Consideration for SDGs Tanabata decoration at Nara Hotel
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The strips incorporate the labels of eight types of hotels used from the Meiji era to the Showa era into the design.
Before the summer tradition of Tanabata on July XNUMX, the Nara Hotel began exhibiting Tanabata decorations.Seven that I experienced when I was young ... → Continue reading
Nara TV Broadcasting
"Nara TV Broadcasting," a TV station in the ancient city of Nara, will provide you with the latest news about the prefecture, topics on the Great Buddha and deer, and information on delicious gourmet food.
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|Category: History of Japanese themes|
KeioAfter,TaishoBefore.Dahua244th since then[Annotation 1] It is the era name of.It was under the era name of the Meiji era186810/23(The first year of the Meiji era9/8From)1912(45th year of Meiji)7/30For 45 years
It was an era of transition to a constitutional system, and "Meiji" became the first era name in constitutionalism.Also,"Ichigen systemThis is the first era name by.
Emperor MeijiBut"Poem of the first generationWas promulgatedAD186810/23(The first year of the Meiji era9/8) From the Emperor Meijidemise official1912(45th year of Meiji)7/30Refers to the period until..In the Japanese eraShowaIt is the second longest after the Emperor Meiji and the first era name in the "Ichisei Ichigen System", but the Emperor Meiji was on January 2, 3rd year of Keio (18672/13)PracticeHowever, one year and eight months later, the first year and eight months did not match the reign of Emperor Meiji because it was revised by promulgating the "Issei Ichigen no Sho".
The period when the era was the Meiji eraJapanese history period classificationAs,
- 186810/23(Keio49/8)- Crown princeEmperor Meiji (laterEmperor Meiji)ofCoronationbyChange.
- However, the era namePoemThe name of the year is "Keio 4th year of the Meiji era" (Keio XNUMXth year is changed to the XNUMXst year of the Meiji era). From the fact that it will be revised.Also,Poem of the first generationWas also issued, and it was decided that the era would not be revised during the reign of the emperor.
- "Overview of all 247 eras"according to,Matsudaira ShungoWas entrusted with the idea of the new era, came up with multiple ideas, and finally by the Emperor Meiji himself.LotteryIt is said that "Meiji" was selected by pulling.
- 1912(45th year of Meiji)7/30(1873In <Meiji 6>solar calendarEnforced) -Emperor MeijidemiseAnd Crown Prince Yoshihito (laterEmperor Taisho)ofPracticeBy (enthronement)Taisho(Taisho) and the era.It came into effect on the same day, and it was July 7, 30.
|"||Under the saint's south faceLightAndTreatment|
— "I Ching"
"Face the saint south and listen to the world,LightToTreatmentThe word "mu" was used during the past revision of the era.Edo PeriodOnly 8 times, 10 times in total ("Regular length""Longevity""Keian""Compliance""Tenwa""Masanori""Original sentence""Kaei""Bunkyu""MotoharuAt the time of era change) Although it is considered as a candidate, it was adopted for the 11th time in total.
"If you know that the saints stay south like the North Star, the world isLightToward the directionTreatmentIt means "maru".
Implementation of the new calendar
1873From (Meiji 6)Japanese calendar TheChange of calendarAndNew yearTosolar calendarIt was adopted.The traditional calendar isLunar solar calendarbased onTemporary calendarSo, after that, just in JapanOld calendarSpeaking of the Tenpo calendar[Annotation 2].
Specifically, the calendar reform is the 5th year of the Tenpo calendar (old calendar).12/2The next day,January 6, 1 of the new calendarIt was carried out by.This willAD(Gregorian calendar)とJapanese CalendarDates matchDecided to[Annotation 3].
|Japanese Calendar||AD||Julius all day|
|Current calendar[Annotation 4]|
|Meiji 512/2||None||March 1872, 12 (Tuesday)||March 1872, 12 (Tuesday)||2405159|
|(12/3）||Wednesday, January 6, 1||Wednesday, December 1872, 12||Wednesday, December 1873, 1||2405160|
|(12/4）||Thursday, January 6, 1||November 1872, 12 (Thursday)||November 1873, 1 (Thursday)||2405161|
Emperor Meiji took the throne, and the new governmentEmperorAiming to build a new national system centered onEdoTheTokyoThe emperor moved to TokyoYukiyukiHowever, the government function was established in 2.京都(CurrentKyotoFrom)Tokyo(CurrentTokyoWas moved to ()Tokyo Shrine).The reign of Emperor MeijiMeiji EraIt is called (Meijidai).Played a major role in establishing the Meiji governmentShocho ToiFour feudal clan (currently after the abolition of the feudal clan)Kagoshima-Yamaguchi -Kochi-Saga,Nagasaki(Part of) also held great power in the new government.In addition, it should be notedBakumatsuWith SatsumaReverenceHas led the movementMito DomainIs "Tengu Party"When"Morio PartyHuman resources were lost due to the conflict within the domain, and there were no remarkable human resources in the new Meiji government.
Emperor's thoughtBased on, "The emperorParenthoodAnd govern the people directly. "But,1890(Meiji 23)Imperial Japanese ConstitutionUntil the (Meiji Constitution) came into effect, Emperor Meiji was adolescent, even under the Constitution.Constitutional monarchyWith the establishment of the nation, a three-job systemPrime MinisterControlCabinet systemIn addition to the emperorSatsuma Domain,Choshu clanWas in control of politics (Feudal politics).At the time of the Meiji era,LightMimicking China in the morningIchigen systemAnd the name of the emperor (strictly speaking)Additional number) AsEraUntil thenYing Yang Five Elements ThoughtThe era name was abolished. (Since then, all revisions up to the current ReiwaThe era nameHas become. )
This Meiji era was in Europe and AmericaStrong line OfColonyTo avoid becomingModernizationIt was an era that promotedWorld historyFrom a perspective, JapanIndustrial revolutionTimeIs.With westernizationModernization BakumatsuSince it started from and was achieved in the Meiji era, "Bakumatsu / MeijiIs often tied up.In addition, the phrase "Bakumatsu / Meiji" isInequality treatyConclusion (1854〈AnseiCompletely abolished from (first year>)1911It almost coincides with the times up to <Meiji 44>).CentralizationTypicalRoyal reconstructionFrom the process of "Royal RestorationIt is also called.Also,the 1870s(Early Meiji)CivilizationAbbreviated as "Opening periodIt is also called.
1867(Keio 3rd year)Edo Shogunate15th GeneralYoshiki TokugawaTo the imperial courtResignationWas done.As a result, the imperial courtTamamatsu MisaoとToshimichi OkuboCreated byGreat command of the royal revivalIs declared.Satsuma-Echizen-Tosa-Owari-GeshuThe five feudal lords gave this coup.1868(Meiji 1st year) In January, the new government army and the old, centered on the Satsuma and Choshu clan soldiers, near KyotoRetainerAnd AizuKuwana DomainAn armed clash occurred with the former Shogunate army centered on soldiers (Battle of Toba and Fushimi).The new government army that won this victory YoshinobuMorning enemyRevenge asNijo CastleHad moved out toAizu Domain-Kuwana Domain-Flag bookWith Yoshinobu by order of resignationOsaka CastleRetired to.YoshinobuSatsuma DomainImpeached the charges of "Debate tableWas submitted and advanced to Kyoto, but became an enemy in the morning and was subdued, and Osaka Castle was a warship.Kaiyo MaruEscape withEdo CastleEscape to.The new government armyEdoAdvance the army to.Ichio Okubo,Yamaoka RailwayRepresenting the new government army with the efforts ofSaigo TakamoriAnd represent the former Shogunate armyKatsu KaishuSuccessful negotiations with, the same year4/11(New year5/3), Edo was occupied by the new government forces without a war (Edo Castle).Tohoku feudal clanOuetsu Reihan AllianceFormedAizu DomainBut lost to the new government forces one after another,7/29ToEchigoNagaoka CastleFallen castle, after a fierce battle on September 9, the same yearAizuwakamatsu CastleCame down and the Aizu clan surrendered.ThenShonai DomainWhen he surrenders18696/27(Meiji 25/18) Is oldShogunate NavyLeadHakodateWas occupyingTakeaki EnomotoRagaBattle of GoryokakuSurrendered to and surrendered hereBoshin WarIs over.
AwardReceived "Four wise menCentered onProtestsendDamingand"Ten Restorations of RestorationThe lower clan scholars represented byMimi Sanjo-HigashikyuseiEt al.Seven LordsThe Kaimei faction that was associated with the incidentOfficial houseThe new government that was established aroundFeudal rule systemDismantled and centered on the emperorCentralizationNational systemI laid the foundations for.Shogunateregent,Kanpaku,Conqueror General,Preview,Talk,Kyoto guardian,Kyoto ShoshidaiEtc. are abolished and replacedKujo familyDaijo-kan was placed inPresident-Arisugawa Miyajin,Agreement,participateThree occupations and the seven departments of divinity, domestic, foreign, army and navy, accounting, criminal law, and institutional administrationTributeHowever, the influential people of the lower clan joined the new government along with the officials and the daimyo of the male clan.Satsuma Domain-Tosa Domain-Aki clan-Owari Domain-Echizen clanOf the Five Clan MilitaryKyoto Imperial PalaceUnder security, on the night of establishmentKogosho meetingAfter a heated debate, YoshinobuMinisterDecided to order the return of the official position and territory (resignation).700 years hereSamurai politicsThe Buke Shohatto is over.
