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Wikipedia related words
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- (Narrow sense) Visit other countries and regions,Everyday Life-Historic site・ Seeing and seeing featuresExperienceWhat to do.. (If you want to specify this meaning, "Sightseeing behavior")
- (General meaning) General travel for fun.. (General meaning of "sightseeing". In this sense, "sightseeing tripIt is also said. )
- (Broad definition) Tourism behavior by people and social phenomena including related events.. (Somewhat rare usage. If you want to specify this meaning, "Tourism phenomenon")
Transition of concept, term (narrow sense / broad sense)
Originally "everydayLifeCan't seeEveryday Life-Customs-CustomLook aroundTravelHowever, as travel becomes safer and more comfortable, it is becoming more widely used as a general term for "travel for fun.".
Today, the very general meaning of "sightseeing" (that is, "sightseeing" as a term for "tourism behavior (by people)") is "to help people distract, rest and spread their views (*), in their daily lives. It is a leisure activity that comes into contact with culture and nature that cannot be experienced. ".
- (*) "For" isthe purposeIt is an expression indicating, and this is appropriate and safe as a general definition sentence.However, as a supplementary explanation, although it is a part of tourism,Dark tourismlike"悲 し みIt may be motivated by focusing on emotions, that is, it may not be for simple entertainment...Also, in the past, there were many types of tourism that simply "see" and "listen", but in recent decadesNew tourismThe term / concept has come to be used (not just a journey to "see" or "listen" to something).ExperienceA trip that emphasizes..In other words, tourism that actually does something by moving one's body is becoming widespread.
In a broad sense (rarely), the term "sightseeing" is a social phenomenon caused by "people's tourism behavior."Also points.In other words, in addition to "sightseeing behavior" by people, it may also refer to "sightseeing phenomenon" as a social phenomenon including various events related to it... (If you want to clarify this special meaning, it is called "sightseeing phenomenon" from the beginning.)
Sightseeing and tourism
Sightseeing (Site seeing) is a highly relevant English language.British: sightseeing)WhenTourism(British: tourism), But as will be described later, it does not correspond completely because the etymology is different from the Japanese word "sightseeing"..
Sightseeing is "Activities to visit local sights"Is defined as.It is said that it has a high affinity with the concept of tourism in Japan., It only refers to something in a very narrow senseToday's tourism form is more than just a sightseeing tourIt is hard to say that it covers all.
English tourism (British: tourism) Is "to visit a place of interestCommercial organization and operationsIs defined as.English tourPotter's wheelThe Latin word turnas (meaningLuo: tornus) Is the etymology, and since it is a term that was born as a term that refers to traveling around various places (tour trip), there is an aspect that emphasizes the mode of travel rather than the content and purpose, and the coloring of commercialism is Being strong..Therefore, English tourism is a different concept from Japanese "sightseeing", so Japanese "sightseeing" is changed to English.翻 訳When doing so, it is often translated as leisure travel without using toursim.
Meanwhile, in FrenchBuddha: tourism(Katakana notation is TurismAnd tourismEtc.) is defined as "traveling or visiting places for fun"It can be said that it is close to the concept of tourism in Japan.
(English and French have flowed into Japanese, and words of both originsForeign wordsBecause it is used as a foreign word, it is confusing because it depends on the person whether the loan word "tourism" is actually used in the meaning derived from English or the meaning derived from French.In addition, since French is borrowed in English-speaking countries, the meaning is complicated even in such a deep dimension. )
Tourism tourismSuperordinate conceptThere is also a commentary, Permanent residence at the destination, general travel that temporarily leaves the daily living area for non-commercial purposes, and related eventsSome say that all travel except commuting to work or school is tourism... (It says that it is close to the definition of French)
Opinions are divided on the definition of tourism even outside Japan, and it refers to travel in general, including business purposes.[Annotation 1],レ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ン[Annotation 2]It is roughly divided into those that are considered to be one form..
United Nations OfSpecialized institutionIsWorld Tourism OrganizationInternational organizations such as (UNWTO) are tourists (British: tourist) "A person who stayed at the visited place for one night or more for business, leisure and all other purposes for less than one year, except for the environment where the individual usually lives, employment at the visited place.Is defined as.
