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🧳 | Qantas makes Trip A Deal, an Australian online travel agency, a subsidiary


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Qantas makes Trip A Deal, an Australian online travel agency, a subsidiary

 
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TripADeal is an Australian online travel agency founded in 2011.
 

Qantas announces acquisition of 51% stake in TripADeal to enter the online leisure travel market ... → Continue reading

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Travel agency

Travel agency(Ryokodairi,British: travel agency) IsTransportation-宿 泊Composed of elements such asTravelPlanning, implementation, or intermediary sales of productsCompanyThat[1].

Travel clubAlso called (Ryokogaisha).As another nameTravel agent(Travel),Travel agency(Travel mediation),Tourist bureau(British: Tourist bureau)Such. This section also describes online travel agencies that do not have stores and travel agencies that support business travel management.

Registration system at Japanese travel agencies

Travel Business LawThe categories such as the travel industry above,Tourism AuthoritySecretary[2] First-class travel business that requires registration ofPrefectural governorThere are Type 2 Travel Business, Type 3 Travel Business, Regional Limited Travel Business, Travel Agency Agency Business, Tourist Area Limited Travel Agency Business, and Travel Service Arrangement Business that require registration.[3].

ClassificationHandling businessStandard assetBusiness deposit[4][5]
First-class travel industryOverseas/domesticPlanning tripPlanning and implementation
Arrangement tripPlanning and implementation ofパ ッ ケ ー ジ ツ ア ーThe sale of
3,000 yen or more70 million yen if the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was less than 7,000 billion yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was 70 billion yen or more and less than 2 trillion yen, depending on the amount handled, 8,000 million yen-4 million yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year is 2 trillion yen or more, add 1 million yen for each 1 trillion yen
If the amount of overseas recruited planned travel handled in the previous fiscal year is 8 million yen or more and less than 2,100 billion yen, 900 million yen-5,000 million yen will be added depending on the amount handled.
If the amount of overseas planned travel offered in the previous fiscal year was 2,100 billion yen or more, add 1,000 million yen for every 1,100 billion yen
First-class travel industryPlanning and implementation of solicitation-type planned travel in Japan
Planning and implementation of overseas and domestic order-based planning trips
Planning and implementation of arrangement trips and sales of package tours
700 yen or more7 million yen if the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was less than 1,100 billion yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was 7 billion yen or more and less than 2 trillion yen, depending on the amount handled, 1,300 million yen-1 million yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year is 2 trillion yen or more, 1 million yen will be added for each 3,000 trillion yen
First-class travel industryPlanning and implementation of domestic planned tours limited to neighboring municipalities
Planning and implementation of domestic and overseas order-based planned travel
Planning and implementation of arrangement trips and sales of package tours
300 yen or more2 million yen if the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was less than 300 billion yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was 2 billion yen or more and less than 2 trillion yen, depending on the amount handled, 450 million yen-1 million yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year is 2 trillion yen or more, 1 million yen will be added for each 2,500 trillion yen
Local travel agencyPlanning and implementation of domestic planned tours limited to neighboring municipalities
Package tour sales
100 yen or more400 yen if the amount handled in the previous fiscal year was less than 15 million yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year is 400 million yen or more and less than 2 trillion yen, depending on the amount handled, 100 million yen-1 million yen
If the amount handled in the previous fiscal year is 2 trillion yen or more, 1 million yen will be added for each 2,500 trillion yen
Travel agency agencyOnly within the scope of travel services entrusted by the affiliated travel agencyNo standardNo deposit
Limited travel agency agency business within the tourist areaWithin the scope of travel services entrusted by the travel agency to which you belong and based on the Tourism Zone Development LawTourist areaOnly for guests traveling withinNo standardNo deposit
Travel service arrangement businessFor domesticLand operatorOnly (enforced in January 2018)No standardNo deposit

According to the Travel Business Act, businesses engaged in the first, second, third, and regional limited travel businesses are required to have a financial base of a certain amount or more.DepositMust. In addition, as provided in Chapter XNUMX of the Travel Business ActTravel Association(Japan Travel AgencyorNational Travel Association) Subscribing business can replace it by paying one-fifth amount as repayment service deposit contribution[3].