In March 1868 (Keio 4) in the midst of the Boshin War,Yuri-Fukuoka TakashiIn the form of the emperor swearing to the gods with his group members by draftingPledge of the Five Articles, AndPublic council theoryDeclared the basics of new political ideas such as respect for the country and the affinity for opening the country.The next day "Posted by GojoWas raised.The content isFive RelationshipsPreaching the way (morals of prince, father and son, couple, eldest child, tomo), clique, gōso,キ リ ス ト 教It inherited the policies of the former Shogunate, such as banning it, but it was abolished within a few years.Leap On April 4st, in response to the five oaths, "PoliticsIs promulgated.Prime MinisterBicameral system consisting of upper and lower stationsCouncilorIs placed and the upper station isAgreementとparticipateWas sent from each clan and clanTributeConsists of[Annotation 5]..Then the governmentPrime Minister-Divine OfficerCallOfficialThe system was put in place.Nine feudal lords who were appointed as counselors alongside the officials and feudal lords under the emperor's parental rule.Komatsu Belt Sword(Satsuma Domain)・Toshimichi Okubo(Satsuma Domain) ・Takato Kido(Choshu clan)・Hirosawa Saneomi(Changshu clan)Shojiro Goto(Tosa Domain)・Fukuoka Takashi(Tosa Domain) ・Soejima Tanomi(Saga Domain)・Yokoi Kogusu(Kumamoto Domain)・Yuri(Fukui Domain) 9 people are "Morning vassalAnd gained an independent position from the feudal lord..
Transfer of the capital to Tokyo, abolition of the feudal clan
On September 9th (October 8rd, 1868) of the same year to renew the human mindName of an eraToMeiji"(Reading: Meiji)One year issue during the first generation of the emperor"Ichigen systemWas set up. In order to suppress the rebellion of Kanto farmers after the opening of Edo on April 4thTosei University Governor's OfficeMilitary superintendentShinpei EtoLeap April 4st, "I want to change Edo to Tokyo and welcome the emperor."IwakuraProclaimed to.Before thisMinister-Koga TakemichiBecause the old lords of Kyoto Mamoru rebelled one after anotherToshimichi OkuboBut"Osaka transfer of capital theoryOn March 3th, the emperor conquered the Kanto region.OsakaPartially started preparations for the transfer of capital in the form of going to..In addition to this, Kyoto citizensShinto familyRepulsed,Ise ShrineMutsu no Kami Yoshiyuki, a shrine officer, requested the imperial court to cancel the emperor's eastbound trip, but on July 7, EdoTokyoRenamed as Zhenxiang,TokyoOkubo and the town general, who were appointed as counselors of the town government after the government decision to establish the town was announced.Mimi Sanjo SurugaIt has jurisdiction over 13 countries east of the east, and two governments stand side by side in Kyoto and Tokyo..
After the name change of Edo to TokyoEnthronement ceremony on August 8NamedEmperor Meiji 京都Moved to Tokyo on September 9th, arrived in Tokyo on October 20th, and moved to Edo Castle on October 10th.Imperial PalaceThe name was changed to Tokyo Castle.[Annotation 6].. On December 12, preparations for the transfer of the capital to Tokyo were steadily progressed, including the proclamation that a palace would be built at Tokyo Castle...The emperor left Tokyo on the 8th and returned to Kyoto, but he is in charge of diplomatic affairs in parallel with Toko.Agreement-Matsudaira Yoshinaga,Nagakoto Asano,Yamauchi Toyonobu,Masachika Town Sanjo Real Love,Masachikacho Koto,Karasumaru Mitsunori,participate-Hachiro Mioka(Yuri Kimimasa),Shojiro Goto,Iwashita Sajemon(Houhei) et al. Tokyo, ahead of the need to hand over national books to ministers of each country.Osaka,KobeCame and went. July of the same year,Himeji DomainmainTadakuni Sakai"I want to change the name of the clan and make it all the same as the prefectures, and achieve the prosperity of Chuko."[Annotation 7] In addition to the idea, Takayoshi Kido picked up this idea... December 12 KyotoReturn(The following March, 2, Toko again, the de facto transfer of the capital to Tokyo).The following year, in February 3 (Meiji 1869), government agencies were also moved to Tokyo.These series of movements were at that timeAll-newWas called[Annotation 8].
The new government has not yet established its financial, military, and institutional foundations, and the Tosa feudal lord, who had a strong resentment against the plots of Okubo and Kido.Mountain contents hallAnd the Satsuma feudal lord who had an antipathy for the vassals who overtook himselfHisamitsu Shimazu,Choshu feudal lord OfMoriAs soon as possiblePropertyI withdrew to.especially,Zhu ZixueCulture andMito ManabuOf a conservative thinker with a historical view ofHisamitsu ShimazuUnderneath, various samurai associations such as the feudal party were formed by gathering samurai from all over the country wishing for the revival of the samurai class...From this situation, the new government dispatched Toshimichi Okubo and others to the Satsuma domain to persuade them, but in the 3rd year of the Meiji Restoration (Meiji XNUMX).1870）2/24Hisamitsu called the Meiji government "Client state of WesternI cursed him asMinister Mentor of SingaporeIn the 6th year of the Meiji era (Meiji XNUMX)1873) Did not respond to Tokyo.
Meanwhile, the new government should not buy the opposition of various daimyo.Redemption,Abandoned DomainWe aimed to shift to the county prefectural system in stages. January 1869, 2 (Meiji 1),京都A meeting of the Satsuma, Choshu, and Tosa domains京都MaruyamaFrom Satsuma to Okubo, from ChoshuHirosawa Saneomi, From TosaItagaki RetirementAttended.It was agreed to submit a white paper to return the land and people to the imperial court under the joint name of the three feudal lords...In addition, the three feudal clan of SatsunagadoSoejima TanomiHizen Saga feudal lord,Naomasa NabeshimaMoved As a result, on the 20th of the same day, the lords of the four feudal lords of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa, and Hizen submitted the above table to the imperial court...This became the priming water, and the feudal lords submitted one after another the above table to return the territory and the territory to the emperor (Redemption).
Along with this, eachLordThe treatment of the lord was discussed within the new government, and Okubo and other Satsuma officials made the feudal lord the governor of the feudal lord.HereditaryKido and other Choshu officials opposed this, while insisting that it should be controlled.In the end, in a way that compromises the claims of both parties,The feudal lord remains as it isGovernorAppointed toHowever, the hereditary system was denied.Also, on this machineLord・ Abolish the names of lordsEthnic familyRenamed as, and stopped distinguishing between upper, middle and lower ranks, allSamuraiAnd the governor'sHouseWas limited to one tenth of Kokudaka, and the clan administration and the governor's house administration were separated.As a result, the relationship between the governor and the samurai was extinguished, and each clan was deprived of its independence and converted into a local administrative unit of the Meiji government...Also, within the new government, from the five feudal lords at the time of the restoration of the royal government, the four feudal lords of Satsunaga Dohi, who first showed the reversion of the print registration, came to take the initiative.[Annotation 9], Echizen / Owari / Geshu's influence has declined.
Immediately after the reversion of the edition7/8ToStaff OrdinanceReform control byAgreementBefore the constructionDivine Officer,Prime MinisterPlace the former in the upper ranks and become a Daijo-kanLeft ministerとRight minister,Big word,Council, As an adviserWaiting HousePlaced.The selection of people was the idea of Okubo.Mimi Sanjo(Right minister),Iwakura(Big word),Soejima Tanomi(Council),Maehara Kazumasa(Sangi), Bachelor of Science in Machiyoin is Toshimichi Okubo, Takayoshi Kido,Itagaki Retirement3 people are selected,Satsu NagachiRemoved the revolt of the Three Feudal clan from hard work and tried to expel the Kido faction official However, after that, the Choshu sect officials alsoHirosawa SaneomiThe struggle for the initiative of domestic affairs continued in opposition to the Sangi.After that, mutual election of high-ranking officials was also held according to the provisions of the political statement, and the ministerMimi Sanjo(Official house),AgreementToIwakura(Kuge),Naomasa Nabeshima(Saga Domainmain),Tokudaiji Mitsunori(Lord),participateToshimichi Okubo (Satsuma Domain),Takato Kido(Choshu clan),Soejima Tanomi(Saga Domain),Higashikyusei(Kuge),Shojiro Goto(Tosa Domain),Itagaki RetirementTen people (Tosa Domain) were elected.As a result, many of the daimyo and lords who were on the agenda were dismissed.Jako-no-MakotoOther than Satsunaga Dohi, the counselors other than Satsunaga Dohi were dismissed except for Yuri Echizen... In September, as a prize for the restoration of the royal government, "AwardWas given.
The new government decided to open the country as a foreign policyReverenceI bought the wrath of the faction.In the 2nd year of the Meiji eraYokoi Kogusu-Masashiro OmuraWas assassinated early, and in the same year in the Choshu clan12/1ToGentaro DairakuLeadStrange soldiers,SquadronAnd other corps caused a disturbance, and Kido was put down to suppress it.1870(Meiji 3) In JulyYonezawa DomainMaster/Tatsuo KumoiAn anti-government conspiracy case was discovered.1871(Meiji 4)Two Lords Case,Kurume Domain Difficulty Case, Foreign Affairs Right Daisuke who planned the conquest of KoreaMaruyama SakuraArrest case broke out..In this way, even the chief Satsuma, on which the new government was based, had an army that was unified with Western-style equipment and received practical training, and was an eerie existence for the new government that had just been established.Not to mentionShizuoka DomainIncludingRelative-Musical scoreHe was sensitive to the movements of the feudal lords.As a result, Hirosawa, who was in charge of the execution of Tatsuo Kumoi, was in 1871 (Meiji 4).1/9He started a one-wing flight, such as being assassinated by.In addition, it was criticized that Satsunaga Dohi was in control of national affairs, and on July 3, 7.Satsuma DomainMaster/Shotaro Yokoyama Legislative chamberProtest in front of the gateAccusedWas done.In addition to the conflict of Satsunaga Dohi within the governmentPrime MinisterとMinistry of Civil Affairs,Ministry of FinanceOkubo and Kido confronted each other over, and there was a conflict between Satsumacho, and the world was unstable..