It is believed that in ancient times, most of the painful and dangerous journeys were made under pressure, and few were just to satisfy fun and curiosity.However, in EgyptPyramid of JesselFrom around this time, a trip with the main purpose of sightseeing has already existed, such as a graffiti that describes that the Shoki brothers were on a sightseeing trip with a date corresponding to 1244 BC from a nearby small temple. I heard that it was.Ancient greece-RomeEven inAncient olympicThere were trips to watch the game, visit the temples that worship the gods, and visit the historical sites of famous places, but their bearers were limited to the wealthy privileged class..
As one of the forms of tourism that has been practiced since ancient timesSacred placeTopilgrimageJourney..For example, in Spain from all over the worldSantiago de CompostelaHas a history of accepting pilgrims for over 1000 years.
In the early modern period,EuropeEducational trip around the country (Grand tour) Is a British aristocratGentryIt was popular in the layer.At that time, it was unsafe and on the wayPirate,robberyWas in a hurryInternational conflictIs occurring frequently, and the localprostitution,gamblingThere were many who lost their lives, but the experience gained from the trip and the careers that followed were more than compensated for the danger.. AlsoIndustrial revolutionIn line with the economic growth caused by the economy, summer stays in hot spring areas and beaches began to take place, and voluntary travel without special duties became established in the high society.These social phenomena are said to be the germ of tourism.
The word tourism first appeared in 1811.Sporting MagazineIt is said that it was the beginning that was published in..It is said that the act of observing with interest was buying intellectuals' swords, and at that time it contained derogatory nuances..
In modern times, it became popular among young people in Europe and the United States as fashion.Steam engineWith the development of marine and land transportation, destinations have spread to various parts of the world. British in the 1840sThomas Cook(Thomas Cook GroupFounder)TrainUsedパ ッ ケ ー ジ ツ ア ーIs said to be the birth of the travel industry.
History of tourism in Japan
in JapanRitsuryoku NationAfter establishmentGoki ShichidoAdministrative divisions andEkiden systemHas been introduced and people have been coming and going from ancient times through the maintained highways..
By the emeritus and aristocrats who gained wealth and power in the Middle AgesHeianjingからNanto Seven Great TemplesStarting with worshiping at shrines and temples, pilgrimages to shrines and temples began to take place..
Society became stable in the early modern periodEdo PeriodSince the middle period,Edo ShogunateAnd various clan are faith and medical care[Annotation 4]Because he allowed a trip for the purpose ofIse ShrineThe visit to is spread beyond the status,A lectureAiming for Ise as a group or as a substitute for worshipingThanksHas taken root.They gradually transformed into trips to visit famous places and enjoy eating and drinking, and were called "journeys," "travel trips," and "Yuyama."ShrineAnd various places that introduced scenic spotsFamous placeOr,Tokaido Naka Knee Chestnut HairTravel literature such as.
Appearance of the term "sightseeing"
An ancient Chinese book, "I Ching』In" Kankoku no Hikari, a guest of honor Yuou (to see the light of the country, to be a guest of the king)[Annotation 5]", And it is a well-established theory that" tourism "is an abbreviation for this...Therefore, many concepts imported from the West during the Meiji eraJapanese-made ChineseWhile it was applied and understood, the word tourism itself originated in the Orient.
The oldest confirmed use of the term "tourism" was from the Netherlands in 1855.Edo ShogunateWestern-style warship presented toSightseeing circle".It is not clear who gave the ship its name and how, but it is believed that she expressed its rarity and pride, and that it meant "showing the prestige of the country abroad."..Also, at the beginning of the Meiji eraUS and European missionsLedIwakuraIs the report, "US-Europe circulation memoir』At the beginning, it is volatile as" view "and" light "[Annotation 6]..Iwakura laterTokyo ShrineDeclined by京都As part of its economic revitalization, it is dedicating to the government to build a Western-style guesthouse and entertain foreign guests...There is also a theory that the Chinese character "Kan" has the meaning of "showing" and also means "showing the light of the country to foreign dignitaries proudly.".
