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🧳 | Change the date of high-speed running on the Hokkaido Shinkansen and Seikan Tunnel


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Hokkaido Shinkansen changes the high-speed running date in the Seikan Tunnel

 
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Seven upper and lower trains running through the Seikan Tunnel from the first train to around 3:30 pm are eligible.
 

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and JR Hokkaido have announced plans for high-speed operation of the Hokkaido Shinkansen in the Seikan Tunnel during the Obon period due to heavy rain conditions. → Continue reading

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About 3:30 pm

    Seikan Tunnel

    Seikan Tunnel(Seikan tunnel) orSeikan Tunnel(Seikanzuido)[3][Annotation 3]It is,Honshu OfAomoriHigashitsugaru-gunImabetsu TownとHokkaidoKamiiso DistrictShiriuchiRailroad connectingtunnel.

    Japan Railway Construction CorporationBuilt by the successorRailway Construction/Transport Facility Development Support OrganizationOwned byHokkaido passenger railway(JR Hokkaido) manages and operates trains.

    Overview

    Tsugaru StraitAbout 100 under the seabed mIt is a tunnel that was built through the ground, and the total length of 53.85 km is a tunnel for transportation.JapanIs.Because the total length is about 53.9 kmZone 539There was a nickname of.

    It is the second longest tunnel in the world for transportation,Undersea tunnelandNarrow gaugeIt is the longest and deepest tunnel in the world for transportation.At the total distance of the seabedEnglish Channel TunnelHas the longest length in the world.19883/13At the time of openingThe best in the worldIt was also a transportation tunnel with the length of[Newspaper 1][Annotation 4].

    Of the Seikan TunnelKikonai StationVery short for youシ ェ ル タ ーCovered withKomonai River Bridge, And about 1.2km in lengthNo. 1 Yunosato TunnelIs integrated into the Seikan Tunnel, and the total length of the tunnel-like structure including these is about 55km.The deepest point of the tunnel was marked by blue and green fluorescent lights, but it was removed before the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen.

    The section including the Seikan Tunnel is initially the conventional line "Kaikyo LineIt opened as ", but from the beginningShinkansen standardBuilt in 20163/26からDual gaugeTheHokkaido ShinkansenIs running.

    In addition, communication cables and power transmission lines are laid using tunnels, and it is also the main artery for communication and power transmission (Later).

    Construction work was carried out by the Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation, and the public corporation was taken over.Independent administrative agencyThe railway construction and transportation facility maintenance support organization owns the tunnel.JR Hokkaido, which operates trains running through tunnels, pays the tunnel usage fee to the Organization.The amount is about tax and management fee, and the annual amount is 4 million yen.In addition, the railway laying part in the tunnel is maintained by JR Hokkaido, and the maintenance cost of this part is about 8 million yen per year.1999Renovation projects have been carried out from time to time, and two-thirds of the project cost is covered by national subsidies, and one-third is borne by JR Hokkaido.[1][5]..Since the facility is located on the seabed, the facilities are aging quickly, and maintenance of the Seikan Tunnel has become a major problem for JR Hokkaido, which has jurisdiction over the line section.[5][Newspaper 2].

    Also, at the beginning of the business, you could get on with only a ticket.Seikan ferryIt also means a substitute for, and the main transportation isfast"StraitIt is done atLimited express"HakkariWas only in the time zone that required express delivery,200212 month 1 dayTohoku ShinkansenHachinoheThe train system has changed significantly with the opening of the limited express train.Express trainOnly operated[Press 1][Annotation 5].2016Since the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen on March 3, the only regular passenger train that runs through the Seikan Tunnel is the Hokkaido Shinkansen.

    By the way, the central part of the Seikan Tunnel isHigh seasAs it is a building below, its attribution and before openingProperty taxThe question was whether or not taxation was possible, but inside the tunnelterritoryalikeJapan OfsovereigntyIt was judged thatAlong with that, it was incorporated into each local government, and property tax was also levied accordingly.[Annotation 6].

    There are 34 line of duty deaths in all processes.RyuhizakiThere is a monument to the line of duty death in.

    Disaster prevention equipment

    Seikan Tunnel is "Japan's longest undersea tunnel"[Annotation 7]Due to the special condition, strict safety measures are taken to prevent accidents and disasters, and smoking is prohibited and the use of fire is strictly prohibited in the tunnel all day long.Since many smoke / heat detectors with higher sensitivity than those for general buildings are installed in the tunnel, train operation will stop even if a small amount of smoke is detected.In addition, on the first day of opening, three fire detectors malfunctioned, causing troubles such as the rapid "Kaikyo" being delayed by up to 3 minutes.

    Incidentally,2015Based on the limited express train smoke trouble (described later) that occurred in April, JR Hokkaido has indicated that it will improve the evacuation methods and shelter facilities for passengers in the Seikan Tunnel.[Newspaper 3]..Facilities at the bottom of the land such as fixed points will be expanded, seats will be installed on the loading platform of the fixed point cable car (capacity 15 people), the capacity will be increased, and benches and toilets in shelters will be added.In addition, four inclined shafts for transporting materials at the bottom of the tunnel will be newly utilized as evacuation routes.[Newspaper 4].

