[New York Travel Encyclopedia 10] Stylish lady "Chrysler Building" standing in the night sky
If you write the contents roughly
It is said that the high-rise building, which was a famous landmark but had only offices and residences, is now planning to be reborn as a commercial building including restaurants, food halls and hotels.
New York, USA.Even if you haven't visited, you've probably heard of it.But where is it actually?degree… → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Skyscraper(Architecture) isHigh-rise buildingEspecially expensiveBuilding.SkyscraperAlso known as (chokouso building) (hereinafter, "skyscraper" is used).There is no unified and clear standard for how tall a building is called a skyscraper (#Definitionreference).
What height and number of floorsBuildingThere is no unified and clear definition as to whether to call a skyscraper.
Although the term "super high rise" is not used in Japanese law,Building Standards LawArticle 20 No. 1 sets different structural standards for buildings with a height of more than 60 m, and buildings with a height of 60 m or more are sometimes called skyscrapers...In addition, Shinjuku Ward, which is famous for having skyscrapers, is the "Shinjuku Ward Landscape Formation Guidelines".However, the target of the "Guidelines for landscape formation of skyscrapers" is also "buildings with a height of more than 60 m"... furtherAviation lawEven in Article 51, for properties with a height of 60 m or moreAviation obstruction lightsIs obligatory to install.
In the case of Japan, for example, "Kojien], "15th floor and above, or 100mBuildings with higher heights are often called skyscrapers. "..Assuming that the floor height is 3-4m, the 15th floor is 45-60m, and there is a big difference in height between the 15th floor and above and 100m and above.To give an example of another book
|Mypedia||平凡 社||100m or more|
|Architectural Encyclopedia||Shokokusha||100m or more or 15th floor or more|
|Architectural Glossary||Architectural Institute of Japan||About 15th floor and above|
When,100m-About 15th floorAnd the value differs depending on the book.
United KingdomSkyscrapernews.com is 150m high (500)ft) The above buildings are skyscrapers (skyscraper)..Also, a supertall building (supertall tower) of 300m or more (up to 1,000m or less), or simply supertall (Super Thor) May be called.
Buildings with a height of more than 1,000 mHyper buildingCalled (Skyscraper, Skyscraper),Saudi Arabia OfJeddahUnder construction (Kingdom tower). 167 stories high about 1,008m (spiers height),2020/Is scheduled to be completed, and if completed, it is expected to become the world's first hyperbuilding.
In generalSkyscraperCalledSkyscraper(Matenro, meaning "high tower that rubs the heavens", English translation).EnglishThen skyscraper (Skyscraper, "Shaving the sky"), Tower (tower,塔"), Spire (Spire, Also known as "spiers").
Home Insurance BuildingIs generally recognized as the first skyscraper to use a refractory metal skeleton on both the exterior and interior...The building was completed in 1884 and demolished in 1931.
The tallest skyscraper in the world has been around for over 50 yearsAmericaThe building was occupied, but in recent yearsAsiaWith the development of the economic power of each country, it has handed over its position.
Significance of architecture
Skyscrapers often have huge demand capacities, depending on their size.RedevelopmentWhen planning a project, skyscrapers are often adopted as buildings to be built on the site after land readjustment.
Professor Edward Glazer and others argue that skyscrapers enable economic innovation and people interaction..
As a case where a skyscraper is builtReal estateBusinesses on high-priced landinvestmentWhen trying to recover investment funds, if you want to build a multi-story building to earn profits, resulting in a skyscraper, or if you want a large capacity in a limited land, land And cities, countries, etc.Landmark(symbol) For example.In addition, skyscrapers often have a height that is extracted from the surrounding area, which has a large impact on the surrounding area.So expensivedesignSkyscrapers with sex use the area, the building owner, and the buildingtenantHowever, if the building is not accepted from the surrounding area, it may be requested to correct it at the planning stage, or to revise the plan or injunction the building.LawsuitMay be raised.
Historical area (京都,Nara,TokyoSensoji TempleEspecially in Japan, there are many cases of lawsuits and opposition movements that "do not bring convenience to the surrounding area" against the tower condominium plan that is taller than the existing housing...It was also an early site for skyscrapers.Modernism architectureIs often dismantled and redeveloped, and supporters of classical modernism have begun to oppose it..