Besides thisSano ClanThere are examples of use in proper nouns such as the clan school "Tourism Center" and "Tourism Company" established for the purpose of encouraging domestic products, but it is hard to say that they have become widespread as a term.[Annotation 7].
Transition of tourism
1872 yearsJapanese railway openingAfter that, in various placesTrainNetwork will expand, which will make domestic travel more popular.At that time, the words "sightseeing" and "manyu" were commonly used.[Annotation 8]. In 1886Tokyo Normal SchoolStarted a "long excursion"National Business ExpositionTogether with the holding ofSchool excursionWas promoted.. By rail in 1905KoyasanA package tour to visit IseMinami Shinsuke(Japan TravelFounder).
1893 years,Eiichi ShibusawaとTakashi MasudaFor the first time in Japan by waving the flag ofAttracting foreign guestsA private organization that worked onBritish: Welcome Society) Was established, and the purpose of the establishment was "Pleasure of travel,TourismConveniently..The guest house became the Japan Tourist Bureau in 1912.Japan Transportation CorporationIs the predecessor of.
Around 1923 and 1924, the American immigrants' visit to their homeland was widely reported in the newspaper as "Homeland Tourism Group", and it was around this time that the word tourism became generally recognized as a modern meaning. Also known as.
Hamaguchi CabinetIs the originalImperial HotelDeputy managerAtami HotelOf the ownerShore guard[Annotation 9]In response to the work ofForeign currencyIt was decided to set up an institution for the purpose of attracting foreign customers to acquire foreign customers.It was founded by Edict No. 1930 dated April 4, 24.Ministry of RailwaysExternal station "internationalTourismBureauIs..Candidates for names included the "Tourism Bureau," "International Bureau," and "Foreign Visitors Attraction Bureau," but at that timeMinister of RailwaysTsubasa EgiDetermined by..The English name is Board of Tourist IndustryIt does not use the word tourism and is not labeled as international.[Annotation 10].
The word "sightseeing" is when you unravel the original textOutboundCan be interpreted as pointing toIn this way, the pre-war "sightseeing" business was centered on inbound tourism.[Annotation 11].
"Tourism" in the sense of today, which includes domestic travel, has taken root.Mass tourismIt has been pointed out that it was after the 1960s when the..Miyazaki Bus (currentlyMiyazaki Transportation) However, it has been reported that the names were changed to "Sangu" and "Sightseeing" during and after the war, as expressions such as "scenic beauty" and "sightseeing" are associated with enjoyment..
At the beginning when it became popular with the general public, going sightseeing was a luxury and status in itself, but as tourism becomes more familiar, "where to go" and "what to do" are becoming more and more important. Become.
Tourists and their business (tourism)
Among tourists, the word tourism is a term that refers to their business, their organization, or their organization.They are pointing to themselves.In the past, it would have been better to offer bus tours like sightseeing tours, but in recent years people are not satisfied with such services, so the tourism industry in recent years has also begun to offer experiential tourism.
- Light and shadow of tourist action
The commercial selection of a particular place by tourists, the large-scale business development and the large number of people brought to that place have a great impact on that place.Such a phenomenon is called "sightseeing destination".
European tourism policy
Western countries such as Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States are implementing advanced initiatives such as restoration and revitalization of historical buildings and activation of old urban areas..
In Spain, tourism policies have been positively linked to the preservation and utilization of historic buildings for tourism... Specifically, a historical buildingParadorIs used as In Spain, new paradors were built one after another to accommodate the increasing number of tourists in the 1960s due to the tourism boom... However, it was pointed out that the increase in newly built paradors led to the incorporation of contradictory elements into existing historic buildings, and many paradors constructed in the 1960s were later abolished... After that, when installing a parador, a mechanism was introduced that utilizes the oldest building possible, considers the artistic value and historical value, and judges whether the building can be used as an accommodation facility. Are.
Japan's tourism policy
At the time of enactment of the Basic Tourism Law (1963), the Legislative Bureau of the House of Representatives, which did the clerical work for drafting the bill, tried to define tourism legally but abandoned it as difficult, and the concept of tourism is the same as that used in the world. It is said that it meant.
