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It is such a popular work that the world competition was held as e-sports in 19.
 

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Wikipedia related words

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Competition

Competition(Kyoto,British: competitionCompetition) is a constantRulesCompeting for superiority or inferiority[1].. In JapaneseForeign wordsAsコ ン ペ テ ィ シ ョ ンSometimes the word is used. The abbreviation “competition” may also be used.

Overview

Competition means competing for superiority or inferiority of some technique while following certain rules. Do it alsogame(ゲーム[2].

The content of the competition varies, and is, for example, some skill or physical ability. Daijisen cites expressions such as “athletics” and “arizoku”. A person who competes in a competition is called a competitor.

There are various taxonomies in competition. For example, there is a method of classifying into "individual competition" in which individuals compete for superiority and "group competition" in which superiority and inferiority of groups compete. There is also a method of dividing indoors/outdoors into “indoor sports” and “outdoor sports”. There is also a method of classifying by the age of the competitor, such as "youth competition" or "senior competition".

As an internationally governing body for each sports competitionInternational Federation(International Sports Federations, ISFs).

Competition

Meetings or gatherings for conducting competitions are called competitions. (People who like foreign words are called "competitions").

The competition may be planned by some organizer, in which case the dates are decided in advance, the participants (athletes, referees, operators, etc.) are notified in advance, and the people gather on the scheduled day.

When the scale is large or there are many disciplines, it is also called "competition", "competition" or "championship". Many are certified by associations and competition management organizations in the field. Rule violation (=Foul play) Is performed, "DisqualificationIn some cases, it may be judged that the player has left the field and will be suspended from that point onwards.

It may be classified into "final" and "qualifying (qualifying)" for selecting participants in the final.

Competitions (conventions) are world-class competitions (World championship), held in a specific region or cultural area (regional convention, ... zone convention.Regional Championship.Asian Games,East Asian Games,Portuguese-speaking GamesEtc.), and tournaments that are held only within one country (US tournament, German tournament, Russian tournament, Japan tournament, etc.)Japan Championship,National championshipIt is also possible to classify the names such as "national competitions"), which are held in a specific area within one country and are called "local competitions" in that country.

Representative sports competitions

Examples of competitions and competitions

And so on. The above are just some of the sports competitions. It does not matter if there are as many competitions as there are sports.

And so on. There are game competitions only for the types of games, and there are countless competitions as well.

FunctionThere are many competitions and many competitions are held. As a competition, for example. As an example of a competitionInternational skill competition,,Such.

  • Design competition (A system in which a large number of designers are given the rules and the same conditions so that they can compete with each other in designing techniques and the designs of excellent people are adopted in actual construction/construction): In various industrial fields other than construction/design On the business being doneCustom.

Related item

footnote

  1. ^ Daijisen
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of Play Supervised by Japan Recreation Association Tokyo Book 1989 p.56

e sports

e sports(Esports,British: Esports) IsComputer games(Video game)SportsCompetitionIs the name when[1].Electronic sports Abbreviation for (electronic sports),eSports,e-Sports,Electronic competitionIt is also written as (Denshikyogi)[2].

Overview

Esports are often organized(English editionIt is held as a competition ofProfessionalplayer(Pro gamer) Compete against each other as individuals or teams. Competitions have long been part of computer game culture, but with the participation of professional gamers andLive streamingUntil the latter half of the 2000s when watching events through distribution became popularamateurWas done between[3][4].. In the 2010s, esports became an important factor for the computer game industry, as many computer game developers began to actively organize and fund events such as tournaments.

e sportsLAN partyIs said to have been born from[5].WesternIn the latter half of the 1990s, a world-class competition with a large amount of prize money was held, and participants included amateurs to professional gamers with annual income of more than 1 million yen.[6][7].

The genres of computer games commonly used as competitions are:Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA),First-person shooter (FPS),Competitive fighting game,Card games,Battle royal games,Real-time strategy (RTS) etc. As a popular competition title,league of legendsAnd 'Overwatch],(English editionseries,Counter strikeseries,Super Smash Bros. Series,Star craftThere are series etc.AmericaThen, in 2013, there were "League of Legends" and "Starcraft 2Competition titleProfessional sportsCertified as an athlete visa for foreign players[8][9].JapanSo for the first time in 2016, we will work with a domestic team South KoreaAthlete visa was issued to an athlete[10][11].

According to a 2017 survey, there are more than 3 million esports viewers worldwide[12].YouTube,TwitchIncreasing use of online streaming platforms, centered around, is central to the growth and promotion of esports competition[4].. The viewing rate is about 85% for men and about 15% for women, with the majority of viewers between the ages of 18 and 34, including women who play professionally.GamerThere is[13][14][15].. The growing popularity and awareness of esportsAsia,Especially,ChugokuAnd South Korea, and in China since 2000,licenseIs issued.EuropeIt is also popular in the US and in these areas, not only local but also international events are held.

The e-sports market in Japan is large(English editionGrowth is slow despite the fact that there is[16][17][18][19]..The main cause isFreebie display method,Gambling and lottery offenses(Criminal law), Such as the possibility of conflict with laws and regulations, imposes restrictions on various forms of competition for financial benefits such as prize money.[16][18]..Also, even if you look at it on a global scale, the competition titles are "League of Legends" and "Counter-Strike Global Offensive"such asPersonal computerDedicated game work (Pc games) Is booming, but in Japan it is better than PC gamesConsumer games(Home video games) is the mainstream, and it is said that the number of users is small in correlation with the small market for PC games, and it is thought that this is due to cultural differences related to computer games.[18]..However, the domestic e-sports market is gradually expanding, and the survey result shows that the market size in 2019 is 127 billion yen, which is 61.2% of the previous year, and growth is expected in the future.[20].

Notation

As mentioned above, "esports"NotationThere are other than JapanEnglish-speaking countriesThere was a similar problem in. Notation varies depending on the media, and it was various such as "eSports", "e-sports", and "Esports". However, on March 2017, 3FloridaAt the 2017 American Copy Editors Society convention held inAP communicationWill beEsports”Was announced[21].. However, when it comes to the beginning of a sentence,Esports", and these are determined from "industry trends and high general usage rates". Regarding notation conventions, refer to the notation widely used in English-speaking countries.Style guide"AP Style Book], and promotes unification of notation in media etc.[22].

History

Early (1972 – 1989)

The oldest known computer game competition is 197210/19ToStanford UniversityHeld inSpace War!It is said that[23][24].. Stanford students were invited to the Intergalactic spacewar olympics and were presented as a grand prize magazineRolling stone』I competed for the subscription fee for one year. Bruce Baumgart won the five-man free four-all, Slim Tovar and Robert E. Maas won the team[25]. In 1980AtariHeld bySpace invadersThe "Championship" was the first large-scale computer game tournament to attract more than 1 participants across the United States, with competitive games established as a major hobby.[26].