EarthquakeAnd wind pressure measures (Seismic structure) Is "in a conventional buildingRigid structureThere has been a demand for a structure that can withstand earthquakes and wind pressure (it can be compared to a person stepping on his legs in a running train to withstand shaking), but in a skyscraper, a building that can withstand the shaking and wind pressure of an earthquake to some extent is required. Entrust"Flexible structureIs the architecture of.
Furthermore, in the skyscrapers constructed these days, hydraulic devices (hydraulic dampers) are attached to the foundation, low yield point steel is sandwiched between the pillars (vibration control pillars), and the upper part of the building.Damperと 呼 ば れ るWeightMethods such as attaching to reduce shaking (both)Seismic control structure) Is adopted.
In addition, a method of separating the foundation from the upper building and mediating laminated rubber and bearings between the structures to allow the rolling itself to escape (Seismic isolation structure) Has also been developed.The seismic isolation structure is also effective for aging buildings constructed according to old structural standards, and there is even a seismic isolation retrofit (improvement, retrofit) construction method.However, since this method basically cuts pillars, jacks them up, and then attaches laminated rubber and bearings, the first floor is hollow (parking lot, bicycle parking lot, etc.) and a sufficient site can be secured. It is a condition that the burden of weight does not exceed a certain level.
Resonance with long-period ground motion
In general, the taller a building, the moreNatural vibration OfcycleBecomes longer..Therefore, in skyscrapers, it is not a problem in low-rise buildings due to a huge subduction-zone earthquake.Long-period ground motionThe possibility of resonance with.
Examples of long-period ground motion in skyscrapers
2011/3/11Occurred inTohoku-Pacific Ocean EarthquakeTo the whole area of eastern JapanLong-period ground motionThere has occurred.At this time, in the 23 wards of Tokyo, long-period ground motion class 4 was observed, andShinjukuNishi-ShinjukuThe skyscrapers in Japan were photographed as they swayed due to long-period ground motion..
Of a skyscraperDismantlingIn addition, the method of gradually demolishing from the top (crushing method), which is used for general buildings, is difficult because it is forced to work in high places.Therefore, in Europe and the United StatesDestruction and dismantlingIs mainly used, but in Japan, due to the handling of gunpowder, related legal and regulatory issues, and the concentration of buildings, the method of dismantling the construction in order from the top so as to reverse the construction, Using a jackDaruma doll dropHow to disassemble in order from the bottom likeEtc. are often adopted.Akasaka Prince Hotel,Resona Maruha BuildingIn the dismantling of, "Tekorep system" by Taisei CorporationIt was done by a method called dismantling in order.
Skyscrapers of each country
The United States is a pioneer of skyscrapers in the world, and many of the big cities are populated with skyscrapers.In particularChicago,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Los AngelesIn, many skyscrapers are densely packed, so it is not sunny on the ground.
Also, nowadaysSan Francisco,Seattle,Minneapolis,Houston,Dallas,Detroit,Cleveland,Pittsburgh,Duffel Bag,Philadelphia,シ ャ ー ロ ッ ト,Atlanta,MiamiSkyscrapers can be seen in major cities in the United States.Also in medium-sized and smaller citiesIowaDes Moines801 Grand (801 Large),AlabamaMobilRSA Battle House Tower (RSA Battle House Tower),New York StateAlbanyErastus Corning Tower (Erastus Corning Tower), There are some cities where skyscrapers are built.
In Chicago, where skyscrapers originated,the 1890sSince then, New York has been deprived of the number one position in the world in the height battle for buildings.[Annotation 1], America's leading GMS (General Merchandise Store) chain,SearsAt the headquarters ofSOMDesignモ ダ ニ ズ ムArchitectureSears Tower(442.3m, nowWillis Tower)But1973/When it was completed, it regained the number one spot in the world from New York.
2013/IsAmerican terrorist attacksCollapsed inWorld Trade CenterOn the site of (528m)1 World Trade Center(541m) was rebuilt to become the tallest building in the United States and the third tallest building in the world.
the 1960sUntil then, the construction of skyscrapers was mainly in the United States, butAsiaWith the economic development of the region, the number of skyscrapers has gradually increased in Asia.JapaneseKasumigaseki Building(147m,TokyoChiyoda) AndKobe Shoko Trade Center Building(107m,HyogoKobe City),World Trade Center Building(162.6m, TokyoMinato-ku)Including,Hong Kong OfJardine House(Jerdine House: Daisuke Yawa, 178.5m),Singaporeof(OCBC Bank, Overseas Chinese Banking Corp Center: 201m), etc. are the early ones.Currently, construction of skyscrapers is progressing mainly in China, South Korea, and the UAE, where economic development is remarkable.
