completed.On December 12, the same year, the final unit (serial number: 16, registration code: A272-EVS) for Emirates Airlines was handed over.With this delivery, the delivery was completed and the 6-year production was put to an end.As a result, the four-engine aircraft disappeared from the commercial aircraft produced by Airbus.[116]..In addition, although it was developed more than 747 years later than the rival B100 (-30 type), it was discontinued earlier than the B747 (-8 type).

Specifications (A380-800 series)

Specifications

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.89 (approx. 1,090 km / h, 589 kt)
  • Cruising speed: Mach 0.85 (approx. 1,041 km / h, 562 kt)
  • Cruising distance: 15,200 km (8,200 nautical miles)
  • * Cruising altitude: 13,100 m (43,000 ft)
  • Takeoff runway
    • Trent 970: M 2,990
    • GP 7270: M 3,030
  • Landing run distance: M 2,100


Notice. The explanation of the unit used isWikiProject Aviation / Physical Unit.

Operational status

All of the following A380-800 (production is passenger type only, as of 2022)[117][118]

AirlinesYear of operationFixed order quantity[Note 21]Number of deliveriesNumber of operationsengineRemarks
Singapore flag Singapore Airlines2007242419Trent 900Introduced 2017 unreceived aircraft from December 12, replaced existing 5 aircraft Completed in July 5
5 out of 2 retired aircraft disassembled and discarded, 2 other aircraft waiting for maintenance, 1 remaining aircraft leased by other companies
COVID-19Expected to retire 7 more aircraft due to fashion
United Arab Emirates flag Emirates Airlines2008123123GP7200 (90)
Trent 900 (33)
Skymark order manufacturing 2 aircraft in operation, 2019 unreceived aircraft canceled in February 2
Consideration of retirement ahead of schedule due to COVID-19 epidemic[119], Not received 8 machines in production and assembly[120]
Partial aged machine retired dismantling started[121][122]And cargo operation[123]
Australian flag Qantas200812121Trent 900January 2019 Canceled 1 unreceived aircraft, all aircraft waiting for maintenance in the US due to COVID-8 epidemic
In-flight specifications will be updated after 2022, and 10 aircraft will be returned in sequence (2 aircraft will be retired)[124]I was trying to
Expected to recover demand due to policy shift to with corona, policy shift to return to all aircraft in 2024[125]
Return to operation of the first aircraft in January 2022[126]
French flag Air France20091010All aircraft retiredGP7200Announced to retire by 2019 on July 7, 31[127]
On May 2020, 5, the COVID-20 epidemic announced the end of A19 operation ahead of schedule.[128][129]
Retired on June 6, the same year with the last flight[130]
German flag Lufthansa20101414All aircraft retiredTrent 900Scheduled to sell 2022 aircraft from 6 (advanced due to COVID-19 epidemic)[131])
The remaining 8 aircraft are also suspended and re-launch is undecided[132]
Due to carbon dioxide emissions, the remaining 8 aircraft are expected to shift to fuel-efficient models within a few years.[133].
Flag of the People's Republic of China China Southern Airlines2011553Trent 900Expected to retire all aircraft by the end of 2022[134].
Republic of Korea flag Korean Air2011101010GP7200Waiting for maintenance in Incheon, expected to retire in about 2021 years in 5 CEO interview[135]
Malaysia flag Malaysia Airlines201266All aircraft retiredTrent 900Subsidiary operation review→ Looking for sales destinations for all 6 aircraft
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thai Airways201266All aircraft retiredTrent 900May 2020, 5, bankruptcy due to COVID-20 epidemic, retired due to debt consolidation
British flag British Airways2013121212Trent 900Waiting for maintenance at various airports in Europe
Republic of Korea flag Asiana Airlines2014666Trent 900Waiting for maintenance in Incheon, some irregular sightseeing flight operation[136]
Expected to retire due to differences in engine manufacturers due to absorption merger with Korean Air due to financial collapse
United Arab Emirates flag Etihad Airways2014101010GP7200Waiting for maintenance at Abu Dhabi Airport
Qatar flag Qatar Airways2014101010GP7200Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, all aircraft will be suspended until 2022 and will be gradually retired from 2024.
→ Announcement of gradual return due to deterioration of A2021 aircraft surface coating discovered in 350[137]
Malta flag Hi fly Malta2018Return due to lease maturityTrent 900Former Singapore Airlines: 9V-SKC / A380 Mass Production Unit 6
Airbus intervenes and leases to European charter company Highfly Group via German leasing company[138]
After that, some seats were removed and repaired to the emergency cargo specifications, but due to the COVID-19 epidemic, they were returned with the lease deadline at the end of 2020.[139]
Japanese flag All Nippon Airways2019333Trent 900FLYING THIS
Narita-Honolulu line dedicated equipment (COVID-19Operation will be suspended for the time being due to the influence of
Total251243   