1980 years,(English edition The(English editionTo sayHigh scoreEstablished recording organization[27].. After that, the organization supported the spread of computer games,Guinness BookWe published those records through publications such as(English editionWas established. This team is for Guinness World Records(English editionWas involved in the competition such as the management of[28][29][30].

From the 1970s to the 1980s, computer game players and tournaments werelifeAnd 'timeIt has been featured in popular magazines such as[31].. In the 1985 Guinness Book of Records,Pac-ManAnd 'Donkey KongWith 6 high score recordsBilly MitchellThe best known classicarcade gameIs one of the players[32].

Around this time, games were broadcast overseas, and the American program "1982 times" was broadcast a total of 1984 times from 133 to XNUMX.Starcade』Was the content that the performers compete for each other's high score in an arcade game[33].. The computer game tournament is the TV show "(English edition, And the 1982 movie “TronIt is also featured as part of various movies[34][35].UKwith the BBCGame program of(English edition], thenHyper Sports''(English edition''Paper boy, Etc., a match-up game using the arcade game of the time as the subject was being held.[36][37].

1988 work "(English edition』Is for up to 16 peopleInternet gamesAndCross platformAndOpen source softwareWas produced as. Netrek was the third internet game in history and the first internet game to use a metaserver to find an open game server. It was also the first internet game to keep user information permanently. This work was published in 3WIRED) Described as "the first online sports game"[38].

The emergence and growth of online games (1990-1999)

Released in 1991Competitive fighting game"Street fighter iiPopularized the notion of a direct two-player tournament format.[39].. In most computer games so far, the player's ranking is determined by the high score. However, in Street Fighter II, players will face each other face-to-face, and the best player will be decided[39], The competitive multiplayer that you see todayDeath matchThe way of form was opened[40].Street FighterSeries andVS. seriesThe fighting game became popular in the 1990s, and in 1996 it was an international e-sports competition.Evolution Championship Series (EVO) was established and held.

Large-scale eSports tournaments held in the 1990s(English editionAnd the 1994 Nintendo Power Fest. Also,Blockbuster videoIn collaboration with "GamePro", a unique world championship was also held. America orカナダ,England,オーストラリア,チリPlayers of theNBA jamAnd 'Virtual racingWas added as a competition title[41].

By this time, many computer games, especiallyGames for personal computers インターネットBenefited from increased connectivity. In the late 1990s,(English edition (CPL) andQuakeCon,(English editionEtc. were held. The titles adopted in CPL includeCounter strikeSeries andQuakeseries,"Warcraft] Is included.TV shows featured esports in the UK's "GamesMaster" and "Bad Influence!", Australia's "A * mazing" and Canada's "Video & Arcade Top 10".

World Tournament (2000-Present)

The growth of esports in South Korea was in 1997Asian currency crisisAfterBroadband internetnetworkMass construction of[42],At the timeUnemployment rateIt was thought that many people were looking for what they wanted to do when they were unemployed[43].. In South Korea,PC bunchCalled "Internet cafeHas also become popular and has made a significant contribution to the growth of esports. KoreanCulture and Sports Tourism DepartmentIs a division of(English edition (KeSPA) was established in 2000 to promote esports and improve the environment in Japan.[44].

"Backwater reversal (Evo Moment #37)" means(English editionInStreet Fighter III 3rd STRIKE] Semifinals,Daigo Umehara(English editionRefers to a scene of the match. In this match, Umehara wonSuper arts16 consecutive hits with 1 dot leftPhysical strengthEverythingブ ロ ッ キ ン グUnexpected to (Parry)(English editionShowed. This turnaround that Umehara has won is said to be the most iconic and memorable moment in the history of competitive computer games. Also, since it is the most noticed moment,Babe RuthNotice of home run orIce hockey competitionInMiracle on iceCompared to[45].

April 2006, by seven prominent counter-strike teams(English editionWas formed. The purpose of the organization was to improve the stability of esports by standardizing the transfer of athletes and coordinating with leagues and related organizations. The founding members are(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English editionIs[46]Remained alive until dissolved in 2009[47].

The 2000s was a time when esports TV programs were prosperous, and TV broadcasting was most established in Korea, and the Starcraft and Warcraft 3 competitionsCable TVChannel dedicated to games(English edition,(English editionWas regularly broadcast in[48].

In the 2010s, both the number of esports viewers and prize money increased significantly[49][50].. The number of large-scale tournament tournaments also increased from about 2000 in 10 to about 2010 in 260, and the number and size of tournaments have increased significantly.[4].. At this time,World Cyber ​​Games,(English edition,(English editionSuch a tournament was established. Some of the numerous tournaments include experiments in competitions other than traditional esports genre titles, including the $2006 million prize at the FUN Technologies Worldwide Webgames Championship in September 9. 100 peopleCasual gamesCompeted in[51].

The growth of esports during this period was also supported by the popularity of online streaming services, and as a way of watching competitions. It was the most popular medium. Launched in 2011TwitchThe popular esports competitions are broadcast on a daily basis. In 2013, viewers on the platform watched 120 billion minutes of video, with the most popular channel categories being League of Legends andDota 2"Met[52].. Also, "Dota 2" World ChampionshipThe International (TI) delivered 1 million unique views per day, with each viewer averaging 450 hours[4].

In parallel with the modern esports boom, computer game developers are increasingly incorporating esports elements into their work. Ignored and suppressed the esports scene for many yearsNintendoHeld the Wii Games Summer 2010. Over one month, the event attracted more than 1 participants and was the largest event in the company's history. Also in 40E3 In 2014Super Smash Bros. for Wii U』Invited tournament was held, which was broadcast live on Twitch[53].HALO seriesIs the developer of343 IndustriesIn 2014,(English editionAnd announced a plan to revive HALO as an e-sport with a total prize money of $5.[54].

Blizzard EntertainmentRiot gamesHas its own outreach program at the North American College Championship[55][56].. 2017 is Blizzard Entertainment's college esports division(English editionAnnounces a new initiative to provide scholarships and prizes to college esports teams in tournaments with $100 million in cash prizes[57].. On the other hand, as of 2013,IllinoisAmerican universities, such as Robert Morris University and Pikeville University, recognize e-sports players as university representatives and offer sports scholarships[58].Columbia University,(English editionAlso offers similar scholarships[59]From 2018,(English editionBut we started a tuition scholarship system for e-sports players[60].

2014 is the largest independent esports leagueElectronic sports league (ESL) partnered with local brand Japan Competitive Gaming (JCG) to try to grow esports in Japan[61].