Tourism policyCouncil"About the basic direction of future tourism policy" (Report No. 39,1995/6/2)” defines tourism as “Leisure timeIn time,Everyday lifeIt is a variety of activities that are carried out away from the sphere, and the purpose is to interact, learn, and play. ".
further,"21st centuryAbout tourism promotion measures at the beginning" (Report No. 45,2000/12/1) Says, "The definition of so-called'sightseeing'should be broader than just a part of leisure activities."[Annotation 1].
Koizumi CabinetSince 2003Visit Japan CampaignBegan, and in 2007, replaced the Basic Tourism LawTourism Nation Promotion Basic ActWill be enforced and the basic plan for promoting tourism nation will be decided by the Cabinet, and efforts toward "tourism nation" will be carried out..
2008/10/1,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism OfOuter officeAsTourism AuthorityWas established, the registration of the first type travel agency has changed from the previous registration of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism to the registration of the Commissioner of Japan Tourism Agency.
- ^ a b In the 2000 edition of the White Paper on Tourism, the word "cum-tourism" is used, and the existence of commercial travel that also serves as fun is recognized as a form of tourism..
- ^ Clare A. Gunn states that recreation is a publicly involved business...On the other hand, according to Nihon Kotsu Corporation's "Leisure Society Trip" (1974) p277, recreation is for physical and mental recovery, and tourism is for mental development..
- ^ The name is "This is a picture of the guide of the city, and I think of it as a picture of the city."Travel guidebookIt can be seen that it played a role like.
- ^ In particularHot spring.
- ^ The meaning of "visiting the systems and cultural objects of other countries" and, in turn, "traveling to other countries and spreading the word".
- ^ Sachihiko Kimura, Deputy Director of the Meiji Restoration Museum Ryozen Museum, explains that it means "to see and understand the essential things of other countries, the excellent light, and the scenery of the world.".
- ^ According to the search results from the Asahi Shimbun database "Kikuzo", tourism as a term is initially used only as a proper noun.The first case used as a common noun was "horse-based tourism," which was used by Japanese military personnel to inspect overseas military facilities on October 1893, 10.After that, it expanded from Japanese military personnel to foreign military personnel and overseas inspections of non-military personnel, and eventually it was also used for inspections of ordinary people inside and outside the country, but all of them are international. There was no change in that it was related to.
- ^ Meanwhile, by a foreign military officerImperial Japanese ArmyThere are also cases where the word "sightseeing" is used for inspections of.
- ^ After the war, he served as the mayor of Atami, Shizuoka Prefecture, and published "Tourism Nation".
- ^ In the article search by the Asahi Shimbun database "Kikuzo", tourists have been used as related to foreigners since 1913, but it is proved that the original tourists themselves were limited to those related to foreigners in the original language country at that time. Is a future research subject.According to the Asahi Shimbun database "Kikuzo", the term tourism is not searched before the war, and it hardly appears in the search results until the end of the Showa period.It should be noted that tourism began to be used without distinguishing between domestic tourism and international tourism when the occupation policy of the Allied Powers ended after the war, that is, when Japanese domestic tourism became active.
- ^ The word "sightseeing" has been used in some domestic travel since the early Showa period.For example, in the "Tourism Festival Memorial Tourism Business Shiori" published by the Board of Tourist Industry in 1936, "Each year and village in Japan should make the land beautiful and splendid to attract tourists. Since it is a domestic issue, it can be called a domestic tourism business. "
- ^ Digital Daijisen. “Tourism". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ a b c d World Encyclopedia. “sightseeing". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Encyclopedia Nipponica. “Tourism". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ a b c Mizoo 2015, pp. 4–6.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Satoshi Chiso "Transformation and modern interpretation of the concept of "tourism""Commercial Theory" Vol. 56, No. 3, Kyushu Sangyo University Commerce Society, March 2016, 3, pp. 22-1, ISSN 1349-7375.