Under these circumstances, the government promulgated "" in September, further strengthening control over the clan...It shows the common occupational system and financial regulations of the clan, and important awards and punishments are the permission of the government, simplification of the clan status, clan bonds, etc.ClanI ordered the arrangement of.On the other hand, to reduce dissatisfaction with the government11/29, Gathered the attention of various clan nationwide and returned to the clanHisamitsu ShimazuThrough the feudal government reformSatsuma DomainGathered from all over the country to strengthen their armamentsSamuraiThe Satsuma Domain, who bundled a large army of about 1 soldiers and was silently intimidating the government.Saigo TakamoriTo persuadeIwakuraAs a messenger, as an attendantToshimichi OkuboとTakato KidoHeaded to Kagoshima in search of Hisamitsu Shimazu and Takamori Saigo to move to Tokyo, and finally stabilized the administration with the consent of Takamori Saigo..
When the world became stable in this way, the government first started in July 1871 (Meiji 4).Satsu NagachiFrom the 3 clan ofSoldiersTo consolidate the central military power, and then all at onceAbandoned DomainWas carried out.261 hans nationwide have been abolished, 3Prefecture302PrefectureIn JapanCentralized unified nationIt became.GovernorとSamurai OfLuWas guaranteed and took over the clan bonds.Reform the status system andDaming-Official houseTheEthnic familyKazoku system (The Constitution of JapanThe establishment of a Japanese aristocratic system that imitated the Western style, which existed until the enforcement ofsamuraiStatusSamuraiAs an agricultural, industrial and commercial people (Common people-Tradesman) Etc.civilianage,Japanese(Yamato) Are all "People(Also called "subject" under the Meiji Constitution)Japanese peopleTo everyoneLast nameAcknowledged the nominalEquality of the four people (Four occupations)I took a policy.Family register lawWas enacted, and of the Chinese and samuraihaircutFreedom of swordsmanship and private sector marriage,fieldsKatsu handmade was approved, and the prefectural government system was established to allow the Chinese people to engage in agriculture, industry and commerce.In addition, distinguish from theseEmperorAnd blood relatedroyal(Royal familyThe status of members) was also established.1871In (Meiji 4), so-calledLiberation orderBy everEh,HininWas supposed to bePeoplePeople were also incorporated into the commoners[Annotation 10]..However, even after thatBuraku problemAs a result, the lingering sound remained.
Formation of the Meiji nation
1869In (Meiji 2),Ritual systemRevived the administrative structure of the government and improved the government office structureMiyauchi-Ministry of Civil Affairs-Ministry of Finance-Ministry of Justice-Ministry of Military-Ministry of Foreign AffairsEstablished six provinces, but existed during the era of the Ritsuryo systemMinistry of the Center-Shikibu Ministry-Ministry of MinistryThe three provinces were not revived and set up.But,Family register,Civil engineering,Tax,Ekiteijo,trade,mineHave jurisdiction overMinistry of Civil AffairsとCashier, Order,Mint,RepairHave jurisdiction overMinistry of FinanceOf both ministriesOfficialIt is,financeas well as the TradeIn questionForeignerBecause I had many opportunities to interact with them, and my job required practically rational thinking.1870In April (Meiji 3), the Ministry of Finance rebelled against the exemption from the atonement of the former morning enemy clan, and the conflict between the two ministries often became a source of confusion within the government...However, when the Ministry of Popular Affairs was later integrated into the Ministry of Finance, the powerful powers of industry and finance were concentrated in the Ministry of Finance.OfficialsIt has built up a strong force in society.
In military reformMinistry of Civil AffairsDaisukeMilitary officerVice GovernorMasashiro Omura(Choshu clan) calls for farmers to be "parent soldiers"National soldiersProceed with a plan to create a government army by1873(6th year of Meiji) November 1,Army LordYamagata YuhoAroundConscriptionPromulgated regardless of statusMitsuruMandated military service on boys over the age of 20 (but in effectConscription systemAs an exception toHeadIs exempt from drafting, mainlyHeadBecause the second sons and the children of the poor farmers other than the others served in the military service.Blood taxHappened).Military service is 3 years.All boys between the ages of 17 and 40 were given military registration and were called in when there was a war, even if they did not join the army directly.It is the principle of all men's soldiers.This principle is from 1873 (Meiji 6) to 1945 (Showa 20).Second World WarHe dominated people's lives for 72 years before the defeat.However, wealthy people such as wealthy people and wealthy people were an exception...In terms of security1874(Meiji 7) In TokyoMetropolitan Police DepartmentPlaced.Even after the abolition of the feudal clan, the Kazoku and Shizoku were provided with royalties by the government.1876(9th year of Meiji)Kinroku Public BondsWas paid and it was decided to pay it on an annual basis, and all household payments were suspended (Orderly disposal).ThisSamuraiHas dropped significantly.
In foreign affairs, on November 1871, 4 (Meiji 11), during the Edo Shogunate administration, it was connected with Western countries.Inequality treatyFor the purpose of preliminary negotiations for revision and investigation of cultural artifacts in developed countries in Europe and the United StatesIwakuraWas dispatched to Western countries with a plenipotentiary ambassador and Okubo and Kido as deputy plenipotentiaries.thisIwakura MissionToIto Hirobumi,Yamaguchi MasukaThe middle-ranking officials accompanied them and visited 1 countries for 9 year and 12 months.It was one of the purposesInequality treatyWas unsuccessful, but the government touched on the reality of Western civilizationModernization of JapanIt became a big driving force to push forward.The new government is to normalize diplomatic relations between Japan and North KoreaMr. LeeAlthough he sent a diplomatic mission to Korea, Mr. Lee adopted a thorough isolation policy,DaewonThe government did not give any answer.ThenBusanAn incident occurred in which the Korean side criticized Japan, such as obstructing the delivery of daily necessities to the Japanese legation in Japan.For these reasons, the so-called "" from summer to autumn of 1873 (Meiji 6)Conquest theoryThe controversy arose and the problem was growing. First on the agenda of the Cabinet on June 6[Annotation 11]..Therefore, the government decided at a cabinet meeting on August 8th.Saigo TakamoriDecided to appoint a Korean dispatch envoy.
Western countriesKoreaBe wary of advancingSaigo Takamori-Itagaki RetirementPress for the opening of KoreaConquest theoryWas chanted.However, Tomomi Iwakura and Toshimichi Okubo, who returned from a visit to Europe and the United States in 1873 (Meiji 6), insisted on the priority of domestic reform and opposed this (XNUMXth year of Meiji era）[Annotation 12]..After 5 counselors such as Saigo, Soejima, Goto, Itagaki, and Eto went down,Ganghwa Island Incident1876 (Meiji 9)Japan-Asia morning regulationThe (Ganghwa Treaty) was signed to open Korea.Also,Clear country1871 (Meiji 4)Nisshin Osamu RegulationsTieRyukyu Domain1874 (Meiji 7)TaiwanDispatched to (The role of the conquest).Then1879(12th year of Meiji)OkinawaWas installed.For Russia1875(Meiji 8)Karafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyTie theKarafutoThe Russian territory,Kuril IslandsWas designated as Japanese territory.AlsoOgasawara Islands-尖 閣 諸島-TakeshimaWas also designated as Japanese territory, and the territory of Japan was once established.
In domestic administrationAbsence governmentIn February 1872 (Meiji 5)Tabata Eiyo TradingLifting of ban, in AprilShoya,LordTheChiefRenamed to the general public in JulyLand ticketOkubo, who issued the issue and returned to Japan, returned to Japan in 1873 (Meiji 6).Ministry of InteriorInstalled,Aquaculture industryFocus on trainingHired foreignerUsingTomioka SilkAnd many moreGovernment factoryWas established.On the financial sideMinistry of Civil AffairsIntegratedMinistry of FinanceLord Okura, Okubo and Daisuke OkuraJun InoueEstablished the Revision Bureau and reports to InoueEiichi ShibusawaWas appointed as the chief of the han system, and in 1871 (Meiji 4), each clanClanEtc. are abolishedNew coin regulationsEstablished, the unit of moneyYen-Money-厘Unified to.1872(Meiji 5)National Bank OrdinanceEstablishedNational bankWas made in various places.
Ezo TheHokkaidoIt was changed toPioneerPutTun TianbingWe developed a full-scale development business together with.In communication, in the Edo periodHikyakuInstead of the system, firstSanfu1871 (Meiji 4) in (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka)PostThe business started,TelegraphAlso in 1869 (Meiji 2) Tokyo-YokohamaOpened between.1872 (Meiji 5) for transportationShinbashi-Government-owned between YokohamaTrainHas opened.Shipping business under government protectionMitsubishi CorporationDeveloped around.Architecture etc.BrickBuildings can be seen, oil lamps are lit in the houses, and street lightsGas lampAppeared,Carriage,rickshawCame to run.For military uniformOutfitWas adopted, and government officials gradually westernized their clothes.Also, aiming for the westernized Japanese marketStandard Chartered Bank,Friedrich Bayer,Daihoku Telecom CompanyForeign capital has entered the market one after another.
judicialIn terms ofLegalismとJurisdictionIndependence,Separation of three powersTo promote the first generationJudiciary-Shinpei EtoWas in charge of that, but the chief of the Choshu clan, who was absentKonoe GuardYamagata YuhoBut,Ministry of ArmyPurveyor-Yamashiroya WasukeAllegedly involved in the public money consumption caseYamashiroya Incident,Daisuke Okura-Jun Inoue(Choshu clan) abused his authority to wind up Osarizawa Mine from civilians (Osarizawa Copper Mine Incident), From the Choshu clanKyotoCounselorMasanano MakimuraViolently pursued oppression of the people裁判 所Due to the conflict over the establishment budget, the three people were temporarily forced to resign.ChoshuBy clearing the clan, Eto gradually became a presence that was smoked from within the government.Absence governmentFiveCouncil(Saigo-Eto-Itagaki-Goto-Soejima) It became one of the beginnings of dismissal.
