[Oita Prefecture] Not only hot springs!A superb view of an unknown miracle & a power spot where love comes true
If you write the contents roughly
In honor of Valentine's Day, here are some spots related to love on this Koiba Road!
"Oita, Onsen Prefecture" is the number one hot spring in Japan in terms of both the amount of hot springs and the number of hot springs.In the cold winter, I heard the names Beppu and Yufuin ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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バ レ ン デ ー
バ レ ン デ ー(British: Valentine's Day), orSt. Valentine's Day(Valentine's Day) ・Saint Valentine's Day(English: St. Valentine's Day) IsChristian sphereCelebration, mainly in Europe and America, every yearMay 2It is said to be a day when couples celebrate their love.
On this day, in the Christian sphere, it is generally customary to give gifts to loved ones such as lovers and family members.
Nonキ リ ス ト 教Is a sphereJapanIn traditionally "Female MaleToチ ョ コ レ ー トDay to giveHowever, there are many criticisms and complaints about this in Japan., Has changed significantly in recent years.
The origin of the Roman Empire
The history of Valentine's DayRoman EmpireIt is said to date back to the time of.
At that time, in Rome,May 2Is a goddessYunoIt was a holiday..Juno is the queen of all gods and the god of family and marriage.Next timeMay 2Prays for a good harvest (also a cleansing festival)Lupercalia festivalIt was the day whenAt that time, young men and women had different lives.The day before the festival, the womenpaperI was supposed to put a tag with my name on it in the tub.The next day, the men pulled a bill from the tub.The man who struck and the woman in the name of the tag were supposed to be together as partners during the festival.And many partners fell in love and got married.
Roman emperorClaudius IIIs said to have banned soldiers from marrying because some soldiers left their loved ones in their homes would demoralize them.Was a Christian priestValentine(Valentine) had mercy on the soldiers who were banned from marrying and mourned, and had a wedding ceremony for them in secret, but soon the rumors came to the emperor's ears, and the angry emperor never did such an act. I ordered Valentinus not to do it.However, Valentinus was resolutely unyielding to the emperor's orders, and he was allegedly executed in the end.The day of his execution was chosen on February 2, the day of the Juno holiday and the day before the Lupercalia festival.Valentinus is said to have been sacrificed for the Lupercalia festival.For this reason, it is a general theory for Christians that this day became a national holiday and a day for lovers.
Opposition / disagreement
The above anecdote requires an explanation of the historical background.
Early Roman churches show signs of efforts to eliminate pagan elements from the festivals of the time.The Lupercalia festival should be eliminated, but the ban only caused a backlash, so the church needed to give the festival some reason for its Christian origin.It is probable that he decided to use the help of Bishop Valentine, who was allegedly martyred for the marriage of the soldiers.In this way, the pre-Christian Lupercalia festival was changed to a festival derived from Valentine's Day, and the festival continued thereafter.The story of choosing a partner in the lottery mentioned above may also have been created by the early Christian churches to give the impression that Roman religious events are barbaric.
Treatment of holidays in the Catholic Church
Catholic churchInSecond Vatican CouncilLater liturgical reforms removed Valentinus' anniversary on February 2, when the historically unidentified saints were sorted out of the liturgical calendar.For this reason, it is no longer officially celebrated as a holiday.In fact, there are several legends about St. Valentine, and according to the Roman Martyrdom, the bishop of the same name was martyred on this day.It is said that multiple legends and miracles overlap and the details are conveyed differently..
William ShakespeareDrama "Julius CaesarThere is a scene of the Lupercalia festival at the beginning (Act 1, Stage 2).Here Caesar said from the fortune tellerMay 3You will receive an ominous warning, "Be careful."
Situation around the world
In many countries恋人It's a day to celebrate love with family and family.