Canceled customer

Including A380-800F (freighter type) (as of 2019)

Accident / breakdown / incident

As of 2021, there have been no aircraft loss accidents or accidents involving death or injury.

  • 2009/May 8,Singapore AirlinesThe A380 took off from Hong Kong International Airport 17 hours later due to a breakdown shortly before takeoff.
  • 2009/May 9,Singapore AirlinesA380Paris OfCharles De Gaulle International Airport2 hours and 45 minutes after takeoff, he returned to Paris due to an engine (Trent 900) failure.
  • 2010/May 11,QantasA380-842 aircraft (aircraft code VH-OQA) is flying from Singapore to Sydney, and the second engine inside the left wing is partially damaged.Singapore Changi International AirportDiverted to.A total of 440 passengers, 29 passengers and 469 crew members, and residents of a private house hit directly by engine debris were not injured.At this time, about half of each of the fuel system and the brake system failed, fuel could not be dumped in the air, and the brakes were in an inadequate state.The cause was that oil leaked from a pipe that broke due to metal fatigue caused by an engine manufacturing error and exploded into flames.In response to this accident, all six aircraft, including the accident aircraft that the company was operating at that time, were temporarily suspended.[141].
In addition, Singapore AirlinesThe operation of all 11 aircraft owned by the company was postponed.エンジンを供給するロールス・ロイス社とエアバス社の要請によるものであるAt the request of Rolls-Royce and Airbus, which supply engines.[142]..翌11月5日、シンガポール航空の保有分11機に関しては、全機が安全であることが確認され、同社分に関しては運航が再開されたOn November XNUMX, the following day, it was confirmed that all of Singapore Airlines' XNUMX aircraft were safe, and the company's operations were resumed.[143].
On the other hand, on November 11th,LufthansaHowever, due to this accident, the flight from Narita to Frankfurt on the same day was canceled due to engine inspection.[144]..カンタス航空の保有分に関しては、安全点検を受け問題の有無を確認したRegarding Qantas' holdings, we underwent a safety inspection and confirmed whether there were any problems.[145]..同年11月27日から運航再開となったThe service resumed on November XNUMX of the same year.[146].
  • 2011/May 48:25 pm,John F. Kennedy International AirportTaxiing to the runway atAir FranceThe left wing tip of Flight 7 (Airbus A380, aircraft code F-HPJD) was at the parking lotComairFlight 6293 (Bombardier CRJ-700・ Aircraft code N641CA)Vertical tailContacted[147].. A380のウイングチップとCRJ-700の垂直尾翼が破損Damaged AXNUMX wing tip and CRJ-XNUMX vertical stabilizer[147]..負傷者は報告されていないNo injuries reported[147].
  • On December 2014, 12, I started heading for the runway for takeoff.Korean AirThe company's vice president who was on flight 86 (aircraft number HL7627) as a first-class passengerCho HyonaHowever, after complaining about the response of the flight attendants, he returned the aircraft to the boarding gate and disembarked the in-flight service manager.It is often referred to as a "nut return" for a short time because it uttered abusive words and turned back (ramp return) triggered by nuts.
  • 2017/May 9,ParisFrom to Los AngelesAir FranceFlight 66, A380-861 (aircraft code F-HPJE) on the Atlantic OceanGreenland4 shots flying over the westEngine AllianceCompanyGP7270Of the engines, the 4th engine on the right wing exploded, and the remaining 3 engines continued to fly for about an hour.CanadaEastern(English edition)Diverted at 15:42 (GMT).同機には24人の乗組員と496人の乗客が乗っていたが、怪我人などはなかったThe aircraft had XNUMX crew members and XNUMX passengers, but no one was injured.[149][150][151]..エールフランスは代替着陸した乗客輸送のためAir France for alternative landed passenger transportBoeing 777-300ERModel machine (own machine: aircraft code F-GZNO: passenger capacity 472 people), separatelyBoeing 737We also dispatched and transported mold machines (lease charter machines)[152]。事故機は2017å¹´12月6日までに現地にて第4エンジンを換装し、4基のエンジンでAF371V便としてパリへ空輸され、2018å¹´1月15日から営業運航便AF990便パリ発ヨハネスブルグ行きで運用復帰している[153][154].