On July 1876, 9 (Meiji 7), in order to create expenses for the new government, "Ground revisionPromulgated the ordinance,FarmlandSet the price of a good harvest regardless of a good harvest or a bad harvestland taxTheLand priceWe decided to have the landowner pay in cash.LandlordHas come to be legally allowed to own land.But with the landownerPeasantThe relationship has not changed, and the peasant has made the landowner pay the peasant fee in kind as before.Homebrew and peasants have been put in a difficult position without the burden being lighter than before.The landowner bought the land of other farmers and exchanged the land for money to increase their wealth.And some of them disposed of the land and turned into capitalists.Eventually, all the land cultivation was left to the peasants, and the number of absentee landowners who received only money and lived in urban areas increased...Dissatisfaction with the draft order and opposition to the land tax reform often led to a rebellion in 1876 (Meiji 9).MieOccurred inIse riot(Tokai University), Ibaraki Prefecture, etc.Opposition to ground revisionIn response to these factors, the land tax rate had to be reduced to 2.5% the following year.as a result,land taxTo pay農民The burden on the Edo period was reduced by about 20%.
In terms of culture, in November 1872 (Meiji 5)solar calendarAdopted,CivilizationThe trend ofFukuzawa Yukichi-West Zhou-Yuri Mori-Nakamura HonestRagaMeirokushaWas formed to spread modern scholarship and knowledge throughout Japan through writings and lectures.Nakae ChominPreach a new ideaEnlightenment ThoughtA house has also appeared.PrintDue to technological progress, Japan's first daily newspaper "Yokohama Mainichi NewspaperBeginningNews (Chinese)Was launched one after another.A school system was established so that all citizens could receive education, and in 1872 (Meiji 5), "School systemWas promulgated and schools were established all over the country.In the new governmentMunenori Terashima-Kohei Kanda-Haruzo YanagawaWe invited scholars such as, to manage it.In the maintenance of educational institutionsUniversity dormitory"School building" proposal modeled onTamamatsu Misao-Hirata Iron Seed-Genno YanoI ordered them to draft.Religiousin terms ofShintoTrying to nationalizeDivine and Buddhist separation orderWas issued.In response to thisBuddhism in JapanWas rooted inTemple contract systemSome people were dissatisfied withAbolition of BuddhaWill be done.1870(Meiji 3) The Daikyo was proclaimed and a holiday was established. The Emperor's Birthday in 1873 (Meiji 6)Tencho(CurrentEmperor's birthday holiday),Emperor JimmuThe day when was enthroned (660 BC2/11)Era(CurrentFoundation Day). In 1873 (Meiji 6)キ リ ス ト 教Lifted the ban.It was stipulated in the later Constitution of the Empire of JapanSeparation of politics and religionFrom the institutional requestNational ShintoIt changed to religious administration based on (shrine non-religious theory).
The change for the modernization of the new Meiji government was so hasty that it often ignored the reality of people's lives.In particular,Abandoned DomainとConscriptionBreaks the armed monopoly of the samurai,Soldiers TheGuardsIt is a local administrative system that was renamed as and intended for centralization.Large Ward Small Ward SystemWas extremely unpopular because it set up an organization that only communicated and enforced central orders, ignoring traditional local autonomy, and respected local autonomy to some extent.County, ward, town and village systemIt has been revised in a short period of time.Most of the key positions of the new governmentShocho Toi OfFeudal clanBecause it was composed of people, all over the countrySamuraiWas deprived of his privileges and was financially stuck.As a result of growing dissatisfaction with the governmentWhite Paper on Establishment of Minsen SenateFrom the beginningSamurai rebellion-Freedom Civil Rights MovementFinally occurred in 1874 (Meiji 7)IwakuraAttempted assassination (Weirdness of eating) Outbreak.
Weirdness of eatingAfter,Toshimichi OkuboTo give the Seikanron sect a way out of dissatisfactionTaiwanI started to conquer.Became the secretary of TaiwanSaigo servantAppointed, "Taiwan troopsWas done.1874(Meiji 7) In May, the conquest army settled the land.Toshimichi Okubo becomes Minister of Special AttorneyClear country OfBeijingQing dynasty pays 50 to JapanBothAgreed on the condition of paying.Okubo, who cleared up the Taiwan issue, despite the Satsuma RebellionMinistry of InteriorLed by Toshimichi Okubo, Vice PresidentMasayoshi MatsukataUnder, the firstNational Business ExpositionHeld.Steel millAnd a vocational workshopAquaculture industryProgresses, and in parallel with itOrderly disposalThe samurai who did not take advantage of the samurai rebellion graduallyBourgeoisieとproletariatDisassembled into.
Shizoku Rebellion (Freedom and People's Rights Movement)
1873 (Meiji 6)Conquest theoryShimotsuke due to political changeItagaki RetirementThe following year, 1874 (Meiji 7)Shojiro Goto-Shinpei Eto-Soejima TanomiRatoPatriotic Public PartyFormed,YuriRatoWhite Paper on Establishment of Minsen Senate[Annotation 13] Was submitted to the Government Left House in January 7.KochiToRishishaTo establish.The publication of this white paper in newspapers around the world has led to a movement centered on the samurai who are dissatisfied with the government.On the other hand, discussions on whether or not to establish a private election chamber have been actively exchanged in newspapers and magazines.[Annotation 14]..The following year, 1875 (Meiji 8)Patriotic companyIs formed,Osaka ConferenceItagakiCouncilReturn toApologize for the establishment of a gradual constitutional governmentAnd the official electionSenateProvidedGrand courtEstablished a lay judge systemLocal government meetingTo discuss the establishment of a local council.On the other hand, the governmentNewspaper regulations,RhythmEnacted to crack down on radical anti-government speech activities.Later RisshishaSouthwest WarTrying to raise troops by taking advantage ofRitsushisha's prisonHas occurred and executives have been arrested.
Named in the White Paper on the Establishment of the Minsen SenateShinpei EtoIn 1874 (Meiji 7) in his hometown of SagaYoshiyuki ShimaAt the same time, he became the chief of the complaining tribe and rebelled (Saga no Ran).The government subdued this,Abandoned sword,HouseDue to the abolition of the systemSamuraiDissatisfaction increased[Annotation 15].. 1876 (Meiji 9) in KumamotoKamikaze Ren, In FukuokaAkizuki no Ran, In YamaguchiHagi no RanA series of rebellions occurred, and the next1877(Meiji 10) FinallySaigo TakamoriApproximately 4 people, including the Kagoshima Shizoku, who are heads of the government, raised soldiers against the government (Southwest War).The Satsuma Rebellion was a big challenge for the government, and it took about eight months to mobilize a new army.KyusyuFierce battles were fought in various places.Kido died of illness during the war, Saigo also committed suicide, and the next day1878In (Meiji 11), Okubo became a complainer in Tokyo.Ichiro ShimadaWas assassinated by 6 people (Kioizaka's strange).In this way, the Meiji government's "Three Great Nobles of the RestorationThe system is over,ChiefVeteranBureaucrats byFeudal clanThe administration has been established.
Freedom Civil Rights MovementThe common purpose of the Diet was to open the Diet.gradually農民The support layer spreads between1880(Meiji 13) Civil rights groups nationwideOsakaGather atPatriotic companyOpen the tournamentDiet parliamentary allianceFormed over 8 peoplesignatureWas lined up.My pseudo-constitutionBegan to be drafted, and more than 40 volumes were published.United KingdomBicameral parliamentary politicsCompany,Omeisha), Popular sovereignty and unicameralism (Rissisha,Uemori Emori), Dominance (Itsukaichi Constitution), Etc. were often announced by civil rights groups.1881(14th year of Meiji)Pioneer ambassador property withdrawal caseOriginated inPolitical change of the XNUMXth year of Meijiso,Takeshi Inoue-Ito Hirobumi-IwakuraProponents of the German Constitution were radicals advocating the opening of an immediate parliament.OfficialExiled from the governmentConfession of the opening of the DietIs issued,1890He promised the people to open a parliament in (Meiji 23).As a result, he was banished from the Meiji government.Itagaki Retirement TheLiberal party,Genichiro Fukuchi TheRikken Teisei Party,Ohte Shigenobu TheConstitutional reform partyAnd tried to prepare for the upcoming parliament.
1882(Meiji 15) Farmers who opposed the road construction projectLiberal partyMembers were arrested (Fukushima incident),continueKabayama Incident-Chichibu caseThere were outbursts by Liberal Party members in various parts of eastern Japan.In this way, the Freedom and People's Rights Movement declined,1887(20th year of Meiji)Daido unity movementI approached the government to wake up, but the governmentSecurity OrdinanceExiled many civil rights activists from Tokyo.On the financial side, after the Satsuma RebellioninflationTo organizeLord OkuraMasayoshi MatsukataIn 1882 (Meiji 15)Bank of JapanFounded,1885Can be exchanged for specie silver coins from (Meiji 18)Convertible banknotesWas issued (Silver standard). AlsoGovernment factoryFrom the effect of surplus to the private sectorPolitical commerceWas born, and later theseChaebolWas formed.
In 1882 (Meiji 15), Ito, who took control within the government, visited Europe for a constitutional investigation.[Annotation 16]..After returning to Japan1884(17th year of Meiji)Chinese lawTo the people who have made a contribution to the nationKnighthoodGiveEthnic familyage,AristocratEstablished a Kazoku system to create. In 1885 (Meiji 18), the Daijo-kan system was abolished.Cabinet systemIntroduced, the first generationPrime MinisterHirobumi Ito was appointed to1888(Meiji 21) Newly establishedPrivy CouncilWas also appointed chairman. In 1888 (Meiji 21)Municipal system,Municipal system,Prefecture system,County systemWas promulgated and local autonomy was implemented. 1889 (Meiji 22)Imperial Japanese Constitution, The following 1890 (Meiji 23)EducationWas promulgated.