Legally, each sales office must have at least oneGeneral travel business handling manager, domestic travel business handling manager, regional limited travel business handling managerIt is necessary to appoint a qualified person according to the classification of "" and to be resident during business hours.However, the travel agency agency business limited to the tourist area is a trainee who has completed the training and can substitute for the appointment of a travel business handling manager.In addition, the travel service arrangement business is not treated as a "travel agency, etc." under the Travel Business Law.[6], It is obligatory to appoint one or more general or domestic travel business handling managers or "travel service arrangement business handling managers" at each sales office.[7][8].

2017/3 of the monthTerumi ClubAfter the bankruptcy of2018/4月から、観光庁に毎年1回、決算申告書・納税証明書・純資産・取引額の書類提出が、5年に1回行われている旅行業の更新の際にも、公認会計士などのチェックを受けた書類を観光庁長官へ提出することがそれぞれ義務付けられた他、前事業年度における海外募集型企画旅行の取扱額が8億円以上の業者は取扱額に応じて、営業保証金が900万円から5000万円(取扱額が2100億円以上の場合は1000億円ごとに1100万円がさらに上乗せされる)、弁済業務保証金分担金が180万円から1000万円(取扱額が2100億円以上の場合は1000億円ごとに220万円がさらに上乗せされる)がそれぞれ追加負担となる[5].. In addition, since April 1, all types 2 and 3 and 2018 types of businesses have been Travel agency or national travel agency conducts on-site survey[9][10].. In the regional travel business, the operating deposit when the amount handled in the previous business year was less than 400 million yen was reduced from 100 million yen to 15 yen[5].

If a user applying for a trip contracts with an unregistered contractor who is not registered with any of these, in the event of trouble, he/she will not be legally protected under the Travel Business Act and other related laws. Also, if you contract with an overseas company that has a Japanese website but does not have a sales office in Japan, you will not be subject to legal protection as well.[11].

The type 1 travel agent can be confirmed from the website of the Japan Tourism Agency.[11].. Type 2 travel agents, Type 3 travel agents, etc.Tokyo-OsakaEtc.PrefecturesCan be confirmed on the website[12].

Standard travel contract

Standard travel contractIsTourism AuthoritySecretary andConsumer Affairs AgencyTravel agency standards set by the SecretaryGeneral terms and conditions.[13]

Constitution

  • Recruitment Planning Department of Travel Agreement
    • Chapter 1 General rules
    • Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contract
    • Chapter 3 Contract Changes
    • Chapter 4 Termination of Contract
    • Chapter 5 Group/Group Contracts
    • Chapter 6 Itinerary Management
    • Chapter 7 Responsibility
    • Chapter 8 Business Deposit
  • Order type planning department of travel agreement
    • Chapter 1 General rules
    • Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contract
    • Chapter 3 Contract Changes
    • Chapter 4 Termination of Contract
    • Chapter 5 Group/Group Contracts
    • Chapter 6 Itinerary Management
    • Chapter 7 Responsibility
    • Chapter 8 Business Deposit
  • Attachment Special Compensation Regulations
    • Chapter 1 Payment of compensation, etc.
    • Chapter 2 If you do not pay compensation
    • Chapter 3 Types of Compensation Money and Payment
    • Chapter 4 Procedures for Accident Occurrence and Claims for Compensation Money, etc.
    • Chapter 5 Compensation for Damage to Carrying Items
  • Arranged travel contract section
    • Chapter 1 General rules
    • Chapter 2 Conclusion of contract
    • Chapter 3 Contract Modification and Termination
    • Chapter 4 Travel Price
    • Chapter 5 Group/Group Arrangement
    • Chapter 6 Responsibility
    • Chapter 7 Business Deposit
  • Travel procedure agency contract
  • Travel consultation contract section

Traditional travel agency

A business that sells travel products through stores.English-speaking countriesThen,Traditional Travel Agency (TTA, Traditional travel agency)[14][15].

In the case of Japan, the following are the major operations of conventional travel agencies.

The business of a travel agency has two aspects: planning and creating travel products and selling them. Many large companies carry out both operations, but there are also wholesaler-only companies that specialize in planning and outsourcing sales to affiliated companies.[17].. On the other hand, a company that sells travel products entrusted by wholesalers is called a retailer. A travel agency's store, called a "travel agency," specializes in retail[18].