    Slope, work pit, advanced guide pit[Press 2]
    In the work pit and advanced guideway, connecting taxiways are installed at intervals of about 600 m.At the bottom of the land, there are four inclined shafts, Sanyoshi, Horonai, Shirafu, and Mitake, and in addition to the stairs, there are inclined roads that allow cars to pass. ing.
    If you move inside the Seikan Tunnelhandicapped・ We are also considering getting people who are in poor physical condition to ride in maintenance vehicles in the tunnel.
    Fixed point[Press 2]
    In the unlikely event of a train fire accident, the train will be stopped, passengers will be evacuated, and fire extinguishing work will be carried out.North Latitude 41 Degrees 15 Minutes 26 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 20 min 52.6 sec /41.25722 degrees north latitude 140.347944 degrees east longitude / 41.25722; 140.347944 (Tatsuhi Submarine Station)) And Tatesaki, Fukushima-cho, Matsumae-gun, HokkaidoNorth Latitude 41 Degrees 26 Minutes 31.7 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 14 min 21.6 sec /41.442139 degrees north latitude 140.239333 degrees east longitude / 41.442139; 140.239333 (Yoshioka Submarine Station)) Facilities installed at two locations on the land floor (slightly closer to the seabed from just below the coast).1972(47)11/6ToJapan National Railway(JNR)Hokuriku Main Line OfHokuriku tunnelOccurred withinTrain fire accidentThe lesson is that the tunnel is divided into three parts, and from the viewpoint of disaster prevention, the length of the tunnel is about the same as that of the conventional longest-class railway tunnel. can.
    After opening, this fixed point will also be used as a tour route for tunnel facilities, and each "Tatsuhi Submarine Station","Yoshioka Submarine StationWas named.These two stations were special stations that only passengers of some trains to visit could get on and off, but Yoshioka Kaitei Station is2006(Heisei18 years)8/28Was suspended for a long time[Press 3][Press 4]In addition, Ryuhi Submarine Station was also suspended on November 2013, 25.[Press 5]..In addition, these submarine stations20143/15ToRailway stationAbolished as[Press 6],Currently"Ryuhi fixed point","Yoshioka fixed pointIt has become.
    Homes, fire hydrants and shelters (bench, toilet facilities) for temporary evacuation of passengers are installed, and simultaneous lighting facilities (about 100 lux) operated remotely from the command center,Fire fighting equipment(Water spray equipment,Surveillance cameraAnd emergency broadcasting equipment, etc.).It is also equipped with an emergency generator so that it can operate for 72 hours.
    In addition, the Tappi and Yoshioka fixed points can escape to the ground through the Tappi and Yoshioka tunnels, respectively.Cable carIn addition, stairs (1,317 steps) are installed.[Annotation 8]..For healthy legs, the walking time on the stairs is about 25 minutes.
    Train fire measures[Press 2]
    Fire detection equipment
    Infrared temperature fire detector
    Infrared cameraIt is a facility that detects fires by measuring the temperature of the train surface from both sides, and is installed at 4 locations in total, 8 locations on the front and back of the tunnel and XNUMX locations on the inside of the tunnel.By processing data in conjunction with the axle detector, the position of the fire (number of cars, part) can also be detected.
    Smoke detector
    Infrared temperature fire detectors cannot cope with so-called smoke fires, in which heat does not appear on the vehicle surface and smoke is generated, so five smoke detectors were installed in the tunnel as complementary equipment.
    Train control equipment in case of fire
    Fire train stop
    When a fire is detected, the brake start indicator light and the stop position target light are turned on, and the driver stops with the manual brake aiming at that.After the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen, the train will automatically decelerate by the ATC signal, and the driver will operate the manual brake only for the final stop positioning.
    Obstacle train stop device
    When a train fire breaks out, in order to stop the spread to other trains, it is automatically transmitted in block units set in conjunction with the fire detector, and a stop signal is sent to the track circuit at the point where the following train and oncoming train should be stopped. Is shown.
    Fire extinguishing equipment
    When a train fire is found, the train basically travels to the nearest fixed point or the stop before and after the tunnel, and fire extinguishing relief activities are carried out there, and fire extinguishing equipment is installed at the fixed point and the stop.
    Ventilating facilities
    A vertical ventilation method is used to suppress the rise in underground temperature due to the accumulation of heat generated from the train and to discharge exhaust gas from maintenance vehicles.This is a method in which a blower is installed near the entrance of the inclined shaft to send air, pass through the advanced guide shaft, enter the main shaft from the connecting horizontal shaft in the center of the seabed, and ventilate toward each wellhead.
    Smoke exhaust equipment
    When a train fire breaks out and the train stops at a fixed point, the smoke exhaust system is used so that passengers evacuating will not be covered with smoke.The command adjusts the smoke exhaust device remotely according to the train stop position, and by opening the wind gate on the short-circuit route from the inclined shaft to the fixed point, the ventilation flow is sent directly from the inclined shaft to the fixed point, and at the same time, it is installed at the shaft entrance. It operates a smoke evacuator to suck smoke out of the shaft.As a result, the wind direction of the main pit is adjusted to prevent the smoke of the main pit from flowing into the work pit and the advanced guide pit.
    Evacuation guidance equipment
    Evacuation guidance equipment such as ITV cameras and emergency broadcasts are installed to guide passengers safely when the fire train stops at a fixed point and it is necessary to temporarily evacuate passengers and escape from the evacuation center to the outside of the mine.
    Information communication equipment
    In the event of a train fire, it is urgently necessary to arrange evacuation guidance for passengers, deterrence of related trains, fire hydrants, smoke exhaust, ventilation, etc., so information communication between the tunnel crew and the commander of the Hakodate Command Center is quick and efficient. It is necessary to establish a system that can be carried out well and reliably.By providing as many communication means as possible as information communication equipmentRedundancyIn order to maintain close contact between the tunnel and the command center, train radios and crew radios have been installed.
    Earthquake countermeasures[Press 2]
    The method of train deterrence isSeismographWe adopted a method of stopping the train at ATC by an alarm from. If it is 120 gal or more, drive slowly to the outside of the tunnel after stopping once.
    The Seikan Tunnel has a sufficiently seismic structure, but due to its length and the peculiarity of an undersea tunnel, it takes a long time to resume operation immediately after an earthquake occurs and the train stops. It does not use a walking inspection method, but uses an alarm seismometer (a total of 8 locations before and after the tunnel) and a monitoring system (earthquake early detection system, tunnel lining strain gauge (4 locations inside the tunnel), and spring water amount detection device). Utilizes quick information processing judgment.
    Measures against abnormal flooding[Press 2]
    Twenty-seven spring water detection devices will be installed in the tunnel to monitor the deterioration of the tunnel and the ground around the tunnel over time as well as abnormalities during an earthquake, and the Hakodate Command Center will take emergency measures according to the situation. We are taking all possible measures.
    An emergency power generation facility for pumps is installed, and if the drainage capacity of the pump is exceeded, water is stored in the advanced shaft at the bottom of the main shaft.
    Disaster prevention monitoring system[Press 2]
    In order to respond promptly when a disaster occurs in the Seikan Tunnel, various disaster prevention information in the tunnel is displayed at the Hakodate Command Center so that it can be constantly monitored.In the event of an abnormality, various disaster prevention equipment can be operated directly from the Hakodate Command Center by remote control.
    In this way, in the Seikan Tunnel, in the unlikely event of a disaster, in order to respond promptly, information is displayed at the Hakodate Command Center and the commander constantly monitors it, and in the event of an abnormality, various disaster prevention equipment is remotely controlled. The comprehensive system is configured so that it can be operated directly.

    communication cable

    The Seikan Tunnel is also the aorta of communication.Inside the Seikan Tunnel at the time of openingJapan Telecom(AfterSOFTBANK TELECOM, After working at Softbank Mobile, nowSoftbank)When,KDDI Optical fiberCables are laid, which is an important line for telegraph and telephone connecting Hokkaido and Honshu.[Annotation 9].

    Transmission line equipment

    Connect Honshu and Hokkaido using the Seikan Tunnelpower lineConstruction is underway,2019Started operation as "New Kitamoto interconnection facility" in March[6]..This transmission line can transmit 30 kW.DC transmission lineIs.Conventionally, the transmission line connecting Hokkaido and HonshuSubmarine cableHowever, there are problems such as the ship being caught in an anchor and being damaged, and it is said that using the Seikan Tunnel has the advantage of ensuring safety and reducing installation costs, and conventional submarine cables. It has become possible to transmit electricity equivalent to 90 kW including the route in[7].

    History

    OnceAomori StationとHakodate StationTieRailway ferryAs by the Japanese National RailwaysSeikan route(Seikan Ferry)Was in service.But,the 1950sToKorean WarFloating that seems to be due tomineOften flows into the Tsugaru Strait and also1954(29)9/26TotyphoonOf the ferry vessels that set sail in a storm due to incorrect weather judgment under approachToyamaruA catastrophe in which four other ships were in distress outside the port of Hakodate (Toyamaru accident) Occurred, and other situations that threatened the safety of the route occurred one after another.

    In response to theseSecond World WarThe previous concept of connecting Honshu and Hokkaido with a tunnel was materialized at once, and it was decided to spend a long construction period and a huge construction cost as an alternative means of ship transportation.

    At the time of planning, Minmaya-mura, Higashitsugaru-gun, Aomori Prefecture (currentlySotogahama Town) And the west exit route connecting Fukushima-cho, Matsumae-gun, Hokkaido, and Aomori PrefectureShimokita-gunOma TownAnd HokkaidoKamedaToi Town(CurrentHakodate) Was considered for the east exit route.Initially, the east exit route, which has a short distance, was considered to be promising, but the east exit route has a deeper water depth than the west exit route, and the geological survey of the seafloor determined that there are many parts that are not suitable for excavation, so it was decided to construct the west exit route. did.If the east exit route has been decided, the Seikan Ferry alternative route (Oma --Hakodate) It was built for the purpose of openingOma LinePhase 2 andImperial Japanese ArmyTsugaru FortressWas built for the purpose of transporting troops and military suppliesToi Line(BothUnfinished line) Has been resumed and is said to have been opened.[By whom?].

    at firstConventional lineIt was designed according to the standard,Maintenance bullet trainAccording to the planShinkansenIt was changed to the standard and built.After the maintenance Shinkansen plan was frozen, it was temporarily opened as a conventional line,Gauge,Overhead wireExcept for the difference in voltageSecurity device (ATC-L type)It follows the Shinkansen standard including the one, and will be devised later.Super express methodIt became the prototype of.

    The tunnel is a conventional construction method (partlyTBM method-New Austria tunnel method) Was built.The construction cost of the tunnel itself was 5384 billion yen at the planning stage, but it actually costs 7455 billion yen.[Newspaper 5]..Including mounting wireKaikyo LineThe construction cost is 6890 billion yen at the planning stage, and actually 9000 billion yen.The number of victims in the construction was 34.