As the number of online viewers increases, so does the number of physical viewers and events in esports competition.[62].. Season 2013 of the League of Legends 3 World championshipThe final ofStaples CenterHeld at[63].. South Korea in 2014SeoulMore than 4 fans came to the tournament held atImagine DragonsPerformances and opening and closing ceremonies were also held[64].. In 2015, as the first e-sports facility in the United States,CaliforniaSanta AnaTo(English editionWas born[65].

Standing position as sports

Computer gamesSportsIt is controversial to classify as[66][67][68].. Some have pointed out the growing popularity of esports as a legitimate reason to qualify some games as sports. On the other hand, some argue that the game will never reach "real sports" status.[69].. But popularity isn't the only reason: "Careful planning, precise timing, skilled performance.[70]”Is the element to classify as a sport, arguing that all traditional or non-traditional sports do not require physical exercise or an outdoor playground. In 2013, I laughed at the topic of "Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel"[71].. 2014 Technology Conference Asked About Twitch AcquisitionESPN Of(English editionThe president (at that time) described esports as "not a sport ... a sport."[72][73][74][75][76][77].. 2015,International eSports FederationHosted by the World Championships, a panel was invited to invite guests from the international sports industry to discuss their perception of upcoming esports as a globally legitimate sporting activity.[78].

China was one of the first countries to recognize eSports as a full-fledged sport in 2003, despite concerns about addictive computer games at the time. The government has encouraged esports and said that participating in esports will also “train the body for China”.[79].. Furthermore, by the beginning of 2019, China willHuman Resources Social Security DepartmentEsports player is recognized as a formal profession in its recommendations, and not only players but also operators[80].. Based on this, more than 2019 people have registered as professional gamers by July 7, and the department expects to have more than 10 million people in such professions in five years.[81].

In 2013, Canadian League of Legends player Shiphtur (Danny Le) became the first professional gamer to get an American P-1A visa as an "internationally recognized athlete".[82][83].. 2014,トルコMinistry of Youth and Sports started issuing esports player licenses to professionally certified athletes[84][85].. 2016,FranceThe government started working on a project to control and recognize esports[86].フィリピンThe Games and Entertainment Commission of the United States has begun issuing competition licenses to professionally qualified athletes since July 2017.[87][88].

In order to popularize esports as a legitimate sport, several esports events have been held alongside traditional international sports competitions.2007 Asian Indoor GamesFor the first time, alongside other sports competitions, it was noted as an official competition where esports competitions were held. After thatAsia Indoor GamesAnd successorAsia Indoor Martial Arts GamesTherefore, esports competitions have always been held as awards for medals and exhibition events. In addition, the top level in AsiaGeneral competitionIsAsian GamesThen,2022 competitionEsports will be included as a medal item in.2018 competitionInHearthstone], "StarCraft 2" and "League of Legends" esports exhibition events were announced as a stepping stone to the 2022 tournament.[89][90].. In 2019Southeast Asian GamesSo, six esports disciplines were included[91].

In 2018 and 2019,World sailing (English editionHeld to show that major sports federations are accepting esports[92].

Recognition as an Olympic sport

OlympicIs also seen as a potential way to justify esports. In October 2017International Olympic Committee At the summit held by the (IOC), he acknowledged the growing popularity of esports, saying, ``Competitive'esports' can be considered as sports activities and the athletes involved are those in traditional sports competitions. We are preparing and training at the same level as," but concludes that the games used for the Olympics must follow the "Olympic rules and regulations".[93].

The world of sports is constantly changing, and with the start of hosting events at the IOC, esports has grown significantly. IOCThomas BachAccording to the chairman, there are two issues left to make esports an Olympic sport, one is the need to limit violent gameplay. The other cites the lack of an international governing body to fine-tune esports.[94][90].. On the issue of violence, Bach admitted that modern sports were born out of real fierce combat, but "sports are a civilized representation of such battles" and "if so-called murder games, the Olympic Games. Different from the values ​​of[90].. IOCNBA 2K series,FIFA seriesIt was proposed to approve esports, focusing on games that simulate real sports, such as[95].

The issue of esports does not prevent the IOC from exploring how and with what potential esports will be incorporated into future Olympics. In July 2018, IOCInternational Sports Federation (GAISF) isepic Games Of(English edition,Blizzard Entertainment Of(English edition, Esports player TLO (Dario Vunsch) and(English edition(Jacob Lyon),(English editionInviting e-sports leaders such as (Kim Se-young), “to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of esports and the potential for future development, and work together for the mutual benefit of all sports in the coming years Symposium on how to collaborate on methods"[96][97].. Therefore, the IOC has examined the possibility of esports through the exhibition of games.IntelWas sponsored by the IOC,2018 Pyeongchang OlympicsBefore "Starcraft 2" and "SteepOf the eventsponsor5 Korean e-sports athletesTorch relayparticipated in[98][99].. It is a similar exhibition(English editionIt is,2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsIt was held in parallel with, but not supported by the IOC.

In Japan, it has been evaluated as a major base for the game industry,2020 Tokyo OlympicsSince then, lawmakers and groups have become involved in boosting esports.Although e-sports in Japan was not popular because it imposes restrictions on game tournaments with high prizes due to the balance with the prize labeling law, gambling and crimes related to lottery (criminal law).[16][18], Efforts to solve this problem began in the latter half of 2017[17].. For the 2020 Summer Olympics,Tokyo 2020 Organizing CommitteeAt the suggestion, four esports organizations will work with Japan's leading consumer organizations to exclude esports competitions from gambling crime regulations.LDPBelongingMember of the House of RepresentativesIsTakeo KawamuraIs an online game/esportsParliamentary LeagueWas launched,Japan esports federation (JeSU) supported and promoted esports in Japan[100].. As a result, professional athletes from other sports in Japan are now able to obtain exemption licenses that allow esports players to play, as well as the mechanics required to play professionally.[17].. This license allows athletes to participate in many esports competitions and, for the first time in mid-July 2018, allows dozens of players to top 7 players via tournaments held by some computer game publishers. It was issued[100].. In addition, the Tokyo 2020 Organizing Committee plans several esports events by the 2020 Games.[17].

2024 Paris OlympicsOrganizing committee discussed the need to include elements of esports to maintain a relationship between the Olympics and the younger generation, and discussed with the IOC and various esports professional bodies on esports events during the Games.[101].. Finally, the Organizing Committee decided that it was too early to adopt eSports as a medal event in the 2024 Games, but did not exclude other events related to eSports during the Games.[102].

In December 2019, at the 12th Olympic Summit, the IOC will only consider sports-mimicking games at official Olympic Games, and in the future, games and physical bodies that promote physical and mental health lifestyles Incorporated activitiesvirtual reality,Augmented realityReiterated to consider two ways like games[103].

How to engage with esports

Participation as a player

Play over the internet

The easiest way to play esports is via the Internet. To determine the exact outcomecheatThis method is often used for entertainment or practice, although there are problems with how to deal with behavior and network delays.[104].