According to the Japanese Travel Business Law, travel products sold by conventional travel agencies are classified as recruitment type and order type.Planning trip,andArrangement tripare categorized.インターネットPrior to the spread of, it was considered difficult to arrange accommodations and transportation in remote areas without going through a travel agency.

However, since the spread of the Internet, it has become possible for individuals to easily make arrangements, so travelers do not have to go through a travel agencyAirlinesThe number of cases of directly contracting with such companies has increased. Due to this effect, the number of Japanese travel agencies and travel agency agents has decreased to about three quarters between 1995 and 2015 (the number of travel agency agents has been halved).[19].

It has been pointed out that the profitability of the travel industry is low compared to other industries.[19], For this reason, traditional travel agencies also offer online sales[19] At the same time, for the demanding group who demands the quality of service,wealthy class[20] ,Senior[21] High-quality travel products targeting customers and development of purpose-specific travel products[22] Differentiated services are being strengthened. Also,JTBFocusing on major companies such asMICEDemand capture[23], Focus on business travel,Local creationBusiness initiatives and cross-border business development are also underway[19].

Online travel agency

Number of travel site visits worldwide
(November 2020)
Site nameNumber of visits
Booking.com2 billion & 5,962 million
trip advisor■2 billion & 5,059 million
Airbnb1 billion & 3,121 million
Sky scanner■4,640 million
Expedia4,522 million
Hotels.com3,012 million
Trivago■2,729 million
KAYAK■2,615 million
Agoda2,488 million
Ctrip Travel2,401 million
*Similar webResearch[24]
*Total via PC/smartphone
*"*" is a metasearch
Number of domestic visitors to travel sites
(January-December 2019)
Site nameNumber of readers
Jalan net6,310 million
Rakuten Travel5,810 million
trip advisor※4,400 million
LINE Travel jp■3,250 million
Yahoo! Travel■3,190 million
HIS2,810 million
JTB2,690 million
Fort label■2,560 million
Booking.com2,510 million
Ikkyu. Com2,061 million
*Japan Tourism Promotion Association・Valise investigation[25]
*Total via PC/smartphone
*"*"Metasearch

OnlineA company specializing in sales, focusing on English-speaking countries,Online Travel Agency (OTA)A company called[1][26].. The user operates an online travel agencyWebsite,Mobile appArrange travel products in-house.

America, where the selection of traditional travel agencies has advanced[1][19] Includingthe 2010sBecame a major player in the travel industry, and in Japan,Rakuten TravelRunRakuten,Jalan netRunRecruitmentA company different from a traditional travel agency, such as[27], Has gained weight in the travel industry. Worldwide,Booking HoldingsとExpedia GroupHowever, it is the two largest companies in this field. Also, present travel products of the same content sold online by each company to travelers across the boundaries of the company.MetasearchOperating companies are increasing their presence, and globally,trip advisorIs a representative company.

Incidentally,Department of Foreign InvestmentOnline travel agency does not have a sales office in Japan and therefore does not have any legal obligation under the Japanese Travel Business Law to ensure travel safety and improve convenience for travelers.[28].. Therefore, if you use a foreign-affiliated online travel agency, even if your destination is in Japan, you will basically use the service outside the scope of protection under the Travel Business Act.[29].

the 2010sIn the latter half of the year, as competition between agencies became fierce in Japan, the three companies began to lock in by incorporating a "lowest price clause" that makes the prices of accommodations posted on their websites cheaper or the same as those of other companies' websites.About thisFair Trade Commission Antitrust lawA warning was given as a violation of the above, and an on-site inspection was also conducted in 2019.2022/By the time companies have abolished the lowest price clause[30].

Business travel management

Centrally receive and manage business trip operations of companies, and provide services such as reduction of business trip costs, expense management, and crisis management (Business Travel Management, BTM) Corresponding travel companies are spreading mainly in Europe and America[1].. It is a business form that has developed along with globalization of corporate activities[31]If a general company has a BTM-enabled group company registered as a travel agency (called an in-house travel agency)[32] In addition, travel companies with expertise in business travel have recently appeared. Worldwide,American Express,Carlson Wagonry TravelHas become a representative company specializing in BTM.