    However, when it was completed, the construction of the Hokkaido Shinkansen was frozen, andKantoPassenger transportation from Kanto to Hokkaido has already changed from the time when construction started when the west and Hokkaido were connected by railroad and Seikan route.aircraftOccupied 9%, in additionstrike,Legal compliance struggleFreight transportation is also ferry due to the deterioration of labor relations of the Japanese National Railways at that time, including the frequent occurrence ofCoastal shippingToshareWas robbed and continued to be sluggish, and a large amount even after completionspringEven if it is a huge investment, it is a huge investment because the maintenance cost is high, such as the need to pump up.Sunk costIt was considered more economical to abandon it.for that reason"Showa three major idiot assessmentIt was mentioned in the remarks and was sometimes ridiculed as "useless long object", "mud tunnel" and so on.However, after the opening, with HokkaidoHonshu OfJR freightbycargoIt plays an important role in transportation, with 21 round trips a day (regular trains, about 50 trains in total including temporary trains).freight trainIs set.The effect of enabling stable and safe transportation that is not affected by the weather is great, especially in Hokkaido's core industry.Agricultural ProductsTransport volume has increased dramatically.

    またCapital AreaPrinted in,magazineAlthough it is a deficit business for JR Hokkaido, such as shortening the time lag of the release date in Hokkaido,External effectsIs expensive.2010In FY22, annual freight transportation was 450 million tons, and the share reached 42%.ferryIt became almost the same as transportation.

    "Seikan Tunnel Car Train ConceptIn 1997, the Tohoku Industrial Revitalization Center (currently) was narrow-gauge and between Tsugaru Imabetsu Station and Shiriuchi Station.MotorailProposing a concept[8]However, it has not been realized yet.

    In contrast,passenger TheBubble burstSince then, the number of tourists has decreased,Passenger planeFrequent transportation ・Cheap airlinePassenger use is declining due to price destruction caused by the appearance of.2007(19)9/1Is a high-speed boat that connects Aomori and Hakodate in 1 hour and 45 minutes.Natchan ReraBut,2008(20)5/2ToNatchan WorldWas in service and became a new competitor in the Seikan Tunnel passenger transportation, but these were in 2008 (Heisei 20).11/1Was suspended in[Annotation 10]..Despite this situation, it is expected that the transportation volume by the Hokkaido Shinkansen will increase in the future.

    History

    Concept

    • 1923(Taisho12): Hakodate city council member in "Ohakodate theory"Kanmon tunnelDescribe the Seikan Tunnel (Oma-Hakodate) concept with reference to the concept[9][10][11].
    • 1939(Showa14) June 6: Ministry of Railways Morioka Construction Office investigates east exit routeRailway Minister's Secretariat Technical Research InstituteRequest to.The originator is unknown[12].
    • 1940(ShowaAugust 15: A track survey room is set up in the Planning Division of the Ministry of Railways.
    • 1946(21)
      • February 2: "Tsugaru Straits Tunnel Survey Method Meeting Meeting" was held at the Director's Office of the General Railway Bureau, Ministry of Transport.At this conference, the favorite was the west exit route, and the east exit route became the reference route.[12].
      • April: Established "Tsugaru Straits Liaison Road Investigation Committee".Geological survey of the above-ground part started[9][13].
      • September: Decided to investigate the west exit route[12].
    • 1953(Showa 28) August: At "Railroad from Minmaya, Aomori Prefecture to Fukushima, Oshima ProvinceWas added to the Railway Construction Act as a planned line[12]..After that, the geological survey of the seabed using fishing boats started.[9].
    • 1954(29)9/26 : Seikan route(Seikan ferry)Toyamaru accidentOccurs.Seikan tunnel construction plan emerges in earnest[9][13].
    • 1955(Showa30 years) February 2: Tsugaru Straits Liaison Tunnel Technical Committee established.
    • 1960(Showa35) April 10:AkitaHappo TownStarted experimental tunnel construction work at.After that, injection tests and the like are carried out.

    Start of construction

    • 1961(36)
    • 1963(38)
    • 1964(39)
      • 1/26: Start excavation of inclined wellhead by contract from Hokkaido side[9].
      • 3/23 : Japan Railway Construction CorporationInauguration.
      • 4/22: Conducted groundbreaking ceremony for survey work on the Hokkaido side[9].
      • 5/8: Yoshioka Slope on the Hokkaido side (total length: 12.3) m) Start excavation (direct control)[9][13].
      • 8/20: Held a hoe entrance ceremony at the Honshu side[9].
      • 10/26: Honshu side begins preparations for exploration survey[9].
      • 10/28: Start of construction road repair work on the Honshu side[9].
      • 11/20: Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation establishes Seikan Construction Bureau Tappi Railway Construction Station[9].
    • 1965(40)
      • 1/7: Advanced boring started on the Hokkaido side (334 m)[9].
      • 3/15: Honshu side started wellhead cutting and other construction[9].
      • 5/17: Reached 415 m directly below the coastline on the Hokkaido side[9].
      • 8/9: Construction implementation plan approval (survey)[9].
      • 8/19: Start excavation of inclined wellhead by contract from Honshu side[9].
    • 1966(41)
      • 2/20: Excavation 51 m, lining 30 m, slab 45 m on the Honshu side[9].
      • 3/21: Honshu side Ryuhi inclined shaft (total length: 51 m) excavation started (direct control)[9][13].
      • 12/9: Advanced boring started on the Honshu side (443 m)[9].
    • 1967(42)
      • 2/23: Test excavation of tunnel boring machine completed on the Hokkaido side[9].
      • 3/4: Reached the bottom of the inclined shaft on the Hokkaido side (1,210 m).Advanced tunnel (Hokkaido side) excavation started[9][13].
      • 9/27: Reached 815 m just below the coastline on the Honshu side[9].
    • 1968(Showa 43) December: Start excavation of Yoshioka work pit on the Hokkaido side[13].
    • 1969(44)2/13: Abnormal flood at 1,223 m of the survey pit on the Honshu side (maximum spring water volume: 11 tons / minute)[9].
    • 1970(45)
      • 1/17: Reached the bottom of the inclined shaft on the Honshu side (1,315 m).Advanced tunnel (Honshu side) excavation started[9][13].
      • 7/13: Start of Tappi work mine on Honshu side and start of excavation[9][13].
    • 1971(46)
      • 9/28: Start of this construction[9][13].
      • 11/14: Groundbreaking ceremony for this work was held on the Hokkaido and Honshu sides[9].
    • 1974(49)
      • 1/8: Abnormal flood near Yoshioka work pit 3,509 m (maximum spring water volume: 16 tons / min)[9].
      • 4/17: Reaching the bottom of the inclined shaft in the Mitake construction area[9].
      • 5/10: Reach the bottom of the inclined shaft in Horonai construction area[9].
      • 12/5: Abnormal flood near Ryuhi work pit 3,692 m (maximum spring water volume: 6 tons / minute)[9].
    • 1975(50)12/22: Reach the bottom of the inclined shaft in the arithmetic master[9].
    • 1976(51)5/6: Abnormal flood near Yoshioka work pit 4,588 m (maximum spring water volume: 85 tons / min)[14].
      • 5/6: At 2:30, the amount of spring water near the face increased sharply. At 3:30, the amount of spring water exceeds the drainage capacity. At 8 o'clock, the water tank of the fixed pump seat 100 m behind the face was completely submerged.The amount of spring water increased from 4 tons to 30 tons. At 16:3, the third bulkhead is broken.Recorded a peak flood of 85 tons per minute. At 19:30, work resistance 880m was flooded[15].
      • 5/7: At 1:30, the waterproof door is torn.
      • 5/9: Three 4-ton pumps have started operation, and drainage capacity has been improved with five 3-ton pumps connected to the pump seat of the advanced shaft.By the next day, the expansion of the flooded section will stop, and the submerged area will remain at the work pit 4 m and the main pit 5 m.[16].
      • 5/10: Work resistance and water accumulated in the main pit are dropped into an advanced shaft running 100 m below and drainage work is started.[15].
      • 5/14: Securing a drainage capacity of 68 tons per minute.Completed drainage of the main mine.
      • 6/24: Spring water increased from 16 tons per minute to 60 tons.It was decided that the work pit would be closed at 76.5 m from the Izumi face.
      • 7/12: Drainage work completed.
      • 7/20: Detour the work pit to the right and start excavation.
      • 10/15: Reached the same distance as the Izumi face (162 days after Izumi).
    • 1978(53)10/4: All land areas on the Hokkaido side (Shirafu construction area, Mitake construction area) penetrate[9].
    • 1979(54) September 9: Tappi work pit completed[13]..The work pit and the main pit were connected at the bottom of the sea.Completion celebration was canceled due to scandals within the Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation[17].
    • 1980(55) March 3: Yoshioka work mine completed[13].
    • 1981(56)7/3: All land areas on the Honshu side (Sanyoshi construction area, Horonai construction area) penetrate[9].
    • 1983(58)
    • 1984(59)8/20: It is publicly announced that the business will open in 1987 (announced in Aomori, Deputy Secretary of State for Transport, Tsushima).
    • 1985(60)3/10: Full penetration of the main mine[9][13].
    • 1987(62)