The composition of the initial cabinet after ItoSatsuma Domain(Kiyotaka Kuroda, Matsukata Masayoshi)Choshu clan(Ito Hirobumi,Yamagata Yuho), November 1890, 23 (Meiji 11)Imperial AssemblyThe curtain has opened.After that, due to intense election interferencePeople's PartyI tried to suppress1892Established in (Meiji 25)Second Ito CabinetAt that time with the governmentLiberal partyGradually made a compromise and began to cooperate in managing politics.
Treaty revision issue
19st centuryIn the second halfAsiaMany countries of Western countriesColonyIt was,BakumatsuRevised the unequal treaty since thenCustoms autonomy(Recovery of tax rights)Consular court systemAchieving the abolition of the law (restoration of legal rights) was of utmost importance for Japan in order to stand on an equal footing with Western countries.1871(Meiji 4), with JapanClear country TheNisshin Osamu RegulationsSigned.1873(Meiji 6)Foreign Minister-Soejima TanomiHad an audience with the Emperor of the Qing dynasty and exchanged the Sino-Japanese Friendship and Regulations ratification document.
1878(Meiji 11)Foreign Minister-Munenori TerashimaUnderAmericaNegotiations to restore tax rights were concluded withUnited KingdomThe new treaty did not come into effect due to opposition such as.SucceededForeign Minister-Jun Inoue TheEuropeanization policyTo take the customs and lifestyleWesternizationAnd tried to take advantage of the negotiations.1883(Meiji 16)HibiyaBuilt in "RokumeikanIn the Western style by senior government officials and foreign ministersDanceIt was opened steadily.Inoue's amendment opens Japan to foreigners (Inland multi-tenant) Instead of recovering part of the tax right,Consular court systemWas to be abolished,National powerThere was strong opposition from inside and outside the government that it would hurt1887(Meiji 20) Negotiations were canceled and Inoue resigned.
Following this1889(Meiji 22) Foreign Minister Shigenobu Okuma of the United StatesGermany-RussiaSigned a new treaty withGrand court(CurrentSupreme CourtEquivalent to) only foreignersjudgeI had approved the appointment ofNewspaper Japan』Based onToho AssociationStarting with membersNational AssociationOf the conservatives who leadShinagawa Yanjiro,Koyata Torio, Civil rightsHoshi ToruAgain, there was an opposition movement in Japan.OkumaGenyoshaNegotiations were canceled and the new treaty did not come into effect after being injured by a bomb thrown by an activist.Aoki ShuzoForeign Minister's negotiations1891Crown Prince of the Russian Empire who visited Japan in (Meiji 24) (at that time, laterNikolai IIThe emperor) is ShigaOtsuOf guardPolice officerInjured by being attacked byOtsu Incident), The treaty revision was difficult, such as frustration.
After that, EnglandEast AsiaHe became more cautious about Russia's expansion of power in Japan and began to respond to the revision of the treaty with Japan.1894(Meiji 27)Minister of Foreign AffairsMutsumitsu MutsuIs the minister to the UKAoki ShuzoTo proceed with negotiationsUnited KingdomBetweenConsular courtWith the abolition ofCustoms autonomy"Partial recovery ofAnglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and NavigationWas successfully signed.The full restoration of customs autonomy was later carried over.
Imperial Japanese Constitution
- Until the establishment of the constitution
- Ito Hirobumi TheTakeshi Inoue,Daiji Ito,Kentaro Kaneko,Hermann LoesslerStarted preparations for the establishment of the Constitution in 1888 (Meiji 21).Privy CouncilWas installed.And 1889 (Meiji 22)Kiyotaka KurodaStrong monarchy at the time of the cabinetPrussiaImitated the constitutionImperial Japanese ConstitutionWas enacted in the form of being given to his vassals by Emperor Meiji.
- Contents of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan
- The constitution isEmperorTheArticle 3Defined as sacred and inviolableArticle 4Take control of the sovereigntyHeadIt was stipulated.In other words, formally, the emperor was the general ruler of power.
- The three rights are as follows.FirstlegislationAlthough it is a right, the emperor is in Article 5Imperial AssemblyIt was stipulated that it would be exercised with the support of.The emperor's legislative power is generally centered on the approval of the law, and the approval is made by the Minister of State.countersignatureWas needed.In other words, the bill is passed by the emperor after passing through the minister's countersign.Also, the Imperial DietelectionConsists of members of parliament selected byHouse of Representatives(House) andEthnic family,royalConsists ofAristocrat(Senate)Second HouseConsists of.SecondAdministrationRight, but laterThe Constitution of JapanUnlikeParliamentary Cabinet SystemIn Article 55, the Minister of State was mourning the Emperor and was individually liable, not based on joint and several liability.ThirdJurisdictionHowever, in Article 57, the court had jurisdiction by law in the name of the emperor.
- There are two main issues with this constitution:The first is stipulated in Article 2, "The Emperor is the Army and Navy (Imperial Japanese Army-Imperial Japanese Navy) Was the rule.Ministry of Army-Ministry of NavyThe Cabinet and the Imperial Diet have the military (Army:Chief of Staff, Navy:Military department) Could not be directly involved.The second is "free within the scope of the law" stipulated in Article 2.SubjectIt was a (national) right.
- In addition, Kiyotaka KurodaThe prime minister confronted the parliament, stating that "the government's political stance is to take unpredictable and fair measures regardless of the movement of political parties."
- After that, in 1889 (Meiji 22)Imperial Japanese ConstitutionWith the promulgation "House of RepresentativesMemberelectionThe law was promulgated, and "only for boys aged 15 and over who paid a national tax of 25 yen or more directly"Voting rightIn 1890 (Meiji 23), the first 1st election was held.Imperial AssemblyWas opened.
- The promulgation of the Constitution established a national system centered on the emperor, recognized the rights and freedoms of the people, and paved the way for participation in national affairs.Although inadequate, it has begun its path to a modern nation with a constitution and parliament ahead of other Asian nations.
- Japanese lawInCivil law-Commercial lawVarious codes such as were also enacted.Civil law is FrenchGustave Emile BoissonardWith the advice ofFrench Civil CodeAnd JapanCustomary lawIt was an eclectic of, but in particular, "the provisions regarding the family systemPatriarchyThe implementation was temporarily postponed due to criticism that it disobeys the beauty of Japan based on.
Japan is1882(15th year of Meiji)Noon eventと1884(17th year of Meiji)Koshin political changeTriggered byKoreaAroundclearConflict withKono Peasant WarTriggered by1894(27th year of Meiji)Sino-Japanese warBroke out.At that time, the national power was all about financial strength, warships, equipment, and number of troops.clearWas superior, but Japan, which won in morale and training, won.Shimonoseki TreatyThe following contents were clearly acknowledged.
- Korea OfindependentApproval of
- As a territoryLiaodong Peninsula,Taiwan,Penghu IslandsCeded
- Compensation(2 millionBoth (tail), 3 million yen in Japanese yen)
- Chongqing-Changsha-Suzhou-Hangzhou4 ports opened
As a result of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, against Qing KoreaSovereigntyWas denied and here was the international order of East AsiaBookbinding systemHas come to an end (Mr. Lee The1897(30th year of Meiji)Korean EmpireIndependent as).But,Liaodong PeninsulaIs from Russia, France and GermanyThree countries interferenceAs a result of being returned by (acquiring 3000 million cars in return), the people were humiliated and retaliation was fueled (Lying).
As a result, Japan joined the ranks of the great powers due to this war, and was recognized by the Western powers.On the other hand, it was said to be a "sleeping lion."clearWas defeated, which accelerated the colonization of mainland China by the great powers.In addition, the compensation for the Sino-Japanese War1897(30th year of Meiji)Gold standardBecame the source of enforcementGovernment-managed Yawata WorksConstruction (1901The results of the war had an economic impact, such as being used as funds for (established in 34).Meanwhile, Japan has become able to openly demand the abolition of unequal treaties with foreign countries.
Sino-Japanese warAfter the end,Russian EmpirePressures Qing, on the Liaodong PeninsulaJourney order,DalianI borrowed.Also,Siberian RailwayAnd its branch linesTosei RailwayBuiltSouthward policyI proceeded with.Above allGiwadan RebellionSince (Boxer Rebellion), Russia hasManchuriaThe army was stationed in the area to secure interests.Japan to restrain Russia's movement1902(Meiji 35) With EnglandJapan-UK AllianceWas concluded.At that time, in the world's first great empire, "Glorious isolationThe United Kingdom, which had been through the sovereignty, signed the alliance for the first time, and Japan, which is an emerging nation in Asia, received the attention of the world. There were also satires trying to pick up (China).After that, Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula faced conflicting interests with the Russian Empire.Russo-Japanese WarBroke out.
After landing on the Liaodong Peninsula, the ArmySiege siege,Mukdenkai BattleIt succeeded in retreating the Russian Army, which surpasses the overwhelming amount.On the other hand, the Navy will eventuallyBattle of the Sea of JapanIn russiaBaltic fleetWas annihilated.
Russia still maintained its army, but leaned towards peace as it lost most of its naval power and the revolutionary movement was developing within the country.Japan has not achieved economic development that can withstand the long-term war, so the Foreign MinisterTotaro KomuraIs the president of the United StatesTheodore RooseveltI asked him to act as an intermediary and brought it to peace.Ended the Russo-Japanese WarPortsmouth TreatyThe contents of are as follows.
- Russia recognizes Japan's political, military and economic priorities in South Korea.
- Lushunkou in the Qing dynasty, leasehold rights in Dalian, andChangchunTransfer the railways south of the south and the rights attached to them to Japan.
- north latitudeSouth of 50 degreesKarafuto(IeNanabatta) And its attached islands.