I came to Japan before the warForeignerPartially done bySecond World WarSoon afterdistributionindustry,confectioneryindustryBySales PromotionAlthough attempts were made to popularize it, it was the one that became established in Japanese society.1970 eraIt was the second half.It is said that the confectionery shop owner, who was worried about the drop in sales every February, came up with the plan. "Female MaleWith affection forチ ョ コ レ ー トIt was also around this time that the "Japanese Valentine's Day" style of "gifting" was established.Culturally, Japanese men didn't take root because they didn't have much habit of giving gifts to women, so it gradually became popular when they changed to the catch phrase of giving gifts from women to men.It is said that it was a successful sales battle through planning and advertising of confectionery stores, catchphrases, advertising methods, and tagging with department stores.In addition, it is one theory that I first devised and practiced that it would be better to give chocolate on Valentine's Day.OtaConfectionery companyMary chocolate company OfKunio HaraTo be..At that time, Hara is said to have attached a catch phrase, "Once a year, a day when women can confide their love."It spread by word of mouth and reported by the media.In her book, Hara said, "In 1958, when I was a student at the time,ParisA postcard arrived in the cold from a senior of a trading company man who lives in Japan.The postcard said, "Here (Paris), there is a custom of giving chocolates, flowers, cards, etc. to each other as" Valentine "."I was quick and confused about the "chocolate" part of the text, and inadvertently misunderstood the meaning of "Europe gives chocolate to men who like women." ".
The event allegedly held by Kunio Hara was in 1958 (Showa 33), whileKobeMorozoff confectionery more than 20 years ago1936/(Showa 11）May 2In the English newspaper "The Japan Advertiser" for foreigners, a copy advertisement "Let's give chocolate to your Valentine (= loved one)" has already been posted, and Morozoff Confectionery The theory that is said to be the first inventor of Valentine's chocolate is the most influential.
AndJapan Chocolate and Cocoa Associationaccording to,1992/In (4), a statue of love was sent from Terni, Italy, the place of martyrdom of St. Valentine, to Kobe, because "I knew that Kobe was the birthplace of Valentine's Day in Japan." Is.
In Japan, as a confession of love to men who women want to approachFavorite chocolateThere is a habit of giving.
Western Europe-米 国But to my lover and those who took care of me,チ ョ コ レ ー トHowever, it is not limited to chocolate, nor is it limited to Valentine's Day.The fact that most women give gifts to men and that most of the gifts are "limited to chocolate" are the major characteristics of Valentine's Day in Japan.But in 2017,Favorite chocolateRegardless ofク ッ キ ー,cake, Some people gave mufflers and so on.
Also, "I will not go to my lover, but as a friend"Chocolate in law, "Friend chocolate" that is given to each other by the same sex (mainly women), "Reverse chocolate" that men give to women, "Self chocolate" that men buy and eat by themselves, "Strong enemy" that men send to male friends You can also see "(tomo) chocolate".
The features of "Japanese Valentine's Day" are summarized in the following three points..
- For giftsチ ョ コ レ ー トIs important
- FemaleからMaleOne way toGiftThe point that is
- Perceived as an opportunity to express affection (for women)
In addition, there is a strong habit of giving gifts in the workplace.[† 1]Andキ リ ス ト 教The point that the direct relationship with is hardly conscious[† 2]Is also a feature of Japanese Valentine's Day.
Origin and twists and turns
The origins of the history of Valentine's Day and chocolate in Japan are as follows, but it is not clear.
- Kobe Morozoff Confectionery (currentlyMorozov) Theory
- Was published in TokyoEnglish newspaper"The Japan Advertiser"1936/May 2In addition, the company emphasizes the placement of advertisements. It was a copy advertisement saying "Let's give chocolate to your Valentine (= loved one)"[† 3]..The oldest known "Chocolate for Valentine's Day" ad.
- In addition, at the nearest station where the main store of Morozoff wasHanshin Mikage StationThe square on the south side was developed as "Valentine's Square" in 2013, and is considered to be a place related to St. Valentine.TerniObtained "certification" from the city.
- Mary chocolate company & IsetanTheory
- The theory emphasizes that the company launched a campaign called "Valentine Sale" at the Isetan Shinjuku Main Store in February 1958.
- Morinaga ConfectioneryTheory,IsetanTheory
- 1960/Morinaga & Co. put out a newspaper advertisement saying "Let's give chocolate to a loved one", and Isetan added1965/There is a theory that a Valentine's Day fair was held in Tokyo, which triggered the spread of Valentine's Day..