    After the start of service

    Technology

    Advanced shaft

    Initially TBM (Tunnel boring machine), I thought that it would be completed in almost the planned construction period, but in reality, it sank under the tunnel due to the abnormal flooding that occurred frequently as it progressed to the soft stratum and the weight of the machine. It was not very useful because I couldn't retreat, and I had to dig a detour tunnel to the front of TBM and push it out from the front, so I gave up excavation at TBM early.Therefore, it was decided to dig an advanced guide pit by advanced boring ahead of the main pit, and by doing so, the main pit would follow the pit while investigating the geology and the condition of the spring water.However, advanced boring is difficult to maintain horizontal because it conducts a boring survey in the horizontal direction, and the hole wall collapsed or spring water spouted out because the pressure inside the boring hole could not be maintained. Did not advance 100 m.Therefore, in the past, the water sent from the inside of the boring rod pipe was taken out of the pipe from the bit at the tip to cool the bit, and the clay and mud generated when making a hole with the water were removed from between the rod pipe and the hole wall. On the other hand, we devised a "reverse method" to collect the clay and mud generated when opening a hole with water sent from between the rod pipe and the hole wall.This has increased the drilling speed of boring to hundreds of meters a month.[26].

    As it approached the seabed, the geology gradually became softer and the amount of flooding increased.Therefore, the technology cultivated in the Seikan Tunnel is called "injection" and "sprayed concrete" by the New Austrian Tunneling Method.Injection is cement milkWater glass OfmixtureThis is a method of injecting the injection material into the bedrock at ultra-high pressure using a high-pressure pump for injection, and then digging the injection material after it has hardened. , The reason for digging there.However, there is a problem that the injection material cannot be injected because the time for maintaining the fluidity is shortened when the strength is increased.Therefore, at the test site at Cape Tappi, we elucidated the optimum type and composition of water glass, and measured the time zone for maintaining fluidity using a stopwatch.Sprayed concrete is a construction method that prevents loosening and collapse by spraying concrete onto the bedrock immediately after excavation. It was developed in Europe in the 1950s, but there were many problems such as jumping, peeling, and pipe clogging due to spraying pressure. , A simulated tunnel was built in the tunnel, and trial and error was repeated to improve the quick-setting admixture, pressure-resistant hose, and automatic arm for spraying.Even so, it was not possible to prevent a large amount of flooding, and there were several places in the advanced shaft that were dug while avoiding the tunnel after abandoning the progress in the middle of the tunnel and closing the wellhead.[26].

    Even after the excavation is completed and the railway is opened, spring water (salt water) continues to flow.Therefore, pumps are installed at the bottom of the advanced shafts on the Tappi side and Yoshioka side (one more place on the Tappi side), and the tunnel is maintained by constantly pumping out spring water.[Annotation 13].

    Main mine

    The main mine with a total length of 53.85 km was excavated in nine sections.Of these, four construction areas near Honshu and three construction areas near Hokkaido dig underground in the land area, and the remaining two construction areas dig under the seabed of the Tsugaru Straits.The length of each construction zone and the contractor are shown below.[27].

    Construction zone nameRegionBy land and seaLength
    (m)
    Contractor
    HamanaHonshu sideLand section1470Fujita Corporation
    Masukawa438Oitaka-gumi
    Sanyoshi5492Tobishima construction-Mitsui ConstructionJV
    Horonai3500Sato Industry
    TappiUndersea1Kashima construction-Kumagai Gumi-Iron constructionJV
    (I.e.Hokkaido side1Taisei construction-Hazama-Maeda Construction IndustryJV
    ShirafuLand section3900Okumura set-Goyo ConstructionJV
    Mitake6400Obayashi team-Shimizu ConstructionJV
    Sengen4950Nishimatsu Construction-Aoki ConstructionJV

    Hokkaido Shinkansen

    2005(17)Hokkaido Shinkansen OfShin-Aomori - Shin-Hakodate HokutoConstruction has begun, and cargo and night trains can continue to pass through the Seikan Tunnel.Dual gaugeAnd on both sides of the tunnelOkatsu Light Mabetsu Station[Annotation 14]とYunosato Shiriuchi signal field[Annotation 15][Newspaper 15]A shelter facility will be built in.2007In (19), a three-line rail construction work was carried out for 6 km up and down lines for the purpose of testing such as checking the operation of the security device.Also for these worksYoshioka Submarine StationWas dormant.

    Also, by running freight trains and Shinkansen at different speeds at the same time.DiamondTo eliminate the load onNarrow gaugeFreight trains for each trainStandard gaugeGet on the train and run at high speed on the Shinkansen railsTrain on trainThe technology is being researched by JR Hokkaido.However, due to problems such as cost, as of 2019, there is no prospect of realization.[28].

    Apart from this, terminals will be constructed on the Aomori side and Hokkaido side as originally planned.MotorailThere is also a plan to operate, but there is no prospect of realization.

    2014(26) February 3Hokkaido ShinkansenDue to the opening work of, two undersea stations (Tatsuhi Submarine Station-Yoshioka Submarine Station) Was abolished[Annotation 16].

    Traveling vehicle

    The Seikan Tunnel is a long tunnel on the seabed, so it is suitable for traveling vehicles.Ministry of Transport(CurrentMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)ButMinisterial OrdinanceThe structure is required to meet the disaster prevention standards set forth in.Although it is not a specified condition, this tunnel passes through the seabed.(I.e.Is always 100%, so it is also important that the structure can withstand this.

    Commercial trains passing through tunnels to prevent fire accidentsElectric train or Electric locomotiveTowedPassenger car-truckVehicles that are limited to only and use an internal combustion engine (Railcar-Diesel locomotive) Cannot be self-propelled or towed on this line except for diesel locomotives for relief purposes.Further pass through the Seikan TunnelRefrigerated containerPowers the compressor by remote control from the driver's seat of the locomotive so that the train is not stranded by the reaction of the heat detector.diesel engineLimited to the type equipped with a dedicated circuit for cutting[Annotation 17].

    When transporting vehicles between Honshu and Hokkaido, the internal combustion engine is stopped and basically the electric locomotive is towed.Class A transportationBe done[Annotation 18].

    Incidentally,1988(Showa 63) In MarchOrient ExpressVehicle is passing through this tunnel[29]However, the vehicles used for the Orient Express use wood for the interior.[29]Above, the dining car uses a coal range[29], It was a vehicle that was not allowed to pass due to fire measures[29]..However, at this time, an in-vehicle broadcasting device and a fire alarm were installed in each vehicle.[29], Conditions for having a dedicated fire prevention personnel on board[29]Is specially allowed to pass[29].

    When the Hokkaido Shinkansen opens, the overhead line voltage of the Kaikyo Line including the Seikan Tunnel is boosted to 25,000 V (50 Hz) according to the Shinkansen.[30], Security device before thatATC-LからDS-ATCWas changed to[31].

    Regular service vehicle

    • Electric locomotive
      • EH800 type(JR Freight)
        Tow a freight train. Supports both 20,000 V and 25,000 V voltagesDouble voltageAC electric locomotive.After the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen, the electric locomotives that pass through the Kaikyo Line, including the Seikan Tunnel, have been unified into this series.

    Past regular service vehicles

    • Train (conventional line car)
    • Electric locomotive
      • ED79 type(JR Hokkaido / JR Freight)
        In addition to towing freight trains, aircraft belonging to both companies also towed passenger trains.
      • ED76 type(JR Hokkaido)
        I towed a passenger train as a spare for the ED79 type.
      • EH500 type(JR Freight)
        Towed a freight train.
    • Passenger car
      • 50 series(JR Hokkaido)
        fast"StraitOperated by.
      • 14 series(JR Hokkaido)
        Express"HamanasuOperated by.Slow and fastPower carThe fire extinguishing device and other measures had been taken for limited use. There was also a time when it was allocated to the rapid "Kaikyo" as a timely operation of "Hamanasu".
      • 24 series(JR Hokkaido / JR East / JR West)
        Limited express "Cars belonging to JR Hokkaido and JR East"HokutoseiOperated by.Also, only the cars belonging to JR Hokkaido were used as sleeping cars for "Hamanasu".
        The car belonging to JR West is the limited express "Sea of ​​JapanIt was operated regularly.In addition, the special express "Twilight expressHowever, a dedicated vehicle was operated.