Each player needs a means of communication.IRCIs popular because it not only allows you to create separate channels for teams, leagues, and other game-related gatherings, but it's also easy to find.(English editionWas originally a first-person shooterQuakeCreated for online play, but also used for other games, making it the largest IRC network.From there, the competition will be held on each team's server according to their own rules.Collaboration with other players is essential in team-based games, and when using voice communication to collaborate within a team,DiscordlikeVoIPApplications are also used[105][106].

Play on local area network

Local area network When playing on (LAN), "the delay time is shorter than via the Internet, and you can play the game in a better condition." "Because the device prepared by the organizer is used, it is difficult to cheat. (Especially in events where professional play is done, an administrator is placed for fair play) "[104]..This format is called "offline" as opposed to "online" via the Internet, and the format of the tournament is generally because qualifying is held online and the top players and teams who have won the qualifying compete. Often gathered at the actual venue and held offline[104][107]..It is also a place for social interaction between players, and in large-scale competitionsLAN party, A LAN center is organized.

Watching event events

Watching and enjoying is one of the main entertainment features of esports, and is one of the elements to enjoy esports as a sport.

In some countries, professional esports competitions are broadcast on TV (In Korea, where esports are thriving, there is also the world's only esports specialized channel, "OGN").WebsiteThe above-mentioned streaming broadcast and the watching function implemented in the game client are mainly used for live broadcast.Also, there are many cases in which media such as magazines and newspapers are reported, and videos that have been impressively edited by video processing etc. are delivered later.[Source required]Even in Japan, streaming and video distribution are performed at competitions that are not large. In holding such small-scale online competitions, volunteer staff often provide live commentary, commentary, production of sites and videos, and public relations, which is a new place for information transmission on the Internet.[Source required]

In this way, the characteristic of esports watching is that it can be freely distributed through various media regardless of whether it is for profit or non-profit, and can be enjoyed by means that meet the needs of spectators.

ESports in college and high school

In addition to professionals and amateurs, esports has beenUniversity,high schoolWith the growing popularity of esports, there is a growing demand for more opportunities for athletes. Universities around the world, mainly in China and the United States, have begun offering scholarships to new students joining teams that represent the universities. The potential impact of such esports-related scholarships on universities, coupled with growing interest in the university's system, has led to a series of studies related to sports literature.[108].

ESports for welfare

Esports using computer games,Mind sportsAs in most of the sporting events that use arms and fingertips,DisabledEven people with disabilities can participate as players,Muscular dystrophyActed as a pro gamer on the patient(Korean versionSome players like[109].. Also, because you can play regardless of age,RehabilitationExpected to be used in welfare and medical care through[110].. In 2018SaitamaSaitama"Silver e-sports association" was established in Japan to promote health through e-sports.Senior citizensAiming to popularize esports[111][112].KumamotoMisato TownThen through e-sportstown planningWe are advancing the business, and as part of this, we maintain and improve the cognitive function of the elderly (dementia(Prevention)puzzle game,Music gamesExperiences and battles such as[113].

Professional esports

eSports includes professional (Pro gamer), a professional gaming team with professional players[114].

In many countries around the world, many competitions for these professionals are held every year. Most of them are distributed worldwide by streaming, and when they become large-scale, they are also broadcast on television. The prize money will be provided by the sponsors, broadcasting income, and entrance fees. Many sponsors who sponsor the tournament are major computer-related companies such as hardware manufacturers.[114].

Pro player

In addition to tournament prize money, professional players earn income from sponsor support and campaign performance fees, including among popular players whose annual income exceeds 1 million yen.(English editionSome people like to produce brands of PC parts. In South Korea, some esports professional players have gained a lot of support from young people, such as being ranked high in the profession they want to be, because some of them have gained national popularity and are active in various fields such as talents. Are[115].

Professional history

ESports as a professional event 1997It developed rapidly after the first competition was held in.[Source required]In May of this year, "(English editionA competition entitled "Quake" was held and was the deputy creator of "Quake".John CarmackOwned byFerrari・328GTSPromised to be presented to the winner of the competition[116][117]. July of the same year,(English editionLaunched the first professional league for computer gamers, the Cyberathlete Professional League (CPL)[118].. Since then, the size of the participants and the venue has expanded, and many spectators have come to watch the game over the Internet when it comes to the championship finals. At the same time, the prize money for the winners has become enormous, with the total prize money reaching US $ 2005 million in the 150 CPL.

While maintaining the spirit of being a pioneer of esports, CPL moved to the world tour system in 2005, and on the same year's tour, "Painkiller』Focusing on the one-to-one deathmatch of this, and awarded it a million dollar prize. At the CPL Grand Finale event, Fatal1ty won the highest award in esports history at $1.

Contract between professional team and player

In e-sports, there is an example where the traditional social game player organization (clans) has grown into a professional player organization close to a football team. Treating the player-sponsor contract and facilitating that contract for the player has created a presence for esports and its fans. Many professional teams deal with contracts with other teams and players and act as intermediaries to raise opportunity and fame. Also, by belonging to a professional team, the player is freed from administrative work and can concentrate on playing the game.[Source required]

The company that first created the professional team was a telecommunication company in South Korea on December 1999, 12.KTSubsidiary ofKTFFounded by(English editionIt was the first team in South Korea to receive the capital of a large corporation.[Source required]

On February 2003, 2, SK Gaming became the first team to connect FPS players with clans. Although the terms and conditions of the contract have not been clarified, in the interview, the salary system is used, and although the salary amount is not large, the player can receive and distribute the prize money.[Source required]SK Gaming is also setting another precedent for contracts. May 1, 2003, belonging to SK GamingノルウェーPlayer elemeNt- (Ola Moum) is one of the oldest rival teams in FPS(English editionWas transferred to and received the contract fee.[Source required]After the transfer agreement, many teams started selling gameplay-related products and goods such as clothing. The rapid development of the industry has become a source of revenue for the team, which has sent it to competitions around the world.[Source required]

Leagues and tournaments

League with promotion and demotion

Esports, which is played in most team competitions, allows you to play between leagues depending on how your team performed in the match.Format with promotion and demotionIs the center. This format follows professional sports in Europe and Asia. team isSeasonPlay multiple matches during the competition and compete for positions in the league by the end of the season. In addition to winnings, the teams with good results will be promoted to higher leagues, while the teams with poor results will be demoted to lower leagues. For example, Riot Games has run several League of Legends series by 2018,North AmericaAs the highest series in the region(English editionExists. Teams with poor grades are at the bottom(English editionThe team with good results in the lower series is promoted to the upper rank and replaced. However, Riot Games has adopted the following franchise method from mid-2018, and this format has been abolished.