- However, ads with the words "Valentine's Day"1956/ OfSeibu Department Store,MatsuyaNewspaper advertisement,1959/ OfMatsuzakayaIsetan is not the first in the department store industry, as it appears in newspaper advertisements.
- Sony PlazaTheory
- SonyFounder'sAkio MoritaIt is,1968/"We made Valentine's Day in Japan" because Sony Plaza, a store specializing in imported miscellaneous goods, tried to make chocolate gifts popular..
However, in any case, there was not a big response immediately, and it seems that the product did not sell well.[† 4]..There are various theories, but it seems that exaggeration is also included because it was claimed for in-house promotion after Valentine's Day became popular in Japanese society.
GenerallyShowaIn the 30s, there was still no awareness that "Valentine's Day gifts are chocolate."According to a Valentine's Day newspaper ad at the time, chocolate did not appear in the gifts recommended for purchase.Even in the Morinaga & Co. advertisement, chocolate was positioned as a gift gift.In the 1960 Morinaga newspaper advertisement, which is considered to be one of the origins of Valentine's Day, "Chocolate is attached" instead of "Chocolate gift day"letterEtc.) was written as "day to give".Women were not the only ones to give gifts on Valentine's Day.
However, the point of "love day" was emphasized.It was a couple's day, and in the light of the common wisdom of the time,MatchmakingbymarriageDating on the premise ofLove marriageIs a social minority and does not presuppose marriageloveAnd unmarried minors (19 years old or younger) were unexpected.However, chocolate sales did not grow significantly while such manufacturers continued to speculate.
Establishing and developing in Japanese society
Although each department store was trying to popularize Valentine's Day, it did not take root easily, and the number of customers decreased after peaking in 1968, and there was a view that it would be difficult to settle in Japan.But,Oil shock(1973)High economic growthIn the early 1970s, when the end of the year, chocolate sales surged...It is said that the retail industry, which was suffering from the recession caused by the oil crisis, marketed more aggressively, and in the 1970s, Japanese capitalism was almost completed and matured.Consumer societyIt also coincides with the time when it became.Gifting chocolate on Valentine's Day isprimary schoolFrom the upper gradesA high school studentIt is said that it spread from the student class up to.1980 eraGive to husband, father, father-in-law in the second halfHousewifeIt has spread to the layers.Also popular idolAnd athletesIn some cases, chocolate is given to the game development department and characters.Later, such an act was "pushed"[† 5]Came to be called "chocolate"..The gifted chocolateFood bankIn some cases donated to.
As mentioned in the previous section, the gifts were not limited to chocolate at the beginning, nor were they from girls who were not dating to boys to boys.There is no doubt that commercial activities played a role in the spread of Valentine's Day, but it has been pointed out that there are factors that were easily accepted by Japanese society and factors that were not...What is now generally perceived as "Valentine's Day is a conspiracy in the chocolate industry"[† 6]Contrary to this, it has been pointed out that in the process of establishing Valentine's Day, there was a leading choice of high school students from the upper grades of elementary school.
Giri Choco and White Day
1970 eraAround the second half, girls put their affection on boysFavorite chocolateWhen the "Japanese Valentine's Day" of giving gifts became established in Japanese society, a custom unique to Japan emerged. Introduced in the first half of 1980White DayとChocolate in lawIs..For the origin of White Day,Fukuokaof·Ishimura ManseidoThe campaign and the concept of are attracting attention.1977/Ishimura Manseido is in return for Valentine's DaymarshmallowThe day has started.It is said that the president came up with this after looking at the posting section of a women's magazine.1979/Is said to have used the name "White Day" in collaboration with other confectionery stores.
On the other hand, according to the claim of the National Candy Industry Cooperative,1978/6At the general meeting of the union, it was decided to carry out the "White Day Campaign"1980/It is said that the first "White Day in response to love" campaign was held in Japan.And in 1, the second time, "To my favorite girlcandyThe catchphrase "Let's give" was added.1984/The 5th campaign was so successful that there was a shortage of goods in various places, and the union has designated 1984 as the year when White Day was established.