in Japanthe 1970sからthe 1980sThe construction of skyscrapers began in earnest, and the first one was in Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo.KakuhakuDistrict (currently:Nishi-Shinjuku) InYodobashi water purification plantSkyscrapers constructed by redevelopment (Shinjuku Fukutoshin),OsakaKita Ward, Osaka CitySkyscrapers (Umeda), At the time of completionEast AsiaTokyo became the tallest building in TokyoToshimaHigashiikebukuro OfSunshine 60(240m) and so on.
In Japan, in OsakaAbeno Harukasu(300m) and YokohamaYokohama Landmark TowerMany buildings over 296m have been built in Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, etc., starting with (250m).2027/In degreesTokyoChiyoda390m in heightTorch towerIs scheduled to be completed.
South Korea is one of the most popular nations in the world for skyscrapers, and has the fourth largest number of skyscrapers over 250m in the world after China and the United Arab Emirates. In 198563 BuildingIs completed, JapanSunshine 60It became the tallest building in Asia at that time.A major Korean construction company has received orders for the construction of skyscrapers in each country, such as the construction of Burju Harifa as an interstate project with the UAE, and has world-class high-rise building construction technology and know-how.
North Korea's largest cityPyongyangThen, the construction rush has been steadily progressing since XNUMX, and the Future Scientist Street and the center of Pyongyang areRyugyong HotelSkyscrapers are standing around the core.
Currently, the tallest skyscraper in Taiwan isTaiwan OfTaipei City Xinyi DistrictTo2004/Completed inTaipei 101(Taipei 101, formerly known as Taipei International Financial Center: Taipei International Financial Center), height 509.2m, 101 stories above ground, designedLi ZuyuanArchitects, construction centered on Kumagai GumiJV(Joint venture).In the lower layer2003/It has a shopping mall that opened in advance.Installed in this buildingToshiba elevatorDirect high speed to the observatoryElevatorThe speed ofMitsubishi ElectricBeyond that of the Yokohama Landmark Tower made byThe fastest elevator in the world(After that,2016/ToShanghai TowerMitsubishi Electric's elevator has set the world's fastest record).
Taiwan's second largest skyscraper1997/Completed inKaohsiung City OfKaohsiung 85 Building(Tuntex 85 Sky Tower, 85m), the same design as the Taipei 378, Chu-yuan Lee Building Office.It was the tallest building in Taiwan until Taipei 101 was completed.The height of the Kaohsiung 101 Building is currently the 85th in the world.
In China,1978/Begins withChinese Communist Party OfDeng XiaopingIs directed byReform and opening upDepending on the route1980/ToSpecial Economic Zone 深圳,Zhuhai,Shantou,Xiamen(laterHainan) Was set.afterwards1984/ToEconomic and technical development zoneIs set in 14 cities in the waterfront, and this movementShanghai,GuangzhouWhen big cities such as these are added, we see remarkable development of various cities from the inflow of foreign capital.and,Chinese economyWith the development ofTianjin,Chongqing,Changchun,Qingdao,Dalian,Chengdu,Wuhan,Shenyang, Many skyscrapers have been built in cities such as Xiamen.
SingaporeThen,1965/ToMalaysian FederationAfter becoming independent fromLee Kuan YewWith the Prime MinisterPeople's Action PartyHas an authoritarian dictatorship, these areDevelopment dictatorshipWas told.Although it will be a thoroughly managed society, the economy will continue to grow significantly.Among them, in the center located in the southern part of SingaporeRaffles PlaceMany skyscrapers will be built in.Among these,Kenzo TangeDesignOUB Center(Overseas Union Bank Center: 280.1m)UOB Plaza(United Overseas Bank Plaza One: 280.1m), againKisho KurokawaDesignRepublic Plaza(Republic Plaza: 280.1m) is a skyscraper that represents Singapore.2006/IsKPFThe designed One Raffles Quay North Tower (245.1m) has been completed.