Franchise league

Amid growing interest in e-sports, some companies are aiming to establish a league that follows the franchise method used in professional sports in North America. This means that all teams backed by large sponsors supporting the franchisePost seasonParticipate in and participate in to compete for higher ranks. This approach is appealing to large investors and will be motivated to continue playing in the esports Premier League and support teams that are not afraid to be demoted[119].. The details vary from league to league, but in general, minimum wages and appropriateWelfareIs awarded, and the winnings will be distributed to the team. There is no promotion or demotion of teams, but players can sign contracts, exchange between teams,Free agentCan be released as in North AmericaProfessional baseballNew players may be withdrawn from the esports league, which is equivalent to the minor leagues in. The first franchise-based league founded wasBlizzard EntertainmentIn 2016, the company's game work “OverwatchWas established based onOverwatch LeagueIs[120].. Starting with 2018 teams in 12, the league expanded to 2019 teams in 20.

Take two interactive TheNBAIn partnership withNBA 2KUsing the series(English edition, As well asEA SportsMajor League Soccer (MLS) isElectronic Arts OfFIFA seriesEstablished "eMLS" that uses.

ActivisionFollowed the Overwatch League in January 2020,Call of Duty SeriesConsisting of 12 teams using(English editionWas established[121].(English edition,(English editionThe team established a franchise-style "Counter Strike Global Offensive" league "Flashpoint" in February 2020. It became the first esports league owned by the team, not a single organization[122].

Tournament

e sportsTournament methodBut before it's played and players and teams challenge the main tournament, they compete for qualifying. TournamentsingleOr double elimination, sometimesGroup stageVarious forms such as mixing with[123].. Esports tournaments are most often physical events that take place in front of a live audience, with referees to monitor fraud.DreamHackSometimes the tournament itself is a large esports event,World Cyber ​​Games,(English editionSometimes a tournament is part of a larger event, such as.

While competitions using computer games have existed for some time, esports reached a major turning point in the late 1990s. Starting with the 1997 Cyber ​​Athletes Professional League, tournaments have grown in size and it has become common for them to be sponsored by companies. With more viewers online as well as live events, esports has become more visible to more people.[3][124].. Game developers often provide tournament prizes[125],Computerhardware,software,Energy drinkCompanies that sellThird partyMay be provided by. However, in generalVenture companyFor a large esports event is not profitable for[126].. For example, Riot Games calls the League of Legends Championship Series "a significant investment we don't make money in"[127].

There is considerable variation in the relationship between game developers and tournament organizers and broadcast media, and there is room for negotiation. In Korea, its own "Starcraft" event was operated almost independently of Blizzard Entertainment, but the company must approve the event using the sequel "Starcraft 2". It was determined[128].. This led to a deadlock with the Korean eSports Association.[129]Reached agreement in 2012[130].. Blizzard revises rules and needs company's permission for tournaments with total prize money of more than $ 1[131].

Tournaments held around the world

There are eight types of tournaments that are widely recognized as professional esports competitions. The prize money prepared at each competition is often sponsored by a large computer technology company. These companies also sponsor many esports teams at the same time, covering travel expenses for the tournament and providing the company's products. In particular, ESL is the world's largest esports league and is expanding globally.Nowadays, it is common for mainstream newspapers to publish articles about such events.[Source required]

Also, esports is 2007ToChugoku-MacauMade inAsian Olympic CouncilSponsored2007 Asian Indoor GamesBecame the official medal item inFIFA 07''NBA Live 07''Need for Speed ​​Most Wanted』3 titles, Chinese players have won three gold medals[132]. 2018ToインドネシアHeld at2018 Asian GamesSo, it was adopted as an open competition for the first time in the history of the competition. 『Winning Eleven 2018''Crash RoyaleThe six events of "StarCraft II: Legacy of the Void", "Heartstone", "League of Legends", and "Arena of Valor" were held.

2022In ChinaHangzhouTo be held in2022 Asian GamesHas decided to become an official medal event[133].

World Headquarters

It is common for game sales companies and esports broadcasting media to play the role of planning and operating specific events, but esports that is integrated as a representative on a global scale across countries and regions.General bodyHave been established. These groups are esports regulated, or simply esportsIndustry groupAnd may be involved at various levels, such as acting as a prelude to an organization.

International eSports Federation (IESF) is one of the first such organizations to be established.Southeast AsiaEstablished in 2008 with the aim of promoting e-sports in Japan, as of June 2020, it has grown to include 6 countries around the world. The IESF has run an annual esports world championship for teams in member countries[134].

Established in April 2019, the European Federation of eSports (EEF)ベルギー,ドイツ,オーストリア,ハンガリー,France,ロシア,スロベニア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,スウェーデン,Turkey,ウクライナIs participating. The organization is designed with a focus on its role as an esports management partner, working to coordinate event structures and arrangements.[135].

Furthermore, the industry group representing computer games has also come to function as a general body for esports. Especially in November 2019,Entertainment Software Association,(English edition,(English edition,European Interactive Software Federation, Australia andニュージーランド Of(English editionJoint statement to help promote and participate in esports, including five major industry groups such as announced[136].

Competition genre and title

Traditionally, each competition has adopted a specific game for each genre. The games that have been adopted as esports competitions in the past have the following titles:Counter strike, Such as those that have been adopted for many years, and those that change in a few years. In addition, some players are active in participating in multiple events.

Generally, games that are the sporting events of esports tend to be selected with a large influence of player skill (hands and skills), but the latestGame designThe latest games are not always adopted because they do not always match the flow of. On the other hand, hardware and software makers are trying to adopt titles that use newer technologies, which is often an issue between players and fans, including fans, when it comes to hiring titles.

As the genre of the game,First-person shooter,Real-time strategy,Fighting games,Sports games,Racing gameCompete using. Previously, genres such as FPS and RTS were the mainstream, but in the past few years, titles such as consumer have also been introduced, and the genres are various.

First-person shooter (FPS)
Third-person shooter (TPS)
Real-time strategy (RTS)
Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA)
Competitive fighting game
Sports games
Racing games
puzzle game
Digital card games
Music games
MMORPG
Online strategy games
Action games

ESports in Japan

Definition

Japan is one of the few developed countries that has not yet been approved for esports.[Source required]“Esports ground” that handles domestic esports events for several years[138]DevelopedEureka computerBelongs toDr. InukaiDefines esports as follows from comments at the 2007 Asian Online Games Conference:

  • "Sports that digitize player's behavior and compete on computer"
  • "New sports born in the information society, like motor sports born in the industrial society"

As a sports competition that does not involve exercise,チ ェ スSuch asMind sportsThere is.In e-sports, the words are based on various definitions depending on the scene in which they are used, such as "competing for rankings at competitions," "earning income as a professional," and "competing with a serious attitude." But as an easy-to-understand example,Motor sportsIs mentioned.[Source required]

optical lineWith the spread of personal computers (PCs) and personal computers (PCs), the number of PC game players is increasing year by year.The evidence did not penetrate at all in JapanReal-time strategy "League of Legends", a masterpiece of the game genre called (RTS), has a domestic player population of over 3 (as of 2012) and is a professional league "League of Legends".League of Legends Japan League (LJL) ”was held, and the number of packages sold in the popular RTS“ StarCraft 2 ”exceeded 1 (it is estimated that the main purchase is download, so it is actually selling more), and as of 2012 There are four professionals.[Source required]Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC) held for home video game consolesCall of Duty SeriesHeld a tournament in which more than 720 people participated[139]In addition, in Japan, which is a developed country of fighting games, more than 10 professional gamers have been born, led by Daigo Umehara.

