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🧳 | Meet the taste of Hachijojima and Miyakejima! Island gourmet gathering at "Aoyama Farmers Market"


Meet the taste of Hachijojima and Miyakejima! Island gourmet gathering at "Aoyama Farmers Market"

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A fruity and mellow dressing using Izu Oshima's specialty camellia oil, sesame seeds, and apple cider vinegar.

The "Farmers Market" is held every Saturday in front of the United Nations University in Aoyama, Tokyo.The event is a farmer ... → Continue reading


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vinegar(YouvinegarBothacidAlso write,British: vinegar[1]) IsAcetic acidIncluding about 3-5%acidityHaveseasoning[2].


穀物And fruits as raw materialsBrewed sake,Acetic acid bacteriaObtained by acetic acid fermentation with (Acetobacter genus).Acetic acidother than,Lactic acid,Succinic acid,Malic acid,citric acidSuch as organic acidsamino acid,esterKind,alcoholKind,sugarMay include such as.

It is also used for the purpose of sterilization and preservation.

Lactic acid OfAcid dissociation constant(pKa) Is 3.8, the acid dissociation constant of acetic acid (pKa) Is 4.8[3].. Acetic acidCell membrane OfLipid bilayerDepending on the concentration and within the cellHydrogen ionEmitpHLowering the activity lowers the activity and produces an antibacterial effect[3].


Kanjivinegar"When"liqueurIs the same radical,liqueurIt is closely related tobrewingIt is believed that vinegar was also made at the same time as when they started doing.

Means vinegar in French vinaigre The sour wine (sourWine) Means that the liquor has changed to sour[4].

Incidentally,1979/June 6 "Japanese Agricultural Standards for Vinegar"[5] Was announced[Note 1],Japanese Agricultural StandardThe name in (JAS) isVinegarBecame[4].


Vinegar is said to be "the oldest seasoning produced by humankind"[4].5000 BCAroundBabyloniaThere was a record in vinegar that vinegar made from date palms and dried grapes was brewed.[4].

Western food and vinegar

Around 4000 BC made vinegar from wine and beerpicklesA record of pickling is left. Soft drinks with vinegar added to water in ancient RomePoscaWas being drunk.

Old homes waited for wine to change naturally, but in modern times, in the 17th century in France, vines were laid on the floor for wine, in the 18th century in Holland.Hermann BourgaveIn the 19th centuryLouis PasteurThe Orleans manufacturing method was devised and applied to modern industrial production methods.[6].

Japanese food and vinegar

Vinegar brewing started in Japan around the 4th and 5th centuries, and rice vinegar brewing technology was introduced from China along with sake brewing technology.[4].Ritual systemIt is,BrewerSakeSakeMake vinegar with it and pickle itVinegared food,DeafnessUsed for cooking.

VinegarsushiHas a lot to do with the history of[4].. The origin of sushi was narezushi, which was fermented for over a year to ferment lactic acid, but in the Edo era, early sushi, which added rice vinegar to accelerate fermentation, appeared.[4].. However, at that timemaltRice vinegar made from is very expensive,Sake leesMade fromSake lees vinegarCame to be built[4].. In the Edo periodKii countryKokawaKasu vinegar,Izumi countrySakaiAre known for their rice vinegar origin.

Manufacturing method

Western Europe

The oldest method of vinegar production in Western Europe is the Orleans method, in which diluted wine is filled into barrels leaving a space, and acetic acid bacteria membrane is added to slowly ferment. Remove the vinegar made regularly and add new wine. Compared to modern manufacturing methods, it takes less time to touch the air, but vinegar has a rich scent. Other manufacturing methods include a dropping method invented in the 18th century and a more modern submerged culture method. The dropping method is a method in which acetic acid bacteria are adhered to a porous material, and wine is repeatedly poured therein to make the acetic acid bacteria work efficiently. The submerged culture method is a method of promoting fermentation by adding bacteria to brewed sake aerated in a tank, and changing ethanol to acetic acid in 24 to 48 hours. In either method, the remaining bacteria are sterilized by low-temperature heat treatment after production. High-quality vinegar is then matured to add flavor and mellowness.[7].