    Vehicles that have been used in temporary and inspection trains

    • Train (Shinkansen train)
      • E926 type(JR East)
        Shinkansen electric track comprehensive test vehicle "East i".It is operated at the time of inspection of the Hokkaido Shinkansen.
      • E956 type(JR East)
        Next-generation Shinkansen test vehicle "ALFA-X".It will be operated during the test run.
    • Electro-diesel locomotive
      • E001 type(JR East)
        It will be operated when "TRAIN SUITE Shikishima" enters Hokkaido.
    • Railcar
      • Kiha 183 series(JR Hokkaido)
        5200 series for special trains and group trainsNorth rainbow expressAnd in the 6000sZashiki vehicleHas a track record of being used. It ran by towing with ED79 type.
      • Car E193 series(JR East)
        Inspection vehicle "East iD" for non-electrified sections. It is towed by the EH79 type after the ED800 type, and is used for rental operation in JR Hokkaido.
    • Passenger car
      • Maya 34 type(JR Hokkaido)
        Track inspection car. It was connected to "Hamanasu" and ran, and the rail was inspected.
      • 12 series(JR East)
        It was operated as a temporary flight of the "Strait" by the express "Hakkoda".It was used outside of winter because of the folding door.
      • E26 series(JR East)
        Before the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen, a temporary limited express "CassiopeiaIt was operated regularly.Even after the opening, it was used as a group-only train "Cassiopeia Cruise" and "Cassiopeia Journey", but it has not been set since the aforementioned "TRAIN SUITE Shikishima" started to enter Hokkaido.
      • Orient Express '88Passenger railroad (JR East)
        I ran only once for the event.As mentioned above, the driving conditions and fire prevention standards were not met, but the car was approved as a special case.

    Accident/Trouble

    Shin-Aomori Station on the Hokkaido Shinkansen-Shin-Hakodate Hokuto Station is about to open one year later20154/3In, an accident occurred in which smoke was emitted under the vehicle of the limited express "Super Shiratori No. 34" that was running in the Seikan Tunnel, and passengers and crew members evacuated to the ground via the Ryuhi fixed point for the first time after the opening of the Seikan Tunnel. Became[Press 9][Press 2][Newspaper 10]In addition, two days later4/5ToEsashi Line OfSatsukari - KikonaiA power transmission problem occurred because the hanging insulating insulator of the "ki electric wire" in between was damaged due to aging and corrosion due to salt damage, and a power outage occurred in the Seikan Tunnel.As a result, four trains including the limited express "Super Swan" were suspended, and six trains were delayed by up to 4 hours and 6 minutes.[Newspaper 12][Newspaper 13]..A series of management accidents occurred within a week at the Seikan Tunnel, which is scheduled to go through the Hokkaido Shinkansen, raising questions about the safety of the Hokkaido Shinkansen.[Newspaper 11]..On the other hand, from April 4th to 7th, JR Hokkaido gave an explanation about the power outage on the Esashi Line, an explanation about disaster prevention equipment and evacuation related to the Seikan Tunnel, and a report on the vehicle status.[Press 20][Press 2]. Also,4/10Will revise the evacuation guidance manual at a press conference.4/7Announced that an in-house committee was set up in[Newspaper 16].

    On the other hand, there was a problem on the JR Freight side as well.Tow a freight train in the Seikan TunnelEH800 type electric locomotiveIt turned out that the failure had occurred on August 2015, 8.Osaka Freight Terminal StationDepartureSapporo Freight Terminal StationWhen towing a freight train (20-car train) to the train, the driver confirmed that the failure notification lamp was lit around 8:21 on August 17st.ShiriuchiAn emergency stop was made in a tunnel about 5 km to the exit on the side, and operation was resumed after first aid to prevent current from flowing through the voltage converter.Kikonai StationAfter arriving at, an employee confirmed the breakdown.Due to an abnormality in the electrical system, an excessive current flowed due to insufficient tightening of the bolts of the voltage converter, and the resin of the insulator was welded, leading to a failure.Although he reported this obstacle to the Hokkaido District Transport Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, he did not announce it as "I recognized it as a mere vehicle breakdown and thought that it was not the content to announce" (Public Relations Office). According to the announcement by JR Hokkaido, four limited express trains were delayed by up to 4 minutes due to this obstacle.[Newspaper 14].

    January 2016, 2Ryuhi fixed pointThere was a problem that the rescue train stopped urgently due to a power outage during the training at the time of the joint abnormality in[Newspaper 17][Press 11].

    sovereignty

    Tsugaru StraitIs the "so-called international strait"Specific sea areaIn addition, the Seikan Tunnel is partlysovereigntyExtendsWatersAlthough it passes through an area that is not[32], In the view of the Japanese governmentInternational lawFor the entire Seikan Tunnel based onJapan OfJurisdictionIs understood to extend[33][34][35][36][37].

    Flat

    Flat OfBlameIs on the Honshu sideYasuhiro Nakasone, Hokkaido side (to be exact, the 1st Yunosato tunnel)Ryutaro HashimotoIs.On the biane, it says "Seikan Tunnel" instead of "Seikan Tunnel".

    Nakasone penetrated the tunnel in March 1985 and in April 3.Privatization of the national railway divisionAt the timePrime Minister, Hashimoto at the time of April 1987Minister of TransportMet.

    Commemorative issue

    movies

    TV program

    On the day of openingCommercial broadcastEach station from the opening ceremonyLive broadcastdid.The relay isHakodate Station-Aomori Station[Annotation 19]Not onlyYoshioka Submarine Station-Tatsuhi Submarine StationIt was also done from.Furthermore, the first passenger train[Annotation 20]From HakodateMoriokaLimited express to go "HakkariThe appearance of No. 10 entering the tunnel was broadcast live from inside the car.

    Relay from inside the trainNHKInterviewed the representative and installed the video in the driver's seatFPUWas transmitted to the ground, and the radio wave was received and relayed again on the ground.That is why when you look at the picture of the first train that opened, you can see the parabolic antenna with "NHK" written on it in the driver's seat.Since each commercial broadcasting station received and retransmitted this NHK video, it suddenly became NHK without any prejudice.announcer OfAkiyoshi KiharaAppeared on the commercial TV screen.

    Also, for relaying from the submarine station, for broadcasting broadcasting that was beginning to be put into practical use at that time.Optical fiberA transmission device was used.

    Although it is not a main broadcast program, it was before the opening on NHK.1970(45)3/23ToNew Japan travelogue"Seikan Tunnel",1983(58)1/21ToNHK Special"Verification / Seikan Tunnel" was released on April 2000, 12 (Heisei 4).Project X-Challengers-』Broadcast" Beyond the Death of a Friend-Seikan Tunnel, 24 Years of Major Construction- ". On February 2016, 28, the latter two programs were re-edited before the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen.NHK Archives"To open the Hokkaido Shinkansen-passion for the Seikan Tunnel-" was broadcast[38]. Also,Aomori BroadcastingBut in 1988 (Showa 63), "Tappi's twoWe also produced and broadcast a documentary program on the theme of the Seikan Tunnel.

    On April 1988, 63 (Showa 4) immediately after the openingMonday/Woman SuspenseFirst expansion special "The man who disappeared from the Seikan Limited Express" (Natsuki ShizukoThe original travel suspense)Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.seriesIt is being broadcast on.

    Second Seikan Tunnel Concept

    According to the Kahoku Shimpo dated July 2014, 7, the chairman of the Aomori Prefectural Assembly unofficially told the Secretary-General of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism at a regular press conference on June 9, 6, "Please dig another one." Reveal that[Newspaper 18].