- Sea of Okhotsk,Bering Sea OfFishing rightsTo Japan.
AfterGreat East Asian WarAnti-war claims are relatively acceptable compared to the times,Man morning reportAccording toToshihiko Sakai-KatayamaLanoAnti-war movementAndキ リ ス ト 教From the standpoint ofUchimura Kanzo OfNon-war theoryWas also chanted.
Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese WarCaucasianAgainst the great powersColored raceIt ’s a victory for a small country,World historyThe above significance was also great.First Ethiopian WarでEthiopian Empire Italy kingdomThere is precedent for victory in, but this was due to the full military support of Britain and France.Therefore, Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War can be said to be the first modern victory over a white race nation by an army unique to a colored race nation.
Realization of treaty revision and the road to an imperialist state
1905(38th year of Meiji),Korean Government OfficeFor the first lord-lieutenantIto HirobumiWas appointed,1908He resigned in (Meiji 41).Also,1906(39th year of Meiji)Portsmouth TreatyWon byLiaodong PeninsulaSouthern (Kanto)andChangchunSouth ofTosei RailwayAgainst eachKanto Government-General,South Manchuria Railway Co., Ltd.(Manchuria Railway) was installed.afterwards1909(Meiji 42) June,2st Katsura Cabinet South Korea annexationCabinet decision,10/26ItoRussiaI went to Mitsuru to have a meeting withHarbinWhen you arrive atKorean EmpireIndependence activistAn ZhonggenWas shot and assassinated.1910(Meiji 43)Japan-Korea consolidation treatyConsolidate the Korean Empire and line up with the great powers hereImperialismI went up to the nation.The record of victory over Russia, a major power, has also affected other countries.
1911(Meiji 44), Japan is new to the United StatesUS-Japan Trade and Navigation Treaty, And the same treaties with the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy.Minister of Foreign AffairsTotaro KomuraSucceeded in the full restoration of customs autonomy, thereby improving the unequal treaty that was once signed with the Western powers during the administration of the Edo Shogunate into an equal interstate treaty.Treaty revisionWith the completion of the main part of Japan, Japan has overcome many years of challenges and has established equal international relations with Western European countries in both name and reality.KaeiSince the yearBlack shipAnd the creation of a modern nation alongside the Western powers that we aimed for after that was achieved for the time being.[Annotation 17].
after that,World War ICompleted by the peace ofVersailles systemIn the world of Japan1920Established in (Taisho 9)League of NationsToPermanent memberIt was decided to be counted as one of the great powers in about 50 years since the Meiji Restoration.
Chronology of treaty revision negotiations for the Meiji era
On your own without being colonizedModernizationJapan, which has reformed to1894(Meiji 27)英国And achieved the treaty revision, starting with thisBakumatsuSinceInequality treatyWas resolved.It was the one who achieved this completelySouth Korea annexationAfter that.
- Nihon Shukou Trade and Navigation Treaty(1869[Meiji 2]): The unequal treaty system for Japan by Western countries is completed.
- Iwakura MissionDispatch (1871[Meiji 4]): Treaty revision negotiations failed.
- Foreign MinisterMunenori TerashimaNegotiations by1876[Meiji 9]- 1878[Meiji 11]): The United States agrees with the restoration of tax rights, but Britain and Germany oppose it and fail.
- Foreign MinisterJun InoueNegotiations by1882[Meiji 15]- 1888[Meiji 21]):RokumeikanBy the construction ofEuropeanization policy, Hiring a foreign judge in the court, etc. →Boissonade,Yajo Castle,NationalistRepulsion,Normanton caseInoue resigned due to the failure of.
- Negotiations by Foreign Minister Shigenobu Okuma (1888 [Meiji 21]- 1889[Meiji 22]): Hiring a foreign judge only in the Supreme Court is leaked to the London Times →Genyosha OfTsuneki KurushimaEncountered terrorism and resigned.
- Foreign MinisterAoki ShuzoNegotiations by (1889 [Meiji 22]- 1891[Meiji 24]): Britain agreed to restore legal rights,Otsu IncidentIt was a failure.
- Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation(1894[Meiji 27]): Foreign MinisterMutsumitsu Mutsu, EnglandExtraterritorial lawAbolition (Consular courtAbolition) is approved.
- US-Japan Trade and Navigation Treaty(1911[Meiji 44]): Foreign MinisterJutaro Komura, Japan to AmericaCustoms autonomyTo be admitted.
HoweverMeiji RestorationWhen that happenedDivine and Buddhist separation orderByAbolition of BuddhaExercise has taken place.the 1870s(Meiji 3-12) In the middle of the year, imports of Western civilization began in earnest.1872(Meiji 5) "Aquaculture industry"byRailway openingとTomioka SilkThe establishment is a symbolic event.
Matsukata DeflationDue to the recession,National Business ExpositionAfter the implementation ofSino-Japanese warBy victorylight industryCentered onIndustrial revolutionIs in full swing.1901In (Meiji 34), it was Japan's first Western-style steelworks.Government-managed Yawata WorksOpened,Heavy industryAnnounced the rise of.
- 1868(The first year of the Meiji era）
- Meiji Restoration,Divine and Buddhist separation order, July EdoTokyoRenamed, the town of China was placed,Edo prefecture TheTokyoIt became.Yukiyuki Tokyo(9/20Kago ~10/12Arrive in Tokyo),京都Return (November).This year, farmers rioted in various prefectures such as Nagano and Tochigi.
- 1869(Meiji 2）
- Tokyo Shrine.. ::Boshin WarThe end ofBattle of Goryokaku.Redemption(March).PoliticsIntroduction.Ezo,HokkaidoRenamed,PioneerInstallation (August).
- 1870(Meiji 3）
- Sun flagBecomes the national flag (merchant ship rules).Sakhalin PioneerEstablished.Noon Incident.Last namePermit order (common surname difference).Yokohama Mainichi NewspaperPublished.
- 1871(Meiji 4）
- New coin regulationsEnactment.Abandoned Domain,nationwidePrefecture(3 prefectures and 72 prefectures).Family register law(Next)18722/1More implemented:Family register),Nisshin Osamu Regulations,New coin regulations..In this year, the former feudal lords moved to Tokyo in various prefectures such as Okayama and Shimane.Iwakura MissionDispatch.Miyakojima Islander Accident.
- 1872(Meiji 5）
- School system.Ryukyu DomainInstallation,Ryukyu KingSubstantial decommissioning.Conducted a national family register survey for the first time (total population 3311).Adoption of the solar calendar (November 825th calendar reform rescript).2/15,Ei Tabata Trading BanSolved, Meiji 512/2The day after the Meiji 6th year1/1And).
- 1873(6th year of Meiji)
- Emperor JimmuEnthronement day2/11Again,EraTo enact.Conscription.Ground revision.Conquest theoryproblem(XNUMXth year of Meiji era : Saigo Takamori-Itagaki RetirementEtc. is Shimono).
- 1874(7th year of Meiji)
- White Paper on the Establishment of the People's Assembly.Saga no Ran.Taiwan troops..In this year, about 21 cases of peasant turmoil such as opposition to land tax reform in various prefectures such as Akita and Kochi.
- 1875(8th year of Meiji)
- 2/13,civilianProclamation of surname.4/14,Left house-RightAbolishedSenate-Grand court-Local government meetingIt is said that a constitutional government will be built for a while.Karafuto-Kishima Exchange Treaty.6/20, The 1st Local Government Conference is held.6/28,Rhythm-Newspaper regulationsTo determine.9/30,Ganghwa Island IncidentOccur.This year, there were about 15 peasant riots in Fukuoka and Shimane.Osaka Conference,Orderly disposal,National Bank Ordinance.
- 1876(9th year of Meiji)
- Japan-Asia morning regulation(Jianghua Treaty), banned swords (Abandoned sword),Chikuma PrefectureThe following 14 prefectures were abolished (3 prefectures and 35 prefectures),Kamikaze RenRanAkizuki no Ran-Hagi no Ran-Shiambashi IncidentOccur.Ibaraki Prefecture Farmers IkkiIse riot(Mie Prefecture Farmers Ikki),Aichi-Gifu-Sakai prefectureIt spreads down.In this year, there were about 26 peasant uproars mainly over land tax and land price revisions in prefectures such as Tottori and Nagano.Ogasawara IslandsTheJapan OfPossessionAnd
- 1877(10th year of Meiji)
- land taxReduced to 100 / 2.5, February 2,Southwest WarBegins (September 9, Saigo Takamori suicide). On February 24, 2 Kumamoto citizens rioted. August,cholera, Occurs in Nagasaki and Yokohama (~ 10, epidemic nationwide).This year, there were about 47 peasant uproars in Kumamoto and other prefectures.
- 1878(11th year of Meiji)
- Local three new law,Kioizaka's strange, Announced the family register table of the survey on January 1876, 1 (1 households, 7,293,110 population).Takebashi Incident.
- 1879(12th year of Meiji)
- 8/31, Emperor Taishō Akimiya (Emperor Taisho)birth.Ryukyu disposal,OkinawaInstalled,Ryukyu KingdomDestruction.
- 1880(13th year of Meiji)
- Diet parliamentary allianceIs formed.You areA song is attached to.
- 1881(14th year of Meiji)
- Pioneer ambassador property withdrawal case,Political change of the XNUMXth year of Meiji.Confession of the opening of the DietIs issued. →Ohte ShigenobuAfter the fallLord OkuraMasayoshi MatsukatabyMatsukata Deflation).Hawaiian Kingdom OfKalakauaThe king came to Japan.
- 1882(15th year of Meiji)
- Fukushima incident.Noon event
- 1883(16th year of Meiji)
- Army War CollegeOpened.RokumeikanOpening.
- 1884(17th year of Meiji)
- Gunma Incident,Kabayama Incident,Chichibu case,Koshin political change,Daido unity movement
- 1885(18th year of Meiji)
- Osaka incident,Silver standard,Tianjin Treaty (Nissin),CabinetThe system was launched.