From the end of the 20th century to the 2000s
In addition to the main purpose of giving chocolates to men and confessing love to men, it is now being held by lovers who are already dating, married couples, and children, and it is given to longing men and women. The custom of giving chocolate to a person who does not have a romantic feeling, such as a case, a boss, a colleague, or just a friend, is well established, but the chocolate-in-law is1990 eraIt has been declining since the second half, From the late 2000s2010 eraThat trend continues in the first half.
In addition, the movement of "friend chocolate", in which women give chocolates to women, has become widespread since the early 2000s, and the Valentine's Day market.SalesHas become a supporter ofEspecially since the latter half of the 2000s, the market size of friend chocolate has been expanding..
In a company in a related industry that was concerned about the stagnation of chocolate sales on Valentine's Day, various developments such as conducting a campaign focusing on friend chocolate and "reverse chocolate" where men give chocolate to womenConsumption activationI'm trying..Especially for reverse chocolateMorinaga ConfectioneryIs actively developing, and as in 1960, it has been conducting a large-scale campaign since the latter half of the 2000s, and the reverse chocolate specification "Reverse dozenWe are focusing on releasing for a limited time..During this period, special venues will be set up at chocolate stores, and the types of products will diversify, so you can try them for tasting, or buy imported products and high-end products that are rare in store inventory for yourself. The number of people who do "self-chocolate" has increased since the 2000s..
There are various impressions that Japanese people have about the above customs.In recent years, awareness surveys have also been conducted.#Awareness surveySee.
The world's largest love / marriage matching site "Match.com Japan Co., Ltd.Is 2009May 2 OfPress releaseAtMay 2To愛Withoutチ ョ コ レ ー トFormallyGift"Chocolate in lawWas announced as a ban on distribution within Match.com..
Incidentally,2010/From around that time, the Japanese flower industry (mainly flower retailers) saidFlower valentineThere is a movement to form a "promotion committee" and establish Valentine's Day as "a day for men to give flowers to women."2012/In February, as the "first Mr. Flower Valentine", a former soccer representative from JapanChiura Miuraplayer(Yokohama FC, 2012) was elected and attracted a lot of attention.
In 2012,AichiAt the junior high school in Japan, the exchange of chocolate on Valentine's Day is "School rulesViolation "Club activitiesIn some cases, the activity was suspended.Aichi Prefectural Board of EducationMany protest letters to the editor have been sent to such as, and many experts and educators have said that they lack consideration...On the other hand, since Valentine is an environmental sexual harassment, experts have recently expressed the opinion that it is appropriate to ban it.
The Valentine's Day market has been shrinking since 2017.. In 2020, there was a 4% increase from the previous year,, 2021 is expected to remain at 20 billion yen, down 1050% from the previous year.
Outbreak of new coronavirus infection that occurred from the end of 2019Also influenced the way Valentine's Day should be.For example, a professional basketball teamChiba Jets FunabashiHas prohibited the insertion of food and drink since October 2020 from the viewpoint of infection prevention., Reminded on Twitter during Valentine's Day 2021..Also a game companyニ ッ ク ス ク ウ ェ ア ス · エFrom December 2020Working from homeThe system is in full swing,Emergency declarationI called on you not to give food or drink because it is difficult to receive chocolate while it is not released..
A 2016 study by Smart Answer found that the majority of men of all ages did not receive chocolate, but the majority of men who received chocolate returned White Day..
Men in their twenties and thirties have many positive opinions about giri choco, but as the age goes up, more men have a strong discomfort with giri choco... this is,spouseThis is because even men who have a sickness are forced to give presents to other women, and the money for that amount is used by their wives andchildrenIt's also very unpopular with men who want to spend their time servicing.Forcibly create a mandatory event insideChocolate in lawIs "inhumane and sneaky"Commercial lawThere are also bitter criticisms such as ".
In addition, labor lawAccording to experts, Valentine's Day, White Day, and extortion in the workplace are "environmental."Sexual harassment』It is said to be a hotbed, and there are voices pointing out the danger.It is an environmental sexual harassment because it imposes certain obligations on the grounds of gender and forces acts against the will of the person.Moreover,FemaleNot only men are victimsSexual harassmentIs.