    2014-Around 2015, multipleGeneral contractor, "Railway line strengthening study group" was established by a consultant company. In 2016, the company is summarizing the concept of constructing a second Seikan Tunnel exclusively for cargo on the west side of the Seikan Tunnel.The construction cost is assumed to be about 2 billion yen, and the construction period is assumed to be about 3900 years.[Newspaper 19]..As the first background, in 2004, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism conducted a "Study on the safety of freight trains running on the Shinkansen in the Seikan Tunnel" in the "16 Maintenance Shinkansen Construction Promotion Advancement Project". In response to the survey, the Seikan Tunnel Shared Travel Section Technology Study WG (Working Group) was established within the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in July 2012, and the minutes of the survey stated that "7 years after the extension of the Hokkaido Shinkansen to Sapporo. The current Seikan Tunnel also needs a major renovation, and there is no point in working while decelerating at that time. ”And there was an airmail during the heavy snowfall in December 10. Even when the flight was canceled, the limited express train between Sapporo and Shin-Hakodate Hokuto became very crowded, and the current Seikan Tunnel had insufficient capacity due to the increase in freight trains.[Newspaper 20].

    According to the Hokkaido Shimbun dated February 2017, 2Japan Project-Industry CouncilAnnounced on February 2th of the same year the concept of dedicating the existing Seikan Tunnel to the Shinkansen by constructing two new tunnels, one for freight trains and one for automobiles, and laying transmission lines and gas pipelines inside the tunnels. did.The project cost is about 13 billion yen, the construction period is expected to be about 2 years, and the extension will be shortened to about 7500 km by making the slope steep when digging from the ground to the sea.[Newspaper 21]..After that, in 2020, the project cost was about 2 billion, which was a compromise between the road plan and the freight train plan, and a main lane dedicated to two-lane expressways at the top and a single-track railroad for freight trains and an emergency car route / evacuation route at the bottom. Announced the concept of a circle, a construction period of 7200 years, and an extension of about 15 km.[39].

    In addition, as a road-only tunnel for manned driving, the "Second Seikan Multipurpose Tunnel Concept Study Group" has a circular tunnel with an extension of 30 km and an inner diameter of 14.5 m. Class 7299 10rd grade, at the top2 lanes completedOn the main road and at the bottomEmergency vehicleAnnouncing a hypothetical plan for roads and evacuation routes and a design speed of 80 km / h, it was also incorporated to reduce the inner diameter by about 3 m when supporting autonomous driving of level 2 or higher.[40][39].

    By the way, currently between Honshu and ShikokuSeto Ohashi BridgeRoutes that cross3book ofHonshu-Shikoku connecting roadHowever, between Honshu and KyushuKanmon tunnel,Kanmon BridgeHowever, there is no road that can be driven between Honshu and Hokkaido.Tsugaru Kaikyo Ferry or Seikan FerryHowever, if a car tunnel is completed between Honshu and Hokkaido, it will be possible to drive to and from all four major islands in Japan.

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Of the Kaikyo Line, sections other than the Seikan Tunnel are not drawn.In addition, JR Hokkaido, which has already been abolishedMatsumae Line,Esashi Line(Kikonai Station - Esashi Stationwhile),Shimokita TransportationOhata Line,Nanbu JÅ«kan RailwayNanbu JÅ«kan Railway Line,Towada Kanko Electric Railway LineEtc. are also drawn.
    2. ^ 2010(22)1/29ToHakodate honsen Fukagawa - MoseushiOccurred betweenRailroad crossing injury accidentIn response to this, JR Hokkaido prohibited entry into the gangway on the driver's cab side of the lead car of the limited express vehicle in the same year, so it became impossible to shoot from this angle after that, and further2016(28)Hokkaido ShinkansenAfter the opening, the front view itself is impossible because basically only the Shinkansen can be used.
    3. ^ "Kuma"Common kanjiBecause it's outsideSeikan TunnelWas sometimes written as[4].
    4. ^ a b However, even after the opening of the Gotthard Base TunnelAlpsPenetrateMountain tunnelTo be between the straitsUnderwater tunnelIt will be the longest in the world.
    5. ^ Along with this, a special case was set between Kanita Station and Kikonai Station, where you can get on the unreserved seats of ordinary cars on limited express trains with just a ticket.This special case is "Youth 18 ticket"Hokkaido & East Japan PassCan be used only for ordinary and rapid trains such asSpecial plan ticketWas also applied.
    6. ^ On March 1988, 63 (Showa 3), the administrative vice-ministers' meeting established the boundaries of local governments, and about 13 km of the high seas area was set in Aomori Prefecture.Higashitsugaru-gunSanya Village(Currently: the countySotogahama Town), About 5km to HokkaidoMatsumae-gunFukushima TownWill be transferred to the government on the 16th of the same monthCabinetWas decided and announced on the 24th of the same month.
    7. ^ It is longer than other tunnels, and its major feature is that the downward slope continues for a long time toward the center of the tunnel.
    8. ^ The Ryuhi diagonal shaft is located in Sotogahama TownRoad Station Minmaya(Seikan Tunnel Memorial Hall), Yoshioka Slope has an exit near the Tunnel Memorial Park in the Yoshioka district of Fukushima Town.In addition, the cable car of the Ryuhi diagonal shaftSeikan Tunnel Ryuhi Diversion LineIt is in commercial operation as.
    9. ^ In addition to the Seikan Tunnel route, optical submarine cables will be laid between Ishikari and Akita / Sendai (KDDI), Tomakomai and Oma (NTT East Japan), and Muroran and Hachinohe (Softbank) as communication routes between Hokkaido and Honshu. ing.
    10. ^ For Natchan World,Tsugaru Kaikyo Ferry 2009 - 2012It was operated only in the summer of.
    11. ^ Pressing the blast buttonYasuhiro Nakasone(at that time·Prime Minister)ButPrime Minister's OfficeI went from using the telephone line.
    12. ^ For the locomotive of the first down train "Kaikyo No. 1"Shintaro Ishihara(At that time, Minister of Transport) was on board.
    13. ^ As a result, the humidity inside the mine is always 100%, and measures against salt damage are indispensable for passing vehicles and facilities.
    14. ^ Before the opening of the Shinkansen, it was Tsugaru Imabetsu Station.
    15. ^ Former Shiriuchi station. Closed on March 2014, 26 (Heisei 3).Before the opening of the Shinkansen, it was the Shiriuchi signal field.
    16. ^ Although the station function has disappeared, it has become a fixed point and may be used as an evacuation exit as in the accident on April 2015, 27.
    17. ^ Tokaido-Sanyo Main LineSome of the refrigerated containers loaded on the freight trains of the system do not have this circuit, and it says "No passage through the Seikan Tunnel".
    18. ^ Performed via the Seikan Tunnel in the early 21st centuryClass A transportationIt is,2008(20) of JulyMyanmarTransfer vehicle,2009(21)3/24 OfDF200 typeThere are diesel locomotives and so on.
    19. ^ TBS TV broadcast on this day "Sunday MorningIn ", we also relayed from Kanita Station where" Hatsukari No. 10 "stopped.
    20. ^ The first train in commercial operation was a freight train.