Grains and fruitsBudding yeast S. cerevisiae ByAlcohol fermentationRaw materialNigiriIs produced, and acetic acid bacteria are added to the mash to produce vinegar.[8].. Surface fermentation has an acidity of about 4 to 6%, and "aerated deep fermentation" with aeration and stirring produces vinegar with an acidity of 5 to 20%.[3].

Classification and name of vinegar

* and ** TheYES"Vinegar quality display standard'[9][10] Compliant with the display ** Use the name of. See the same standard for details.

  • Brewed vinegar* (Broad sense)
    • Grain vinegar* (Broad sense)-Grain consumption of 40g/l or more (Mealvinegar,maltVinegar etc.).
      • Rice vinegar(Yonezu) **-Among grain vinegar, the amount of rice used is 40g/l or more.
      • Rice black vinegar**-Grain vinegar, which has a rice (without bran completely removed) usage of 180g/l or more and is brown or dark brown. It may include wheat and barley.Black vinegar.
      • Barley black vinegar**-Of the grain vinegar,barleyUse only the amount of 180g/l or more. The color is brown or blackish brown. Malt vinegar. Malt vinegar.
      • Grain vinegar** (Narrowly defined)-Grain vinegar that is neither rice vinegar, black rice vinegar, or barley black vinegar.
        • Kasu vinegar - Sake leesVinegar made from From that colorRed vinegarAlso called. Long time agoHand-rolled sushiIt was a common ingredient in vinegared rice,After the warLack of suppliesYellow rice incidentDue to this, it has not been distributed to the general public.Since rice is not used as a direct raw material, the label name is grain vinegar.
        • Pearl barley vinegar -Distributed as a health food.
        • Acne vinegar - sugar caneVinegar made from Kagoshima prefectureAmami regionMade in. Very low in potassium and rich in minerals. It also contains vitamin C, which is not found in other vinegar.
    • Fruit vinegar* (Broad sense)-The amount of juice used is 300g / l or more.
      • Cider vinegar**-Of the fruit vinegar,AppleAmount of squeezed juice of 300g/l or more. Cider vinegar cidre vinegar
      • Grape vinegar**-Of the fruit vinegar,GrapeAmount of squeezed juice of 300g/l or more.Wine vinegar.
      • Fruit vinegar** (narrow sense)-Fruit vinegar that is neither apple vinegar nor grape vinegar.
        • Persimmon vinegar -Originally, the ripe persimmon fruit was crushed, left to stand and naturally fermented.
        • Plum vinegar --In ancient ChinaplumMaking umezu from umezu and treating it such as cooking and disinfecting wounds,platingIt was used for a wide range of purposes.Currently eaten in JapanDried plumIs originally a by-product of that.BesidesPlum,apricotSubstituted with.
    • Brewed vinegar** (narrow sense)-Grain vinegar, fruit vinegar is neither brewed vinegar.
  • Synthetic vinegar** - Glacial acetic acidOr dilute acetic acid with water, add sugar, acidulant,Umami seasoningThe one with taste etc. in JapanOkinawaOnly those with high acidity are commonly used. Also, the mixture with brewed vinegar is used nationwide.
  • Distilled vinegar -Distilled malt vinegar, etc., made from volatile substances[11].
    • Concentrated vinegar -Made by freezing the water of vinegar and centrifuging[11].


Cooking effect

Widely used to add sourness to dishes.Also,chickenWhen vinegar is added to the broth when boiling, the meat is tender and becomes easy to separate from the bone. This is because vinegar acid connects bones and muscles.Connective tissue(collagen,Elastin(Comprising) and eluting collagen denatured by heating.[12].. Also, with vinegarAcidicBy increasing the amount of water retained, the acid protease in the muscle is activated and the meat becomes softer.[13].

By cooking meat and fish with bones, shellfish with shells, etc. with vinegar, calcium in bones and shells can be eluted, which is useful for calcium intake.[12].