Major travel agencies

Japanese companies ranking

Shows the transaction amount and sales in 2019.In the travel industry, in addition to "sales" in general companies, "handling amount (Gross Bookings, The total reservation amount)” is used.[33].. The handling amount isTourism AuthorityTotal by[34].. The amount handled is not included in the travel industry (Publishing・Air sales, etc. are not included, but sales include figures other than travel. In addition, the handling amount is rounded off,Traveling-Foreigner travel・The added value of each department of domestic travel may not match the total.

RankingCompany nameTotal amount handledOverseas travel departmentForeign Travel DepartmentDomestic travel departmentamount of salesRemarks
1JTB(Linking)1 billion yen5,44500 million yen97900 million yen9,34400 million yen1 billion yen[35]Amount handled is total of 11 group companies
2KNT-CT Holdings4,59300 million yen1,53700 million yen24800 million yen2,80700 million yen3,85400 million yen[36]The handling amount isKinki Nippon Tourist-Club tourismTotal of 13 group companies
3HIS(Linking)[37]4,53000 million yen3,72100 million yen24400 million yen56500 million yen7,28600 million yen[38]The handling amount isOrion tour-Cruise planetTotal of 6 group companies
4Japan Travel4,24900 million yen1,09700 million yen47600 million yen2,67700 million yen54700 million yen[39]
5Hankyu Kotsu company(Linking)3,35600 million yen2,03300 million yen3700 million yen1,28600 million yen33800 million yen[40]The handling amount isHankyu Hanshin Business TravelTotal of 3 group companies
6Jar pack1,78200 million yen44800 million yen0.400 million yen1,33400 million yen
7ANA Sales1,73800 million yen22500 million yen1300 million yen1,50000 million yen
8Tobu Top Tours1,22500 million yen28200 million yen7600 million yen86800 million yen18400 million yen[41]
9Airtri1,18600 million yen56300 million yen-62300 million yen24300 million yen[42]Online travel industry.AirtriTotal of 4 group companies
10Meitetsu Tourism Service87400 million yen15200 million yen2200 million yen70000 million yen17500 million yen[43]

World travel agency

Traditional travel agency

2019/Shows the size of traditional travel agencies in. Figures are based on each company's annual report.

Company nameamount of salesHeadquarters countryRemarks
Tui(Linking)[44]189 million euros (Turnover)German flag GermanyNumerical values ​​other than the travel department (such as the aviation department) are included.Nouvelle FrontierIncluding group companies
China International Travel[45]479 million yuan (Operating income)Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuChina International Travel Agency (CITS)In addition, including duty-free shop operating companies
Hana Tour[46]7,631 million won (Sales)Republic of Korea flag South Korea
Online travel agency

2019/Shows the size of online travel agencies (Sales =Revenue, Handling amount =Gross Bookings, Number of rooms sold =Room Nights). Figures are based on each company's annual report.

Company nameamount of salesTransaction amountNumber of accommodation sales roomsHeadquarters countryRemarks
Booking Holdings[47]US$150.6 billionUS$964 billion8 million roomsUnited States flag The United States of AmericaBooking.com-AgodaIncluding group companies
Expedia Group[48]US$120.6 billionUS$1,079 billion3 million roomsUnited States flag The United States of AmericaHotels.com-TrivagoIncluding group companies
Tripdotcom Group[49]US$51.2 billion--Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuSky scannerIncluding group companies
trip advisor[50]US$15.6 billion--United States flag The United States of America
Business travel management

2019/Indicates the amount handled. Number isTravel WeeklyBased on the data of[51].