History

  • 1974-"SEGA TV Game Console National Contest Tokyo Final Tournament" held[140].. The members who won the qualifying held in the whole country in the tournament format match using the game machine "" of the table housing released by Sega in 1974Hotel Pacific TokyoAt the final tournament held inColor TV,Black and white televisionWas given. The winner of the tournament is a 28-year-old bank clerk at the time.
  • 1985- National Caravan NES CompetitionWill be held.
  • 2000-Japan's first esports company, BattleTop Japan, was founded and held the WCGC Japan Qualifier at the Tokyo Game Show.
  • 2002-Nexam Co., Ltd. started esports professional service AceGamer.net. The founding members are Dr. Inukai, Jun Nagasaki, and Shungo Watanabe.
  • 2003- EnterbrainAn e-sports competition centered on the fighting game sponsored byDramaWill start.
  • 2007
    • June-Japan e-Sports Association establishment preparatory committee is established[141].
    • August-Nichikare Co., Ltd. established the Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC). Since then, regular online and offline competitions have been held.
    • December-The performance of "e-sports Japan-Korea match" was held by inviting top Korean players and was featured in various media.[142][143].
  • 2009-The Japan Association for eSports was established, and has been active for the purpose of contributing to the research and development of eSports, its academic establishment, and the progress and development of eSports.
  • 2010-Established by the ESPA Student Federation (eSPA).It plans and manages e-sports competitions between universities (e-sports championships, e-sports competitions, etc.).He is energetically working to popularize e-sports among students.
  • 2011-Japan eSports Agency Co., Ltd. (JeSA) was established under the management philosophy of "Professionalization and further activation of eSports, further improvement to the world level, and contribution to the development of the Japanese game industry."
  • April 2013-Milestone Co., Ltd. established Japan Competitive Gaming (JCG). In order to fill the gap between the evolution of the esports world and the current situation in Japan, we started activities to measure the enhancement of the base amateurs.
  • 2014
    • January 1-"e-sports SQUARE" opened in 24 moved from Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture to Akihabara, and reopened.
    • 4 month - TOKYO MX2, The first e-sports specialized information program "e-sports MaX" will start broadcasting in Japan.
  • 2015
  • 2016
    • May - "Gamest"and"Monthly ArcadiaThe Japan High Score Association will be launched mainly by writers and editors who were enrolled in the editorial department of[146].
    • April-But starts the first professional gamer / e-sports education at a Japanese vocational school[147][148].
  • 2018
    • February-Japan Esports Union (JeSU) is established[149]..Takashi Kiso sounds a warning about the tournament with prize money.
    • August 3- Yoshimoto KogyoAnnounces that it will advance to esports[150].
    • 3/9
    • May 5-(JeSA) established[152]As a result, JeSU loses its name as the only governing body in Japan.
    • August 7- Japan Baseball Organization Konami Digital EntertainmentAnnounced to hold the eBASEBALL Power Pro/Pro League in collaboration with e "Japan series")[153].
    • July 7-Japan Baseball Organization announces "NPB eSports Series" Splatoon 2Announced to hold"[154](Draft meeting and camp to select team representatives in March 2019, open competition in April, main competition in May).
    • August 12- AmuseIs the world's largest esports team(English editionEntered into a partnership agreement with esports and announced its advancement into esports. In addition, he is a Japanese player who belongs to the same teamNemoStarts management business of John Takeuchi in Japan[155][156].
  • 2019
  • 2020

esports event

  • From 2002 to 2011,World Cyber ​​Games (WCG) Japan qualifying is held every year. In the past, Acegamer hosted the Japan Qualifiers for the Cyber ​​Athletes Professional League (CPL), but it has disappeared after the dissolution of Acegamer.
  • From 2003 to 2012,DramaWas being held. It has been held until the 2012th tournament until 10, and since the 2012th in 10, the closing has been announced once due to various circumstances.
  • From 2007 to 2009, the Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC)TrueCombat: Elite], [Enemy Territory: Quake Wars], [Warsaw』The offline tournament was held every year.
  • 2008-Domestic Qualifying for the Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC) was held. CyAC is currently holding domestic qualifying.
  • From 2009 to September 2012, CyACAkihabara UDXTokyo Game ShowHolds four large-scale offline tournaments "e-Sports Japan Championship".
  • February 2010- Tokyo Game ShowAt CyAC, a show match of "Quake Live" that invited overseas professional gamers and "Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2], "Blur" tournament was held.
  • November 2011-Japan eSports Agency Co., Ltd. (JeSA) holds the first esports competition "11st esports Japan CUP" in the first franchise team competition in Japan. As of September 1, it has been held until the 2012rd convention.
  • 2012
    • 9 month - Tokyo Game Show"Asia e-sports Cup" and "Cyber ​​Games Asia" will be held.
      • "Asia e-Sports Cup"Counter Strike 1.6"When"Starcraft 2Is held as a competition title. In Counter Strike 1.6, Japan, India,Singapore,MalaysiaThe national team that won the qualifying rounds in each country played the final round, and the Japanese professional team "my Revenge" won. In StarCraft 2, Japan, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, New Zealand,Taiwan, Australia's representatives who have won the qualifying rounds have played the finals, and Taiwanese pro gamer Gamania Sen has won.
      • "Cyber ​​Games Asia"Sudden Attack], [Puyo Puyo], "FIFA 12" as competition titles. Japan-Korea Exhibition Match 2012 in "Sudden Attack"[163]As a result, the Japan-Korea battle was held. Japan won one match, but Korea won seven.[164].
    • 12 month - Red bullIs holding the Red Bull 5G. The competition title is "Battlefield 3], [Gran Turismo 5, FIFA 12,Street Fighter X Tekken], "Puyo Puyo".
  • February 2013-CyAC holds "CyAC PRO". The first one is PS2 versionCall of Duty Black Ops 2Held an offline competition.
  • February 2014-SANKO Co., Ltd. started Japan's first league of "League of Legends" by the domestic top team "League of Legends Japan League (LJL)". The final game held in September was Tokyo Game Show 2.LogitechHeld at the booth. The total prize money is 100 million yen.
  • 2015
    • January-LJL 1 opens. The total prize money has increased to 2015 million yen, and the Season 200 winners until the end of March are entitled to participate in the Japanese national team of "International Wild Card Invitational (IWCI)".
    • June-6st e-sports Koshien -League of Legends- held[165].
    • August-8nd e-sports Koshien -League of Legends- held[166][167].
  • 2019