    Source

    1. ^ a b "Railway Construction / Transportation Facility Development Support Organization Bond Description (PDF)”(Japanese). Railway Construction/Transport Facility Development Support Organization. pp. Page 19 (January 2009, 1). April 2010, 5Browse.[Broken link]
    2. ^ Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation Sapporo Construction Office 1990, p. 254.
    3. ^ At the doorwayFlat.
    4. ^ "Maintenance plan for Shinkansen railway construction". Ministry of Transport(July 1973, 11)
    5. ^ a b "JR Union Policy News No. 37”(Japanese). Japan Railway Trade Union Federation(JR Union) (June 2005, 6). As of June 28, 2009originalMore archives.April 2010, 5Browse.
    6. ^ "New Kitamoto interconnection facility-Hokkaido Electric Power Company". April 2019, 5Browse.
    7. ^ Outline of the expansion of interconnection facilities between Hokkaido and Honshu (PDF) Hokkaido Electric Power Company July 2013, 7.<4> What kind of equipment is the Kitamoto interconnection?Honshu and 60 kW power transmission and reception-Hokkaido Shimbun Hokkaido Shimbun November 2012, 11 Viewed January 9, 2014[Broken link]
    8. ^ Seikan car train concept learned from Eurotunnel --Hisao Hirama Tohoku Industrial Revitalization Center
    9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao "Public Relations Sotogama March 20 Issue (No.3) (PDF)”. Sotogahama Town. P. Page 7 (March 2008). As of April 3, 2013originalMore archives.April 2014, 10Browse.
    10. ^ Seikan Tunnel Encyclopedia Strait Corridor p14-17
    11. ^ My Town Hakodate Town Magazine 50 Years p78-79
    12. ^ a b c d Seikan Tunnel Story Seikan Tunnel Story Editorial Committee 1988 p16-19
    13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Ayumi of Seikan Tunnel (before completion)”. Hokkaido Railway Company. April 2014, 10Browse.
    14. ^ Seikan Tunnel Museum panel
    15. ^ a b RailwayEle29-6 1976, p. 48.
    16. ^ Drainage smoothly Seikan Tunnel "Asahi Shimbun" May 1976, 51 (Showa 5) Evening edition, 10rd edition, 3th page
    17. ^ The celebration was canceled at the wrong time. The Asahi Shimbun, Seikan Construction Bureau of the Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation, September 1979, 54, morning edition, 9th edition, page 18.
    18. ^ a b "Railway journalVol. 21, No. 14, Railway Journal, August 1987, p. 12.
    19. ^ a b c d "Ayumi of Seikan Tunnel (after completion)”. Hokkaido Railway Company. April 2014, 10Browse.
    20. ^ "What is a time slit?". USS Trading. April 2021, 1Browse.
    21. ^ "GEC News (No. 10)". Underground Development and Utilization Research Center (September 1990, 6). April 2021, 1Browse.
    22. ^ Ryozo Kawashima, "Walking 100 Railroad Famous Places in Japan," Kodansha, September 2004, 9, p. 20.ISBN 406272278X. 
    23. ^ About the total suspension of the Tsugaru Kaikyo Line until New Year's Day due to "prior confirmation" of "final switching of ground equipment" for the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen --JR Hokkaido October 2015, 7
    24. ^ Notice of train suspension due to switching of Hokkaido Shinkansen facilities, Hokkaido Railway Company
    25. ^ Mobile phones can be used in all sections of the Seikan Tunnel Hokkaido General Communication Bureau August 2019, 8
    26. ^ a b "THE JR Hokkaido" Vol. 337, Hokkaido JR Agency, March 2016, p. 3.
    27. ^ "Organizational Study of Seikan Tunnel Construction". Hiromitsu Kojima. (March 1984)
    28. ^ "Does the" Freight Shinkansen "really run in the Tsugaru Straits?"(July 2016, 1). https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/102046 April 2019, 1Browse. 
    29. ^ a b c d e f g Underfloor maker "Train Mandala 21. Orient Express visit to Japan" "Railway journal』No. 505, Railway Journal (Seimidou Publishing), November 2008, p. 11.
    30. ^ "JR Freight Maintenance Shinkansen Subcommittee Hearing Material (PDF)”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (October 2012, 2). As of January 27, 2013originalMore archives.April 2016, 1Browse.
    31. ^ "Initiatives for opening (Hokkaido Shinkansen special site)". Hokkaido passenger railway.As of August 2016, 10original[Broken link]More archives.April 2016, 1Browse.
    32. ^ "Jurisdiction sea area information-Japanese territorial waters-Specific sea area". Japan Coast Guard. April 2022, 1Browse.
    33. ^ "Seikan Tunnel and Tsugaru Strait". House of Councilors Legal Affairs Bureau. April 2022, 1Browse.
    34. ^ The 98th House of Representatives plenary session No. 13 March 58, 3 22 Yasuhiro Nakasone(Diet minutes search system)
    35. ^ The 102nd House of Councilors Local Administrative Committee No. 17 May 60, 5 28 Shotaro Yachi(Diet minutes search system)
    36. ^ [1] United Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaPart XNUMX Exclusive Economic Zone (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
    37. ^ [2](Act on Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental ShelfArticle XNUMX)
    38. ^ “NHK Archives”. Japan Broadcasting Corporation. originalArchived as of October 2016, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20160228053301/http://www.nhk.or.jp/archives/nhk-archives/ April 2016, 2Browse. 
    39. ^ a b New plan for the 2nd Seikan Tunnel Self-driving car on the Industrial Council, freight train related person "close to the culmination" -Hokkaido Shimbun June 2020, 11
    40. ^ Toward realization: The second Seikan multipurpose tunnel concept that is not a dream --Development Koho January 2019 issue

    Press release material

    1. ^ "About October 14 schedule revision" (Press release), Hokkaido passenger railway, (November 2002, 9), originalArchived as of October 2002, 10., https://web.archive.org/web/20021010072608/www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2002/1412daiya.html April 2014, 6Browse. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Disaster prevention equipment in Seikan Tunnel, concept of customer evacuation and vehicle survey at this stage" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2015, 4), originalArchived as of October 2015, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20150410033323/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2015/150408-1.pdf April 2015, 4Browse. 
    3. ^ a b "About October 18 schedule revision" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2005, 12), originalArchived as of October 2005, 12., https://web.archive.org/web/20051230090557/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2005/051222.pdf April 2010, 7Browse. 
    4. ^ a b "Yoshioka Submarine Station" Doraemon Submarine World "will reach its final on August 8th! ” (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2006, 6), originalArchived as of October 2006, 7., https://web.archive.org/web/20060706190916/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2006/060614-3.pdf April 2014, 6Browse. 
    5. ^ a b “About the closing of the station” (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2013, 9), originalArchived as of October 2013, 9., https://web.archive.org/web/20130927095752/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2013/130913-1.pdf April 2014, 6Browse. 
    6. ^ a b "About October 26 schedule revision" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2013, 12), originalArchived as of October 2013, 12., https://web.archive.org/web/20131224105741/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2013/131220-1.pdf April 2014, 6Browse. 
    7. ^ "Future efforts to prepare for the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2014, 9), originalArchived as of October 2014, 9., https://web.archive.org/web/20140911002027/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2014/140910-2.pdf April 2014, 9Browse. 
    8. ^ "About the 26 train running test of the Hokkaido Shinkansen (between Okutsugaru Mabetsu and Shin-Hakodate Hokuto)" (PDF) (Press Release), Railway Construction and Transport Facility Development Support Organization, (October 2014, 10), originalArchived as of October 2014, 10., https://web.archive.org/web/20141002115033/http://www.jrtt.go.jp/08-2Press/pdf/H26/pressh261001.pdf April 2014, 10Browse. 
    9. ^ a b "About the event of white smoke from the Limited Express Super Shiratori No. 34 vehicle" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2015, 4), originalArchived as of October 2015, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20150404154323/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2015/150404-1.pdf April 2015, 4Browse. 
    10. ^ "About the causes of transportation problems due to power outages between Satsukari Station and Kikonai Station on the Esashi Line" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2015, 4), originalArchived as of October 2015, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20150409025715/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2015/150407-1.pdf April 2015, 4Browse. 
    11. ^ a b "About the occurrence of a power outage during training at the joint abnormality at Tappi-Kaitei" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (February 2016, 2), originalArchived as of October 2016, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20160210105026/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2016/160210-3.pdf April 2016, 2Browse. 
    12. ^ "About the start of mobile phone service at Seikan Tunnel Former Ryuhi Submarine Station (Ryuhi Fixed Point) and Former Yoshioka Submarine Station (Yoshioka Fixed Point)" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (February 2016, 2), originalArchived as of October 2016, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20160213112825/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2016/160212-1.pdf April 2016, 2Browse. 
    13. ^ "About the start of mobile phone service at Seikan Tunnel Former Ryuhi Submarine Station (Ryuhi Fixed Point) and Former Yoshioka Submarine Station (Yoshioka Fixed Point)" (Japanese) (Press Release), NTT DoCoMo, (February 2016, 2), originalArchived as of October 2016, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20160213114452/https://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/info/notice/tohoku/page/2015/160212_01.html April 2016, 2Browse. 
    14. ^ "About the outline of the operation plan associated with the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen Shin-Aomori-Shin Hakodate Hokuto" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company / East Japan Railway Company, (September 2015, 9), http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2015/150916-3.pdf April 2015, 9Browse. 
    15. ^ “About the March 2019 timetable revision” (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (August 2018, 12), http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/CM/Info/press/pdf/20181214_KO_H31Kaisei.pdf April 2018, 12Browse. 
    16. ^ "About the start of mobile phone service in some sections of the Seikan Tunnel" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (February 2019, 4), originalArchived as of October 2019, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20190416141918/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/CM/Info/press/pdf/20190410_KO_seikannT%20mobile.pdf April 2019, 4Browse. 
    17. ^ "Press Release: High-speed driving in the Seikan Tunnel of the Hokkaido Shinkansen during some hours of the year-end and New Year holidays (210km / h traveling by the" time zone division method ")" (Press release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, (March 2020, 9), https://www.mlit.go.jp/report/press/tetsudo09_hh_000088.html 
    18. ^ "About train name determination for Hokkaido Shinkansen" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2014, 11), originalArchived as of October 2014, 11., https://web.archive.org/web/20141126175309/http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2014/141120-1.pdf April 2014, 11Browse. 
    19. ^ "About train name determination for Hokkaido Shinkansen" (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway, (November 2014, 11), originalArchived as of October 2014, 11., https://web.archive.org/web/20141129040630/http://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2014/20141113.pdf April 2014, 11Browse. 
    20. ^ "About the causes of transportation problems due to power outages between Satsukari Station and Kikonai Station on the Esashi Line" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (August 2015, 4), http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/press/2015/150407-1.pdf April 2015, 4Browse. 