Company nameTransaction amountHeadquarters countryRemarks
American Express
Global business travel
US$341 billionUnited States flag The United States of AmericaAmerican ExpressとCertares LPJoint venture
in JapanJapan Travel / Global Business TravelDeployed as (joint venture with Japan Travel)
BCD travelUS$275 billionDutch flag Netherlands
Carlson Wagonry TravelUS$248 billionUnited States flag The United States of AmericaDeployed as JTB-CWT (joint venture with JTB) in Japan
Flight centerUS$160 billionAustralian flag Australia

The origin of the travel agency

As the origin of popular travelThe early modern period OfVisitAs one of the roots of Japanese travel agencies,MasterAnd ancestors. They are,Shrines and templesBelonging toPriesthood,MonkEtc. of each shrineMissionaryTo the villages forA lecture(BelieversGroup) and acquired followers. Visit the village regularly,billGive out or teachSermonI did it. When the villagers visit the shrines and temples, they lead them to the shrines and temples as guides, and when they arrive at the shrines and temples, they arrange and offer accommodations, provide explanations of the former name of the temple, and mediate the shrines and temples visits. .. At this time, the worshipers bring in a large amount of money, and the believer list is regarded as an important customer list, and it becomes a high-value transaction.debtIt was also called a person. These systems areMeijiTo enter the政府Although it was abolished byModern OfMassesThe basic form of travel had already been completed.

Entering the Meiji era, for the purpose of earning foreign currencytourismAttention was paid to the usefulness of1893/,Eiichi ShibusawaAroundForeign tourists visiting JapanThe "Kibinkai" was established for the purpose of hospitality.1905/ToMinami Shinsuke Japan Travel"Japan Travel Association," which was the predecessor of the company, was founded, and for the first time in Japan, chartered railroads and planned and implemented worship trips to Ise Jingu and Koyasan. continue1912/, Voluntary organization for the purpose of promoting and arranging foreign tourists to JapanJapan Tourist Bureau(Japan Tourist Bureau, laterJapan Transportation Corporation, CurrentJTB) Was established jointly by the public and private sectors[52].

1964/ OfTokyo OlympicsWith the development of transportation infrastructure and the liberalization of overseas tourism,1965/,Japan AirlinesReleased the overseas package tour "Jalpack", followed by1968/, Japan Transportation CorporationNippon ExpressLaunched overseas package tour "Look" in collaboration with1970/The Japan Transportation Agency has released the domestic package tour "Ace", and since then package tours by travel companies have become popular.[52].

Worldwide,United Kingdom OfThomas CookBecame the first travel agency in a modern sense[52].