January 2006Macro millIn the "Valentine's Day Survey," which was surveyed by the company and received responses from 10 women in their teens and 30s nationwide, 1,030% said "opportunities to express their gratitude", followed by "communication"Facilitating" (49%), "FunAnnual event"(32%) was the answer.On the contrary, only 23% of the respondents answered that it was a "mandatory event", and many people had a positive image of giri choco..
However, in February 2007, the company's "Survey on Valentine's Day", which received responses from 2 female employees aged 20 to 39, said that "it is better to have a chocolate-in-law exchange at the company." , "It is better not to have" was 515%, and there was a negative image, and the survey results showed that the negative tendency became significantly stronger as the age group of the survey age group increased..
2018/(30)May 2,Nihon Keizai ShimbunA full-page advertisement was posted in "Japan will stop chocolate-in-law."Godiva・ President Shushan of Japan said, "Whether it is a fun Valentine's Day for the giver is the most important thing. I hope you enjoy it as a day to express gratitude and affection more freely, not from a sense of duty, form or custom. I commented.
According to a survey conducted by INTAGE Inc. in January 2021, only 1% of women answered that they would prepare their favorite chocolate, a sharp decrease from the previous year...On the other hand, 24.6% of women prepare chocolate for themselves, an increase from the previous year..
Western Europe / USA
Western EuropeIn such cases, both men and womenflower,cake,cardIt is a day when various gifts such as are given to lovers and close friends.In England, the card says "From Your Valentine(From your lover) "or"Be My Valentine.(Become my lover) ".
In Western Europe and the United States, as seen in JapanWhite DayThere is no custom (which Japan devised for profit on a day that is paired with Valentine's Day).
There are various types of gifts, but the custom of giving chocolate is also19st centuryThe second half of theUnited KingdomIt started.CadburyThe second president of Richard Cadbury1868/Released a chocolate box for gifts with a beautiful picture.Around this time, Cadbury also released a heart-shaped Valentine's candy box.These chocolate boxes and the like came to be widely used as gifts for lovers on Valentine's Day, and this custom was later transmitted to other areas.[Source required]
Published in 2010Garry MarshallDirected by the American movie "バ レ ン デ ーThere is.It depicts a Valentine's Day day in Los Angeles, featuring Ashton Kutcher, Anne Hathaway, Julia Roberts, Taylor Swift, Shirley MacLaine and Jessica Alba.
SwedenIs not widely celebrated, with only 40% of men and 48% of women giving gifts to their partners.Finland,エストニアIs recognized as the day to give flowers to friends.Finland,DenmarkThen it is said that it is a day to swear love like Western Europe.
Areas where the Orthodox Church predominates
Valentinus in the Orthodox Church (Walentin)
- PriestDead personSt. Wallentin-The memory day isMay 7(Julian calendarIn the Orthodox ChurchGregorian calendar OfMay 7Equivalent to)
- HieromartyrBishopWarentin-The memory date isMay 7(In the Orthodox Church, which uses the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendarMay 8Equivalent to)
There is another St. Wallentin who died in the 3rd century, but he was not a priest but a soldier in modern Bulgaria.The memory date isMay 4(In the Orthodox Church that uses the Julian calendarMay 5Equivalent to).
For any of St. ValentinWestern EuropeThe custom of associating with a lover, which has its origins in, is not particularly practiced in the Orthodox Church.
However, although it is not celebrated within the church (Orthodox Church), it is due to commercialism.The tendency for "Valentine's Day" to spread as an event unrelated to the church also exists in areas where the Orthodox Church predominates.
CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries
People's Republic of ChinaThen "Valentine's Day(Chinrangee) ", a man becomes a lover or wiferose Of花束It is an anniversary to celebrate by giving..Lunar calendarMay 7Is also called "Tanabata Jyojinbushi" and is considered to be a similar anniversary..
Republic of ChinaSo, it is recognized as an anniversary to spend with loved ones,A dateOrHotelI often have dinner at..In recent years, under the influence of Japan, some men and women give gifts to loved ones.Therefore, White Day (White Day) is also available to give back.
It is almost the same as Japan.Valentine's Day is the day when women give chocolates to men and confess.May 3Also has a White Day for men to give back to women..Furthermore, in South KoreaMay 4Men and women without lovers gather in black clothes"Black Day"Also.