- 1886(19th year of Meiji)
- Normanton case
- 1887(20th year of Meiji)
- Security Ordinance
- 1888(21th year of Meiji)
- Naval collegeOpened.Sino-Japanese good trade treatyConclusion.Kagawa EhimeMore independent.
- 1889(22th year of Meiji)
- Imperial Japanese ConstitutionPromulgation.Promulgation of the House of Representatives election law and the House of Peers ordinance.Municipal system-Municipal systemIs enforced.
- 1890(23th year of Meiji)
- 1th House of Representatives general election(Closed on March 1891, 3), 7stImperial AssemblyConvene, "Education』Promulgation,Prefecture system-County systemIs executed.From the end of the year, the "Meiji 23 Depression" begins.
- 1891(24th year of Meiji)
- Otsu Incident,Ashio Copper Mine Poisoning Case,Nobi earthquake.
- 1892(25th year of Meiji)
- 2th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 18].
- 1894(27th year of Meiji)
- 3th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 19],4th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 20],Kono Peasant War(Donghak Peasant) →Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation→Sino-Japanese war (-1895 [Meiji 28]).
- 1895(28th year of Meiji)
- Shimonoseki TreatyIn JapanTaiwan-Penghu Islands-Liaodong PeninsulaEarned,Three countries interferenceDeprived the Liaodong Peninsula of territory.Yawata Works.
- 1896(29th year of Meiji)
- Meiji Sanriku Earthquake
- 1897(30th year of Meiji)
- Monetary lawMake
- 1898(31th year of Meiji)
- 5th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 21],Otsu Incident,6th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 22].
- 1900(33th year of Meiji)
- Giwadan Rebellion(Boxer Rebellion).Security police law
- 1901(34th year of Meiji)
- 4/29, Hirohito Sumiya (Emperor Showa)birth.Ashio Copper Mine Poisoning Case,Government-managed Yawata WorksOperation is started.
- 1902(35th year of Meiji)
- Japan-UK AllianceConclusion.7th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 23].
- 1903(36th year of Meiji)
- 8th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 24].
- 1904(37th year of Meiji)
- Russo-Japanese War(- 1905[Meiji 38]),9th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 25].
- 1905(38th year of Meiji)
- Battle of the Sea of Japan.Portsmouth Treaty.Hibiya burning incident.Second Japan-Korea Agreement.
- 1906(39th year of Meiji)
- Railway National LawPromulgation.South Manchuria RailwayEstablished.
- 1907(40th year of Meiji)
- The Hague Emissary Case
- 1908(41th year of Meiji)
- Red Flag Incident.10th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 26].
- 1909(42th year of Meiji)
- Hirobumi Ito # Assassination
- 1910(43th year of Meiji)
- South Korea annexation.Great reverse case(High Treason IncidentOthers).
- 1911(44th year of Meiji)
- Customs autonomyBy the recovery ofBakumatsuSinceInequality treatyIs completely abolished.
- 1912(45th year of Meiji/First year of Taisho era)
- 11th House of Representatives general election[Annotation 27].. the firstGuardian movement(Constitutional defense movement).7/30, Meiji Emperor Demise,Crown Prince YoshihitoIs practiced by the emperor,TaishoIt will be changed to.
Comparison table with the Christian era
* Indicates a small month.
|The first year of the Meiji era(舊舰）||September※||October||November||December※|
|AD||1868/ 10 / 23||11/14||12/14||1869/ 1 / 13|
|Meiji 2(Yin Earth Snake）||January||February||March||April※||May※||June||July※||August※||September||October※||November||December|
|AD||1869/ 2 / 11||3/13||4/12||5/12||6/10||7/9||8/8||9/6||10/5||11/4||12/3||1870/ 1 / 2|
|Meiji 3(Noon）||January※||February||March||April※||May||June※||July||August※||September||October※||Leap October*||November||December※|
|AD||1870/ 2 / 1||3/2||4/1||5/1||5/30||6/29||7/28||8/27||9/25||10/25||11/23||12/22||1871/ 1 / 21|
|AD||1871/ 2 / 19||3/21||4/20||5/19||6/18||7/18||8/16||9/15||10/14||11/13||12/12||1872/ 1 / 10|
|AD||1872/ 2 / 9||3/9||4/8||5/7||6/6||7/6||8/4||9/3||10/3||11/1||12/1||12 / 30-12 / 31|
|Zodiac signs||舊舰||Yin Earth Snake||Noon||Spicy||Renshen||Guiyou||Jiaxu||Otsuya||Priest||Ding Chou|
|Zodiac signs||Yang Earth Tiger||Oneself||Dragon||Spicy||Noon||Guiwei||Jiashen||Otoro||Bingxu||Yin Fire Pig|
|Zodiac signs||Wu Zi||Ugly||Gora Tora||Xinmao||Renchen||Ryomi||Jiawu||Yiwei||Bingshen||Ding You|
|Zodiac signs||Penny||Jihai||Gengzi||Spicy||Yang Water Tiger||Lichen||Jiachen||Otomi||Bing Wu||Ding Wei|
|Zodiac signs||Yang Earth Monkey||Jiyou||Family||Xinhai||Renzi|
Meiji in modern times
2011(23)10/1At the time of, born in the Meiji era in JapanpopulationIs 7, 1% of the total population..Subsequent statistics have been announced by adding up to the population born in the Taisho era (the population born in the Taisho era in 2011 was 417 million, 3.3 of the total population.% ).
Approximately 2019 people were born in the Meiji era and lived until the day of Reiwa Kai (May 5, 1)..
From around 2020, there are cases where the number of survivors born in the Meiji era is one or zero among 47 prefectures...In Iwate, Tochigi, and Toyama prefectures, the oldest people are in the first year or two years of the Taisho era., The prefectures where the survivors born in 44 or 45 are the oldest in the prefecture are about half of all prefectures.Especially for men born in the Meiji eraRegional unitThere is also a place where there is only one person.
All born in the Meiji era on July 2022, 7 will be over 30 years old.
the 2000sFrom the beginningDate of BirthWhen the era name is selected in the entry field, the Meiji era is omitted (that is, the Taisho, Showa, and Heisei eras are selected).However,Administrative agencyApplication / notification documents andJROf each companyCommuter PassPurchase applicationAnd so on2010As of (22), the Meiji era is often included.
The one that bears the Meiji era
Of these, "Meiji" is often used as an abbreviation for Meiji Group and Meiji University.
- Meiji Yasuda Life(Former Meiji Life)
- Meiji Holdings(Meiji Group)
- Dai-Nippon Meiji Sugar Manufacturing
- Meiji Machine
- Meiji Shoin
- Meiji mining industry
- Meiji shipping
- Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular
- Meiji University
- Meiji Gakuin University
- Meiji University of Integral Medicine
- Meiji Pharmaceutical University
- Museum Meiji Village
- Meijikan (Ambiguity avoidance)
- Meiji water
- Meiji hydraulic engineering
- Meiji constitution
- Meiji-dori (avoid ambiguity)
- Meiji Hall
- Fictitious things
- Kanto Meiji-gumi (computer game "Detective Jinguji Saburo seriesThe gangster organization that appears in
- ^ Northern and Northern Dynasties OfNorth morning OfEraincluding.When excluded, it is the 228th.In addition, it is the 237th when excluding the era name only for the Southern Court.
- ^ Strictly speaking, the date according to the Tenpo calendar and the date currently widely disseminated as the "old calendar" are slightly different.For more information,Lunar calendar # JapanSee.
- ^ However,ADAlso aboutJulian calendarIt should be kept in mind that the transition from the Gregorian calendar to the Gregorian calendar varies from country to country.For exampleEuropeBut,Russia Gregorian calendarWas carried out1918(Taisho 7)2/14, AlsoGreece The1923(Taisho 12)3/1Such,AsiaSlower than Japan.In addition, because there was a defect in the solar calendar adoption in January 1873 (Meiji 6) in Japan, it is not strictly adopted in the Gregorian calendar, but from January 1 (Meiji 1873) to 6 (Meiji 1). Until May, although it matches the Gregorian calendar, it is a "Japanese original calendar that adopts the same calendar as the Julian calendar", and the strict Gregorian calendar including the Julian calendar was adopted in 1898 (Meiji 31). ) It was after May. ..
- ^ By law, Japan's current calendar is not the Gregorian calendar itself,Emperor Jinmu coronationIt is a calendar based on (Imperial Year) (1898"Leap year”Meiji 31 Royal Decree No. 90).However, it is a feature of the Gregorian calendar.leap yearIs calculated based on the number of years obtained by subtracting 660 from the first year of Emperor Jimmu's imperial year (equal to the number of years in the Gregorian calendar).Therefore, the current calendar of Japan is substantially the same as the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ The territory under the direct control of the Shogunate is under the control of the new government, and the daimyo territory remains the clan.Fukuzawa Yukichiof"Western circumstances] And the US Constitution.
- ^ At the time of the emperor Toyuki, the new government gave sake, earthenware, tin bottles, dried squid, etc. as a celebration to the citizens of Tokyo and the farmers in the suburbs, and let the Edo children of Tokugawa favor bathe the emperor's favor. Strived for squid
- ^ I would like you to return everything that the clan has to the imperial court and make good use of it to help create a new nation.
- ^ In the spring of 1869 (Meiji 2), the number of votes increased to 16 and the number of participants increased to 14, but they were later reorganized.The Kyoka song at that time said, "It's said that it's the Meiji era from the top, but it's settled (Meiji) and read from the bottom."
- ^ However, there was a gap between Satsuma / Choshu and Tosa / Hizen, and they were not united within the government.