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d "About the current state of the tourism industry (PDF)". Tourism Authority (September 2012, 9). 2015/1/1Browse.
  2. ^ 2008/Before SeptemberMinister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport,2001/Before SeptemberMinister of Transport.
  3. ^ a b "Tourism> Travel Law”. Japan Tourism Agency. 2018/3/19Browse.
  4. ^ Overview of business deposit system/Outline of repayment service deposit system Tourism Authority
  5. ^ a b c Addition of reimbursement contributions, overseas tours targeting over 8 million yen per year, from 180 million yen Travel Vision April 2018, 4
  6. ^ "Travel Business Law”. Japan Tourism Agency. 2021/2/16Browse.
  7. ^ "What is a travel service arrangement business? (1)”. Travel News at. 2021/4/21Browse.
  8. ^ "I will explain all how to apply for travel business registration!”. Minpaku textbook. 2021/4/21Browse.
  9. ^ Terumi WG Final Report-Repayment System Raised, by Overseas Tour Handling Amount Travel Vision April 2017, 9
  10. ^ Study Group on Travel Law in a New Era Management Governance Working Group Summary Tourism Agency August 2017, 8
  11. ^ a b "Travel/accommodation-related information (including travel agency negative information)”. Japan Tourism Agency (November 2014, 11). 2015/1/1Browse.
  12. ^ "List of registered companies such as travel agency/interpreter guide”. Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Tokyo Tourism Foundation. 2015/1/1Browse."Disclosure of registered information of registered travel agents”. Osaka Prefecture. 2015/1/1Browse.
  13. ^ Travel Business LawArticle XNUMX-XNUMX
  14. ^ "Report on JATA Management Forum 2013 “Strengthening from a Global Perspective!-Towards Creating New Value””. Japan Association of Travel Agents. 2015/4/11Browse.
  15. ^ "Japan's online travel market (PDF)”. Dentsu (January 2015, 1). 2015/4/11Browse.
  16. ^ Travel Business LawChapter 1 Article XNUMX
  17. ^ "What is a wholesaler? Glossary”. JTB Research Institute. 2016/8/21Browse.
  18. ^ "What is a retailer/Glossary”. JTB Research Institute. 2016/8/21Browse.
  19. ^ a b c d e "28 White Paper on Tourism (PDF)”. Japan Tourism Agency. 2016/7/8Browse.
  20. ^ "Offering the "real" by understanding the old and new travel models of the wealthy”. Travel Voice (November 2013, 11). 2015/4/11Browse.
  21. ^ "70-year-old "comfort trip"”. Yomiuri Shimbun (October 2012, 10). 2015/11/3Browse.
  22. ^ In addition to specialized travel products, we may open specialized stores with specific purposes."Opened overseas wedding flagship store in Ginza, JTB metropolitan area”. Travel Vision (March 2013, 3). 2015/6/7Browse.
  23. ^ "What is "MICE" that the travel industry is focusing on solving the domestic travel slump?”. IT media (September 2011, 9). 2019/5/25Browse.
  24. ^ [1]Different for each region such as "tripadvisor.jp" and "tripadvisor.com"Domain nameSites that are used depend on their combined value. It should be noted that the domain with the smallest number of accesses is not aggregated.
  25. ^ "Ranking of the number of visitors to tourism-related sites in 2019 (PDF)”. Public Interest Incorporated Association Japan Tourism Promotion Association, Valuze Co., Ltd. (February 2020, 2). 2020/2/18Browse.
  26. ^ "The role of the travel industry and the challenge of change”. Aviation Management Institute. 2015/4/11Browse.
  27. ^ Rakuten is registered as a first-class travel agent, and Recruit is registered as a third-class travel agent.
  28. ^ "House of Representatives Minutes Information 193rd Diet, National Land Transport Commission No. 19”. House of Representatives (May 2017, 5). 2019/5/5Browse.
  29. ^ "Travel contracts involving the Internet or overseas sites (PDF)”. National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan (March 2016, 3). 2019/5/5Browse.
  30. ^ "Expedia removes accommodation "lowest price clause" ... JFTC approves improvement plan”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2022, 6). 2022/6/6Browse.
  31. ^ "Business travel management that optimizes management". Diamond Company (September 2013, 1). 2015/4/11Browse.
  32. ^ Fujifilm,BridgestoneAnd many more.
  33. ^ Refer to the following for the relationship between "amount handled" and "sales" in the travel industry.Yoichi Hirai "Travel industry financial analysis--from the perspective of understanding labor relations"Meiji University Commerce Theory," Vol. 90, No. 2, Meiji University Institute of Commerce, January 2008, pp. 1-11, ISSN 03895955, NOT 120001941292,2020/9/15Browse.Please also refer to the figures for "Sales" and "Handling amount" in securities reports and annual reports of travel agents (KNT-CT Holdings, HIS, etc.) that list stocks.
  34. ^ "Year of Reiwa Major Travel Agents Travel Handling Year Total (preliminary report) (PDF)”. Japan Tourism Agency (November 2020, 5). 2020/7/31Browse.In addition, in this material, only type 1 and type 2 travel agencies are targeted for aggregation,Jalan netRunRecruitment(Type 3 travel agents) are not included in the calculation.Rakuten TravelThe handling amount of has not been disclosed since 30. HIS has stopped providing information to the Japan Tourism Agency since November 11 and has posted it on its website.
  35. ^ JTB Trading-JTB publishingTotal of 174 companies in the group."Summary of financial results for the year ending March 2020, 3 (PDF)”. JTB (May 2020, 5). 2020/7/31Browse.
  36. ^ Includes 33 subsidiaries."Financial Summary for the Year Ending March 2, 3 (Japanese Standard) (Consolidated) (PDF)”. KNT-CT Holdings (May 2020, 5). 2020/7/31Browse.
  37. ^ "Monthly earnings report”. H.I.S. 2020/7/31Browse.
  38. ^ Figures for the October 2018 period.Huis Ten BoschIncluding 171 subsidiaries."Financial Results for the Year Ending October 30, 10 [Japanese Standards] (Consolidated) (PDF)”. H.I.S. (December 2018, 12). 2019/5/20Browse.
  39. ^ Figures for the fiscal year ending December 2019 (consolidated financial statements). Includes 12 subsidiaries."Summary of financial results for the year ending March 2019, 12 (PDF)”. Travel to Japan (February 2020, 2). 2020/7/31Browse.
  40. ^ Includes 3 subsidiaries."Hankyu Kotsu Group FY2019 Financial Results (PDF)”. Hankyu Travel International Co., Ltd. (May 2020, 5). 2020/7/31Browse.
  41. ^ Figures for the fiscal year ending December 2019 (consolidated financial statements)."FY2019/12 financial results (PDF)”. Tobu Top Tours (March 2020, 3). 2020/7/31Browse.
  42. ^ "Financial Results for the Fiscal Year Ending September 2019 (IFRS) (PDF)”. AirTrip (November 2020, 11). 2020/7/31Browse.
  43. ^ "Meitetsu Tourism Service Co., Ltd. Announcement of financial results for the 80th period”. Official Bulletin Settlement Database (March 2020, 3). 2020/7/31Browse.
  44. ^ "Annual Report 2019 (PDF)”(English). TUI Group AG (December 2019, 12). 2020/7/31Browse.
  45. ^ "2019 China Travel Report Summary (PDF)”(Chinese). China Travel Co., Ltd. (April 2020, 4). 2020/7/31Browse.
  46. ^ "Financial Information”(English). HanaTour Service Inc. 2020/7/31Browse.
  47. ^ "Annual Report 2019 (PDF)”(English). Booking Holdings Inc. (February 2020, 2). 2020/7/31Browse.
  48. ^ "2019 Annual Report (PDF)”(English). Expedia Group Inc. (February 2020, 2). 2020/7/31Browse.
  49. ^ "Annual Report 2019”(English). Trip.com Group Ltd. (April 2020, 4). 2020/7/31Browse.
  50. ^ "2019 Annual Report (PDF)”(English). TripAdvisor Inc. (April 2020, 4). 2020/3/31Browse.
  51. ^ "Travel Weekly's Powerlist 2020”(English). Travel Weekly. 2019/7/31Browse.
  52. ^ a b c Nobuyuki Okamoto (eds.) "Introduction to Tourism Studies--Post-Mass Tourism Tourism Studies" Yuhikaku <Yuhikaku Alma>, 2001.ISBN 4-641-12130-3. 