Most Saudis were unaware of the very existence of Valentine's Day until recent years, but have become generally recognized by the influx of foreign cultures.
2004/In September,Saudi ArabiaThe highest religious leaderAbdulazi's Earl-AsshaifBut banned on Valentine's DayFatwaWas issued. "Valentine's Day is a Christian festival of idolatry,AllahWorshipMuslimIs not allowed to celebrate this festival, it is the Muslim's duty to hate and deny this festival for fear of God's wrath and punishment. ".
In response to this fatwa, Saudi Arabia's religious policeCommittee for the Promotion of Virtue and Discipline"Valentine's DayIslamWe have embarked on a full-scale ban on "contrary to the teachings of" and have Valentine's Day related products removed from stores...However, despite religious bans, many people have Valentine's Day and a number of vendors sell their products.
2009/May 2ToCommittee for the Promotion of Virtue and DisciplineServe as a member ofSattam bin Abdul AzizThe prince has appeared on the Saudi Arabian national broadcast and said, "There is a maximum sentence and the death penalty for celebrating Valentine's Day," and the crackdown is heading toward intensification.[† 8](Misleading information and inappropriate citations).
- White Day
- One month after Valentine's DayMay 3Is called "White Day".It is a day when men give rewards to women, and a typical gift is chocolate.ク ッ キ ー-marshmallow-candyAnd so on.
- Orange day
- In recent years, citrus farmers haveMay 4Is called "Orange Day", and it is proposed that lovers (both men and women) give oranges to each other to confirm their affection, but as of 2020, there is almost no penetration into society.
- In the underwear industry in 1991,May 9Has been established as "Men's Valentine's Day", which is the day when men give underwear to women..
- May Storm Day
- proverb"Eighty-eight nights farewell frost88 days after Valentine's DayMay 5Is called "May Storm Day" and is the best day to start a farewell story.However, as of 2020, there is almost no penetration into society.
- As a day when women can say goodbye to menMay 9Is called "September Valentine"..To related songsYukio Sasaki"September Valentine" (Lyrics: Atsuko Saito / Composition:Yasuhiro Abe).
- Black day
- Men and women who did not receive gifts on Valentine's Day and White Day (finished unrelated to romance) gatheredZhajiangmian,black coffeeThe day to say. It will be held on April 4th.In addition, the 14th of every month is a memorial day for lovers (Unofficial Anniversary of KoreaSee).
- ^ In Japan, gifts are often given at work, but in Western Europe and the United States, there is no custom of giving gifts at work.See Yuko Ogasawara 1998.
- ^ In Japanese society, there is a recognition that Valentine's Day is a Christian event as knowledge, but in the field of Valentine's Day,ReligiousThe fact that it is a practice of faith is rarely conscious.
- ^ The full text and translation of this ad copy isHarumichi Yamada 2007It is in.
- ^ The amount of sales of Mary Chocolate's first sale at Shinjuku Isetan is unclear, but it is arguably small.Mary Chocolate Co., Ltd.'s "30th Anniversary Magazine" (1980/) Has a description of "thousands of yen" (page of St. Valentine's Day).On the other hand, Kunio Hara, who succeeded the founder's father and became the company's president, gives some different numbers in his books and interviews.For example, Asahi Shimbun 2000/May 9In the Sunday edition of the article "Chocolate Gifts, Roots are Kobe", based on an interview with Hara, "Only five XNUMX-yen chocolate bars and five four-yen cards were sold in three days." However, the original book "President should be a parent!" (2004/, Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd.) says, "The result is three chocolates, one message card, and sales of only 29 yen" (p.XNUMX).See Harumichi Yamada 2007 Note 12).
- ^ Jiji Press explains the meaning of "push" as "favorite".
- ^ According to Kenji Ishii 2005, p. 47.In the university student questionnaire survey conducted by the author, the overwhelming majority of students answered that way.
- ^ Church slavonicNotation:Valentineof,Japanese Orthodox ChurchTranscription by
- ^ Saudi law allows the death penalty to believe in other religions and to blasphemy the Islamic Wahhabists.
- ^ ""Don't decide human value by the number of chocolates" Valentine's Day crushing demonstration held in Shibuya (video)”(Japanese). Huff post (September 2017, 2). 2021/1/22Browse.