- ^ on the other hand,Family systemAs for, according to the customs of the samurai class up to that point,1876In (Meiji 9), "Women should still use the student's name (pre-marriage) even if they get married", that is,Family name by coupleIs different from the present age, such as the principle.The reason why the couple moved to the principle1898(Meiji 31) MeijiCivil lawSince it was enacted.
- ^ The theory of conquest did not occur suddenly at this time, but from the end of the Edo period.The originator of defense theory in scholars and politiciansHayashikodaira,Aizawa Masashisai, Shoin Yoshida, Sanai Hashimoto, Toko Fujita, etc. were also very interested.And it was a common issue for those who are said to be Shishi at the end of the Edo period.Therefore, the common consciousness that we must protest the nation of the Great Prince and be prepared to crush it in the event of an emergency has been established for some time.Based on such an ideaSaigo TakamoriLet's go and protest severely.Even so, he argued that if he didn't hear what he said, he wouldn't quit the fight.
- ^ In the year of the Meiji Restoration, the emperor was 16 years old.The construction of the new government proceeded in the name of the emperor, without the young emperor taking command himself. The decision not to adopt the theory of Seikanron on October 1873, 6 (Meiji 10) is said to be the first example of the Emperor Meiji's decision in his own opinion.
- ^ It was Shigeru Furusawa who drafted this white paper.At the beginning, it begins with "I'm not in the upper shangdi, not in the lower people, and I'm going to return to the boss alone, to see where the administration is going to return."
- ^ It was the one who advocated the early theoryHiroyuki KatoSo, I refuted thisKentaro OiIs.In the newspaperAsano newspaper, Akira Shimbun,Postal newspaperEtc. advocated the theory of the people's election chamberGenichiro FukuchiIs the chief editorTokyo Nichini ShimbunHowever, there was a great deal of controversy, advocating the premature argument of the elected members.
- ^ In response to the Saga Rebellion, the governmentMinister Mentor of Singapore OfHisamitsu ShimazuIs home.Konoe Bureau SecretaryMaj. Gen. Army-Shinohara KunimotoAnd Major General of the ArmyKirino ToshiakiGeneral officerTsurumaru CastleBelow "Private schoolWas founded to educate the samurai.
- ^ Prior to departure, Hirobumi Ito had been shown the platform for the establishment of the Constitution of Article 5 by Minister of the Right Iwakura Tomomi.
- The constitution of Japan is the Constitution of the Constitution.
- The composition and operation of the Diet is based on the Prussian style, abolishing the British style.
- The Minister of State is the emperor's parent.
- The Minister bears each responsibility to the Emperor and does not take joint responsibility.
- 5 If the budget is not approved by the Diet, the budget for the previous year will be enforced.
- ^ In terms of politics and military affairs, social and cultural modernization remained an issue, even though it was seemingly equal to the West.In addition, he chills out Meiji Japan, which ran to imitate the superficial and hasty Western powers, and gives a pessimistic view on the end of Japan.Natsume SosekiThere were a few intellectuals like this.
- ^ Liberal party94 seats, laterCentral Negotiation Department83 seats,Reform party38 seats, riots in various places due to election interference, 25 dead, 388 injured
- ^ 119 seats for the Liberal Party, 48 seats for the Kaishintō Party, National Association26 seats
- ^ Liberal Party 105 seats, Kaishintō 45 seats, Innovation club40 seats, National Association 30 seats
- ^ Liberal Party 98 seats,Progressive Party91 seats, National Association 26 seats
- ^ Constitutional party260 seats, National Association20 seats
- ^ Seiyukai190 seats, Kensei Hontō95 seats,Teikokuto17 seats
- ^ Seiyukai 175 seats,Kensei Hontō85 seats, 17 seats of the Imperial Party
- ^ 133 seats of Seiyukai, 90 seats of Kensei Hontō, 19 seats of Teikokuto
- ^ Seiyukai 187 seats, Kensei Hontō 70 seats, Daido Entertainment Department 29 seats, Yushinkai29 seats
- ^ Seiyukai 211 seats, Kuomintang 95 seats, Central Entertainment Department 31 seats
- ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Meiji Era"
- ^ RevisedPoemAbout the start time byLatter sectionreference
- ^ All 247 eras.
- ^ "Meiji" is the XNUMXth honesty = the original era that was not selected, the most is XNUMX times, Jiji.com, February 2019, 02, 02:15.
- ^ Restoration History Volume 5 (Renewal History Compilation Secretariat)
- ^ What is the origin of "Meiji"? Meiji Jingu Q & A
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 140.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 134.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 142.
- ^ a b c Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, p. 41.
- ^ Akemi Mikami "Background of the establishment of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Historical study of Japan's foreign affairs organization (1)-: Problems in the history of Japanese diplomacy I"International Politics," Vol. 1964, No. 26, Japan Society for International Politics, 1964, pp. 1-21 two:10.11375 / kokusaiseiji1957.26_1, ISSN 0454 – 2215, NOT 130004302047,2022/1/12Browse.
- ^ Hanto. History of the end of the Edo period, p. 373.
- ^ Hanto. History of the end of the Edo period, p. 370-371.
- ^ Tamotsu Fujino, "Kyushu and the Meiji Restoration, Volume 2", Kokusho Kankokai, 1985, p. 440.
- ^ Army General Staff, "Japanese War History," Tokuma Shoten, 1965, p. 29.
- ^ Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, p. 101.
- ^ Saga Prefectural Historical Materials Publishing Association "" Saga Prefectural History "Vol. 1697 (Modern Edition)" Saga Prefectural History Compilation Committee, 29, p. XNUMX.
- ^ a b Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, p. 102.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 159.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 151.
- ^ Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, pp. 106-107.
- ^ Toshihiko Mori, "Shinpei Eto" <Tragedy of radical reformers> Chuokoron-Shinsha, 1987, p. 106
- ^ Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, pp. 117-130.
- ^ Yuichiro Ando, "Meiji Restoration Hidden Truth," Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2019, p. 160.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 172.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 168.
- ^ Renewal Storm, p. 238.
- ^ Hanto. History of the end of the Edo period, p. 414-42.
- ^ Renewal Storm, p. 262.
- ^ Renewal Storm, p. 237-238.
- ^ Group image on the eve of the restoration 5, p. 191.
- ^ Masao Maruyama 1976, p. 309.
- ^ Masao Maruyama 1976, p. 310.
- ^ Hideo Osabe, "The Story of Max Weber-A Man Who Seen Through the Twentieth Century-" Shinchosha "Shincho Sensho" 2008, p. 132)
- ^ October 1868, 10 (23th year of Keio)9/8) Revised in the Meiji era.
- ^ Old calendarIs December 1872, 12 (Meiji 31)12/2) Was used.The next day, it was changed to January 1873, 6 (Meiji 1),solar calendarThe calendar was changed to.
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau Homepage Retrieved April 2010, 4
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau Homepage Retrieved April 2015, 9
- ^ "Presenting congratulatory letters and souvenirs to the elderly aged XNUMX ｜ Press releases ｜ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare". www.mhlw.go.jp. 2022/4/23Browse.
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau Homepage Retrieved April 2018, 5
- ^ "One in four people was born in Heisei, and more than XNUMX people live in their fifth generation?". Sankei News(July 2019, 4) 2022/5/5Browse.
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau Homepage Retrieved April 2020, 10
- ^ "The oldest person in the prefecture, 110 years old, died, sweets and local entertainment lovers: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2022/2/9Browse.
- ^ "XNUMX-year-old "Thank you" Don't forget Respect for the Aged Day, born in the Meiji era and celebrating the oldest person in the prefecture | Society | Ishikawa News | Hokkoku Shimbun”(Japanese). Hokoku newspaper. 2022/2/9Browse.
- ^ Mr. Kondo of Ashikaga is the oldest person in the prefecture / 2021.05.26 years old 2 Shimotsuke Shinbun morning edition XNUMX pages Society
- ^ Chiyono Kamano, the oldest and only born in the Meiji era, died / Iwate Nippo January 2022, 1, page 26 Society
- ^ Toyama Prefecture. "Reiwa 3rd year About the situation of elderly people over XNUMX years old”(Japanese). Toyama. 2022/2/9Browse.
- ^ Tochigi Prefecture. "About the oldest person in the prefecture”(Japanese). Tochigi. 2022/2/9Browse.
- ^ (PDF) West Japan Railway CompanyWebsite viewed April 2010, 4
- Hirofumi Yamamoto "Era: All 247 Overview"Goku Publishing, 2017.ISBN 9784908117398. NCID BB24631969.
- Toshihiko Mori "Okubo Toshimichi"190. Group image on the eve of the Meiji Restoration; 5, Chuokoron-sha <Chuko Shinsho>, 1969. NCID BN01804905.National bibliographic number:73000263.
- Kazutoshi Hanfuji "History of the end of the Edo period"Shinchosha, 2008.ISBN 9784103132714. NCID BA88352877.
- Shunsuke Tsurumi "Renewal Storm"Chikuma Shobo <Shunsuke Tsurumi Collection / Shunsuke Tsurumi; Continued 2>, 2001.ISBN 4480747222. NCID BA50224375.
- Maruyama Masao "Between the war and the postwar: 1936-1957"Misuzu Shobo, 1976. NCID BN01196016.National bibliographic number:72006837.
- Masato Miyachi-Takashi Sasaki-Naoyuki Kinoshita"Visual Wide Meiji Era Museum"Shogakukan, 2005,ISBN-978 4096230312
- Yasuhiko Yuzawa-Miyako Okuda・ Junko Nakahara and Yukiko Sato "Family Life 2006 Years Ago" Cress Publishing, XNUMX,ISBN 4877333363
- List of pages starting with "Meiji"
- List of pages with "Meiji" in the title
- List of people in the Meiji era
- Meiji Restoration
- Dainichi this empire
- Tokyo era
- Industrial revolution
- the 1860s
- the 1870s
- the 1880s
- the 1890s
- the 1890s
- the 1900s
- the 1910s