Related item

外部 リンク

Information site dealing with the entire travel industry
  • Travel voice -A comprehensive information site dealing with the travel industry.
  • Travel vision -A comprehensive information site dealing with the travel industry.
  • Tourism Keizai Shimbun -Information site for Japanese industry officials.
  • Phocuswright(English) -American research firm dealing with the world travel industry.
  • Shift(English) -A comprehensive information site in the United States dealing with the world travel related industries.

2011/

2011/(2011 years old)AD(Gregorian calendar)by,Normal year starting from Saturday.Heisei23 years.

This item describes 2011 from an international perspective.

Other chronology

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  • May 11-4 days -France:CannesでG20Summit meeting. Communiqué, final declaration and action plan announced.
  • May 11 - GreeceDietPapandreuThe cabinet voted for confidence, with a large number of confidence (153 votes slightly more than the majority).
  • May 11 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe presidential and parliamentary elections were held here. On the same day, the M5.6 earthquake in Oklahoma, the largest ever in the state.
  • May 11
    • Italy OfBerlusconiThe Prime Minister announced his resignation. Declaration of resignation after being unable to obtain a majority in voting for a bill related to settlement of accounts in the House of Representatives.
    • At 23:28 (UTC), number 400 with a diameter of 308635 m小 惑星2005 YU55Passed 32 km from the earth. For the first time in the history of observation, an asteroid with a diameter of more than 5000 m entered inside the moon's orbit.
  • May 11 -"1The day when six are lined up. At 6:11:11Digital clockPeople who took commemorative photos were seen all over the world.
  • May 11 - HonoluluでAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference(APEC) The summit meeting was held, and the "Honolulu Declaration" was adopted and closed on the 13th.
  • May 11
  • May 11 -"Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) released a special report on "extreme phenomena" such as extreme weather.
  • May 11 - Yemen OfSalehThe presidentSaudi Arabia OfRiyadhSo, the transfer of presidential authority within 30 days and the presidential election within 90 days were included.Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC) and European and American mediation proposals.
  • May 11 - EgyptThe first vote of the People's Parliament (equivalent to the House of Representatives) election has begun centered on large cities such as Cairo and Alexandria.