- ^ "Valentine's Day change, confession of junior high school students Nicola editor-in-chief talks (Asahi Shimbun Digital)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ Atsushi Yamakita"Hero Encyclopedia"Shinkigensha2003, p. 138.
- ^ 14th St. Valentino (Valentine) Priest Martyr Laudate Daughters of St. Paul
- ^ Kojien 2197th Edition p.XNUMX [Valentine's Day]
- ^ Yawata adult Valentine's day Team Hachi-chan
- ^ a b According to Harumichi Yamada 2007.See references.
- ^ Mainichi Newspapers 1977/May 2,Asahi Shimbun 1978/May 2
- ^ 2007/May 2 Hokkaido ShimbunFrom page 1 "Desktop Four Seasons"
- ^ a b c According to Kenji Ishii 2005.See references.
- ^ ""Seven Legends" left by Hikaru GENJI and Johnny's "strongest idol" in the history of performing arts". Weekly women PRIME. 2021/2/14Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f "Ahead of the popular character "Chocolate" Corona, for the reason of working from home". Current affairs dot com (September 2021, 2). 2021/2/14Browse.
- ^ a b Nogishi, Aki (January 2021, 1). “I can't give prosciutto this year on "FF14" Valentine's Day.Official asks you to refrain from giving food". AUTOMATONActive Gaming Media. 2021/2/14Browse.
- ^ "Cacao is Lotte" Chocolate World Chocolate History Museum Everyone loves chocolate! World chocolate culture (Internet archive）
- ^ a b c d Valentine's chocolate that is not just "favorite" and "in-law" Archived August 2011, 10, at the Wayback Machine. Nikkei BP Net 2003/May 2
- ^ Valentine's Day is now from "Giri Choco" to "Thank You Chocolate" (PJ News) Archived August 2008, 9, at the Wayback Machine. Live doorNEWS 2007/May 2
Yahoo! Research, "Survey on Valentine's Day 2010" CNET Japan 2010/May 1
Expectations for chocolate-in-law are low ... Even in Muroran, Valentine's day sales peak Archived August 2010, 12, at the Wayback Machine. Muroran Folk NewsEvening paper 2010/May 2
- ^ a b c Reverse chocolate / friend chocolate New style full of Valentine's Day circumstances [Trend terms to be worried about] Livedoor news 2009/May 2
Reward for yourself and friends chocolate Teenage Valentine's day circumstances J-CAST 2009/May 2
Valentine's day, "friend chocolate" for female friends mainstream, budget is a quarter of favorite Nikkei Woman Online 2010/May 1
- ^ Is the mainstream of Valentine's Day sales from "favorite" and "in-law" to "friend chocolate"? Diamond Online 2010/2/5
- ^ [Trend terms to be worried about] Valentine's Day, is chocolate now for women? Livedoor News February 2008, 2
- ^ (PDF) match.com February 2009, 2 Press release
- ^ Flowers for women! Kazu For the first "Mr. Flower Valentine" Sports Nippon 2012/May 2
- ^ No chocolate at school? Valentine's "violation of school rules" prohibits club activities[Broken link] Yomiuri Shimbun 2012May 3
- ^ a b "The estimated market size for "Valentine's Day" in XNUMX is about XNUMX billion yen, up about XNUMX% from the previous year.". www.kinenbilabo.jp. 2021/2/10Browse.
- ^ "The estimated market size for "Valentine's Day" in XNUMX is about XNUMX billion yen, down about XNUMX% from the previous year.". www.kinenbilabo.jp. 2021/2/10Browse.
- ^ "About fan correspondence at away venue". Chiba Jets (September 2020, 10). 2021/2/14Browse.
- ^ Smart Answer. “Does the majority of men get chocolate? Results of a Valentine's Day survey”(Japanese). Smart answer. 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ "<Survey on Valentine's Day> About half of men in their 20s and 30s answered that they want it in-law, revealing that they have high expectations for Valentine's culture in the workplace.”(Japanese). www.atpress.ne.jp. 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ "Bad habits" Giri Choco "" Valentine "Stop it". J-CAST(July 2007, 2) 2013/9/1Browse.