Main professional team

4dN.PSYMIN
2005,Counter strike]'S team, 4dN.PSYMIN, was formed. He made good fights at the 2005 CPL Summer Games, including being in the top 12, but in 2006 he disbanded due to various reasons.[168].
myRevenge eV
myRevenge eV is a team that was active in "Counter Strike". Originally, he was active as a Japanese team UNiTED, but in August 2012 he became a member of the German team myRevenge eV and won the Asia e-Sports Cup held after his membership, but then disbanded. doing.
DetonatioN Gaming
DetonatioN formed the "Counter-Strike" team in July 2012, "StarCraft 7" and "League of Legends" in April 2013, and "League of Legends" in July.World of Tanks, In April 2014,Battlefield 4], [Super Smash Bros.], established a division such as, is famous as Japan's largest multi-gaming team.
DeToNator
DeToNator was formed on September 2009, 9,Alliance of Valiant Arms』The team. In 2012, we signed a sponsorship contract with PC parts manufacturer ELSA Japan. The results of the tournament have been good at the tournament held between 2010 and 2013. Multi-gaming in 2015.
SCARZ
SCARZ was formed as a team of "Battlefield 2012" in February 2, succeeded in acquiring a large number of departments and sponsors since becoming a professional in June 3, along with DetonatioN Gaming and DeToNator, Japan's largest multi-gaming team Is.
Stray Union
2016,Rainbow Six Siege] Was formed as a team. The biggest feature is that it is a professional consumer team. When he won the tournament sponsored by JCG in the same year and became a Japanese national team, he won the E-SPORTS FESTIVAL 8 Hong Kong tournament, which started on August 19, the same year.[169].. In addition, in 2019 Sixinvitational has achieved the feat of the best four.
CYCLOPS athlete gaming
Formerly known as "CYCLOPS OSAKA", a professional gaming team based in Osaka. Operated by eSports Connect Co., Ltd.
Other
Besides the abovePENTAGRAMThere are professional teams who have participated in the League of Legends Japan League (LJL) including.

Major esports organizations

Japan eSports Union (JeSU)
Because the governing body in Japan was divided into the Japan e-Sports Association,Japan Olympic CommitteeThere was a problem that I could not become[170].. In February 2018, 2 groups were integratedJapan esports federation It was solved by the inauguration of (JeSU)[171].. JeSU aims to create prize-money competitions and professional licenses[171]..Many members are related to game makers.
Japan eSports League Association (JeSA)
Held the "Professional Baseball" Z League for eSports.
Japan esports promotion association (JEF)
General foundation. From a neutral standpoint, there are no game maker-related members in the membership because players are the first. The vice chairman is the CEO of a company that manages tournaments overseas and the esports business.
Japan Baseball Organization (NPB)
Oversees professional baseball in Japan. In 2018, entered esports. Held "eBASEBALL Power Pro/Pro League" and "NPB eSports Series Splatoon 2".
Yoshimoto Kogyo Co., Ltd.
Entertainment production. In 2018, entered esports and launched YOSHIMOTO Gaming. Held events and competitions as well as professional team management.
CyberZ Inc.
cyber-agentSubsidiary of. Operates play video sharing service "OPEN REC" and large-scale e-sports competition "RAGE".
Cygames Inc.
A subsidiary of CyberAgent.Mobile gamesAnd home game software development. Held the "Shadowverse World Grand Prix" with the winning prize of over 1 million yen in the authentic smartphone card battle "Shadowverse".
Japan High School eSports Federation (JHSEF)
Established by The Mainichi Newspapers and Thirdwave, which co-sponsored the "National High School Esports Championship".Basic agreement with the North American Education and Esports Federation (NASEF) for activity collaboration.
NTT e-Sports
NTT East/West Japan/NTT Ad-NTT Urban Solutions-SKY Perfect JSAT-TaitoJointly invested in 6 companies to establish a new company in the esports field, "NTTe-Sports"[159].. Construction and operation of esports-related equipment, operation of distribution services such as human resource education support and video content, provision of event solutions, and regional revitalization business in collaboration with local governments. Co-sponsored the arcade version of e-sports competition "Toshinsai 2020 -World Championship of ARCADE-".
Japan Student Esports Association/Gameic
The largest association in the Japanese student esports market. A major overseas esports company participates in the sponsor.
e-Sports Queen League (eQ League)
An esports women's league project by female entertainers and talent. The following teams have shown participation in this league[172].

Reasons why Japan is behind e-sports

The origin of e-sports is the "LAN party" that was born naturally in the United States.In South Korea, around 1997, the Korean government began to focus on the IT industry and established a high-speed network in the country.As a result, the number of Internet cafes called "PC Bunch" in Japan has increased rapidly. Online games are available in "PC Bunch", and the strategy game "StarCraft" was a big hit. From around 1999, the term "esports" began to be used in Korea, and the director of the Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism also called the game "esports." In 2000, the world's first international esports event "World Cyber ​​Games" test competition was held.The total prize pool was US $ 20 and 17 players from 174 countries participated.With this tournament as a trigger, "e-sports" developed rapidly in South Korea and became a pioneer of "e-sports". In 2008, the International Esports Federation, which controls e-sports around the world, was established in Busan, South Korea.In Japan, there are game centers and home-use game machines, and the place where game lovers gather is the game center, which does not require a "LAN party" or "PC bunch", and because home-use game machines were widespread, PCs I'm not familiar with the game.Also, due to legal issues, the big prize money competition could not be held.For that reason, it has become an e-sports underdeveloped country.[173].

Controversy over high rewards

In Japan, there are restrictions on the holding of prize-winning competitions due to legal issues, and there are the following recommendations regarding this issue.

Regarding prize-winning tournaments in Japan, he is the director of the International Casino Institute.Prior confirmation procedure for application of laws and regulationsUsingConsumer Affairs AgencyAfter confirming, if the prize or prize is high,Unfair gifts and unfair display prevention lawIt has been pointed out that it will conflict with the above, and if it does not meet the conditions such as a sponsor sponsored by a third party who does not have an interest with the organizer or game developer, the title is basically free to play and the charging factor does not affect the result, it will be caught. There is a possibility of[174][175].