    newspaper article

    1. ^ a b "The Gotthard Tunnel, which runs through the Alps, opens, the longest in the world, 57 km". Reuters (Thomson Reuters). (January 2016, 6). originalArchived as of October 2016, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20160602053122/http://jp.reuters.com/article/gotthard-idJPKCN0YN3FI April 2016, 6Browse. 
    2. ^ "Controversy over closing the lid of the Seikan Tunnel". Daily Construction Industry Newspaper (Hokkaido version)(November 2002, 1). originalArchived as of October 2002, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20020704120527/http://www.nikkenko.com/feature/kikaku/page/020110_shinnen_1.htm April 2002, 1Browse. 
    3. ^ “To improve the evacuation method of the Seikan Tunnel, President of JR Hokkaido at the House of Councilors Committee”. Hokkaido Shimbun(Doshin Web) (Hokkaido Shimbun). (January 2015, 6). originalArchived as of October 2015, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150603033748/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/society/society/1-0141106.html April 2015, 6Browse. 
    4. ^ "Editorial Seikan Tunnel Shinkansen evacuation, is it okay?". Hokkaido Shimbun (Doshin Web) (The Hokkaido Shimbun Press). (June 2015, 6). originalArchived as of October 2015, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150627162508/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/opinion/editorial/2-0026948.html April 2015, 6Browse. 
    5. ^ "Cost-benefit return table for Seikan Tunnel". Daily Construction Industry Newspaper (Hokkaido version)(November 2002, 1). originalArchived as of October 2002, 8.. https://web.archive.org/web/20020818042548/http://www.nikkenko.com/feature/kikaku/page/020110_shinnen_3.htm April 2002, 1Browse. 
    6. ^ "Hokkaido Shinkansen Special Feature Road Shinkansen, History's First H5 Series Vehicle, Hakodate's First Landing". Hokkaido Shimbun (Doshin Web) (The Hokkaido Shimbun Press). (June 2014, 10). originalArchived as of October 2015, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150118143152/http://www.hokkaido-np.co.jp/cont/bullet_train_special/246375.html April 2014, 10Browse. 
    7. ^ "Hokkaido Shinkansen, running test in Aomori through the strait in Aomori tunnel". Hokkaido Shimbun (Doshin Web) (The Hokkaido Shimbun Press). (June 2014, 12). originalArchived as of October 2014, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141209092725/http://www.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/topic/578735.html April 2014, 12Browse. 
    8. ^ "Hokkaido Shinkansen train passes through Seikan Tunnel for the first time". Yomiuri Shimbun(YOMIURI ONLINE) (Yomiuri Shimbun). (January 2014, 12). originalArchived as of October 2014, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141209065323/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/20141207-OYT1T50067.html?from=yartcl_blist April 2014, 12Browse. 
    9. ^ "Test run at the Seikan Tunnel on the Hokkaido Shinkansen". NHK online (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). (January 2014, 12). originalArchived as of October 2014, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141211010528/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20141207/k10013782741000.html April 2014, 12Browse. 
    10. ^ a b "Transporting 120 passengers and 2 people from the limited express in the Seikan Tunnel". Hokkaido Shimbun (Doshin Web) (The Hokkaido Shimbun Press). (June 2015, 4). originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150403165602/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/society/society/1-0119424.html April 2015, 4Browse. 
    11. ^ a b "Hokkaido) Shinkansen safety issues Seikan tunnel accident". Asahi Shimbun(Asahi Shimbun digital) (Asahi Shimbun). (January 2015, 4). originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150406144244/http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH44536PH44IIPE00W.html April 2015, 4Browse. 
    12. ^ a b "Partial power outage in Seikan Tunnel Power transmission trouble on JR Esashi Line". Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun Digital) (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2015, 4). originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150406143621/http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH457H5TH45IIPE029.html April 2015, 4Browse. 
    13. ^ a b "JR Hokkaido explains the reason for the power outage on the Esashi Line-caused by aging and damage to insulators due to salt damage". My Navi News (My navi). (January 2015, 4). originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150427065228/http://news.mynavi.jp/news/2015/04/10/229/ April 2015, 4Browse. 
    14. ^ a b Doshin Web (November 2015, 11). “Failure in Seikan Tunnel New locomotive overcurrent of JR Freight in August”. Hokkaido Shimbun (Hokkaido Shimbun Press). originalArchived as of October 2015, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20151122183329/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/society/society/1-0204421.html April 2015, 11Browse. 
    15. ^ "Train fire assumption, disaster prevention drill at Seikan Tunnel [Fukushima]". Hakodate newspaper(Hokkaido News Link) (Hakodate Shimbun). (June 2014, 11). originalArchived as of October 2014, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141129054151/http://www.hokkaido-nl.jp/detail.cgi?id=23051 April 2014, 11Browse. 
    16. ^ "Seikan Tunnel to revise evacuation guidance manual". Yomiuri Shimbun (YOMIURI ONLINE)Yomiuri Shimbun. 10 April 2015. As of April 2015, 4originalMore archives.. Retrieved August 2015, 4.
    17. ^ "Hokkaido Shinkansen makes an emergency stop during training. Mistake in power transmission procedure". Nihon Keizai ShimbunNikkei Inc. 9 February 2016.Retrieved January 2016, 2.
    18. ^ "The long-awaited theory of the construction of the" Second Seikan Tunnel "in Aomori Prefecture". Kahoku ShimpoONLINE NEWS (Kawakita Shimpo). (January 2014, 7). originalArchived as of October 2014, 8.. https://web.archive.org/web/20140814060854/http://www.kahoku.co.jp/tohokunews/201407/20140709_25001.html April 2017, 1Browse. 
    19. ^ "Seikan Tunnel" 2nd Tunnel "Experts Concept-Shinkansen Speed-up with Freight Line". Hokkaido Shimbun(Doshin Web) (Hokkaido Shimbun). (January 2017, 1). originalArchived as of October 2017, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20170102171554/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/economy/economy/1-0353789.html April 2017, 1Browse. 
    20. ^ Junichi Sugiyama (February 2017, 1). "The" Second Seikan Tunnel Concept "that I don't want to end in" Hatsuyume "". My Navi News (My navi). http://news.mynavi.jp/series/railwaynews/051/ April 2017, 1Browse. 
    21. ^ "New tunnel concept in Seikan Announcement of two economic groups for freight and automobiles" (Japanese). Hokkaido Shimbun.Doshin Web / Electronic Version (Economy) (Hokkaido Shimbun). (January 2017, 2). originalArchived as of October 2017, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20170214082930/http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/economy/economy/1-0368398.html April 2017, 2Browse. 

    References

    Book

    Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation Sapporo Construction Office "Tsugaru Kaikyo Line Construction Magazine (Seikan Tunnel), Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation Sapporo Construction Office, March 1990.

    • Hiroyasu Ito "Japan's No. XNUMX & Only One Railroad-A Journey to Ask for the No. XNUMX Railroad in Japan"Sogensha, Nov. 2014, 12, p. 15.ISBN 978-4-422-24069-5. 
    • Seikan Tunnel Story Seikan Tunnel Story Editorial Committee 1988

    magazine

    • “The largest flood in the Seikan Tunnel”. Electric car science 29 (6). (June 6). 

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