- ^ 2007/May 8 Yomiuri Shimbun
- ^ 
- ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2007, 2original[Broken link]More archives.2007/2/14Browse.
- ^ "Valentine "Prepare your favorite chocolate" About half of last year”. TV Asahi News. 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ "Corona's Valentine What is the difference from the usual year?”(Japanese). Intage Know Gallery. 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ June 2018, 2 Chunichi Shimbun 10 pages
- ^ "Sweden: Valentine's Day celebration traditions by gender 2016" (English). The report of Statista. 2021/1/28Browse.
- ^ "BERTA --Eesti rahvakalendri täht päeva de and mebaas". www.folklore.ee. 2021/1/28Browse.
- ^ "Valentine's Day the Scandinavian way". Skandiblog (September 2017, 2). 2021/1/28Browse.
- ^ Church Slavonic notation:ValentineTranscription by the Orthodox Church in Japan
- ^ Martyr Valentinus the Presbyter and those with him at Rome - American Orthodox Churchpage of.
- ^ Hieromartyr Valentine the Bishop of Interamna, Terni in Italy - American Orthodox Churchpage of.
- ^ Martyr Valentine in Moesia, Bulgaria - American Orthodox Churchpage of.
- ^ a b Valentine's Day in Greece
- ^ St. Valentine's Day или самый сентиментальный из не официальных праздников
- ^ a b "The price of flowers rises on Valentine's Day, why? = Chinese media (February 2019, 2)”(Japanese). Excite News. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ a b spintheearth (December 2018, 12). “What is Valentine's Day in Taiwan like? 6 interesting trivia!”(Japanese). Spin The Earth. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ "Korean White Day | Anniversary of Time | Korean Culture and Life”(Japanese). www.konest.com. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ "What kind of day is Black Day on April 4th, a mysterious anniversary of Korea? (tenki.jp supplement April 14, 2015)”(Japanese). tenki.jp. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ SPIN 1985/September 9, Volume 72, Issue 1 ISSN 5-0886 Publisher: SPIN Media LLC
- ^ 2004/May 2Riyadh newspaper
- ^ 
- ^ http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/saudi-cleric-endorses-valentine-s-day-1.2173978#.WswXHHC0RMt.twitter
- ^ "When is Men's Valentine's Day?What is the meaning, origin, and event? ――Interesting topics / recommended information center". netwadai.com. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ "New face". Kumamoto Nichinichi Shimbun Kumamoto Com 2012/5/14Browse.
- ^ Do you know "September Valentine (the day a girl breaks up with her boyfriend)? I tried to find out who said it --Peachy --Livedoor News". Live door(July 2018, 9) 2020/2/16Browse.
- ^ “Yukio Sasaki September Valentine Lyrics”. J-Lyric.net 2020/2/16Browse.
- ^ “Lyrics“ September Valentine ”Yukio Sasaki (free)”. Oricon 2020/2/16Browse.
- Valentine's day in Japan
- (Here are some references that are useful for learning about Valentine's Day in Japan. * Is referred to in this article.)
- Kazuhide Kawamata 1984 "Saint Valentine of the XNUMXth Year of the Taisho Era" PHP Institute
- Suguru Inoue 1993 "Wrapping Taisho Romance in Chocolate" Origin
- Yuko Ogasawara 1998 "OL's <Resistance>" Chuokoron-sha (Chapter 3)
- * Kenji Ishii 2005 "Japanese Year and Life" Shunjusha Publishing
- ■Yamada Haruichi 2007 "Where did" Valentine Chocolate "come from (1)" "Tokyo Keizai University Humanities and Natural Sciences" 124 (）
- List of songs related to Valentine's Day
- Chocolate allergy ――Chocolate every year during Valentine's DayAllergiesByatopicIt is sometimes called "Valentine's Day Syndrome" because the number of patients who come to the hospital due to exacerbation of the disease increases rapidly.
- Van Allen belt ――Because the sound of words is similar to Valentine's DaypunIs said as.
- St. Valentine's Day Massacre - 1929/May 2In usaChicagoA gangster conflict in.
- Blood valentine
- Favorite chocolate
- Chocolate in law
- White Day
- Japan Chocolate and Cocoa Association