MalaysiaThe capital ofKuala LumpurThen,Mahathir Bin Mohammad"By the former Prime MinisterLook East PolicyDue to economic policies such as ", Malaysia's economy has grown dramatically.capital·Kuala LumpurIn the redevelopment area "KLCC"1998/In addition, it was the tallest skyscraper in the world at that time.Caesar PeriDesign, Japanese second-tier general contractorHazamaOf constructionPetronas Twin Towers(Petronas Towers: 452m) completed, this building is a state-owned oil companyPetronasWas built by.Petronas Twin Towers alreadyTaiwan OfTaipeiAlthough overtaken by the Taipei International Financial Center in Taipei, it is still the tallest twin tower in the world.
Middle EastInvested as a logistics and financial base for economic developmentUnited Arab Emirates(UAE)DubaiIn recent years, many skyscrapers have been planted.2010/Is the tallest skyscraper in the worldBurj KhalifaWas completed.
Burj Khalifa (formerly known as "Burj Dubai") has an eave height of 643.3m, an antenna height of 828m, and the 162nd floor.Mohammed bin Rashid Earl McTum4, just the fourth year since he took office as Prime Minister1/4Completed in (local time), it has become the tallest building in the world, including the building currently under construction as of 2012..
EuropeIt was rare because of the policy of protecting historic buildings, but it became acceptable as modern architecture moved away from box-like design to unique design, and in the 21st century, skyscrapers Construction is remarkable.. Especially,United Kingdom OfUKAndFrance OfParisAndItaly OfMilan,Germany OfBerlin,Frankfurt,Russia OfMoscowThe movement is becoming more active.
In Europe, where historic landscapes are important, there is not much construction of skyscrapers originally, with the exception ofSecond World WarWas destroyed inGermany OfFrankfurtAs a means of supplying offices when developing as a financial center in Germany and EuropeDeutsche Bank,Commerz BankSeveral 200m class skyscrapers were constructed.The corner where the skyscraper is builtMain RiverIt is a coined word that combines Manhattan with "Mainhattan".In Paris, in order to supplement the demand for offices in the city, the new city center "Défence" in the suburbsLa Defense(La Défense) ”was created, and in London,“Canary wharfA new city center called "Canary Wharf" was created.
At present, there are few examples of skyscrapers being built in small and medium-sized cities.However, the supply of real estate by traditional architecture in European cities has reached its limit, and the construction of central skyscrapers is beginning to be tolerated.
oldSoviet UnionThe capital ofMoscowBut in the middle of the 20th centurySocialismAiming for the effect of raising national prestige under the systemStalinist styleSkyscraper was built.the 1930sからthe 1940sOverSoviet palaceMany huge buildings were planned, includingMoscow State UniversityIt cannot be said that there are many things that have been realized, such as (240m), in terms of the number of plans, and most of the things that were planned ended up being just drafted.StalinHas been discontinued after his death.But of the Soviet UnionSatellite country,mainlyEastern EuropeIt also had a great influence on the architectural styles of each country.
In addition, the 1920sPlanned from the early 1930s, before the establishment of the Stalinist style (Vladimir TatlinThe Third International Memorial Tower (400m in height, etc.) was also a novel design at that time, so many of the world's建築 家Affected.The Soviet architectural world itself during this periodLe CorbusierAt that time, he was greatly devoted to the ideas of architects who were at the forefront.
the 2000sWith the economic development of Russia (especially the development centered on the export of natural resources such as oil), the construction and planning of skyscrapers are progressing in Moscow.In particular2003/A high-rise condominium that imitates the Stalinist style completed inTriumph Palace(264.1m) isFrankfurt OfCommerz BankIt was the tallest in Europe, overtaking the building (259m).
the 1990sFrom the first halfMoskva riverAlongMoscow International Business CenterPlan "(MIBC,Moscow city) Is underway, and the skyscraper that is currently the tallest building in Europe is Moscow City.Federation Tower(374m).Another 354mAROUNDOr 338mMercury City TowerAnd 308m Eurasia Tower and other buildings are lined up.The Russian Tower, which was supposed to be the largest building when completed, was canceled due to the effects of the economic crisis and the delay in construction compared to other buildings.On the site trace,ru: Renaissance Moscow Towers There is a plan to build a twin tower. Two buildings, 335m (74th floor) and 290m (63rd floor), are planned.
また2018/In the suburbs of St. PetersburgLakhta CenterA complex facility consisting of five buildings and structures, of which the skyscraper is 5 m high, is the tallest in Europe and Russia.BuildingIt became.