- ^ Akira Ide (June 2012). “ (PDF)". Evolutionary Economics Society Review No.16Evolutionary Economics Society. 2022/5/3Browse. The word “tourism” is usually translated as “sightseeing”.When the translation of tourism is applied, the definition has "unusualness" and "non-profit", and is generally regarded as a kind of leisure, and is recognized as entertaining and enjoyable.However, the meaning of dark tourism is that it is at the other end of the spectrum from leisure and entertainment. "
- ^ a b "XNUMX. XNUMX.New tourism concept". www.mlit.go.jp. New tourism creation / distribution promotion businessJapan Tourism Agency (July 2010, 7). 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ a b c Tourism Policy Council. “II. Basic perspective on tourism promotion in the early 21st century". Tourism Promotion Measures at the Beginning of the 21st Century-Tourism Promotion as a Pillar of National Development- (Report No. 45)Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2022/5/4Browse. "Also, the word" tourism "is derived from" Kankoku no Hikari, "which is a sentence of" I Ching, "one of the four books and five classics of China. Considering the meaning and sense of words such as "observing" and "showing the scenery and cultural objects of the country to outsiders", the definition of so-called "sightseeing" is just It should not be seen only as part of leisure activities, but more broadly. ”
- ^ "SIGHT SEEING" (English). Lexico Dictionaries. Oxford dictionary. 2022/5/3Browse. “The activity of visiting places of interest in a particular location.”
- ^ a b c d e f Mizoo 2015, pp. 2–4.
- ^ Mizoo 2015, pp. 12–13.
- ^ "TOURISM" (English). Lexico Dictionaries. Oxford dictionary. 2022/5/2Browse. “The commercial organization and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest.”
- ^ a b c d e Takeuchi et al. 2018, pp. 1–4.
- ^ Progressive French-Japanese Dictionary 2nd Edition. “tourism". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/5/2Browse.
- ^ Kazuki Kato (September 2021, 9). “Xavier de Maistor's "Journey around the Room and Two Others"". notes. Gengi Shobo editorial department. 2022/6/2Browse.
- ^ Editions Larousse. “Définitions: tourisme --Dictionnaire de français Larousse”(French). www.larousse.fr. 2022/5/2Browse. “Action de voyager, de visiter un site pour son plaisir.”
- ^ World Encyclopedia. “Tourism". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ "What is the definition of tourists in the UNWTO materials?". UNWTO (September 2019, 2). 2022/5/5Browse.
- ^ "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms --Tourism Definition" (English). stats.oecd.org. Economic Cooperation Development Organization (September 2001, 9). 2022/5/5Browse. “Tourism is defined as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.”
- ^ a b Ishii 2022, Part 1 Part 1 Chapter XNUMX The Beginning of the Journey
- ^ a b c d Takeuchi et al. 2018, pp. 11–16.
- ^ a b c d "Modern Spanish Information Handbook Revised Edition" Sanshusha, 2007, 40 pages
- ^ a b c d Natsuki Shimizu (March 2021, 3). “Goshuin boom and pilgrimage to the anime sanctuary-between "de-magicalization" and "re-magicalization"-". human.kanagawa-u.ac.jp. PLUS No.17Kanagawa University Institute of Humanities. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ Maiko Kobayashi "British Grand Tour: Its Origins and Historical Development"Booklet," Vol. 18, Keio University Art Center, 2010, 36–50.
- ^ Ishii 2022, Part 4 Part 1 Chapter XNUMX A New Form of Travel
- ^ Ishii 2022, Part 1 Introduction What is modern tourism?
- ^ Ishii 2022, Part 1 Chapter 5 Development of Intercontinental Travel: From Sailing Ships to Steamships.
- ^ Reimitsu Fujikawa "Akisato Rito's Kyoka: About Rito Akisato and Meisho Zue"Seishin Language" No. 18, Notre Dame Seishin University Japanese Literature Society, September 2018, 9, 26–14, ISSN 1345-3416.
- ^ Yuki Nishino. “01. "Miyako Meisho Zue" and Kyoto——The emergence of tourism". nishi-note. 2022/5/7Browse.
- ^ "City guide". www.nichibun.ac.jpInternational Research Center for Japanese Studies. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ a b c Takeuchi et al. 2018, pp. 16–19.
- ^ Mizoo 2015, pp. 92–93.