Competitor model

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ AirbusThe company uses the term "total two-story" to differentiate it from the Boeing 2, which has the same two-story seats (part of the front is two-story).In English, Boeing describes the 747 as "Double Deck" and Airbus describes the A2 as "All Double Deck."
  2. ^ As a passenger aircraft with a longer "total length" than the A380 (73.0 m)Boeing 747-8(76.3 m),Boeing 777-300 (73.9 m),A340-600There is (75.3 m).
  3. ^ 15 out of 1 companies (Hi fly Malta) Is a lease from Singapore Airlines.
  4. ^ The A380 also has a door that opens when storing a large nose gear at the bottom of the nose (see the Airbus color image above, by the way, the 747 has a set of nose gear devices slightly behind the nose, and the cockpit is on the second floor and at the tip of the nose. The fact that the nose cargo door mechanism cannot be adopted on the nose because it is located away from the part is also a cause of the difference.
  5. ^ The difference in mechanism is that the A380 was developed as a "passenger plane", while the 747 was (correctly) developed as a "military transport plane" (as a result, it was diverted to a commercial airliner).From the viewpoint of usability, the maximum loading size of 2 is larger, including the surface other than the length due to the girder that supports the second floor.
  6. ^ For the first time, the A380 went into service on its domestic flight.
  7. ^ The flight number was KE380 only for the first outbound flight.
  8. ^ If you compare the scale of the aircraft to other passenger aircraftBoeing 777-300On (1st floor seat)Airbus A340It is the size with (2nd floor seats) added.
  9. ^ The airline requires passengers to wear seat belts at all times during the flight, installing and operating standing equipment, and if there is an accident, it may be disadvantageous when the airline is held liable in a lawsuit. There is sex.
  10. ^ In some reports, it was stated that "the number of seats is about twice that of the current 747, 2 seats are possible", but the 800 seats of the 747 are the standard number of seats for the 400-class specification. Since the 3 seats on the A380 are standard seats in monoclass specifications only in economy class, it is unfair to compare these numbers.Airbus does not use the expression "double" like this.
  11. ^ With the transition from 3 class specifications to 4 class specifications (507 seats → 2018 seats as of 516. First 9 seats, business 80 seats, premium economy 38 seats, economy 380 seats → 2018 seats as of 389) December 2011 After 12th March, Lufthansa German Airlines had the largest number of 13 seats (526 first seats, 8 business seats, 98 economy seats), but as of 420, the company also has 2018 seats in 4 classes (509 first seats, 8 business seats).・ Premium economy 78 seats ・ Economy 52 seats) As of 371, 2018 seats of Emirates Airlines and Qatar Airlines (Emirates Airlines first 517 seats ・ Business 14 seats ・ Economy 76 seats. Qatar Airlines first 427 seats ・Business 8 seats, economy 48 seats) is the largest number of paid seats in 461 classes.
  12. ^ 2011年12月12日までは、3クラス538席と混在していたが、2011年12月13日以降はこの4クラス仕様(当時は507席)に完全移行した。
  13. ^ There is a small staircase to go up to the cockpit from the first floor seats.
  14. ^ The pilot's crew rest area is just behind the cockpit, with the main and sub-electronics rooms between the leg storage and the cockpit and on the upper floors of the front staircase.
  15. ^ 2008/Four test machines on February 2stTrent 900To one of the enginesGTLUsing fuel, includingUnited Kingdom Of(English edition)From France (en) Has been successful for about 3 hours of test flight.
  16. ^ At the 2008 Singapore Airlines Show, the aircraft was painted "Greener.Cleaner.Quieter.Smarter" and appealed during acrobatics.
  17. ^ Most of the world's international airports can handle the boarding and alighting of Boeing 747-400s, but they are larger than this and require airport renovation.As one of them, since the number of seats on the second floor is the same as that of wide-body passenger aircraft, there is a renovation to increase the number of boarding bridges at airport facilities to two on the first floor and one on the second floor.The Boeing 2 also has two floors in front, but the number of seats on the second floor is not so large, so two seats on the first floor are used. Passengers on the 1nd floor use the entrance on the 2st floor, so the overall boarding / alighting time is relatively long.In addition, passengers who have difficulty or cannot walk alone or passengers accompanied by infants are not allowed to use the second floor seats that require climbing stairs due to safety considerations.In addition, a corresponding gate will be installed in the terminal building.
  18. ^ New Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. Public Relations Group (October 2014, 10). “The A380 upper deck compatible boarding bridge is now in service for the first time at Kansai Airport! <News release (PDF)". New Kansai International AirportCo., Ltd. 2020/12/22Browse.
  19. ^ Unlike Narita, Haneda, and Kansai airports, these two airports do not have a three-port boarding gate that connects directly to the upper deck, but a two-port boarding system from the normal main deck.Therefore, passengers using the second floor seats use the front stairs for the front seats and the rearmost stairs for the rear seats.
  20. ^ This tendency is the same for the rival B747, and the B2006-747 launched in 8 will be discontinued from the backlog of orders for the B747-8F.2022/Is expected to be discontinued.
  21. ^ Firm Orders
  22. ^ The country's largest and public holding company, run by Prince Al-Waleed of Saudi Arabia.
  23. ^ Aircraft leasing company.