UKFormer harbor site in the eastern part of the cityDocklandsThe (Docklands) district has been redeveloped and "Canary wharfIt became a new city center called "Canary Wharf", and skyscraper office buildings were built one after another by the London Docklands Redevelopment Corporation (LDDC).It was the highest in the UK at the time of completionCaesar PeriDesignOne Canada Square(One Canada Square: 235.1m) ”and othersNorman Foster(Sir Norman Foster) Designed by SirHong Kong Shanghai Bank(HSBC, the name of the company building is "8 Canada Square": 199.5m) and designed by Caesar PelliCitibankTo a skyscraper such as (the name of the company building is "25 Canada Square": 199.5m), in the centerCity of LondonThe financial institution has relocated its headquarters from.
In the City of London, lined with historic buildingsSt Paul's CathedralThere was an unwritten rule that buildings higher than (111m) should not be built,1965/It was torn by the post office tower (currently BT Tower, 188m) built in.afterwards,the 1980sDue to the stagnation of the British economy up to, there was a call for skyscrapers, and the NatWest Tower (NatWest Tower)1993/IRA ProvisionalExploded by, now refurbished and "Tower 42”) And several skyscrapers beyond the cathedral were built.alsoLloydsInsuranceHigh tech architectureIt was rebuilt into a skyscraper, but many skyscraper projects have been canceled due to the landscape to this day.The exception to this was the realization.1992/Historical architecture, which was blown up by the IRABaltic ExchangeDesigned by Norman Foster, built on the site ofSwiss Li Headquarters Building(Also known as "Gherkin").2012/IsRenzo PianoTrigonal pyramidal skyscraper by design,The Shard London Bridge(London Bridge Tower, height 310m, 87 stories)River ThamesCompleted on the south side.
In future plans, in the City of LondonKPFThe design spiral skyscraper (height 288m, 63 stories) has been approved for construction after changing the original plan with a height of 307m.
UnificationGermanyIs being revived as the new capital ofBerlinHigh-rise or skyscrapers are beginning to be built. "Potsdamer Platz"It is inHelmut JahnDesignSony CenterAndRenzo Piano(Renzo Piano) DesignedDaimlerTypical examples are Daimler City, as well as the Mitte district.Zoo Station(Zoologischer Garten) Skyscrapers are also used during redevelopment around (Zoologischer Garten).
In frankfurtCommerz Bank,Deutsche Bank,Messe TowerSkyscrapers over 200m have been constructed.So far, the only skyscrapers in Germany that can be seen are in Frankfurt, which runs through the city.Main RiverThere is a coined word "Mainhattan" that combines Manhattan and Manhattan.
ParisThen, due to redevelopment from the latter half of the 1960s, at the southern end of the cityMontparnasse StationWas dismantled and on the siteTour Montparnasse(210m) was completed and the skyscraper of the building started.After that, it was prohibited to build skyscrapers in the city center,the 1980s OfMitterrandBy the presidentPostmodern architectureAnd high-tech architecture was supplied and changed the appearance of the city.At the same time,Etoile Arc de TriomphePass throughParis history axisOn the extension of the city, in the western suburbs of the cityLa DefenseInternational conference hall in the districtGrand DarcheIncluding, skyscrapers of large companies representing France and foreign-affiliated companies were built one after another.New skyscrapers will continue to be built in the future.
Along the north-south route through the capital Madrid, there was a plan to create a large-scale business area and government office district during the Franco administration immediately after World War II.this isthe 1970sAfter that, it bears fruit,Torre PicassoBuildings with a height of around 157m, including (100m), lined up.
Entering the 2000s at the northern end of Castellana StreetCuatro Torres Business AreaA redevelopment area called (CTBA) was created, and four buildings with a height of about 250m, which is one of the tallest in Europe, were lined up.
Transition of the tallest building in the world
- Excludes spire and antenna. (The "roof" in the table is the height that does not include the spire and antenna. The "spier" is the height that includes them.)
- The table excludes pyramids and churches.The following is a record when they are included.
- everyBuildingAnd the transition of the highest height in the world is "Transition of the tallest building in the worldSee.
Current height ranking
- Ranking of height including spire and antenna. (The "roof" in the table is the height that does not include the spire and antenna. The "spier" is the height that includes them.)