Appeared in a roundtable discussion "Game and Money" hosted by Daigo Umehara on February 2018, 2, and a special feature on e-sports planning at Abema Prime on February 19.Koichi Hamamura(Vice Chairman of Japan eSports Association)Master TakahashiExplained the need for a professional license, but Kiso gave a criminal codeGamblingHas been pointed out[176].. At the event, Hamamura argued, "The professional licensing system is the result of repeated discussions with the Consumer Affairs Agency." However, in a special article on esports in Famitsu's March 2018, 3 issue, the Famitsu editorial department asked the Consumer Affairs Agency about the problem of the view law, and the director of the agency's display measures section also said, ``With excellent technology If you do a job that attracts the audience and get a prize as a reward, regardless of whether you are a professional or amateur, you reply that the prize does not correspond to the "freebies" referred to in the picture method, and there is a discrepancy with Hamamura's statement. stay up.

Problems with esports

Olympic esports issues

Aiming to enter the Olympic industryInternational Federation TheInternational eSports Federation (IeSF). IeSF is stillInternational Sports Federation Although I could not join (GAISF), in July 2018, an event called "IOC-GAISF eSports Forum" was held. In 7, the Asian Games were held in Jakarta, Indonesia, and esports was held as an open competition. From these movements, rumors such as "Are you considering e-sports for the Olympics?" were reported. I visited the eventInternational Olympic Committee (IOC)Thomas BachBut esports are inconsistent with the Olympic values ​​and can't be accepted at the moment (because "Killer Games" promotes violence). As a result, Takashi Kiso of the International Casino Research Institute said the rejection was confirmed. But on the other hand, Bach said, "as is." In addition, Takashi Kiso cites the reason that the copyright of the game software maker becomes a problem as a reason not to be adopted for the Olympics.[177].

Asian Games Issues

In 2018, the Asian Games were held in Jakarta, Indonesia, and e-sports was held as a reference competition.The sport is "Winning Eleven 2018(Konami), "Starcraft 2" (Blizzard Entertainment), "League of Legends" (Riot Games), "Hearthstone" (Blizzard Entertainment), "Clash Royale" (Super cell), "Arena of Valor』(Tencent Games) 6 titles.However, when I opened the lid, 6 out of 5 titles were Chinese companies.TencentIs a title that involves, and has become a competition for Tencent.[178].

Problems with JeSU (Japan eSports Union)

*JeSU is not the only e-sports organization in Japan

The lie of the professional license system

When JeSU was inaugurated, it said that it issued a professional license to realize a tournament of high prize money, but the view of the Consumer Affairs Agency is different. Shinji Omoto, Director of Display Countermeasures Section, Consumer Affairs Agency, said, ``If esports tournament participants work to attract the audience with excellent technology and get prize money as reward, the prize money will be "It doesn't correspond to the "freebies" in the law.", and the prize money can be received and there is no problem even without a professional license.[179].

From the perspective of the Consumer Affairs Agency, some companies are opening their own game tournaments in such a way that they do not join JeSU. For example, in the esports program "YUBIWAZA" on the Mainichi Broadcasting, a "YUBIWAZA CUP" tournament with a prize of 100 million yen is held, and it is specified as a participation condition that you do not have a JeSU authorized professional license.[180].

The Consumer Affairs Agency gave a suggestion from JeSU about the pro-licensing system, but simply replied, "It may be easy to understand," but has never recommended that the Consumer Affairs Agency create a pro-licensing system. [181].

eSports does not require a professional license system

The 2019 JeSU activity report & presentation was held at the Tokyo Game Show, and the results of the response form to the pre-confirmation procedures for the application of laws based on the non-action letter system were announced. Among them, regardless of whether they are professional amateurs or not, they get the prize money and get the answer that they "do not violate the view law and criminal law".[182]Is the answer that Consumer Affairs Agency has been consistent with for a long time.

In this announcement, Takashi Kiso, an international casino research institute who had pointed out that the explanation of JeSU's professional license system was a lie, has said that JeSU himself has proved that "the professional system is unnecessary".[183].

Pro-licensing policy issues

JeSU's professional license is given when you get a good result at a JeSU official game competition. However, it is written in the agreement that if you have this professional license, you will be disposed of in an unofficial competition with a prize (a competition that ignores the so-called wind management law, where game centers and internet cafes give prizes from stores sponsored) There is. Takashi Kiso, the director of the International Casino Research Institute, says that as long as the Internet cafe is operating properly, it is basically an industry outside the scope of the wind management law, so it is a wind management law to hold game competitions and provide prizes and products. JeSU has criticized that he does not understand the entrepreneurial law because it is not a violation[184].

At the official World Championship “Capcom Cup 2018” of “Street Fighter V Arcade Edition” sponsored by Capcom America in the US, Momochi, a professional gamer, was ranked 7th and was expected to receive a prize of 50 yen. However, the "Capcom Cup" has suddenly become a JeSU official recognition tournament, and Momochi does not have a JeSU license (from the standpoint opposite JeSU's pro-licensing system). For some reason, I could not get the prize money for some reason and it was reduced to 10 yen. Previous Capcom Cups have been held in the US, and JeSU has nothing to do with it, so they have received the prize money as is, and JeSU and Capcom have been criticized for this response.[185].. Isn't it possible for EVO JAPAN to be reduced due to this kind of turmoil? I was worried, but I have won the winning prize of 150 million yen as it is.

The winning prize of 2019 million yen "Puzzle & Dragons" was held at TGS500, and the middle school student "Yuwa" won the championship. "Yuwa" has a JeSU "Japan, eSports, Junior License", but is treated as a semi-professional by the rules of JeSU and cannot receive prize money only with trophies and supplementary products. JeSU has a stance of entrusting it to the tournament manager, as there is no problem in getting tournament prize money even when younger. It is not a mandatory rule. According to Yukio Noyasu, a game journalist, there are junior high school professional athletes in other real sports, shogi and go, so there should be no problem with junior high school professional gamers and winning prizes. But wasn't it supposed to be a rule to get a prize? Said that it cannot be escaped[186].

JeSU is an e-sports organization that does not exist worldwide

JeSU has many game makers and people involved in CESA as its members.Japan esports promotion association Mr. Aoki of (JEF) says that developers of esports games, which are gaining popularity all over the world, rarely join the national esports associations abroad. It points out that there is basically no esports organization with an operating system like JeSU overseas.[187].

Problems as a profession

Since esports players are unstable in their profession, the reality is that it is quite difficult to eat only with prize money unless they continue to win and become famous. Also, if it is a popular game and the population is not large, the prize money is small.Part-time jobThere are also many people who are active. Although it is a small number,Game distributionSome make a living by.

Short career and life after retirement

Esports games are generally said to have short player lives because quick reflexes are required.[188][189].. There is also a view that athletes lack the necessary social skills for post-retirement activities.[188].

footnote

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