Source

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  4. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 22.
  5. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 24.
  6. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 27.
  7. ^ Sugiura (2008), pp. 27–29.
  8. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 37.
  9. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 48.
  10. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 49.
  11. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 47.
  12. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 51.
  13. ^ A380 Delayed by CATIA 4/5 Mix --WorldCAD Access
  14. ^ Passenger plane model series 3 "Jambojet Boeing747 Classic" (Ikaros Publishing)
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  16. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 39.
  17. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 135.
  18. ^ Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. --Public Relations, www.kiac.co.jp (PDF)
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  21. ^ Sugiura (2008), p. 179.
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  24. ^ Malaysia Airlines postpones sale of A2 aircraft for at least two years = CEO --Reuters (February 2016, 2)
  25. ^ Malaysia Airlines Utilizes Airbus A380 for Mecca Pilgrimage New Airlines Established --Tricy (December 2016, 12)
  26. ^ Emirates welcomes 100th A380 to its fleet
  27. ^ Emirates welcomes 100th A380 to its fleet
  28. ^ Scheduled for 2013th-11th in 17 and 2014th-9th in 17.
  29. ^ Singapore Airlines Kansai-Singapore Airlines A380 aircraft will continue to operate this year New Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. Dated April 2013, 4
  30. ^ Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines A380 aircraft operated for a period ~ Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines Kansai Airport 20th Anniversary ~ New Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd. Dated April 2014, 3
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  38. ^ Asiana Airlines launches A10 on Narita / Incheon route from October 30th to November 11th
  39. ^ Asiana Airlines officially announces A10 launch on Narita / Incheon route from October 29 --Fly Team (September 2017, 9)
  40. ^ Singapore Airlines rejuvenates flight 777 via Narita from A380
  41. ^ Singapore Airlines launches A12 on Kansai Line from December 4th to New Year holidays
  42. ^ [August-September 2017 only] Malaysia Airlines' Airbus A8 goes into service on the Tokyo Narita / Seoul Incheon route for a limited time!
  43. ^ Malaysia Airlines to Narita A380 FC Barcelona flight to Japan -Aviation Wire (April 2015, 12)
  44. ^ Balsa super VIP treatment visits Japan, hundreds of millions of yen for round trip by arranging charter aircraft -Sponichianex (August 2015, 12)
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  72. ^ Airbus, A380 new guest room option 575 seats by changing stairs -Bloomberg October 2017, 4
  73. ^ Launched Cabin Flex for the A380 --Airbus April 2018, 4 (viewed April 10, 2018)
  74. ^ a b European Airbus loses orders for 840-seater "canned flying sardines" -Bloomberg October 2016, 4
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  76. ^ Hispano-Suiza and Honeywell Electrical thrust reverser actuation system (ETRAS®)http://www.hispano-suiza-sa.com/spip.php?rubrique48&lang=en
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References

Related item

外部 リンク

  • Airbus (official website)(English)[Ref name: official]
    • "Airbus Air in Japan". Official websiteAirbus Japan Co., Ltd. 2020/12/22Browse.[Ref name: official-ja]
    • "A380". 2020/12/22Browse.(English)[Ref name: official-A380]

 

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