- Excludes buildings under construction.
|Ranking||image||Name||Country / Region||city||roof||Spire||Rank||Year of completion|
|1 bit||Burj Khalifa||UAE||Dubai||636.0m||828.0m||168 floor||2010/|
|2 bit||Shanghai Tower||Chugoku||Shanghai||565.6m||632.0m||128 floor||2016/|
|3 bit||Abraj Al Bait Towers||Saudi Arabia||Mecca||530.0m||601.0m||095 floor||2011/|
|4 bit||Ping An International Financial Center||Chugoku||深圳||555.1m||599.1m||115 floor||2017/|
|5 bit||Lotte World Tower||South Korea||Seoul||497.6m||555.7m||123 floor||2017/|
|6 bit||1 World Trade Center||The United States of America||ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク||417m||541.3m||108 floor||2014/|
|7 bit||CTF Finance Center||Chugoku||Guangzhou||496m||530m||111 floor||2016/|
|8 bit||Tianjin CTF Financial Center||Chugoku||Tianjin||439m||530m||97 floor||2019/|
|9 bit||Chinese Zun||Chugoku||Beijing||515m||528m||109 floor||2018/|
|10 bit||Willis Tower|
(Formerly Sears Tower)
|The United States of America||Chicago||442.1m||527.0m||110 floor||1974/|
|11 bit||Taipei 101||Republic of China(Taiwan）||Taipei||449.2m||509.2m||101 floor||2004/|
A particularly tall skyscraper under construction
- Wuhan Greenland Center
- ChugokuWuhanA 126-story 475m (spiers high) skyscraper under construction.The completion date is undecided.
- Jeddah Tower
- Saudi Arabia OfJeddah167 stories under construction at 1007m (spier height)Hyper building(Skyscraper). Scheduled to be completed in 2021.
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ Evaluation of skyscrapers, seismic isolated buildings and structures --Japan Building Research Institute[Broken link]
- ^ (PDF) - Okayama
- ^ Broadcast on Sunday, May 2013, 5 Why can't skyscrapers collapse? --Lab Radio -NHK
- ^ Shinjuku City Landscape Formation Guidelines Shinjuku
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ a b Kojien XNUMXth Edition (Iwanami Shoten,1998/,ISBN 4000801112）
- ^ Showa Mainichi: April 43, 4 Completion of Kasumigaseki Building, Japan's first skyscraper - Daily jp(Mainichi Newspapers）
- ^ Article --1244 --Huge New Rogers Skyscraper Proposed(English)
- ^ Home Insurance Building, Chicago / XNUMX.com
- ^ "How Skyscrapers Can Save the City”. The Atlantic (March 2011). 2017/12/21Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. National network for landscape and living environment (2011). 2017/12/21Browse.
- ^ "Architecture to be left: What did modernist architecture seek?" (Seibundo Shinkosha) --Author: Hiroshi Matsukuma --Book Review by Ryuichiro Matsubara | Favorite book reviewer, book review to read. ALL REVIEWS
- ^ "Vietnam promotes energy conservation in high-rise buildings Issues such as the establishment of greenhouse gas reduction laws”. SankeiBiz (February 2017, 1). 2017/12/21Browse.
- ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.33
- ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.37
- ^ a b c Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.36
- ^ (PDF) 2011/11/14 Japanese Meteorological Agency.
- ^ Characteristics of long-period ground motion in the Tokyo metropolitan area and its surrounding areas using the mainshock records and aftershock records of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) Proceedings of the Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering Vol.12 (2012) No.5 Special Issue "2011 Great East Japan Earthquake" Part 2 p.5_102-5_116
- ^ https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=aTu6Ukd-YlA Disaster prevention and mitigation science Big city threat Long-period ground motion
- ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.82
- ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.83
- ^ Taisei Corporation> Company Information> Press Releases> 2010
- ^ Dubai renamed to "Khalifa Tower", the world's largest building - 47NEWS 2010/1/5
- ^ Why Europe Doesn't Build Skyscrapers The B1M
- Taisei "Skyscraper" Research Project Team, 2009, "Science the "why" of skyscrapers』First edition, Ark Publishing ISBN 978-4-86059-076-5
- Thomas van Leeuwen /Riichi Miyake＋ Toshiko Kinoshita = Translation, 2006, "Skyscrapers and American Desires: New York Dreaming of Babylon", Kosakusha ISBN 978-4-87502-397-5
- List of skyscrapers
- List of super high-rise building terms
- List of the number of skyscrapers in cities around the world
- High-rise apartment
- List of high-rise hotels in the world
- One-story house - Low-rise building - Medium-rise building - High-rise building - Skyscraper - Hyper building(Skyscraper)
- Tower of Babel
- Stairs vertical marathon