- ^ a b [Meiji Akasaki 150 years of Meiji Restoration] (1) Travel/Temporary shrine visits to cultural tourism Gumi Iwakura, Kyoto revitalization “Yomiuri Shimbun” morning edition January 2018, 1
- ^ a b c d e f g Mizoo 2015, pp. 6–17.
- ^ a b c Shuichi Teramae (2008). “Consideration on regional tourism policy". National Diet Library Digital Collection. 2022/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b Sachihiko Kimura (2018). “The 4th "Iwakura Tomomi and Kyoto Rebirth"". Kyoto City Information Center. Taisei Hokan 150th Anniversary Project. Kyoto City. 2022/5/3Browse.
- ^ Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Circular of the US-Europe Circular.National Diet LibraryDigital collection (viewed January 2018, 1)
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- ^ a b c d e f Hiroshi Nakamura (2016). “Prewar International Tourism (Attracting Foreign Visitors) Policy-Guesthouse, Japan Tourist Bureau, Board of Tourist Industry-". Kobe Gakuin Law Vol. 36, No. 2. Faculty of Law, Kobe Gakuin University. 2022/5/4Browse.
- ^ Fumihiko Sunamoto (2008). “International Resorts of Modern Japan, Focusing on International Tourist Hotels in the XNUMXs”. Aoyusha
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- ^ a b c "Modern Spanish Information Handbook Revised Edition" Sanshusha, 2007, 41 pages
- ^ "Tourism Basic Law Commentary" supervised by the Tourism Bureau of the Ministry of Transport Gakuyo Shobo 1963 p.208
- ^ "Chapter 2 Section 1 2 Bubble Economy and Its Collapse (61-1986)". www.mlit.go.jp. 25 White Paper on TourismMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2022/5/8Browse.
- ^ Tourism Policy Council (June 1995, 6). “About the basic direction of future tourism policy (Report No. 39)". www.mlit.go.jpMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2022/5/5Browse. "In this report, the definition of tourism is" various activities that are carried out outside the daily living area in leisure time, with the purpose of interacting, learning, and playing. " ”
- ^ "Tourism Nation Promotion Basic Act". www.mlit.go.jp.Tourism Agency. 2022/5/5Browse.
- Yoshitaka Mizoo "Tourism Basics and Practice" (Revised New) Kokon Shoin, 2015.ISBN 978-4-7722-3164-0.OCLC 903211645.
- Masato Takeuchi; Toshie Takeuchi; Hiroyuki Yamada "Introduction to Tourism" (first) Kokon Shoin, 2018.ISBN 978-4-623-07763-2.OCLC 1027622420.
- Akio Ishii (2022). “World history of travel and tourism (history)". Akio Ishii's Tourism Laboratory. 2022/5/3Browse.
- Koji Oguchi Edited by Isamu Maeda, Tsuji Sasaki “Social Psychology of Tourism: From the Three Perspectives of People, Things and Things” Chiba University Faculty of Letters Humanities Series Kitaoji Shobo ISBN 4762824968
- Charles R. Goeldner, JRBrent Ritchie "TOURISM" --The bible of Western tourism.From psychology to marketing, P624's book.Researchers and graduate students are a must read. John Wily & Sons, Inc. ISBN 9780470084595
- Shuichi Teramae"Introduction to Tourism Information Theory: Attempt of Evolutionary Information Theory"Regional Policy Research," Vol. 11, No. 2, Takasaki City University of Economics, Regional Policy Society, September 2008, pp. 9-1, ISSN 13443666, NOT 40016270116. --This is a new way of thinking that discusses tourism by focusing on the similarity with the media and information.
- Tourism studies
- Japan Tourism Association
- Japan Tourism Association
- Japan International Tourism Association(JAFIT)
- Asia Pacific Tourism Association
- Travel and Tourism Research Association(TTRA)
- Tourism economic newspaper - Travel journal - Seasonal travel newspaper
- Travel/Tourism Competitiveness Report
Industry/regional promotion, international cooperation
- Tourism resources - (I.e. - International tourism
- Tourism Association
- International Tourism Promotion Organization
- Sightseeing spot development cycle