12

Anniversary

Event/Event

International Year

  • International Year of Forests
  • World chemistry year(International Year of Chemistry)
  • International Year for People of African Descent
  • World Veterinary Year

Art/Culture/Fashion

World

Sports

Music

movies

literature

Game

Birth

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7

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Other than person

Die

Nobel Prize

The event of fiction

movies

  • May 4 -"Nodora" ordered by Nobita without permission reaches Nobiya on that day because of Nobita's bad writing. ("Minidora SOS!!])
  • Unknown-A major earthquake hit the eastern part of the North American continent, including New York, causing a large-scale subsidence. One week after that, the Americas will sink. After that, most of the land other than the Japanese archipelago such as the continent of China, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia sank, and many refugees including the leaders of the surviving countries flooded Japan from all over the world. ("Everything except Japan sinks])

Special effects

Drama

  • May 4 -The river song is a fixed point in historydoctorThe time and space collapsed because the killing was stopped, and this day will continue forever and all events in history will proceed at the same time. ("Doctor Who] Series 6)
  • May 12 -"Christmas policeman shooting case" occurred.30th of the same monthKidnapped by the same criminal. The Metropolitan Police Department investigates the case under the direction and supervision of the National Police Agency Security Bureau. ("Partner] Season 10 New Year's Day Special)
  • Unknown-Jack Harkness is no longer immortal. On the other hand, all humans except Jack become immortal, and the earth falls into chaos. ("Secret Information Department Torchwood] Series 4)
  • Unknown-Hidden underground in LondonCyber ​​manCreates a new Cyber ​​King to conquer the earth. ("Doctor Who] Series 6)

Anime

Comic

  • March-Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the "wall eyes" appeared several hundred meters inland from the coast of Morio-cho, S City, M Prefecture. Hirose Yasuho discovered an unidentified boy who came out of the ground near "The Eye of the Wall" and named it "Touhou Josuke". ("Jojo's Bizarre Adventure Part8 Jojolion])
  • 11 month - Sorajo Kujo,Jotaro KujoHe was imprisoned in the “State Green Dolphin Street Heavy Security Prison” (abbreviated as “GDst Prison”, commonly known as “Aquarium”) due to Father Pucci's ploy. ("JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Part 6 Stone Ocean)'')

Game

  • 2 -The civil war in the East Slav Republic is over. The US-Russia joint provisional government was established. ("Resident evil damnation])
  • 3 - Maritime cityA large earthquake occurred at "Central Island". Three days after the earthquake, Central Island was completely submerged. ("Desperate Desperate City 3-Breaking Town and Her Song-])
  • 6 -At the Assolute show conference in the USAConcept carIntroducing "Promessa". The revival is announced, and a commercial version and a race version are developed half a year later. ("Ridge racer])
  • Unknown-Hong Kong investment company Ziefa founds Ziefa as an automobile company. ("Ridge Racer")
  • Unknown-US-Japan joint ``Mars manned exploration plan'' was held, and five astronauts such as Jonathan Ingram were the first human beings火星Make a successful landing. ("Police notes])[115]

Novel

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

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  40. ^ Wattara, Ivory Coast, orders ban on cocoa coffee exports AFPBB News Effective January 2011, 1.
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  48. ^ Discovered "oldest galaxy", NASA AFPBB News Effective January 2011, 1.
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  55. ^ Agriculture Minister announces resignation, FAO warns Asian countries Toa Nippo January 2011, 1.
  56. ^ Spain unemployment rate reaches 20.33%, the worst level in developed countries AFPBB News Effective January 2011, 1.
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  77. ^ IPv4 Address Report
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  116. ^ Timur Vermesh "On Hitler's Return"Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2016, pp. 14-28.ISBN 978-4-309-46422-0. 
  117. ^ Yusuke Kishi "From the New World (above)"Kodansha, 2011, pp. 229-231.ISBN 978-4-06-276853-5. 
  118. ^ Mikel P. Cube-McDowell "Earthrise"Tokyo Sogensha, 1991, pp. 27-51.ISBN 978-4-488-70101-7. 
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