Cooking with vinegar


Taking vinegar with food has the effect of suppressing the rise in blood sugar.[14], When ingesting vinegarblood pressureThe effect of suppressing the rise ofRenin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone[15] Was reported to be involved.

It is also said that vinegar intake promotes the burning of fat and is effective in preventing obesity.[4].

Metabolic syndromeThere is also vinegar (drink vinegar) for the purpose of improving the health and beauty.[4].

Miscellaneous notes

organic chemistry

1847/German chemistHermann KolbeFirstInorganicWhen acetic acid was synthesized from, organic compounds that were said to be related to acetic acid were given related names.LatinMeans vinegarvinegarIs the English name for acetic acid, acetic acid,Acetaldehyde(Acetaldehyde),acetone(Acetone) has become the etymological name.


In Japan, a specific control material for seed disinfectionSpecific pesticideRegistered as.


Circus purchases a large amount of food at a time when traveling to rural areas, but sometimes he buys a large amount of vinegar as a drink to recover fatigue, and the person who saw it said, ``Because I drink such a large amount of vinegar, a circus member Is a misunderstanding that came from the rumor that "I'm soft." Since ancient timesPickled nanbanThe bones of fish that have been made softer by the action of vinegar[16]As mentioned above, the fact that meat becomes softer when it is soaked in vinegar also contributed to the long-held belief in this theory. FlexibilityligamentIncreases the range of motion and is not affected by vinegar drinking. The theory that excessive intake of vinegar makes the bone brittle isCushioningでBone cell中calciumIs suppressed because the outflow is suppressed.


Museum facility


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Enforcement is July 7, the same year.


  1. ^ Progressive Japanese-English dictionary (Kotobank)
  2. ^ Kojien5th edition
  3. ^ a b c Ei Misuya Hiroaki, "On the acetic acid resistance mechanism of acetic acid bacteriaJournal of Japanese Society of Lactic Acid Bacteria 2015 Volume 26 Issue 2 p.118-123, two:10.4109 / jslab.26.118
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Export of “vinegar” within the Nagoya Customs Service Retrieved on April 2020, 4, Nagoya Customs Survey and Statistics Division.
  5. ^ June 54, 6 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. 8. PresentJapanese Agricultural Standards for Brewed Vinegar
  6. ^ Harold McGee 2008, pp. 746–747.
  7. ^ Harold McGee 2008, p. 748.
  8. ^ About vinegar National Vinegar Association Central Association
  9. ^ Japanese Agricultural Standards for Brewed Vinegar June XNUMX, XNUMX Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. XNUMX, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  10. ^ Vinegar quality display standard December 12, 12 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. 19 Consumer Affairs Agency (PDF)
  11. ^ a b "Agricultural Processing 2 Revised Edition" Ministry of Education Copyright Right Issued January 56, 1 All 25 pages
  12. ^ a b "News Release│Mitsukan Group Corporate Website”(Japanese). www.mizkan.co.jp. 2018/11/3Browse.
  13. ^ Japan Veterinary and Animal Science UniversityDepartment of Livestock and Food Engineering Meat Science Class. “Why marinade makes it softer". Okayama UniversityFaculty of Agriculture Meat Quality Study Group. Common sense of meat that can not be heard now 38th <Cooking meat softly>.As of August 2018, 11originalMore archives.2018/11/3Browse.
  14. ^ Michiko Endo and othersEffect of vinegar on postprandial blood glucose elevation"Diabetes" Vol.54 (2011) No.3 P.192-199, two:10.11213 / tonyobyo.54.192
  15. ^ Kenji Tayama, "Effect of vinegar on lifestyle-related diseases"The Journal of The Brewing Society of Japan" Vol.97 (2002) No.10 P.693-699,two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.97.693
  16. ^ Hard bones are soft,KikkomanHome Page


  • Harold McGee, Translated by Midori Kasai, "Maggie Kitchen Science," Kyoritsu Shuppan, 2008.ISBN 9784320061606. 

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